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Chapter 44 Lecture Notes: The Internal Environment

Body Temperature: Thermoregulation Homeostasis The ability to reg the intl envt Regulators=maintain narrow intl range regardless of extl swings Conformers= body conditions change with changes in the envt Most organisms are not strict regulators of conformers and different variables may provoke a diff response

Four Sources of Heat Lost and Heat Gain Convection Radiation Conduction Evaporation

Kinds Internal Regulation Ectotherm- Body close to the envt o Most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles Endotherm- metabolic heat keeps body temp warmer than ambient o Mammals, birds, some fishes, a few reptiles and numerous insects

Thermoregulation Rate of heat xchg b/t animal and surroundings is adjusted o Insulation, vasodilation(^SA to dissipate heat), vasoconstriction (to conserve heat) o Countercurrent heat exchange- due to arrangement of blood vessels(radiant heat effect-returning blood is warmed by blood coming from core), helps reduce heat loss from body core Evaporative Cooling- sweating, the droplets with the most kin en leave as gas and take the kin en with them thus meaning you feel cooler Behavior- torpor(lack of action) Rate of metabolic heat production may be adjusted (endotherms only)

What maintains high body heat? Mainly high metab rate NST- Nonshivering Thermogenesis-hormones cause mitochondria to increase metabolic activity and make heat instead of ATP. Occurs t/o the body but especially in brown fat(in mammals in neck and b/t shoulders)-specialized for heat production Insulation-including, a layer of air b/t feathers or hair, (goose bumps-back in harier days) Vascular adjustments

Skin as an organ of thermoregulation Fat and hair insulate Blood vessel constriction and vasodilation Erection of fur Sweat glands (nervous control)

-thermostat function of hypothalamus -Hibernation=winter torpor -Activation- summer inactivity or torpor Water Balance: Osmoregulation -maintain water content and solute composition Nitrogenous Waste Most aquatic animals, incl many fishes- ammonia Mammals, most amphibians, sharks, some bony fishes-urea Birds, insects, many reptiles, land snails- uric acid

-- Saltwater Fish Osmoregulation: gains of water and salt ions from food and drinking, osmotic water loss thru gills and other parts of body surface, excretion of salt ions from gills, excretion of salt ions and small amts of water in scanty urine from kidneys <osmoreg in kangaroo rat?> Transport Epithelium Layer of layers of specialized cells that regulate solute movement- esstl for osmoregualtion and metab waste

Protonephridia-flame-buld system of planarian: Primarily for water balance. Very dilute urine helps maintain water balance in this freshwater org Cilia draw water and solutes into the tubule(no intl openings). Solutes are reabsorbed in the tubules Most metab waste diffuse out through the body covering Protonephridia are also found in rotifers, some annelids, mollusk larvae, lancelets

Metanephridia of Earthworms Each segment had a pair of metanephridium. Surrounded by coelomic fluid and blood vessels Both excretory and osmoregulatory Nitrogen waste remain in the tubule when other solutes reabsorbed

Malphigian tubules of insects Insets and terrestrial arthropods Remove nitrogenous waste and have osmotic function Solutes secreted from hemolymph into tubule-water follows osmotically Much reabsorbed by cells in rectum

Vertebrate Kidneys
More Chapter 44 Notes Vertebrate kidneys Both osmotic and excretory The functl unit is the nephron (about a million per kidney in humans) In mammals, supplied by renal artery and renal vein (20% cardiac output to less than 1% body mass) 1,100-2000L of blood filtered per day 180 L filtrate formed and processed 1-2 L of urine are produced/excreted Kidney parts: renal medulla, renal cortex > juxta-medullary nephron(loop of Henle) and cortical nephron(80% of nephrons)

The specialized human kidney conserves water 80% of nephrons are cortical with reduced loop of Henle 20% are juxtamedullary: well-developed loops that extend into the renal medulla o Only in birds and mammals o Conserve water as they allow hyperosmotic(to body fluids) urine to be made

Pressure filtering retains cells, proteins and other large molecules and results in a filtrate-BP forces substances into Bowmans capsule of glomerulus and then become part of tubule system of kidneys Filtrate is modified-needed things are returned (reabsorption) and other things are added (secretion) Filtration BP forces fluid through capillary walls Blood cells and plasma proteins remain behind; if present in urine kidney failure Water and molecules enter the Bowmans capsule and slits allow the fluid to enter the nephron tubules

In the Proximal Tubule 2/3 of NaCl and water are reabsorbed Active transport of Na+ out of tubules and into peritubular capillaries Cl- follows passively(by electrical attraction)

Water follows by osmosis Still 60 L out of 180 in original filtrate

In the Loop of Henle Descending limb: water leaves passively out, returns to blood NaCl is actively transported into the medulla in the ascending limb(first segment, passively out) Makes the medulla tissue hyperosmotic Filtrate leaving the ascending limb is low in solutes

In the Distal Tubule Hypotonic filtrate enters Filtrate foes to collecting duct Water leaves collecting duct. Filtrate increases in concentration

In the Collecting Duct Urea diffuses into medulla Controllable region Hormone ADH (antidiuretic hormone) changes permeability to retain more water If water needs to be retained the posterior pituitary secretes more ADH. Target cells are here Alcohol inhibits release of ADH

Negative feedback loop or maintenances of water balance RAAS JGA- juxtaglomerulus apparatus Tissue near the afferent arteriole Drop in BP or blood volume causes the enzyme rennin to be released. Renin starts a chemical reaction converting angiotensinogen to angiotensin II angiotensin II increases BP and BV by constricting arterioles and causes the proximal tubules to reabsorb more NaCl and water. It also causes the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone which makes the distal tubules reabsorb more NaCl and water this the RAAS-system (Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) important in homeostasis ADH is made in the hypothalamus, stored in the pituitary Osmoreceptior cells in the hypothalamus monitor the bloods osmolarity Too high more ADH Target cells in distal tubule and collecting ducts increase their permeability to water- more is reabsorbed Example of neg feedback which helps maintain homeostasis

Atrial Natriuretic Factor ANF Opposes RAAS Released by walls of atria in heart in response to too much BV and BP Inhibits the release of rennin from JGA, inhibits NaCl reabsorption by collecting ducts, and n9ihibits aldosterone release by the adrenal gland

Excretory System: Getting Rid of N containing waste