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ICFAI: BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS OF HRM INTRODUCTION: Procuring the right person for the right job is the very

basis for running the organization successfully. Creating conditions that will be up to the satisfaction of the employees is a tough job in the present era of liberalization and it requires comprehensive human resource policies. The term human resource implies the sum of all the components like skill and creative abilities possessed by all employees who contribute their services to attain the organizational objectives and goals. Employees should be treated as a resource and their resources are to be utilized to the optimum level for the mutual benefit of both the organization and the employees. The present-day management is a complex function. Social, economic and technological developments are rapidly changing the business environment; there is tough competition both in the internal and foreign markets. In order to cope with the situation, management should frame human resource policies with a cutting edge and implement them in order to increase labour productivity. To achieve this objective, employees are to be properly selected, inducted, trained, motivated, maintained and rewarded so as to increase their morale and job satisfaction. Satisfied workers are said to be workers with high productivity. Thus, human psychology plays an important role in human resource management of all organizations. Knowledge about human behavior would be useful in improving an organization's effectiveness. Organizational performances of the employees mostly depend on their behavior and attitude. If an organization takes care of the behavioral aspects of the employees while managing the human resources, it is needless to mention that it would attain the goals that it had set for itself. The term 'behavior' in the title implies the study of the behavior of individuals and groups in organizations, and organizations themselves, as they act and interact to attain desired outcomes.

This book is divided into two sections: Section 1 deals with the concept and importance of human behavior in the wake of managing resources in an organization. The general aspects of human psychology and HR management are discussed.

1. The first article of the first section is Behavioural Dimensions in Human Resource Management by G. Jegadeesan: It is vital to understand the individual and group behaviors well in formal organizations. It underlines the division of labour and indicates how different functions are interconnected. It provides the stability and continuity that allow the organization to survive the shortcomings and different behaviors of individuals and to coordinate its dealings with the environment. It is true that the structure of an organization will exercise considerable influence on individual and group behaviors. Successful HR manager has to understand the fundamental elements of organization such as coordination, common goals, division of labor, and integration. As such, planned coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common goal, through division of labor, functions, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility, will help them to manage people in the organization successfully. Thus, one must realize that behavioral issues are no less important than any strategic issue that provides the competitive edge to an organization. The HR professionals should take initiatives to implement behavioral training and management, in order to mould the attitudes of the workers so as to create congenial work, culture and group cohesiveness.

2. In the next article Behavioral considerations in management Control by Y Satyanarayana says that:

Every organization has one or more goals. Senior management wants the organization to attain these goals. Managers and employees working in an organization have personal goals, and in many instances these are not consistent with the organizations goals, the central purpose of management control system is to assure goal congruence, that is the system should be designed in such a way that it leads people to take in their perceived self interest which is also in the best of the organization. External and internal factors have a significant impact. Work ethic, ethical behavior and religious belief of the people, organizations culture or climate significantly impacts management control. Management style in general and the attitude and involvement in management control process of the chief executive in particular, significantly impacts management control in the organization.

3. In the subsequent article Role of Human Psychology in Development Of Organization by Catherine Joseph and Sree Sai Lakshmi state that: There is vital need for psychology in all the spheres of an organization. Psychologists have studies various sources to discover the link between individual differences and the success of the organization. It is the task of the psychologist to analyze the accomplishments made by an individual employee in a work environment. Thus from the above discussion we see that how the theory and practices of psychology are applied in the management of an organization. It deals with the strategies to develop human resources and the motivational factors besides selection, training, evaluation, retention and analysis of employees productivity patterns. It also deals with the talent management and studies the impact of the role of psychology in social, political, economical and legal aspects of an organization 4. Organization behavior : Darker Dimensions Divulged by Shivaji Banerjee is the forth article:

Which sheds light on dark side behaviors, analyzing their causes and consequences in the context of modern organizations? Organizations are faced with the many-faceted nature of problems that are regarded as dark side behaviors, and an understanding of them would definitely aid in minimizing the incidences of such issues, and pave the way towards promoting organizational effectiveness by laying the foundation for proactive management. The development of an organizational behavior has become an integral part of the growth of business and management studies in recent times. Organizations are faced with the multifaceted nature of problems that are regarded as dark side behaviors, and an understanding of them would definitely aid in minimizing the incidences of such issues, and pave the way towards promoting organizations effectiveness by laying the foundation for proactive management.

5. In the succeeding article Leadership and Behavior Aspects: The Human Face Of Project Management, by Madhuparna Chakraborty : A projects success is heavily influenced by the project managers ability to motivate and direct the team members towards the projects goal and vision. While leadership plays a key role in determining those distinguishing features of project management, a right combination of other behavioral aspects is also important A Leader is best when people barely know he exists. When his work is done, his aim is fulfilled, they will say. We do it ourselves. States that a projects success is heavily influenced by the project managers ability to motivate and direct the team members towards the projects goal and vision. Leadership, which is considered to be the most important aspect of managerial behavior, can be defined in brief as an ability to influence people without showing authority.

6. The sixth article The Enthusiastic Employee by Shampa Chakraberty: The book depicts 30 years of research and experience to show what exactly managers do wrong and what they should do instead. Focusing on elaborate case studies and employee attitude surveys in hundreds of companies, the authors offer proven solutions. The findings of research establish that enthusiastic and satisfies employees align organizations goals with their personal ones, which enhances the productivity and gives a competitive edge to organization. This article quotes the finding of the research that establishes the fact that enthusiastic and satisfied employees identify organizations goals with their personal care ones, which enhances their productivity and gives a competitive edge to the organization. A sense of basic equity serves as the foundation on which high employee morale can be built. If companies introduce such work practices, it will increase a workers commitment and there will be considerable increase in business performance. 7. In the next article Discipline A Progressive Change in Behavior, by Catherine Joseph and Sree Lakshmi: Disciplinary action is the means by which an organization corrects erring staff and brings order in the organization. The aim of disciplinary action is to bring positive development in employees and an efficient tool used in modifying undesirable behavior. But if the misconduct of the employee becomes a constant problem then disciplinary action comes into use. This article says that the aim of disciplinary action is to bring positive developments in employees and not to disrespect or humiliate them. The article explains the ways of bringing a progressive change in behavior through positive methods. Such procedures will be more effective in

achieving the aim of disciplinary action because punishments usually have limited benefits and are destructive in nature. Discipline, if reasonable and base on certain standards, can be followed and practiced easily. So it should be communicated to all employees clearly on agreeable terms and it should be uniformly enforced among the employees. Thus a comprehensive approach with more positive rewards and fewer punishments should be adopted after analyzing and preventing the causes of undesired behavior. Such a procedure will be more effective in achieving the causes of undesired behavior. 8. The Eight Article is a review of the book titled The Alchemy Grievance Behavior to Work Motivation written by Prem Chadha published by Rupa & Co. and reviewed by Rita Rangnekar: Workplace discontent and employee grievances are a part of organization. Instead of suppressing them, grievances can actually be a opportunity for the management to enhance employee motivation. Every grievance can be solved properly with empathy and understanding. This book discusses grievance behavior in organization and various approaches to grievance handling, and recommends a positive human approach to convert it into a motivational tool to promote performance and harmony. It deals with common HR issues of workplace discontentment and employee grievances which are prevalent in all organizations in all sectors. The article looks at grievances at workplace and examines they are generated. It discusses the ways to handle and control grievances, so that they can affect positive results at workplace. 9. The last article of the session is The Impact of Attitudes in Improving Performance: Attitudes determine ones Attitude by N Vijaya Lakshmi: Attitudes have a great say in bringing the best of performance and increasing productive levels in every organization. It is widely proven in

management theory about the impact of attitude building in eliciting quality output from the employees in an organization. Two of the top five Ivy League Business Schools, namely, Harvard and Stanford have stated that 85% of the reasons a student gets a job and continues in that job is due to attitude and 15% is due to technical or specific skills . We spend money on education and hardly spend money in building positive attitudes, which are supposed to be learnt as we get educated. So this part says that Attitudes have a great say in bringing out the Best of performance and increasing productivity levels in any organization. There are several factors which influence employees attitude significantly and a few of them are: the managers behavior, selection of employees and improving the organizational culture. The article explains how ones attitude influences the productivity levels in organization The second section Issues and Practices deals with the various behavioral aspects that must be taken into account while managing the employees and discuss some practical experiences of the behavioral issues. A organizations cultural norms, which include attitudes, beliefs, opinions, etc, are so pervasive that they are almost invisible, but if we would like to improve performance and profitability, norms are one of the first place to look. A Manager cannot leave the development of a high performance work culture to chance if the business is not to risk its very future. Fortunately that need not be the case. An alert manager can take the necessary steps and initiate appropriate training modules to ensure the quality of the work culture matches the quality of the organizations products or services.

10. The first article is Impact of Employee Burnout and Work-life Balance on Employee Commitment is by Vasuki Mathivanan : This part says that work- life balance helps meet the challenge of managing human capital by streamlining ineffective human capital issues like job `burnout. The article discusses how employee burnout affects human work

life balance that has a significant impact upon human capital performance and the companys productivity. It also explains the correlation between human burnout and employee engagement that affects human capital productivity, employee commitment and the companys financial position. It details the causes, signs and measures to gauge burnout that give inferences to the company about the quality of work life- work place environment, job satisfaction, employees welfare and labor relations that directly affect human capital performance and productivity. The article suggests ways to alleviate burnout that helps in the effective management of human capital, therefore enhancing work life balance.

11.The next article Negative Talk: Implications on Performance and workplace management is by Rita Rangnekar. It deals with the disciplinary problem of negative talk which can distract a person from being efficient, because the mind is thinking negatively. The article evaluates the behavioral dimensions of the issues of negative talk and suggests some techniques to overcome the issues. While a large part of it is attributed to grievance behavior and grievance expressions, it cannot always be categorized as grievance. As negative talk can stop the energy, enthusiasm and motivation of the employees, it is crucial to curb it. As difficult as it may seem, it is possible for every employee to assume responsibility for his or her behavior within the organization. It is said that even if we dont do anything about it, we all carry our reputation in the organization which is based on the front that we display there. The clothes that we wear, the language that we use, the words that we adopt in, our day to day vocabulary and the general air of professionalism that we carry around ourselves, collectively work towards building our impression within the organization. Similarly, the talk we indulge it also forms an impression and shapes our impression.

It is one thing for employee to accuse their colleagues of negative thinking. People can take the responsibility of regular asking themselves how they seem to their colleagues; as dampeners through derogatory remarks or as someone who can inspire enthusiasm through enthusiasm. Negative remarks can be consciously countered with positive statements, trying to show the issues discussed in positive light and goading those around you to get into the same mould of thinking as you are. Negative remarks could be just received through silence which would give that person a message that such talk is no. over a period of time, the speaker realized that negative talk is not tolerated

12.The succeeding article Managing Resistance to Change: Overcoming Resistance at the Cognitive, Emotional and Behavioral Levels by Sumati Reddy This article offers three frameworks to understand employee resistance to change. The degree of resistance will depend on the scale and scope of the change program and employees perceived threats and opportunities from the change. By changing peoples thoughts and beliefs, employees mental outlook towards the change can be turned around by adopting suitable tools to overcome the emotional and behavioral aspects of resistance The scope of change in an organization determines to a great extent the nature of resistance that will occur in it. Greater the implications of change on the organization and its people, greater the need for, senior management to chart out a well planned approach to implement the change program keeping in view the needs and concerns of employees. The greatest issue with any change program is the lack of support from employees. Therefore, employee resistance to change leads to be gauged well in advance and managed carefully so that, the change program can proceed smoothly without any impediments.

13. The fourth article of the session Retaining High Performers: Issues and Imperatives by Ravi Dasari. Modern organizations are operating in an unprecedented, highly competitive and turbulent environment, which is characterized by the globalization of business. Further, todays global workforce is more mobile than ever before as a result we are witnessing a war for talent in the market place. It is becoming increasingly clear that employee attrition is a reality and organizations need to adopt a market driven approach in dealing with growing attrition. The article analyzes the importance of employee retention and talent management. It analyses the importance of employee retention and talent management and says that the behavioral aspects of the employees are taken care through measures which would increase employee satisfaction, engagement and commitment. These measures will in turn result in higher employee retention. Peter cappelli opines that it is a market not a company that determines the moment of company. Therefore, the old goal of HR is to minimize overall employee turnover has to place by a new goal: to influence who leaves and when. If managing employee retention in past is akin to tending a dam that keeps the reservoir in place. Today is more like managing a river. The object is not to prevent the water from following out but to control its speed and direction.

14.The fifth article Participative Managers: Antidote to Employee De motivation is written by Rashmi Joshi. It is widely accepted that a motivated workforce is the dominant contributor to the well-being of any organization. One of the major challenges faced in human resource management is to sustain an enduring and effective method of motivation. In this context, the article looks at various factors that are

responsible for demonization of employees and how it affects not only the employees but also teams and, ultimately, the business.

15.The following article The Impact of Stress at Workplace: A Real Life Case Study is by Vasuki Mathivanan. Stress can be painful. Stress audit practices create awareness about the employees physical and psychological status and help focus on providing employees with strategies and tools that can lead to personal as well as professional growth and development, better workplace relationships and less conflict and stress. The article discusses a real case study emphasizing the need to have stress audit practices in organizations. 16.The Case study titled Southwest Airline HR Practices: The Key for Boosting Employee Morale by R Ananthi : This article tates that Southwest Airlines had been the most successful lowfare, high frequency point to point carrier in the U.S since 1973. Employees come first, customers come second is the mantra of southwest. The case discusses Southwests innovative human resource practices that were helpful for the airlines continuous success. The case study shows the commitment of the airline towards its workers.

17.The last article is Motivation in ITES Industry: Dimensionality with reference to Herzbergs Theory by Mihir Dash, Anubha Singh and Vivekanand: The concept of motivation, in general, and Herzbergs two-factor theory, in particular, have been the subject-matter of research for long and continue to be relevant. The study attempts to explore the constituents of motivatiors and satisfiers in an ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services)

organization in India. The results of the study by and large conform to Hertzbergs two-factor model.