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Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476

Introduction
This document will introduce the key aspects and highlight the main performance characteristics of the new standard for structured wall piping systems EN13476. Due to a favourable ratio between price and performance, plastic pipes and fittings have achieved a strong market position in storm and foul water systems over the past decades. Leak tightness, ease of installation, and durability are some of the major benefits of plastic systems. The growing market share of plastic pipe systems is partly the result of continuous innovation, resulting in more effective and efficient concepts. These innovative concepts, like structured wall pipes, can only be successful when serving the basic customer need: quality. In order to safeguard customer needs, the plastic piping industry is involved in the development of high quality standards that serve this purpose. Next to safeguarding good quality, standards should also provide transparency in the performance of pipe systems to benefit network designers, owners and installers. Indeed, EN 13476 is a good example of a performance based standard that ensures that the systems comply with the level of transparency set by the standard. The European Plastic Pipes and Fittings Industry strongly support an effective implementation of this standard throughout Europe. The commercial and technical staff of manufacturers producing these types of pipes and fittings is well prepared to answer any further question you may have.

Contents
This document contains short explanations of the main performance characteristics of Structured Wall Pipes and Fittings made according to EN13476: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ring Stiffness of Pipes and Fittings and Available Classes Required Ring Flexibility of Pipes Dimensions and Tolerances Impact Strength, Resistance to Dynamic Loading Demonstration of Leak Tightness of the System Resistance to High Temperatures Recommendation for Sewer Pipe Cleaning, Jetting Demonstration of the Durability of the Used Thermoplastic Materials Chemical Resistance of the Used Thermoplastic Materials Additional Information: Recycling of Thermoplastic Pipes and Fittings + addendum

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Ring Stiffness
System performance and customers benefits
This method simulates the behavior of the system during and after installation. When buried, a pipe must show sufficient stiffness to withstand the load from the soil. Moreover, the pipe must be able to resist the extra pressure caused by road traffic. The ring stiffness test determines the required level of stiffness for any given design, thus ensuring that the product will not collapse when buried and that no defects will influence the performance of the product.

Test method
The test is carried out according to EN ISO 9969 on a compression testing machine equipped with two flat steel pates. For type testing the test samples must be 21 days old. Three pieces of pipe, conditioned at least for 24h at a temperature of 23o C must be prepared for the test. The test pieces are fixed between plates of the compression machine at 3 different positions. The ring stiffness is now determined by moving the plates toward each other and measuring the force needed to deflect the pipe, which will vary depending on the diameter of the pipe. Subsequently a graph of the force versus deflection can be drawn up. The ring stiffness is calculated as a function of the force necessary to produce a 3 % diametric deflection of the pipe. Tests of the ring stiffness of fittings are carried out in a similar way in accordance with ISO 13967

Requirements
According to the standard EN 13476 part 2 and 3; The pipes and fittings shall be designated in one of the following nominal stiffness classes (SN): DN 500 : SN 4, SN 8 or SN 16 DN > 500 : SN 2, SN 4, SN 8 or SN 16 Pipe Ring Stiffness relevant SN [nominal ring stiffness]. In an installed structured wall pipeline the ring stiffness class must be the same for both pipes and fittings.

TEST RESULT
Force F

1%

2%

3% Deflection

Test result for calculation

Compression testing machine

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Ring Flexibility
System performance and customers benefits
This method simulates the behavior of the buried piping system. The test is carried out to ensure that the installed piping system can withstand sufficiently external loadings during its expected lifetime. The method warrants that the product will neither collapse, nor suffer defects even under high deformation conditions or traffic loading.

Test method

Three 300mm long pieces of pipe which are conditioned at least for 24h at a temperature of 23 C are used for the test. The test is carried out according to EN 1446 on a compression testing machine equipped with two flat steel pates. The test pieces are fixed between the plates of the compression machine at 3 different positions. Each piece of pipe is deflected at a constant speed until a minimum of 30% diametrical deflection is achieved (alternatively 20%) unless a prior fracture has occurred. The sample is monitored and visually inspected for signs of mechanical failure during the test. The procedure is similar to the ring stiffness test method. A graph showing the relation between force and deflection should be drawn up after the test.

Requirements
According to standard EN 13476 parts 2 and 3, there are two levels of requirements: Ring flexibility 30% diametric deflection RF30 (recommended requirement) Ring flexibility 20% diametric deflection RF20 (as exception possible for special conditions and dimensions, to be defined in the national foreword) During the test there must be no: - decrease of the measured force; - cracking in any part of the wall structure. After the test there must be no: - wall delamination or other types of rupture in the test pieces; - permanent buckling in any part of the structure of the pipe wall including depressions and craters in any direction.

POSITIVE RESULT
Force F

10%

20%

30%

Deflection

Force F

NEGATIVE RESULT

Fmax

Ring flexibility test.

10%

20%

30%

3
Deflection

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Dimensions and tolerances


System performance and customers benefits
Basic geometrical characteristics are included in the standard EN 13476. Correct dimensions and tolerances assure that all system elements fit together and that joints can be assembled appropriately. This is also the crucial issue when it comes to ensuring the performances of the elastomeric sealing ring joints. Pipes and fittings sizes are specified according to either their outside diameter DN/ODseries or their inside diameter DN/ID series. Standard EN 13476 specifies the following nominal sizes: DN/ID [mm]: 100, 125, 150, 200, 225, 250, 300, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 DN/OD [mm]: 110, 125, 160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000,1200 Apart from diameter, the standard defines wall thicknesses for spigots, sockets and inner layers as well as the lengths of products. Tolerances mentioned in the standard mainly describe one limit value: minimum or maximum.

Test method
All dimensions should be measured in accordance with EN ISO 3126 which precisely describes devices and methods for the characteristics. The temperature of the device, test piece and ambient air must be set at 23o C. Therefore, the test pieces should be conditioned at that temperature for a period of time. Measurement of the wall thickness The device is moved along the selected cross-section until finding the minimum value which is the result. Measurement of the mean inside/outside diameter The measured cross-section is divided into regular intervals. Depending on diameter, 6 to 8 individual measurements are required. The average of the obtained values is the result. The measurement of the inside/outside diameter may also be carried out with direct measurement using a "" tape.

Requirements
All results must be within the interval of tolerance specified in the standard EN 13476.

Outside diameter measurement.

Wall thickness measurement

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Impact strength
System performance and customers benefits
This test is to ensure that the pipes and fittings will not be damaged during handling, transportation, storage and installation. What could happen to the pipes and fittings before they are installed is translated into an impact simulator which validates the thermoplastic pipes and fittings ability to resist external and internal blows.

Test method for pipes


Pipes are tested according to EN 744. Lengths of pipe representative for a batch or a production run are taken from an extruder from which the test pieces are cut. These pieces are subjected to blows from a falling weight (striker) dropped from a specified height (created by a mainframe) to specified positions around the circumference of the pipe (bedded on a rigid 120 V-block support), with a test temperature of 0C. (round-the-clock method) Unless otherwise specified, consider the test piece as a failure if the impact causes shattering or any crack or split on the inside surface of the pipe that can be seen without magnification. The point of failure is estimated as the true impact rate (TIR) of the batch, or production run, where the maximum value for TIR is 10%. [TIR = the total number of failures divided by the total number of blows, in per cent, as if the whole batch had been tested]. Variables are a) the type of striker, b) drop height, c) temperature, d) the method of sampling and e) the number of test pieces.

Test method for fittings


Fittings are tested according to EN 12061. Test fittings are dropped at a test temperature of 0C at a specified height depending on the dimension.

Requirements
According to the standard EN 13476 parts 2 and 3, there is only one level of requirement for Impact strength: TIR 10 % at 0C. Exceptions from these requirements can be defined in the national foreword: In countries where a less stringent impact resistance is permitted, a test temperature of 23C can be applied. In countries where a more stringent impact resistance is required, an impact test at -10C according to EN 1411 (the staircase method) may be necessary.

Impact strength test equipment

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Leak tightness
System performance and customers benefits
This method ensures the systems ability to hold fluids inside and outside the system (infiltration/exfiltration performances). The test also verifies the connection between the socket, the spigot, and the elastomeric sealing ring. The tightness of the piping system refers to the environmental protection aspect. The method is applied to systems containing joints with an elastomeric sealing ring. The joints are tested under extreme conditions including joint angular and diametric deflection ranging from negative to positive. For underground drainage and sewage pipe systems this is a fundamental characteristic.

Test method
This test is carried out according to EN 1277. A test piece longer than two meters comprising pipe (and fitting) with at least one elastomeric sealing ring joint must be prepared. A special device is used to assemble the joint and to close its free end. Additionally, clamps are also used as auxiliary equipment for diametric deflection. The standard EN 13476 specifies two required test conditions: B and C. Condition B Diametric deflection of socket and spigot. This condition requires clamps to apply deflecting forces. The spigot has to be deflected up to 10% of the outside pipe diameter and the socket up to 5% of its outside diameter. Condition C Angular deflection of the joint. If the socket is designed to take up an angular deflection, then this value should be added to the test value which is: 2o for outside diameter de 315 mm, 1.5o for o 315 mm < de 630 mm, and 1 for de > 630 mm. For both conditions, B and C, the test starts with a negative air pressure of p1 = -0,3 bar. During the next 15 minutes the loss of partial vacuum must not exceed 10% of the initial value. Then the test piece is filled with water and hydrostatic pressure is raised to 0.05 bar for 15 minutes. At the end, the hydrostatic pressure is raised up to 0.5 bar for another 15 minutes. During this period of time, no leakage may appear at either pressure value.

Requirements
According to standard EN 13476 part 2 and 3 for condition B and C, the elastomeric sealing ring joint should be tight.

Leak tightness test.

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Resistance to high temperatures


System performance and customers benefits
In practical use, piping systems made of thermoplastics for drainage and sewerage must be resistant to the required temperature of the discharge. Therefore, the systems made of thermoplastics must be resistant to the following temperatures when installed in the ground outside of the building structure: Continuous water discharge of 45C for dimensions 200 mm Continuous water discharge of 35C for dimensions >200 mm Because this type of piping system is allowed to be used in the ground below the cellar floor within the building structure and 1 meter outside of the building structure, it must also be resistance to a maximum intermittent waste water temperature of 95C.

Test methods
EN13476 has references to the test methods described in EN 1437 and in EN1055, which are carried out to demonstrate the fitness for use under practical conditions: A test according to EN1437 is carried out to investigate the resistance of the sewer pipe system to a combination of temperature variations and external loadings. An assembly of pipes and fittings is installed in a box filled with sand to simulate practice. For pipes 160 mm, water with temperatures varying between 85C and 20C is run through the test assembly with the total number of cycles of 2,500. For pipes > 160 mm a continuous flow of water with a temperature of 50C is run through the test assembly for 8 days. After the test procedure, the test assembly is examined on leakage and mechanical stability of the pipe system. A test according to EN 1055 is carried out to investigate the temperature resistance of the piping system at elevated temperatures for pipes up to 200mm OD: An assembly of pipes and fittings is fixed on a wall. A water flow with alternating temperatures of 93C and 20C is run through with in total 1,500 cycles. After the test, the assembly may not show any no leakage and sagging between the fixing points shall be limited.

Typical cycling test arrangement


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Elevated temperature test (1500 cycles)

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Flushing of pipes (Jetting)


System performance and customers benefits
Gravity drain and sewer systems require regular cleaning to ensure an efficient performance. Compared with other materials, plastic sewer pipes have a very low roughness coefficient. In practice this characteristic provides an improved self cleansing and a reduced risk of blockages and blockage removal at lower jetting pressures. Two cleaning methods are generally used: either mechanical or hydraulic, both combined with vacuum. Hydraulic methods offer more benefits than the mechanical ones. This is especially due to their ability to clean pipes, manholes and their covers, remove blockages in pipes and transport deposits to manholes. Annex D of EN 13476-1 has a short description of how an effective jetting of sewer piping systems made of thermoplastics should be carried out. This description is useful for owners of pipelines and companies that clean sewers. It clearly shows that the use of high volume water and low pressure is the most effective way to clean plastic piping systems. This method furthermore has additional benefits of increased hammer action of the jet-head on blockages, cleaning the entire pipe circumference, and easy flushing of debris to manhole for convenient removal while minimizing the risk of pipe damage.

Applicable method
In Annex D of EN 13476-1 a reference is made to CEN/TR 14920 Jetting resistance of drain and sewer pipes Moving jet test method. This test is carried out with the following test parameters: A water flow with 46 l/min through a ceramic jet nozzle at a pressure of 120 bar. The jet nozzle has an orifice diameter of 2.80 mm. The tested piece of pipe with a minimum length of 1.5m, or the jet nozzle, moves forwards and backwards in 50 cycles at a speed of 1 m/min.

Best practice
Based on independent laboratory test results, the following best practice principles for jetting are recommended to achieve an efficient cleaning and unblocking of any sewer pipes: Use a low pressure/high volume jetting - those methods use a larger bore (typically 2,8 mm) nozzles Avoid a high pressure/low volume cleaning technique which use a small bore (typically 1 mm) nozzles Select a nozzle size appropriate to the jetting equipment and the size of the pipe the maximum pressure at the nozzle should be 120 bar, however, the required pressure for blocking removal in plastic pipes are as follows: i. for grease 70 bars ii. for solids 70 to 110 bars

View of the rig. Moving test of PVC pipe

Testing a PE pipe. Nozzle view.

Source of all photos: TEPPFA, Report TEPPFA task force jetting, technical, Hammel, 2002

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Durability
System performance and customers benefits
To estimate the lifetime of a non-pressure piping system made of thermoplastics, a test method of a relatively short duration is carried out to demonstrate the durability of the plastic material used to produce the pipes and fittings.

Test method
In EN 13476, internal pressure testing according to EN ISO 1167 is required to demonstrate the durability of the plastic material used in the piping system. The principle for this test is to use a combination of internal pressure and elevated temperature in order to reduce the testing time to a practical level. EN ISO 9080 and other ISO standards are used to define the correct combination of the elevated temperature and the circumferential stress. The circumferential stress is used to calculate the relevant internal pressure for the dimension of the test.

Requirements
Each of the three types of plastic materials described in EN 13476 has the following test parameters (the difference between them is due to different material properties):

Material

Circumferential stress Pipes & Fittings [MPa]


10 (Pipes) 6,3(Fittings) 4,2 2,5 4 2,8

Test temperature [C]


+60 +60 +80 +95 +80 +80

Required Testing time [hours] 1000


1000 140 1000 165 1000

PVC-U PP PE

Internal pressure test

Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Chemical Resistance
System performance and customers benefits
Thermoplastic pipes and fittings are resistant to water and waste water from domestic and municipal sewerage. They are resistant to chemicals at normal temperatures and in small quantities, which may occur in normal use. Due to different applications (especially in industrial use), thermoplastic pipes may come into contact with various materials such as chemical products, fuels, lubricants etc. both on the inside and the outside. An attack from chemicals may cause a change in characteristics of the thermoplastic pipe due to a combination of the following factors: temperature, internal and/or external load/stress, concentration, frequency and the effect of mixture of chemicals. As the conditions of use may vary from project to project, it is important for designers and endusers to consider chemically resistant thermoplastic pipes when designing a new pipeline. EN 13476 offers support to deal with this matter.

Recommendations
Technical Report ISO/TR 10358 shows the result of investigations, research and tests regarding resistance to single chemicals for piping systems made of thermoplastics materials. EN 13476 recommends the use of this technical report as guidance when dealing with the chemical resistance of piping systems made of thermoplastics. ISO/TR 10358 classifies the chemical resistance of thermoplastic material such as PE-LD, PE-HD, PP, PVC-U, PVC-C, PB, ABS, PVDF and PE-X with respect to a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. The classification of the chemical resistance in ISO/TR 10358, i.e. thermoplastic pipes material, is divided into the following three classes: S (satisfactory), L (limited) and NS (not satisfactory). It is highly recommended that designers and end-users check this technical report when designing a piping system.

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Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Additional information Recycling


Recycling is a very good way to utilize resources. This applies in particular to thermoplastics pipes and fittings. The characteristics of this material allows for it to be reused for new pipes and other plastic products with a relatively low use of energy. A system for collecting old plastics pipes was started up in the Netherlands about 15 years ago. Since, similar systems have been initiated in other European countries. The quality of the virgin raw material used to produce plastic pipes is set by international EN and ISO product standards such as EN 13476. These standards not only ensure that high quality is maintained. They also warrant a long life for the products. EN 13476 also has rules on how to use recycled plastics materials. These rules make sure that the quality of the end-products is of a high standard. In practice, a full circle for plastics pipes and fittings can be described by the following points: Collecting old pipes and fittings from the consumer Sorting, cleaning, and regrinding the pipes and fittings before packing the recycled raw material Using the raw material to produce new pipes

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Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2

Addendum
Norms referred to in this document:
EN 13476 EN ISO 9969 ISO 13967 EN1446 EN ISO 3126 EN 744 EN 12061 EN 1277 EN 1437 EN 1055 CEN/TR 14920 EN ISO 1167 EN ISO 9080 ISO/TR 10358 Plastics piping systems for non-pressure underground drainage and sewerage Thermoplastics pipes. Determination of ring stiffness (ISO 9969:1994) Thermoplastics fittings Determination of ring stiffness Determination of ring flexibility Determination of dimensions Test method for resistance to external blows by the round-the-clock method Test method for Impact resistance Test method for leak-tightness of elastomeric sealing ring type joints Test method for resistance to combined temperature cycling and external loading Test method for resistance to elevated temperature cycling Jetting resistance of drain and sewer pipes Moving jet test method Determination of the resistance to internal pressure Determination of long-term hydrostatic strength of thermoplastics materials in pipe form by extrapolation Chemical resistance of thermoplastic materials for piping systems

Used Abbreviations
SN DN RF DN/ID DN/OD PVC-U PVC-C PP PE PE-LD PE-HD PB ABS PVDF PE-X MPa Ring Stiffness class Nominal Diameter Ring Flexibility nominal size related to inside diameter nominal size related to outside diameter un-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) Chlorinated PVC Polypropylene Polyethylene PE of low density PE of high density Polybutylene Acrylonitrile Butadiene - Styrene Polyvinylidene Fluoride Cross linked PE MegaPascals

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Structured Wall Piping Systems according to EN13476 vs2