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Rule 15 Essay

• RULE [general intro]
○ Rule 15 allows a party to change the legal theories or factual allegations in their
pleadings. The thrust of Rule 15 follows the liberal standard of pleading within the
rules which gives greater focus to the merits of the case then mere technicalities.
• ISSUE [15(a) starting problem]
○ The issue is whether the court will grant ______ ‘s motion to amend her pleading. For
the reasons that follow, the motion should be ___________.
• RULE [15(a)]
○ FRCP 15(a) addresses two types of amendments: those filed “as a matter of course”,
and those filed with leave of court
○ An amendment may be filed once as a matter of course (meaning without leave of
court or without permission of the other parties) any time before a responsive
pleading is served. This usually applies to the plaintiff’s complain for which an
answer must be filled within 20 days after service according to FRCP 12(a)(1)(A).
○ Conversely, if no responsive pleading is required, the party may amend its pleading
within 20 days of its service. This usually applies to the defendant’s answer as no
reply is needed to an answer unless ordered by the court under FRCP 7(a).
○ Otherwise, a party can only amend its pleading by leave of court, which shall be
granted freely when justice so requires or through written consent from the adverse
party. Leave to amend is usually given unless the adverse party would be prejudiced
or if the requesting party seeks amendment very late into litigation, or parties usually
consent out of professional courtesy.
• ANALYSIS [15(a)]
○ Apply to the Facts
• CONCLUSION [15(a)]
○ Repeat conclusion
• ISSUE [15(c) Relation back]

• RULE [15(c) Relation back]
○ FRCP 15(c) is a relation back provision that addresses the common problem that
litigants have when attempting to add new legal theories or factual allegations after
the statute of limitations period has passed.
○ Under FRCP 15(c)(2), a new claim will relate back to the date of the original pleading
if it arises out of the same conduct, transaction, or occurrence set forth or attempted to
be set forth in the original pleading.
○ However, under FRCP 15(c)(3), which governs amendments that change the name of
the party, 2 more elements must be satisfied along with the initial requirement of
○ First, the amendment will relate back only if the new party sought to be added had
notice of the original claim the period of Rule 4m (within 120 days of its filing the
complaint unless good cause is shown)
○ Secondly, the amendment will relate back only if the new party sought to be added
knew or should have known that, but for a mistake, the original action would have
been brought against the party
• ANALYSIS [15(c) Relation back]
○ State what the T/O of the original pleading was
○ State what the new claim is seeking to plead
○ Apply elements and see if the two arise out of the T/O
○ State how this amendment falls under the provision because it seeks to change a name
○ Apply the element to the facts and see if the new party had the requisite notice
○ Apply to see if there was a mistake
• CONCLUSION [15(c) Relation back]
○ Conclude on whether or not the amendment will relate back

Summary Judgment Essay

○ Should the court grant _____________’s motion for summary judgment? For the
reasons that follow, the motion should be _____________.
○ Any person making or opposing a claim, counterclaim, or cross-claim may move for
summary judgment under FRCP 56. A court is required to grant summary judgment if
the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together
with affidavits, if any, “show that there is no genuine issue of material fact and that
the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. FRCP 56(c). The movant may
move for summary judgment with or without supporting supporting affidavits. Id
○ If the movant is the party that carries the burden of persuasion at trial (usually the
plaintiff), then its initial burden of production in the motion is to show enough
admissible evidence that no reasonable jury would find for anyone but him. As such,
there is hardly any need for a trial and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter
of law.
○ If the movant does not carry the burden of persuasion at trial (usually the defendant),
then it has several options. First, it could follow the example set forth in Addickes and
put forth affirmative admissible evidence negating one or more essential elements of
the non-movant’s claim. Secondly, the movant could follow the example in Celotex
and put forth no evidence but simply show that the non-movant’s evidence is
insufficient to establish one or more essential elements of its claim. This makes sense,
since there is no need for a trial if the non-movant cannot show a jry a genuine issue
of material fact as to one of its elements in its claim. Furthermore, the movant could
combine both approaches, putting forth affirmative evidence as well as pointing out
the lack of supporting materials of the non-movant.
○ Once the movant meets this initial burden of production by showing an absence of
GIMF, then the burden shifts to the non-movant to “put up or shut up”. The non-
movant must put forth enough affirmative evidence to show a GIMF that could be
tried by a jury.
○ The non-movant may not rest on mere allegations or denials of their pleadings but
must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial.
○ Any supporting affidavits must be based on personal knowledge in order to satisfy the
requirement if 56(e)
○ If the non-movant cannot produce any affidavits, it could move for a 56(f) motion to
request additional time to gather the necessary materials
○ However, even if the non-movant party does not respond, summary judgment will
only be entered when appropriate. In short, an showing of an absence of GIMF does
not necessarily demonstrate that the movant is entitles to judgment as a matter of law
○ Thus, the court must apply the undisputed facts to the controlling law before a JMOL
is granted
○ In doing so, the judge will look at all the supporting materials in a light most
favorable towards the non-movant.
○ Identify who the movant and the nonmovant is
○ Identify who has the burden of persuasion at trial (10 bucks says it’s the non-movant)
○ Identify what approach they took (addickes, celotex, or both)
○ Set forth what the controlling law is separating the undisputed elements with the
disputed elements
○ Apply and see whether the initial burden is satisfy and then shifts
○ Analyze the opposing materials that the non-movant sets forth
 Are they based on personal knowledge and rely on mere allegation?
 Should he request more time
 Can argue as in Dyer that the witnesses might change their stories on cross
○ Conclude as to whether summary judgment should be granted
○ Restate the conclusion
Rule 19 Essay

• Issue
○ The issue is whether [person] is a necessary party to the litigation. For the reasons
that follow, they are ______________
• General Intro
○ Rule 19 asks whether a person not a party to a action can and should be joined, and if
they cannot be joined, whether the action should be dismissed. The question is usually
asked upon a 12(b)(7) motion to dismiss to failure to join an indispensible party
• 19(a)
○ 19(a) asks whether a person(s) is a “necessary party” to an action.
○ To be a necessary party, the person must be such that (1) their absence prevents
complete relief to be accorded to those already parties, and (2) while having an
interest in the action, their absence (i) as a practical matter would impair or impede
their ability to protect that interest and (ii) could subject those already party to double,
multiple or inconsistent obligations concerning the interest.
○ Also, joinder of the person(s) must be feasible e.g. the person(s) must be 1) subject to
the service of process of the court (Rule 4), and their joinder cannot remove the court
of Subject Matter Jurisdiction (normally when the person sought to be joined is non-
○ If the person(s) is considered a necessary party, and they joinder is feasible, then the
court must make the person(s) a party
• Issue
○ The issue is whether [person] is an indispensible party to the litigation. For the
reasons that follow, they are ______________
• 19(b)
○ If joinder is not feasible, however, a 19(b) analysis must be made to determine if the
person(s) is an indispensible party, and as such their nonjoinder will prompt the court
to dismiss the action.
○ The court must make this decision in equity and good conscious.
○ 19(b) provides the court with some guidance, suggesting factors to be considered by
the court including 1) adequacy of a judgment without the necessary party, 2) adverse
consequences of preceding without the necessary party, 3) to what extent prejudice
can be lessened or removed by order, or 4) availability of another Forum for the
necessary party
○ The factors are non-exhaustive and their relative weight varies from case to case

Rule 24 Intervener Essay

• Intervener In General
○ A party may intervene in two ways: 1) as of right pursuant to 24(a), or without a right
under 24(b).
○ Both require timely application. Although there is no time limit, the court will look at
whether there is undue delay in the application and whether there would be prejudice
to those already party
○ 24(c) demands that application be made by motion to the court and those already
party, stating the grounds for intervention accompanied by a pleading setting forth
claims or defenses
• 24(a)
○ A person may intervene as of right if either (1) a statute of the United States gives
them an unconditional right to intervene or (2) the person claims an interest related to
the subject matter of the action and they are in such a position that their absence will
as a practical matter impair or impede their ability to protect that interest, unless their
interest is adequately represented by those already party.
○ There is no clear test as to what constitutes an interest
• 24(b)
○ Permissive intervener maybe sought when (1) a statute of the United States confers a
conditional right to intervene and (2) when the applicants claims or defenses have a
common question of law or fact