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Section 13.4 Limits of INFINITE Sequences


Objective: To determine if the limit of an infinite sequence exists, and to find the limit if it does exist.

Limit of a Sequence:
1)


2)



Steps:
1)


2)
These will be useful: Odds: Squares:
Odds: Powers of 2:
Evens: Factorial:
Evens:

Find the limit of the following sequences.
Ex. 1: . . . ,
16
15
,
8
7
,
4
3
,
2
1
Ex. 2: . . . ,
5
16
,
4
9
,
3
4
,
2
1
Ex. 3:
n
) 1 )( 10 (n
3
2
n
n
t
+
=








Ex. 4:
n
t ) 1 (
1 n
2n
2
2
n

+
= Ex. 5:
n
) tan(n
n
t
= t












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Section 13.5_ Sums of INFINITE Series
Objective: To find the infinite sum of an arithmetic or a geometric series, if that sum exists.

Sum of an INFINITE ARITHMETIC Series:








Sum of an INFINITE GEOMETRIC Series:








Two Cases: 1 > r 1 < r




Ex. 1: Find the sum of the following series: . . . .
1500
1
150
1

15
1
+ + +





Ex. 2: A tennis ball, dropped from a height of 24 feet, bounces 50% of the height from which it fell
on each subsequence bounce. What is the total vertical distance it travels before coming to
rest?













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Section 13.6 Sigma Notation
Objective: To use sigma notation. To use known sums to help calculate more complicated sums.
Summation Symbol:

=
b
a i
pattern
i = index, a = start, b = end
1)
2)

Ex. 1: Write an expression for the sum of the first 20 odd numbers using sigma: 1 + 3 + 5 + + 39

= i
or

= i
or

= i


Properties of Finite Sums:

= = =
+ = +
n
i
n
i
i i
n
i
i i
b a b a
1 1 1
) ( and

= =
=
n
i
i
n
i
i
a c ca
1 1


Known Sums:
2
) 1 (
1
+
=

=
n n
k
n
k
=
6
) 1 2 )( 1 (
1
2
+ +
=

=
n n n
k
n
k
=

2
1
3
2
) 1 (
(

+
=

=
n n
k
n
k
=

Using Known Sums to help calculate more complicated sums:
1) Write the finite sum using sigma notation. Make sure that the INDEX STARTS at 1.
2) Use the Properties of Finite Sums to SEPARATE the pattern into individual finite sums.
3) Use the Known Sums to evaluate each individual finite sum.

Ex. 2: Evaluate 102 100 .. .......... 5 3 4 2 3 1 + + + +





Section 13.7 Mathematical Induction

PROCESS: Let S be a statement in terms of a
positive integer n
Step 1: Show that the statement is true for n = 1
Step 2: State/Assume that S is true for a random term,
n = k, where k is a positive integer
Step 3: Prove true for n= k + 1
Step 4: State Therefore _____ for all positive integers, n.
Examples will be done in class. END OF CHAPTER__TEST WILL BE IN A COUPLE OF DAYS.