This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**AUTOMATED OPTIMIZATION OF SERVICE COVERAGE AND BASE STATION ANTENNA CONFIGURATION IN UMTS NETWORKS
**

IANA SIOMINA, PETER VÄRBRAND, AND DI YUAN, LINKÖPING UNIVERSITY

ABSTRACT

Deployment and maintenance of UMTS networks involve optimizing a number of network configuration parameters in order to meet various service and performance requirements. In this article we address automated optimization of service coverage and radio base station antenna configuration. We consider three key configuration parameters: transmit power of the common pilot channel (CPICH), antenna tilt, and antenna azimuth. CPICH power greatly influences coverage. From a resource management point of view, satisfying the coverage requirement using minimum CPICH power offers several performance advantages. In particular, less CPICH power leads to less interference and higher system capacity. Optimal CPICH power, in its turn, is highly dependent on how the other two parameters, tilt and azimuth, are configured at radio base station antennas. Optimizing antenna tilt and azimuth network-wise, with the objective of minimizing the CPICH power consumption, is a challenging task. The solution approach in this article adopts automated optimization. Our optimization engine is a simulated annealing algorithm. Staring from an initial configuration, the algorithm searches effectively in the solution space of possible configurations in order to find improvements. The algorithm is computationally efficient; thus, we can optimize large networks without using excessive computing resources. We present a case study for a UMTS planning scenario in Lisbon. For this network, automated optimization saves up to 70 percent of the CPICH power used in the reference network configuration. In addition, the optimized network configuration offers significant performance improvement in terms of fewer overloaded cells and lower downlink load factor.

487.0

488.0 X, [km]

Deployment and maintenance of UMTS networks involve optimizing a number of network configuration parameters. The authors address automated optimization of service coverage and radio base station antenna configuration.

INTRODUCTION

Automated radio network planning and optimization in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) networks have attracted

increasing interest in the last several years [1–3]. Network planning refers to the process of designing network structure and determining network elements subject to various design requirements. Network optimization amounts to finding a network configuration to achieve the best possible performance. Automated network planning and optimization allow operators to better deal with the complexity of UMTS network design, a task that is often beyond the reach of a manual approach. In addition to making the network design process time-efficient, planning tools incorporating automated optimization can significantly reduce network deployment and maintenance costs. UMTS network optimization involves a tradeoff between many factors, such as service coverage, network capacity, quality of service (QoS), equipment costs, and expected revenues from network operation (Fig. 1). From a long-term perspective, the primary objective of an operator is to maximize revenue. This objective plays a major role in the network definition phase. Issues involved in this phase include the choice of technology and its expected evolution, deployment strategy, service specification, as well as coverage and capacity requirements. Each phase of a network life cycle also involves short-term objectives and goals. For example, minimizing equipment cost is very important in network dimensioning when major equipment investments are required. Equipment cost is also of particular importance in network expansion and upgrade. In detailed planning as well as network operation and maintenance, the type and amount of equipment are typically given, and the focus is on optimizing network configuration and parameter setting to achieve the best possible network performance. Optimization problems arising in various phases of a network life cycle differ not only in their objectives, but also in the set of design parameters with which they deal and the level of detail. Average site-to-site distance, site location, sectorization, antenna type, and average antenna height are usually addressed in the dimensioning phase [4, 5], whereas detailed planning focuses

16

1536-1284/06/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE

IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006

tilt and azimuth of RBS antennas). in turn. pilot power. this algorithm does not demand excessive computing resources to optimize large UMTS networks. In the next section we discuss the aforementioned three RBS parameters in more detail. and soft handover parameters [2. such as synchronization channel (SCH). and handover evaluation.. In particular. RADIO BASE STATION CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS CPICH TRANSMIT POWER In a UMTS network a cell announces its presence through the CPICH. excessive pilot power adds to DL interfer- IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 17 . antenna tilt. and acquisition indicator channel (AICH). the goal is to optimize some key configuration parameters. We organize the remainder of the article as follows. we draw some conclusions and discuss extensions. Network design and optimization. depends on the other two parameters (i. CPICH signals. Instead. and antenna azimuth. cell selection/reselection. relative to that of CPICH. common control physical channel (CCPCH). Flexibility I Figure 1. antenna tilt. A case study for a UMTS planning scenario in Lisbon is presented. The optimal level of CPICH power. We present a system model and a solution approach for the above optimization problem. Since the maximum transmit power available at RBS is constant. Moreover. We consider three key RBS configuration parameters: common pilot channel (CPICH) power. on many radio base station (RBS) configuration parameters [1]. making major changes in network topology and layout is typically not an acceptable option for an operator. From a resource management standpoint. less power consumption by CPICH makes more power available to traffic channels. The solution approach is presented. is adopted in the network [8]. Finally. We present the system model and formalize the optimization problem. Lower CPICH power means less power consumption by common channels and more power available to traffic channels. or pilot signals. To utilize power resources efficiently. This benefit becomes particularly significant if the common practice of setting the power levels of some common channels. In this article we address automated optimization in detailed planning after network rollout. Being effective as well as computationally efficient. changing antenna azimuth requires higher effort and cost than changing electrical tilt. we aim for full service coverage and improved cell isolation in order to decrease interference and allow more users to be served. a fixed-rate downlink physical channel carrying a predefined bit/symbol sequence.e. 7]. In detailed planning. These parameters are at different levels of flexibility. The core of our solution approach is a simulated annealing algorithm. CPICH should not be set to more than what is necessary to guarantee coverage. Since the maximum transmit power available at RBS is constant. For example.Network life phases Definition Dimensioning Detailed planning Operation and maintenance Expansion/ upgrade Optimization goals and constraints Equipment and other costs Service coverage Revenues from network operation Design parameters Re-configuration cost Trade-off Site-to-site distance Site location Number of sectors Antenna type Antenna height Antenna azimuth Antenna tilt CPICH power Handover parameters Network capacity Quality of service (QoS) Automated optimization Satisfying service coverage requirements using a minimum amount of CPICH power offers several performance advantages. CPICH power determines service coverage. satisfying service coverage requirements using a minimum amount of CPICH power offers several performance advantages. We focus on coverage planning and capacity optimization in the downlink (DL) direction. less power consumption by CPICH makes more power available to traffic channels. are used by mobile stations for channel quality estimation. The system model captures the relation between CPICH power and the other two configuration parameters. including antenna azimuth. Typically. each cell has one CPICH. 6. as well as reduction of cell overlap and DL interference. paging indicator channel (PICH).

) For a given network configuration k = (k1. Therefore. a MS measures the carrier-to-interference ratio (E c /I 0 ). some or all of the aforementioned three configuration parameters are used in order to improve network performance. J} denote the set of cells and the set of bins in a UMTS network. the range of possible tilt values can be quite limited in practice. and capacity. k2. b) 6° electrical downtilt. and proposed heuristic algorithms based on integer programming. Less cell In Eq. improves inter. In most situations. Figure 2 shows signal propagation (power gain) in 3D space for an antenna downtilted by 6° using mechanical and electrical downtilt. 3D interpolation of antenna diagrams: a) 6° mechanical downtilt. for which the measured value of CPICH E c /I 0 meets a threshold γ 0 defined by the MS. I} and J = {1. and increases cell overlap and potential pilot pollution area. Research on adjusting CPICH power for the purpose of controlling cell size and balancing cell load has been presented in [9.and intracell interference. A network-wise configuration is denoted by a vector k = (k1. however. Antenna downtilt results in stronger signals from the home cell and less interference to neighboring cells. For each detected CPICH signal. k2. which eliminates costly site visits. Eisenblätter et al. Pi is the CPICH transmit power of k cell i. To provide service coverage to a MS. and l νj is the thermal noise power in bin j. Mobile stations (MSs) continuously scan for CPICH signals. PTot is the total DL transmit power in cell l. power consumption. Electrical and mechanical tilt can be combined. …. Thus. Positive and negative angles are also referred to as downtilt and uptilt. SYSTEM MODEL Let I = {1. Garcia-Lozano et al. 1] is the power gain between bin j and the antenna of cell i under configuration ki. Sometimes. antenna azimuth. …. i ∈ I. (1) ANTENNA AZIMUTH Antenna azimuth is the horizontal angle between the north and the antenna’s main lobe direction. kI). We assume the same signal propagation conditions in a bin. Y X ϕ Y X ϕ PREVIOUS WORK In recent literature on UMTS network optimization. the Ec/I0 requirement of an MS in bin j with respect to cell i is defined in Eq. as well as some other configuration parameters as decision variables. Recently. There are various tools that simplify the task of steering azimuth. 10]. (We assume that the threshold is the same for all MSs in a bin. to address the CPICH power parameter. From the inequality to the left. A bin is a small square area. electrical tilt implies changing the antenna radiation pattern. We aim at optimizing network performance under heavy traffic load consuming all power 18 IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 . On the other hand. …. Assuming that each cell uses a single directional antenna. in [6]. …. 1.Z Z overlap. Obviously. k ∈ K1 × K2 × … × KI. Electrical tilt does not change the physical angle of an antenna. A similar optimization problem was addressed by Gerdentsch et al. Thus. coverage may suffer if antennas are downtilted excessively. especially in city environments. respectively. whereas electrical downtilt is a better option in a capacity-limited environment [3]. we derive parameter Pij(k). which is not affected if mechanical tilt is used. Due to electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations in many countries. [1] presented comprehensive optimization models for UMTS network optimization. This is the minimum CPICH power required if we let bin j be under coverage of cell i in configuration k. 1: k Pi giji l ∈I k ∑ PlTot gljl + ν j ANTENNA TILT Antenna tilt is the angle of the main beam of the antenna below the horizontal plane. We use a grid of bins to model the entire service area. a reasonable approach is to minimize CPICH power subject to coverage guarantee. i ∈ I. but adjusts the radiating currents in the antenna elements to lower the beam in all horizontal directions. antenna tilt. electrical downtilting has been significantly simplified by using remote electrical tilt (RET) controllers. Mechanical tilting means to adjust the physical angle of the brackets in which an antenna is mounted. Antenna downtilt can be adjusted mechanically and/or electrically. mechanical downtilt is more useful in a coverage-limited environment. [11] optimize CPICH power and electrical tilt with the objective of maximizing capacity and balancing cell load. kI). (a) (b) I Figure 2. adjusting azimuth has to be done manually on site. coverage problems will arise if the CPICH power becomes too low. gij i ∈ [0. where ki ∈ Ki. however. This is the ratio between the received chip energy of CPICH and the total received power spectral density. respectively. electrical tilt. the bin size determines the resolution and amount of signal propagation data. In performance. and azimuth of cell i. Antenna azimuth is another configuration parameter having great influence on service coverage as well as cell overlap. ence. ≥ γ 0 ⇒ Pij (k ) = γ 0 ⋅ l ∈I k ∑ PlTot gljl + ν j k glji . we define set K i to represent all possible antenna configurations of mechanical tilt. The models use CPICH power. The resulting flexibility is one of the advantages of improving network performance via antenna downtilt. However. adjusting antenna azimuth can significantly reduce cell overlap without sacrificing coverage. in turn. there must exist at least one cell.

0°. 2 derived as follows. 0°. Thus.e.g. SOLUTION APPROACH To solve the problem of minimizing uniform CPICH power. it can be shown that this problem is NP-hard (a IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 19 . 0°. 120°) (e) Changed azimuth (2 W. Parameter T is decreased gradually. such that every bin is in the coverage area of at least one cell. Eventually. the process converges to a frozen state in which the probability of accepting inferior solutions is almost zero. 0°. 120°) (d) Electrical downtilt (2 W. a probabilistic meta-heuristic algorithm for searching in the solution space of hard optimization problems. The coverage area of a cell. 120°) (c) Mechanical downtilt (2 W. and reflects the total interference in the network. The values in parentheses denote CPICH power. For such problems. j ∈ J i ∈I term used to denote a class of difficult problems in the theory of problem complexity). respectively. configurations). 3 we illustrate how CPICH power and antenna configuration of a cell affect the received CPICH signal strength. available at RBSs. we assume the worst-case interference scenario). 0°. The probability of accepting a non-improving move is determined by two factors. This gives the min-operation. We tackle the problem in two steps. In simulated annealing.. is determined by both k and the cell CPICH power we choose to set. a sequence of solutions to an optimization problem is generated. [12]). One particular reason for treating uniform CPICH power. The output of the first step is a configuration vector. As an implication of the assumption of worst-case interference. The second factor is the temperature parameter T. In a practical implementation simulated annealing terminates if a maximum allowed number of iterations has been reached. We have chosen CPICH power as the objective function because CPICH power influences power consumption of common channels. In the next section we present an algorithm aimed at quickly finding a near-optimal solution. on the other hand. The algorithm also allows occasional non-improving moves with some probability that decreases over time. 6°. it is optimal to let it be covered by the cell having minimum P ij(k). in our model PTot equals i the maximum power Pimax available in cell i (i. In the second step we apply the optimization algorithm in [9] to optimize nonuniform CPICH power under this configuration vector. cell size and load. Expecting to find the optimum using reasonable computing resources is therefore unrealistic. This optimization problem is very complex and extremely difficult to solve. In our implementation δ is the relative differ- (2) Finding the optimal configuration k* for uniform CPICH power is a non-convex optimization problem with numerous local optima and attraction areas varying greatly in size.. the CPICH signal strength is represented by color. mechanical downtilt. in this step we consider finding a configuration vector k* to minimize the uniform CPICH power. or no improving move has been found in a number of consecutive iterations. we use simulated annealing (e. and the best among them becomes the output. Thus. A nonimproving move means to go from one solution to another with a worse objective function value. From a planning point of view. an enumeration of all possible solutions (i.(a) Reference (2 W. 140°) I Figure 3. in addition to problem decomposition. it is reasonable to consider this scenario when dealing with service coverage. P (k ) = max min Pij (k ). In the figure. in the worst case. This iterative algorithm simulates the physical process of annealing.e. A non-improving solution with small (positive) δ has a higher probability of being accepted than one with larger δ. 0°. This type of move helps to avoid getting stuck in a local optimum.. Algorithmically. the minimum uniform power to provide coverage in all bins is given by Eq. For configuration vector k. P ij (k) is a function in k only. In Fig. Higher T means higher probability. The number of possible antenna configurations is enormous — in a network of 100 cells and five candidate antenna configurations per cell. and azimuth. The max-operator is then applied because CPICH power is restricted to be uniform. is that it is a common practice in currently deployed UMTS networks. 0°. 6°. electrical downtilt. 120°) (b) Lower CPICH power (1 W. The new solution is accepted if it has a better objective function value (corresponding to lower energy in physical annealing). Moreover. the total number of possible configuration vectors is 5100. For bin j. and the total CPICH power is minimized. The first is the amount of worsening value δ in objective function. The optimization problem we address can be formalized as: find a configuration vector and a CPICH power vector (one power value per cell). in which a substance is cooled gradually to reach a minimum-energy state. 0°. the probability p is calculated as p = e–(δ/T). In the first step we restrict CPICH power to be uniform in all cells. guaranteeing optimum requires. The effect of changing design parameters on the received CPICH signal strength. A new solution is generated by modifying part of the current one.

a bin defining the maximum in the max-operator (we call it a critical bin) is of particular interest. P(k*)=P(k) No Update temperature No Termination? Yes Return k* and P(k*) to cover this bin. δ N ). δ0) and (pN. all antennas are assumed to be of the same type. The snapshot we use has 2618 active users distributed among the eight services shown in Table 1. respectively. which is then reduced by a scaling factor in every iteration such that the temperature becomes T N after N iterations. in our case study we optimize nonuniform CPICH power after we find a set of antenna configurations in the network that minimize uniform CPICH power. k I ) is the current solution. Those services together having most users are speech telephony (67. where k* denotes the best configuration found by the algorithm.Start Select an initial configuration k compute P(k) k*=k. For an antenna configuration. p0 = 0. Let N denote the maximum allowed number of iterations. For our case study in the next section. in descending order of their influence in bin j′ (e. The objective function value P(k) is computed by Eq.68 percent of users).38 percent of users). δN = 0. End I Figure 4. such that for bin j′. P(k)=P(k’) No With probability p. Cells are then sorted. δ = ′ (P(k′) – P(k))/P(k). 4. Being designed to deal with full service coverage under worst-case interference. it is interesting to examine how a solution in antenna configuration and CPICH power behaves under a realistic traffic scenario. Note that the sets of critical bins are typically different in k and k′. k2. …. A flow chart of the simulated annealing algorithm. Network statistics and some parameter settings are summarized in Table 1.01. and file downloading (4. δN). Therefore.75 percent of users). Among all bins. The algorithm uses T0 as the initial temperature. In addition to N. Each service has its average bit rate and Eb/N0 threshold.86 percent of users). Critical bins vary by configuration. (In our case study m = 30. data streaming (20.. k I ). For the sake of simplicity. cells with higher influence are more likely to be chosen. that is. and P(k′) may be higher than P(k). the result of the min-operation in Eq. say j′. A flow chart of the algorithm is given in Fig. p0 is the probability of accepting a solution with relative difference δ0 in the first iteration. and N = 2500. 2. Here. and T N = – δ 0 /ln p N . However. we can apply the optimization algorithm in [9] to find a solution of nonuniform CPICH power. ….) Assume that cell i is chosen. The algorithm selects a new antenna configuration in cell i.g. Assuming configuration k = (k1. We use a model in [1] to obtain path loss predictions for specific antenna downtilt and azimuth from path loss predictions for an isotropic antenna and antenna diagrams. let k=k’ and P(k)=P(k’) P(k)<P(k*)? Yes k*=k. A CASE STUDY THE NETWORK The test network originates from a planning scenario for the downtown area of Lisbon [13]. denoted ki′. P(k*)=P(k) Initialize algorithm parameters Generate a new configuration k’ compute P(k’) P(k’)<P(k)? Yes k=k’. 2 decreases or. we derive two temperature values: T 0 = –δ 0 /ln p 0 . an iteration in the algorithm involves generating a new antenna configuration vector k′ from k. and pN and δN are the corresponding entities after N iterations. for performance evaluation. our system model does not assume a given traffic or user distribution.05. by their power gain with j′). video telephony (6. δ0) and (pN. The algorithm minimizes the total CPICH power in the network. Embedding the algorithm in [9] into simulated annealing would require excessive computing time. A move in the algorithm is as follows. …. a cell uses a number of other common channels 20 IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 . algorithm parameter specification consists of two tuples: (p0. In addition to CPICH. From (p0. increases as little as possible. The uniform CPICH power is set to 10 percent of the maximum RBS DL transmit power in this scenario. k 2 . where k and k′ are the current and new configurations. The algorithm selects a critical bin. Locations and heights of the antennas are given.25.5. The new configuration is k′ = (k 1 . ence in uniform CPICH power. if reduction is not found in a number of attempts. ki. …. that is. pN = 0. we use δ0 = 0. k i′. One of the first m cells in the sorted sequence is chosen randomly with some exponential probability. in which antenna azimuth values are given and no downtilt is present. For this network there is a reference scenario. simply because a necessary condition to obtain improved uniform CPICH power is to reduce the minimum power required PERFORMANCE METRICS Transmit Power of CPICH and Other Common Channels — CPICH power is the objective used in the optimization problem.

1. Background I Table 1.5 dBi +45° +65° [0°. 6°] [0°. 3.2 kb/s. We assume that the total transmit power of the other common channels amounts to 80 percent of the CPICH power. The total amount of power of these common channels is typically set in proportion to that of CPICH [8]. AICH. the total power consumed by all DL common channels in cell i is 1.01 [0°. 6°] Parameter setting Max. PICH. excluding CPICH.500 20 m × 20 m 4200 m × 5000 m Antenna characteristics Antenna type Frequency Antenna gain Polarization Half-power beam width Adjustable electrical downtilt range Kathrein 742265 2110 MHz 18. our system model does not assume a given traffic or user distribution.2 dB) Web browsing (32 kb/s. (primary and secondary SCH.55e-14 W 80% 0. and secondary CCPCH). DL transmit power (Pimax. ±10°} Designed to deal with full service coverage under worst-case interference. for performance evaluation.35 dB) File download (64 kb/s. for all bins) Total DL common channels power. 4. ±5°. IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 21 . Network statistics and parameter setting. 1.7 dB) Streaming multimedia (64 kb/s.9 dB) Location-based service (32 kb/s. Thus.5 dB) Video telephony (64 kb/s. CPICH Coverage Overlap — Cells overlap in a bin if their CPICHs all satisfy the inequality in Eq. it is interesting to examine how a solution in antenna configuration and CPICH power behaves under a realistic traffic scenario.35 dB) Email (32 kb/s. 1.Network statistics Number of sites Number of cells (I) Number of bins (J) Bin size Area size 60 164 52. for all cells) Thermal noise power (νj.8 times the CPICH power Pi. 5. However. 3. primary CCPCH. 3.35 dB) MMS (32 kb/s. 6°] {0°.9 dB) 20 W 1. 4. relative to CPICH power CPICH Ec/I0 target (γ0) Electrical downtilt range Mechanical downtilt range Possible azimuth adjustment Services Conversational Streaming Interactive Speech telephony (12.

we run the algorithm for each of the configuration parameters. Cell overlap is a necessary condition for soft handover (SHO). we define the set of highly loaded cells as those for which ηiDL > 0. and pij is the minimum transmit power required to provide one user in bin j with service s. preference is given to the latter. αj is the orthogonality factor in bin j. we have not discussed results on cell overlap. To account for such infeasibility. pij can be calculated by the following equation for signal-to-noise ratio: s k pij gij k k s (1− α j )giji ( PiTot − υ s pij ) + ∑ gljl PlTot + ν j l ≠i = γ s. i ∈ I. that is. P iTot is the total power allocated for the traffic snapshot used in performance evaluation. Although this is a very impressive amount. large overlap areas may result in high SHO overhead and high pilot pollution. Cell i is overloaded if the total DL transmit power required to serve all users exceeds P imax . in particular electrical downtilting. indicating that the negative impact on potential soft handover is small. electrical tilt. Power PTot equals the sum of transmit power of i common channels and dedicated traffic channels needed to support all users served by cell i. that is. the power reduction is 64. PTot was set equal to Pimax.8 percent — a significant improvement over the reference scenario. and γ s is the threshold value for service s.5 percent. DL load is improved by a factor of three.8 ⋅ Pi . Then for antenna configuration k s = (k1. …. as well as combinations of them. it is desired to have no more than 30 percent of users in SHO. Note that downtilting leads to not only more power reduction. Let us examine solutions for nonuniform CPICH power. k2. We compute the percentage of bins in which at least two cells overlap and the percentage of bins where four or more cells overlap. 4. optimizing all three configuration parameters reduces areas covered by four or more cells by 46. on a moderate-speed computer (Pentium 4-M notebook with a 1. The set of possible antenna downtilt degrees is {0°.0. This is because electrical tilting. and antenna azimuth. which deserves a couple of remarks. and among them only one is overloaded. and service requests of some users have to be denied. which can be solved by a standard solver. The simulated annealing algorithm discussed earlier and the algorithm in [9] are designed to handle large-scale planning scenarios. PTot may exceed i Pimax in some cell i. in 5° steps. (3) Note that earlier. The average computing time for the two algorithms does not exceed 15 and 5 min. When all three parameters are subject to optimization. …. So far. J(i) is the set of bins for which i is the serving cell. However. however.8 GHz CPU and 1 Gbyte RAM). Second. that is. Equations 4 and 5 together define a linear equation system. 6°} for both mechanical and electrical tilting. Because some users are denied service. (5) In Eq. in these cells we have ηiDL = 1. PiTot = j ∈ J (i ) s ∈ S s ∑ ∑ d sυ s pij + 1. For the reference antenna con- ηiDL = PiTot Pimax . Along with solutions of uniform and nonuniform CPICH power. DL load is improved by a factor of three. we extend the equation system to an optimization model. the number of highly loaded cells goes down to three. Following our problem decomposition approach. but also significantly smaller numbers of highly loaded and overloaded cells. ki. 10°] relative to the initial direction. On average. the number of highly loaded cells goes down to three. Moreover. djs is the number of users in bin j requesting service s. In each of the two parts we also evaluate the solution of optimizing CPICH power for the antenna configuration used in the reference scenario (reference antenna configuration). kI). In the first part we evaluate solutions obtained by the simulated annealing algorithm minimizing uniform CPICH power.5 percent. the power reduction is 64. i Here. Note that optimizing uniform CPICH power for the reference antenna configuration amounts to computing the CPICH power by Eq. 22 IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 . j (4) In Eq. DL Load Factor — We define DL load factor of a cell as the ratio between the total allocated transmit power and the maximum power available in the cell. performance evaluation consists of two parts. as well as considerably lower average DL load. Thus. has an even larger effect. Usually. Highly Loaded Cells and Overloaded Cells — It has been suggested that in a stable network the DL cell load should not exceed 70 percent [13]. …. When mechanical and electrical tilt are combined. On average. 1°. downtilting. To study the effect of mechanical tilt. We make several observations from the results of uniform CPICH power in Table 2. υs is s the activity factor of service s. 5. within the range [–10°. S is the set of services. we count the number of overloaded cells. the solution may not be feasible due to power limit. the reduction is moderate for an overlap threshold of two cells.5 percent power saving in comparison to the reference value. The second part of performance evaluation addresses solutions of nonuniform CPICH power obtained by the algorithm in [9]. 2. for example. Solving the model leads to a vector of DL power levels P iTot . Table 2 presents performance metrics for the reference scenario. Adjusting azimuth only gives 34. RESULTS The results of performance evaluation are summarized in Table 2. Antenna azimuth can be adjusted.7. mechanical downtilt is used only if electrical downtilt has reached its 6° maximum. First. that is. in [14]. offers better performance in a capacity-limited urban environment. in addition to being less costly than mechanical tilting. However. We assume that a user is always served by the cell with the highest CPICH Ec/I0. Other approaches for deriving DL powers can be found. The model uses the equation system as the constraints and has the objective function of minimizing the number of cells in which some users are denied service. respectively.When all three parameters are subject to optimization. and among them only one is overloaded.

79 0. The longest lines represent antennas with zero tilt.32 0.71 0.89 0.16 0.36 0. The line width reflects cell load. reduces overlap and cell load to some extent.34 0. tilt + el.18 0.78 0.78 0.16 0. most of the potential performance gain can be achieved at a very low cost! Figure 5 visualizes coverage and load statistics in some network configurations.31 0.89 0.18 0.28 1. the effect on reducing excessive cell overlap and improving cell load is clearly more dramatic if we optimize antenna configurations (Fig.87 0.17 1. 5d.) White areas are covered by one CPICH signal. (In the darkest areas in Fig. tilt + el.Optimization scenarios Common channels transmit power (W) CPICH Total 3. In comparison to Fig.68 0.36 1. The figure also shows RBS locations and antenna azimuth. Each antenna is represented by a line.12 0. the main benefit of adopting nonuniform power is less power consumption. is that combining electrical tilting and nonuniform CPICH power performs close to the best results in the table. by itself.38 0.15 0.85 0.65 0.44 0.86 0. We observe that adopting nonuniform CPICH power. 5b and 5d.75 0.48 Number of highly loaded cells 24 Number of overloaded cells 17 Average DL load factor Reference scenario 2. However. tilt + azimuth 0.23 0.26 0.71 3. 5b) or combine the two options (Fig.48 1.41 0. lines in red show those cells where some users are denied service.41 Uniform CPICH power Reference antenna configuration Azimuth Mechanical tilt Electrical tilt Mechanical tilt + azimuth Electrical tilt + azimuth Mech. (overloaded cells).88 0. tilt Mech. Performance evaluation.40 2. and the length shows the antenna tilt. optimization reduces the power of common channels by 53 percent in comparison to the optimal uniform CPICH power solution for the same antenna configuration.26 0.89 0.58 1. 5a 10 cells overlap.14 Nonuniform CPICH power Reference antenna configuration Azimuth Mechanical tilt Electrical tilt Mechanical tilt + azimuth Electrical tilt + azimuth Mech.40 0. suggesting that a manual approach to tuning antenna configuration can hardly achieve the same performance as automated optimization. the improvement in the other performance metrics is small when antenna configuration is optimized.20 0. In the last row of the table.78 0.17 0.89 1.17 0.00 0.34 0. tilt + el. tilt + el. Thus.67 1.60 Coverage overlap (%) ≥ 2 cells 0.64 0.87 0.26 24 19 8 5 6 4 4 3 16 12 7 2 4 3 4 1 0.62 1. the power saving reduces to 13 percent when azimuth and both tilts are used.51 1.88 0.91 0.16 1.58 1. However.31 0.24 16 18 7 5 5 4 4 3 9 11 6 1 4 3 3 1 0.32 1.24 0.88 0.84 0.35 1.36 0.37 0.85 0.13 0.15 0. antenna tilt and/or azimuth are changed in many cells in Figs. Another observation. which is probably more interesting than power reduction. Even more.33 1. figuration.74 0.31 0. Thus.89 0.73 0. In the figure we use the level of darkness to represent the number of overlapping cells. Moreover.82 0.93 0.13 I Table 2.93 ≥ 4 cells 0.22 1.48 0.40 0.27 0.93 0. 5d). power consumption of common channels is reduced to less than one third of that in the reference scenario. IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 23 . tilt Mech. tilt + azimuth 1.

How these parameters are configured heavily influences service coverage.5 4284.0 4287.0 X.0 X.5 4284.5 4287. k) nonuniform CPICH + mechanical tilt + electrical tilt + azimuth.0 4284. In comparison to the reference scenario.5 4287.0 488.5 4286.0 Y. [km] 6 4286.5 4285.5 4285. power consumption.0 490.0 486.0 490. a significant reduction in CPICH power is a strong indication of reduced interference in the network.5 4284. [km] 4286.0 4284.0 490. j) nonuniform CPICH.5 4286. For this reason.5 4285. Coverage and load statistics for selected solutions: h) reference scenario.0 10 9 8 4287. Our case study demonstrates the benefits of the approach. and the number of overloaded cells from 17 to only one. the parameters are frequently used for tuning network performance. 24 IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 .5 4288. 4289.0 4288.0 4288. and an algorithm that can deal with the complexity of the optimization problem.0 6 4286.0 1 10 9 489.0 X.0 4289. Moreover.5 4286. The approach presented in this article adopts automated optimization.5 4288.0 4287. [km] (b) 4289. [km] (a) 489.0 Y.5 4288.0 5 4 3 2 486.0 487.0 490.0 1 486.0 5 4 3 2 486.5 7 4287.5 4288. and cell load.0 4285. and antenna azimuth. Two cornerstones of the approach are a system model that captures the interplay between the configuration parameters.5 4284. In this article we have addressed optimization of three configuration parameters at RBS in UMTS networks: CPICH power. i) uniform CPICH + mechanical tilt + azimuth.0 4289.0 487. [km] (c) 489. Optimized CPICH power and antenna configuration offer significant performance gain.0 4284.0 Y. [km] Y.0 488.0 488. [km] 4286.0 8 4287.0 I Figure 5.5 7 4287. antenna tilt. automated optimization reduces power consumption of common channels and average cell load by approximately 70 percent.5 4285.0 488.0 4285.0 4288. [km] (d) 489.0 4288.0 4285.0 487.0 487.0 4285.0 X.0 4284.CONCLUSIONS Approaching service and performance goals in a UMTS network necessitates optimization of network design and configuration.5 4286.

26. [11] M. Her main research interests include wireless network modeling and simulation. Kirkpatrick. 268–73.” Science. A very interesting research topic is thus to extend the system model to take both downlink and uplink into consideration. J. sectorization. D I Y UAN (diyua@itn. no. degree in mathematics. Valkealahti. Modeling. vol. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank the group of the MOMENTUM project for providing network data. 220. 2004. J. A. Eisenblätter et al. There are a number of directions of extending our work. [4] E. and M. and transportation planning. REFERENCES [1] A. pp. His research interests span integer and combinatorial optimization. Ruiz. S. Sweden. [14] M. 2003. Laiho. pp. [10] K. The work has been carried out within the framework of COST Action 293.Sc. There are a number of directions for extending the work in this article. Sept. in computer science from Stockholm University in 2002 and 2004. May 1983. and Mobile Comp. Sept. logistics. “P-CPICH Power and Antenna Tilt Optimization in UMTS Networks. respectively. and Ph. 1985. 939–52. 276–82. June 2006. wireless LANs. “Mathematical Modeling and Comparisons of Four Heuristic Optimization Algorithms for WCDMA Radio Network Planning. Oct 2004. pp. [3] J. analysis. and antenna height) in an early stage of a network planning process. His current research addresses network design and bandwidth allocation in UMTS systems. Graphs and Algorithms in Communication Networks. and F. Dohler. Siomina and D. uplink coverage is not addressed in the current work. 5.Sc. and her M.. “Automated Optimization of Key WCDMA Parameters.” IEEE Trans. 3. Sept. 671–80. Linköping University. Springer. 2006. Siomina. pp.liu. which is an important performance factor. and resource management in ad hoc networks.. for technical discussions. 2003. 2002.” Proc. D4. 2. Sweden. Planning and Automated Optimization: Theory and Practice.. no. IST-2000-28088. no. BIOGRAPHIES I ANA S IOMINA (iansi@itn.se) received a B. degree in operations research at Linköping Institute of Technology in 1996 and 2001. [9] I. Gerdenitsch et al.” Proc. Since 2001 he has held a chair in operations research at the Department of Science and Technology. Such algorithms can be used in a semionline fashion to effectively adapt network configuration to changes in user and traffic patterns. Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Sys. pp. Manninen. and resource optimization of telecommunication systems. and Ph. Gelatt.” Proc. and A. 909–13. http://momentum. IEEE VTC Fall ’02.” Wireless Commun. A. Oct.. 257–71..” Proc. Sweden. [13] MOMENTUM Project.D. Aghvami. Capone. the algorithm presented in the article is computationally efficient. A very interesting research topic is thus to extend the system model to take both downlink and uplink into consideration. 2004.” Proc..Sc. UMTS Radio Network Planning. no. Telecommun.liu. C. “WCDMA Common Pilot Power Control with Cost Function Minimization..se) received her M.D. “Optimization by Simulated Annealing. 5. uplink coverage. Understanding UMTS Radio Network Modeling. “Pilot Power Management in WCDMA Networks: Coverage Control with Respect to Traffic Distribution.” ETRI J. Wiley. Nawrocki. Garcia-Lozano. [5] J. Eds. P.de. [7] I. and Fredrik Gunnarsson at Ericsson Research. and M. and T. pp. she is working toward her Ph.Sc.. Yuan. July 2005. Currently. 8th IEEE Int’l. in 1982. pp. vol. and ad hoc networks.3. [8] J. degrees in operations research at the Department of Mathematics. “UMTS Optimum Cell Load Balancing for Inhomogeneous Traffic Patterns. Lempiäinen and M. Olmos. 60th IEEE VTC. [6] A. degree in scientific computing from the Royal Institute of Technology. vol.D. Vecchi. Sweden..se) received his M. vol. He has authored or co-authored over 30 refereed articles in international journals and conference proceedings. Eds. Conf. His research interests span design. In particular.Most of the performance gain can be conveniently implemented in the network through electrical tilting and adjusting CPICH power. 7th ACM Symp. 5. PETER VÄRBRAND (petva@itn. degree in infrainformatics with emphasis on applied system optimization for wireless networks at the Department of Science and Technology. This work is funded by the Swedish Research Council and Center for Industrial Information Technology (CENIIT). In particular. Eds. [2] A. 437–42. 2244–47.Sc. H. MOMENTUM. Linköping University. vol. Linköping University. pp... May 2005. IEEE Wireless Communications • December 2006 25 . Networks). “A Rule-Based Algorithm for Common Pilot Channel and Antenna Tilt Optimization in UMTS FDD Networks. and radio network planning and optimization for UMTS. Valkealahti et al. Moreover. degree in computer science and engineering.liu.. Advanced Industrial Conf. Amaldi. and 1988. Zhang et al. It can be used as a tool to evaluate many potential solutions of network design (RBS location. 2004. 4598. 2002. 253–57.zib. “Planning UMTS Base Station Location: Optimization Models with Power Control and Algorithms. Radio Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS. respectively. Optimization and QoS Management for Practical Engineering Tasks. pp. Novosad. is not addressed in the current work. and J. A second topic of research interest is algorithms that optimize both CPICH power and antenna configuration for balancing cell load. Malucelli. respectively. Linköping. M. Transparent Opt. with applications in telecommunications. IST-2000-28088. 2. [12] S. Wireless Commun. Höglund and K. Wiley. Linköping University. “Mathematical Methods for Automatic Optimization of UMTS Radio Networks. At present he is associate professor in telecommunications at the Department of Science and Technology. D.” Project rep. Linköping Institute of Technology. Wacker.

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Cpich Power
- Genetic_SA_Antennas.pdf
- 3G CPICH Related
- Beatriz Maria Vidal and Zbynek Raida- Synthesizing Sierpinski Antenna by Genetic Algorithm and Swarm Optimization
- Circular array PSO paper
- 12_04_1007_1012
- [Paper] P-CPICH Power and Antenna Tilt Optimization in UMTS Networks
- 11 Optimization of Resonance Frequency of Circular Patch Antenna at 5 Ghz Using Particle Swarm Optimization Copyright Ijaet
- 3 1 3 Optimization of a Seven Element Antenna Array
- 06.07030904.Mahmoud.EIBZ
- 47-POULOMI
- yagi-05453094
- 06487389
- 05.0511281.Mouhamadou.VR
- Yagi Anteena paper
- CEARL Overview
- gsm based dual frequency antenna
- Veneela Thesis
- NABHighperformanceIndoorTVantennaRpt
- iwo untuk konfigurasi antena
- down tilting
- 14.11021904
- 06.07030904.Mahmoud.EIBZ
- GetTRDoc(2).pdf
- 2G_Generic Optimisation Process
- eumc_w18_isernia_nov_1_12
- Per-Subcarrier Antenna Selection With
- Self-Optimization of Antenna Tilt in Mobile Networks
- roll up J Pole
- awp
- 2007 IEEE Wireless Comm - Automatic Optimization UMTS

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd