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Reference:

Digital Signal Processing

Rafael C. Gonzalez

Richard E. Woods

Overview

Spatial Domain Methods

Point Processing

Linear (Image Negatives and Identity)

Logarithmic (Log and Inverse Log)

Power Law (n

th

power and n

th

root)

Piece-wise Linear

Contrast Stretching

Gray-Level Slicing

Bit-Plane Slicing

Histogram Processing

Histogram Equalization

Histogram Matching or Histogram Specification

Enhancement using Arithmetic/ Logic Operations

Image Subtraction

Image Averaging

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Mask Processing /Filtering

Linear Spatial Filtering

Non-Linear Spatial Filtering

Smoothing Spatial Filters

Smoothing Linear Filters

Box-Filter

Weighted Average Filter

Order-Statistics Filters (Non-Linear Spatial Filters)

Median Filter Median Filter

Max-filter

Min-filter

Sharpening Spatial Filters

Second-Order Derivatives

Laplacian

Unsharp Masking

High Boost Filtering and its Application

First-Order Derivatives (Gradient)

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Image Enhancement

To process an image so that the result is more suitable

than the original image for a specific application.

Two categories: Two categories:

Spatial domain methods

Direct manipulation of pixels

Frequency domain methods

Modifying the Fourier Transform of an image.

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Spatial Domain Methods

Point Processing

Linear (Image Negatives and Identity)

Logarithmic (Log and Inverse Log)

Power Law (n

th

power and n

th

root)

Piece-wise Linear

Contrast Stretching

Gray-Level Slicing

Bit-Plane Slicing

Histogram Processing

Histogram Equalization

Histogram Matching or Histogram Specification

Enhancement using Arithmetic/ Logic Operations

Image Subtraction

Image Averaging

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Spatial Domain Methods

Operates directly on pixels.

Denoted by the expression

g(x,y) = T[f(x,y)] g(x,y) = T[f(x,y)]

where f(x,y) is the input image, g(x,y) is the processed

image, T is an operator on f defined over some

neighbourhood of (x,y).

T can also operate on a set of input images.

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Neighbourhood – square or rectangular sub-image

area centred at (x,y).

T is applied at each (x,y) to obtain output g at that

location.

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Simplest form of T –

when neighbourhood is of size 1x1 (a single pixel).

g depends only on the value of f at (x,y)

s = T(r)

Enhancement at any point in an image depends only on the

gray level at that point (Point Processing or Gray-Level

Transformation).

Larger neighbourhoods – Mask Processing or Spatial

Filtering.

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Spatial Domain Methods

Point Processing

Linear (Image Negatives and Identity)

Logarithmic (Log and Inverse Log)

Power Law (n

th

power and n

th

root)

Piece-wise Linear

Contrast Stretching

Gray-Level Slicing

Bit-Plane Slicing

Histogram Processing

Histogram Equalization

Histogram Matching or Histogram Specification

Enhancement using Arithmetic/ Logic Operations

Image Subtraction

Image Averaging

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 9

Gray Level Transformations

Three basic types:

Linear (Image Negatives and Identity) Linear (Image Negatives and Identity)

Logarithmic (Log and Inverse Log)

Power Law (n

th

power and n

th

root)

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Image Negatives

The negative of an image with gray levels in the range

[0,L-1] is obtained by using the transformation given by

s = L-1-r

Reverses the intensity levels of an image.

For enhancing gray or white detail embedded in dark

regions of an image.

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Log Transformation

General form: s = c log(1+r)

where c is a constant and r ≥ 0.

Maps a narrow range of low-level gray values in the input

image into a wider range of output levels. image into a wider range of output levels.

Maps a wide range of high-level gray values in the input image

into a lower range of output levels.

For expanding the values of dark pixels while compressing

higher-level values.

Compresses the dynamic range of images with large variations

in pixel values.

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Power-Law Transformation

Basic form:s = cr

γ

where c and γ are positive constants.

Power-law curves with fractional values of γ (γ <1)

produces similar effect as log transformation. produces similar effect as log transformation.

Power-law curves with γ >1 have exactly the opposite

effect as compared to those with γ <1.

When c = γ = 1, it reduces to identity transformation.

Gamma correction-

General purpose contrast manipulation-

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Spatial Domain Methods

Point Processing

Linear (Image Negatives and Identity)

Logarithmic (Log and Inverse Log)

Power Law (n

th

power and n

th

root)

Piece-wise Linear

Contrast Stretching

Gray-Level Slicing

Bit-Plane Slicing

Histogram Processing

Histogram Equalization

Histogram Matching or Histogram Specification

Enhancement using Arithmetic/ Logic Operations

Image Subtraction

Image Averaging

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Piecewise-Linear Transformations

Contrast Stretching

Gray-Level Slicing

Bit-Plane Slicing

Advantage – Piecewise functions can be complex.

Disadvantage – Specification requires more user input.

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Contrast Stretching

Increases the dynamic range of gray levels in input

image.

Causes for low contrast images: Causes for low contrast images:

Poor illumination

Lack of dynamic range in imaging sensor

Wrong setting of lens aperture during image

acquisition.

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Gray-Level Slicing

Highlights a specific range of gray levels in an image.

Approach 1 - Assigns a high value for all gray levels in

the range of interest and a low value for all other gray the range of interest and a low value for all other gray

levels.

Produces binary image.

Approach 2 – Brightens the desired range of gray levels

but preserves the background and gray-level tonalities in

the image.

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Bit-Plane Slicing

Highlights the contribution made to total image

appearance by specific bits.

Useful in analyzing the relative importance of each bit of Useful in analyzing the relative importance of each bit of

the image.

Helps to determine the number of bits used to quantize

each pixel.

Useful for image compression.

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Spatial Domain Methods

Point Processing

Linear (Image Negatives and Identity)

Logarithmic (Log and Inverse Log)

Power Law (n

th

power and n

th

root)

Piece-wise Linear

Contrast Stretching

Gray-Level Slicing

Bit-Plane Slicing

Histogram Processing

Histogram Equalization

Histogram Matching or Histogram Specification

Enhancement using Arithmetic/ Logic Operations

Image Subtraction

Image Averaging

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 29

Histogram Processing

Contrast adjustment is done using histogram of an image.

Intensities can be better distributed.

Advantage – invertible; if histogram equalization function

is known, the original image can be recovered.

Disadvantage – May increase the contrast of background

noise.

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Histogram Equalization

Automatically determines a transformation function to

produce image with a uniform histogram.

Histogram Matching/ Histogram Specification

Produces an output image with a specified histogram.

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Histogram

Histogram of a digital image with gray levels in the range

[0, L-1] is a discrete function h(r

k

) = n

k

where r

k

is the k

th

gray level.

p(r

k

) is the probability of occurrence of gray level r

k

.

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High contrast image

– histogram covers a broad range of the grayscale.

- distribution of pixels nearly uniform. - distribution of pixels nearly uniform.

- exhibits large variety of gray tones.

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Histogram Equalization

: ; [0,1]

: ; [0,1]

:

r gray level of input image r

s gray level of output image s

T Transformation function

∈

∈

T(r) satisfies the conditions:

a) T(r) is single-valued and monotonically increasing in the

interval 0 ≤ r ≤ 1.

b) 0 ≤ T(r) ≤ 1 for 0 ≤ r ≤ 1.

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 36

:

( ); 0 1

T Transformation function

s T r r = ≤ ≤

Condition (a) that T(r) be single-valued guarantees that an

inverse transformation exists.

( f(x) = x

2

is non-invertible for domain of real numbers.)

Invesre transformation from s to r:

r = T

-1

(s), 0 ≤ s ≤ 1

Monotonicity condition preserves the increasing order

from black to white in the output image.

Condition (b) guarantees that the output image gray levels

will be in the same range as the input levels.

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1

( ) :

( ) :

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ),

( ) ( ) (1)

r

s

r

s r

p r probability density functionof r

p s probability density functionof s

If p r and T r are knownand T s satisfies a then

dr

p s p r

ds

−

= − − −

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 39

0

( ) ( ) (1)

( ) ( ) (2)

s r

r

r

ds

Atransformation functionhas the form

s T r p w dw

RHS is

= = − − −

∫

. thecumulative distribution functionof r

( ), ( ) (1).

, ( )

( )

( )

s

r

r

GivenT r are known p s canbeobtained using

We know s T r

ds dT r

dr dr

d

p w dw

dr

=

=

(

=

(

¸ ¸

∫

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0

0

( )

( ) (3)

( ' : . . .

r

r

r

dr

d

p w dw

dr

p r

Leibniz s rule derivativeof a definiteintegral wr t

its upper limit is theintegrand evaluat

(

¸ ¸

=

= − − −

∫

∫

.) ed at that limit

(3) (1)

( ) ( )

1

( )

( )

s r

r

Substituting in gives

dr

p s p r

ds

p r

p r

=

=

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( )

1; 0 1

( ) :

.

( ).

r

s

r

p r

s

p s is therefore

always auniform probability density function

independent of p r

= ≤ ≤

−

−

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Discrete Version:

(3) (1)

( ) , 0,1,..., 1

( ) ( )

k

r k

k

Substituting in gives

n

p r k L

n

s T r p r

= = −

= =

∑

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 43

0

0

( ) ( )

, 0,1,..., 1

.

k k r j

j

k

j

j

s T r p r

n

k L

n

This transformationis called histogramequalization

=

=

= =

= = −

∑

∑

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Histogram Matching

To generate an image that has a specified histogram.

:

:

( ) :

r

r gray level of input image

z gray level of output image

p r pdf of input image

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 48

0

0

( ) :

( ) :

( ) ( ) (1)

( ) ( ) (2)

r

z

r

r

z

z

p r pdf of input image

p z specified pdf of output image

Let s T r p w dw

Define G z p t dt s

= = − − −

= = − − −

∫

∫

1 1

(1) (2),

( ) ( )

( ) [ ( )] (3)

From and

G z T r

and z must satisfy thecondition

z G s G T r

− −

=

= = − − −

T(r) can be obtained from (1) once p

r

(r) has been

estimated.

G(z) can be obtained from (2) because p

z

(z) is given.

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( ) [ ( )] (3) z G s G T r = = − − −

Assume G

-1

exists and satisfies (a) and (b). Image with

specified histogram can then be obtained as follows:

Obtain the transformation function T(r) using (1).

Use (2) to obtain the transformation function G(z).

Obtain the inverse transformation function G

-1

.

Obtain the output image by applying (3) to all the pixels in

the input image.

The resultant image will have gray levels z with specified

probabilitiy density function p

z

(z).

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 50

Discrete formulation:

0

0

( ) ( )

, 0,1,..., 1

k

k k r j

j

k

j

j

k

s T r p r

n

k L

n

=

=

= =

= = −

∑

∑

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 51

0

1

1

( ) ( )

[ ( )], 0,1,..., 1

,

( ), 0,1,..., 1

k

k k z i k

i

k k

k k

v G z p z s

z G T r k L

Or

z G s k L

=

−

−

= = =

= = −

= = −

∑

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Global and Local Enhancement

Global – pixels are modified based on the gray level

content of entire image.

Local – pixels are modified based on the gray level

distribution in the neighbourhood of every pixel.

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Use of Histogram Statistics

Global mean – measure of average gray level for entire

image.

Local mean – measure of average gray level in the

neighborhood (sub-image). neighborhood (sub-image).

Global variance – measure of contrast for entire image.

Local variance – measure of contrast in a

neighborhood.

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Spatial Domain Methods

Point Processing

Linear (Image Negatives and Identity)

Logarithmic (Log and Inverse Log)

Power Law (n

th

power and n

th

root)

Piece-wise Linear

Contrast Stretching

Gray-Level Slicing

Bit-Plane Slicing

Histogram Processing

Histogram Equalization

Histogram Matching or Histogram Specification

Enhancement using Arithmetic/ Logic Operations

Image Subtraction

Image Averaging

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 56

Enhancement using

Arithmetic/Logical Operations

Arithmetic – operations are performed on a pixel-by-pixel

basis on two or more images.

Logical – operations are performed on a pixel-by-pixel Logical – operations are performed on a pixel-by-pixel

basis and pixel values are processed as strings of binary

numbers.

AND and OR – on two or more images

Used for masking

To highlight an area or differentiate it from rest of the image.

NOT – on single image.

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AND Operation

OR Operation

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Image Subtraction

The difference between two images f(x,y) and h(x,y) is

obtained by computing the difference between all pairs of

corresponding pixels from f and h.

g(x,y) = f(x,y) – h(x,y)

Used to enhance differences between images.

Used in medical imaging.

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Image Averaging

Let g(x,y) be a noisy image formed by the addition of

noise η(x,y) to an image f(x,y). ie;

g(x,y) = f(x,y) + η(x,y)

Assume noise has zero average value. Assume noise has zero average value.

The noise content in the image can be reduced by adding a

set of noisy images and taking the average

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1

1

( , ) ( , )

K

i

i

g x y g x y

K

=

=

∑

Expected value of , { ( , )} ( , ) g E g x y f x y =

Mask Processing /Filtering

Linear Spatial Filtering

Non-Linear Spatial Filtering

Smoothing Spatial Filters

Smoothing Linear Filters

Box-Filter

Weighted Average Filter

Order-Statistics Filters (Non-Linear Spatial Filters)

Median Filter Median Filter

Max-filter

Min-filter

Sharpening Spatial Filters

Second-Order Derivatives

Laplacian

Unsharp Masking

High Boost Filtering and its Application

First-Order Derivatives (Gradient)

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Spatial Filtering

Uses image pixels in the neighborhood (sub-image).

Sub-image is called mask.

Values in a sub-image are called coefficients. Values in a sub-image are called coefficients.

Filtering consists of moving the mask from point to point

in an image. At each point (x,y) response of the filter is

computed using a predefined relationship.

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Linear Spatial Filtering

This involves finding sum of products of filter coefficients

and corresponding pixels in the sub-image.

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Linear filtering of an image f of size MxN with a filter of

size mxn, is given by

( , ) ( , ) ( , )

a b

s a t b

g x y w s t f x s y t

=− =−

= + +

∑ ∑

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1 1

, ,

2 2

0,1,..., 1 0,1,..., 1.

m n

where a b

for x M and y N

− −

= =

= − = −

For a 3x3 mask,

1 1

1 1

3

3 1 3 1

1, 1

2 2

( , ) ( , ) ( , )

s t

m n

a b

g x y w s t f x s y t

=− =−

= =

− −

∴ = = = =

= + +

∑ ∑

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 66

1 1

( 1, 1) ( 1, 1) ( 1, 0) ( 1, ) ...

(0, 0) ( , ) ...

(1, 0) ( 1, ) (1,1) ( 1, 1)

s t

w f x y w f x y

w f x y

w f x y w f x y

=− =−

= − − − − + − − +

+ +

+ + + + +

∑ ∑

Simplified as

For 3x3 mask,

1 1 2 2

1

...

mn mn

mn

i i

i

R w z w z w z

w z

=

= + + +

=

∑

For 3x3 mask,

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1

1 1 2 2 9 9

...

mn

i i

i

R w z

w z w z w z

=

=

= + + +

∑

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Spatial filtering - Special processing for border pixels

Filter using full mask

Zero padding

Replication of rows or columns. Replication of rows or columns.

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Non-Linear Spatial Filtering

Filtering operation is based conditionally on the values of

pixels in the neighborhood.

eg; computing median eg; computing median

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Mask Processing /Filtering

Linear Spatial Filtering

Non-Linear Spatial Filtering

Smoothing Spatial Filters

Smoothing Linear Filters

Box-Filter

Weighted Average Filter

Order-Statistics Filters (Non-Linear Spatial Filters)

Median Filter Median Filter

Max-filter

Min-filter

Sharpening Spatial Filters

Second-Order Derivatives

Laplacian

Unsharp Masking

High Boost Filtering and its Application

First-Order Derivatives (Gradient)

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Smoothing Spatial Filters

Smoothing Linear Spatial Filters

Used for blurring and noise reduction.

Called averaging filters or lowpass filters – Output is the Called averaging filters or lowpass filters – Output is the

average of pixels contained in the neighborhood of filter mask.

Replaces every pixel in an image by the average of gray levels

in the neighborhood defined by filter mask.

Side-effect – blurring of edges and smoothing of false

contours.

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Box Filter

Spatial averaging filter in which all coefficients are equal.

Standard average of pixels under the mask.

1

1

mn

i

i

R z

mn

=

=

∑

Weighted Average Filter

Pixels are multiplied by different filter coefficients, giving

more weight to some pixels.

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1 i

mn

=

Filtering using Weighted Average Filter is given by

( , ) ( , )

( , )

( , )

a b

s a t b

a b

w s t f x s y t

g x y

w s t

=− =−

+ +

=

∑ ∑

∑ ∑

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( , )

1 1

, , .

2 2

0,1,..., 1 0,1,..., 1.

s a t b

w s t

m n

where a b mand nareodd

x M and y N

=− =−

− −

= =

= − = −

∑ ∑

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Mask Processing /Filtering

Linear Spatial Filtering

Non-Linear Spatial Filtering

Smoothing Spatial Filters

Smoothing Linear Filters

Box-Filter

Weighted Average Filter

Order-Statistics Filters (Non-Linear Spatial Filters)

Median Filter Median Filter

Max-filter

Min-filter

Sharpening Spatial Filters

Second-Order Derivatives

Laplacian

Unsharp Masking

High Boost Filtering and its Application

First-Order Derivatives (Gradient)

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Order-Statistics Filters

Response is based on ordering the pixels and then

repalcing the central pixel value with the value determined

by the ranking result.

Median Filter Median Filter

Sorts pixel values and computes median .

Replaces value of the pixel with median of gray levels in the

neighborhood.

Excellent noise reduction; less blurring.

Effective in the presence of salt and pepper noise.

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Max Filter

R = max{z

k

| k=1,2,…mn}.

Used to find the brightest points in an image.

Min Filter Min Filter

R = min{z

k

| k=1,2,…mn}.

Used to find the darkest points in an image.

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Mask Processing /Filtering

Linear Spatial Filtering

Non-Linear Spatial Filtering

Smoothing Spatial Filters

Smoothing Linear Filters

Box-Filter

Weighted Average Filter

Order-Statistics Filters (Non-Linear Spatial Filters)

Median Filter Median Filter

Max-filter

Min-filter

Sharpening Spatial Filters

Second-Order Derivatives

Laplacian

Unsharp Masking

High Boost Filtering and its Application

First-Order Derivatives (Gradient)

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Sharpening Spatial Filters

Used to highlight the fine detail in an image.

To enhance the detail that has been blurred.

To enhance edges, noise etc.

Sharpening is done through spatial differentiation. Sharpening is done through spatial differentiation.

Based on first derivatives

Based on second derivatives

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( 1) ( )

f

f x f x

x

∂

= + −

∂

2

2

( 1) ( 1) 2 ( )

f

f x f x f x

x

∂

= + + − −

∂

First order derivatives

Must be zero in flat segments.

Must be non-zero at the onset of a gray-level step or ramp.

Must be non-zero along ramps.

Second order derivatives Second order derivatives

Must be zero in flat areas.

Must be non-zero at the onset and end of a gray-level step or

ramp.

Must be zero along ramps of constant slope.

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Based on first derivatives

Produces thicker edges

Stronger response to gray-level step.

Based on second derivatives

Stronger response to finer detail Stronger response to finer detail

Produces double response at step changes.

So second-order derivatives are more suited than first-order

derivatives for enhancing fine details.

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Use of Second Derivatives

Laplacian - Laplacian for f(x,y)

2 2

2

2 2

2

( 1, ) ( 1, ) 2 ( , )

f f

f

x y

f

f x y f x y f x y

∂ ∂

∇ = +

∂ ∂

∂

= + + − −

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2

2

2

2

( 1, ) ( 1, ) 2 ( , )

( , 1) ( , 1) 2 ( , )

( 1, ) ( 1, )

( , 1) ( , 1) 4 ( , )

f x y f x y f x y

x

f

f x y f x y f x y

y

f f x y f x y

f x y f x y f x y

= + + − −

∂

∂

= + + − −

∂

∴∇ = + + − +

+ + − −

Highlights gray-level discontinuities

2

( , ) ( , )

( , )

if thecentrecoefficient of the

f x y f x y

Laplacianmask is negative

g x y

if thecentrecoefficient of the

¦

−∇

¦

¦

=

´

¦

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 85

2

( , )

( , ) ( , )

g x y

if thecentrecoefficient of the

f x y f x y

Laplacianmask is positive

=

´

¦

+∇

¦

¹

Unsharp Masking

Subtracts blurred version of the image from the original

image.

( , ) ( , ) ( , )

s

f x y f x y f x y = −

Used in dark-room photography.

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 86

High Boost Filtering

( , )

( , ) ( , ) ( , )

( 1) ( , ) ( , ) ( , )

( 1) ( , ) ( , )

s

hb

f x y

s

f x y Af x y f x y

A f x y f x y f x y

A f x y f x y

= −

= − + −

= − +

1442443

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 87

( 1) ( , ) ( , )

s

A f x y f x y = − +

2

2

( , ) ( , )

( , ) ( , )

hb

if thecentrecoefficient of the

Af x y f x y

Laplacianmask is negative

f

if thecentrecoefficient of the

Af x y f x y

Laplacianmask is positive

¦

−∇

¦

¦

=

´

¦

+∇

¦

¹

When A = 1, high-boost filtering becomes standard

Laplacian sharpening.

Application:

To make images lighter.

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 88

Use of First Derivatives

Uses magnitude of the gradient.

,

f

x

Gradient f

f

y

∂

(

(

∂

( ∇ =

∂

(

(

∂

¸ ¸

First order derivatives of a digital image are based on

various approximations of the 2D gradient.

1

2

2

2

y

f f

Magnitudeof f

x y

(

∂

¸ ¸

(

| | ∂ ∂

| |

∇ = + (

| |

∂ ∂

\ ¹

( \ ¹

¸ ¸

3/20/2012 89 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2

The mathematical implementation of first order

derivatives can be done by masks known as

Roberts cross-gradient operator

Prewitt operator

Sobel operator

• Let the 3 3 area represent the gray levels in a neighborhood of an image, • Let the 3 3 area represent the gray levels in a neighborhood of an image,

as shown below

3/20/2012 90 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2

Roberts cross-gradient operator

Equations

( )

( )

9 5

8 6

x

y

G z z

G z z

= −

= −

Masks

3/20/2012 91 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2

Prewitt operator

Equations

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

7 8 9 1 2 3

3 6 9 1 4 7

x

y

G z z z z z z

G z z z z z z

= + + − + +

= + + − + +

Masks

3/20/2012 92 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2

Sobel operator

Equations

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

7 8 9 1 2 3

3 6 9 1 4 7

2 2

2 2

x

y

G z z z z z z

G z z z z z z

= + + − + +

= + + − + +

Masks

3/20/2012 93 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2

Thank You Thank You

3/20/2012 CS04 804B Image Processing - Module2 94

- Digital Image Enhancement Techniques
- Digital Image Processing 03 Image Enhancement in Spatial Domain
- Frequency Domain Filtering Image Processing
- Image Enhancement Frequency Domain
- Spatial Image Enhancement
- Digital Image Processing
- DIP Image Enhancement 1
- Digital Image Processing Fundamentals
- Image Compression Coding Schemes
- Fourier Transform
- Image Compression Fundamentals
- Image Restoration
- Elements of Visual Perception
- Image Enhancement Techniques
- Spatial Filt+Frequency Domaing
- Image Degradation and Restoration Model
- Image Processing in Frequency Domain Using Matlab a Study for Beginners
- Image Processing Chapter 5
- Image Segmentation
- A Survey on Digital Image Enhancement Techniques
- Digital Image Processing Question Answer Bank
- Frequency Domain Image Processing
- Image enhancement
- Spatial Filtering Image Processing
- Image Enhancement
- An Introduction to Digital Image Processing With Matlab
- Image Enhancement in Spatial Domain
- Image Segmentation
- Image Segmentation
- Image Segmentation

- Data Structures and Algorithms
- Image Compression Coding Schemes
- M2_Linear Data Structures
- M3_Non Linear Data Structures
- M1 Data Structures
- Image Compression Fundamentals
- Image Reconstruction from Projections
- M4 Sorting
- Image Transforms
- Digital Image Processing Fundamentals
- Fourier Transform
- Optimum Notch Filtering
- Image Restoration
- Linear Systems
- Elements of Visual Perception

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