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CASES and Articles: Chevron v. NRDC, et al.


Institutions are rules (1.permanent change but slow, 2. Institutions provide stability

Interest groups , firms are driving the rules and regulations. Rules are more reactive and not proactive (not the way how it should be) as a result of people’s actions.

Non market stategy: law regulations , governmental regulations, you can use them as enablers because it protects patents and provides an opportunity that might otherwise not be there. Help with market strategy to create en try barriers to other firms (through regulation)


○ Chevron (Chevron petitioned to take over the set of points the government was
fighting) ○ ○ Congress EPA (defines bubble)

○ interest groups such as the NRDC-National Resources Defense Council
○ Judicial branch (weighted in on Chevron Case)

Authority: ○ Congress

Controversy: (what had the agency done)? ○ Legislative term “stationary source” is not defined well attain the air quality standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Defendant). "The amended Clean Air Act required these 'nonattainment' States to establish a permit program regulating 'new or modified major stationary

○ Congress amended the Clean Air Act in 1977 to address states that had failed to

sources' of air pollution." 467 U.S. at 840. During the Carter administration, the EPA defined a source as any device in a plant that produced pollution. In 1981, after Ronald Reagan's election, the EPA adopted a new definition that allowed an existing plant to get permits for new equipment that did not meet standards as long as the total emissions from the plant itself did not increase. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), an environmental protection group, challenged the EPA regulation in federal court. Chevron, an affected party, appealed the lower court's decision. ○ • Bubble was acceptable (Carter Admin. EPA)

How did the Court of Appeals (lower court act)? ○ The Court of Appeals reversed the agency, primarily on grounds that while the language of the act was ambiguous, the pollution reducing purpose of the nonattainment provisions made the bubble policy "inappropriate" for those areas. • Step by Step ○ ○ First it looked to congress who didn’t specify the information Then they looked at the Clean Air Act which said congresses duty to protect the air court of appeals set for themselves ○ Court of Appeals found on precedent that it should strike down the current appeal if: • • ○ Congress specifies how the agency is supposed to act, or The definition is inconsistent with the source

○ Then they looked at their own decisions and the precedent that the

Appeals case was NRDC v US: EPA lost, Chevron comes in as an interest group Court of Appeals – Congress finds Clean Air Act & Amendments were in conflict w/ main purpose – to protect clean air

What does the Supreme Court say? ○ If Congress left a gap then Administrative Agency, EPA had the right to fill in the gaps, EPA’s definition of “source” is permissible

Key Learnings: ○ ○ ○ ○ Definitive rule on how courts are supposed to make decisions involving agencies The courts can’t made a definitions (such as defining the bubble) but they can make sure the definition is consistent with the statute The find the Regan rule (change of source definition) is admissible Side note: agencies are required to give notice and ask for comments

Role of Interest groups in making the law? ○ Bringing their controversy to the court

○ ○ ○ ○

Brings info into the process Buy (campaign contributions) Bribes Leveraging (threats of all kinds)

Executive Order 1221 – (under Reagan Administration) – a cost-benefit analysis had to be performed for various decisions, some confusion on how to measure benefits Can executive order be challenged in court system? No, because they only effect the executive branch and are limited to this area Where do executive branch and judicial branches overlap? (when Nixon didn’t want to turn over tapes)

SUMMARY: Chevron v. NRDC, et al. (1984)

Article Summary- Perhaps the most frequently cited decision in modern American Administrative Law is Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, 467 U.S. 837 (1984). At issue in Chevron was the Environmental Protection Agency's decision to allow "bubble" definitions of pollution sources in Clean Air Act nonattainment areas. (A non-attainment area is one in which the concentration over time of a major regulated pollutant exceeds the regulatory maximum.) The bubble policy allows polluters to treat entire plants as if they exist under a large bubble. The focus of regulation is not on the emissions of individual smokestacks or pieces of equipment within the plant, but rather on the total amount of pollution coming out of the bubble. Polluters are free (within limits that need not be discussed here) to change processes and equipment within the bubbled plant so long as the total amount of pollution coming out of the bubble does not increase.

The bubble policy was adopted in an informal rulemaking proceeding by the recently installed Reagan administration (although it had been seriously considered in the Carter administration and it was already applicable in attainment areas). The Natural Resources Defense Council immediately and vigorously challenged it. NRDC's concern was that the policy would allow polluters to modify equipment within aging plants without making the upgrades to meet the higher standards applicable to new sources and major modifications. The NRDC found this particularly troubling in light of the Clean Air Act's expressed goal of bringing non-attainment areas into attainment. The EPA defended the policy on grounds that it would result in no more pollution over time than a stricter policy -- since many existing polluters had long been avoiding all modifications that might subject them to higher standards, that it would reduce the confusion of having different rules applicable in attainment and non-attainment areas [the same area can be attainment for some pollutants and non-attainment for others], and that it was in fact consistent with the Clean Air Act.

The Court of Appeals reversed the agency, primarily on grounds that while the language of the act was ambiguous, the pollution reducing purpose of the non-attainment provisions made the bubble policy "inappropriate" for those areas.

The Supreme Court treated the problem as one of statutory interpretation. The question was whether the bubble definition of "source" was consistent with the Clean Air Act. After carefully reviewing the (somewhat Delphic) definitions of source in the Act (e.g., "building, structure, facility, or installation") the court concluded that the statute did not make a clear choice on the question. Justice Stevens' opinion went on to lay down the following guidelines:

When a court reviews an agency's construction of the statute which it administers, it is confronted with two questions. First [this is now known as "Chevron Step I"], always, is the question whether Congress has directly spoken to the precise question at issue. If the intent of Congress is clear, that is the end of the matter; for the court, as well as the agency, must give effect to the unambiguously expressed intent of Congress. If, however, the court determines Congress has not directly addressed the precise question at issue, ["Chevron Step 2"] the court does not simply impose its own construction on the statute, as would be necessary in the absence of an administrative interpretation. Rather, if the statute is silent or ambiguous with respect to the specific issue, the question for the court is whether the agency's answer is based on a permissible construction of the statute.

"The power of an administrative agency to administer a congressionally created . . . program necessarily requires the formulation of policy and the making of rules to fill any gap left, implicitly or explicitly, by Congress." Morton v. Ruiz, 415 U.S. 199, 231 (1974). If Congress has explicitly left a gap for the agency to fill, there is an express delegation of authority to the agency to elucidate a specific provision of the statute by regulation. Such legislative regulations are given controlling weight unless they are arbitrary, capricious, or manifestly contrary to the statute. Sometimes the legislative delegation to an agency on a particular question is implicit rather than explicit. In such a case, a court may not substitute its own construction of a statutory provision for a reasonable interpretation made by the administrator of an agency...

Judges are not experts in the field, and are not part of either political branch of the Government. Courts must, in some cases, reconcile competing political interests, but not on the basis of the judges' personal policy preferences. In contrast, an agency to which Congress has delegated policymaking responsibilities may, within the limits of that delegation, properly rely upon the

incumbent administration's views of wise policy to inform its judgments. While agencies are not directly accountable to the people, the Chief Executive is, and it is entirely appropriate for this political branch of the Government to make such policy choices -- resolving the competing interests which Congress itself either inadvertently did not resolve, or intentionally left to be resolved by the agency charged with the administration of the statute in light of everyday realities.

We hold that the EPA's definition of the term "source" is a permissible construction of the statute which seeks to accommodate progress in reducing air pollution with economic growth. "The Regulations which the Administrator has adopted provide what the agency could allowably view as . . . [an] effective reconciliation of these twofold ends. . . ."

Wiki definition: A major stationary source is a source that emits more than a certain amount of
a pollutant as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The amount of pollutants allowed for certain new sources is defined by the EPA's New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). A stationary source in air quality terminology is any fixed emitter of air pollutants, such as fossil fuel burning power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants, food processing plants and other heavy industrial sources. A mobile source in air quality terminology is a non-stationary source of air pollutants, such as automobiles, buses, trucks, ships, trains, aircraft and various other vehicles.

Minton v. Caveney (California, 1961)
Court said there was not corporations because they did not have any assets and he was personally liable (he would have been protected if he had assets, and keep records—in this case if he lost his assets they won’t go after you.. but if you start with no money and comingled personal money they can go after you) Piercing corporate veil (must buy insurance etc.. he did not) Torts system case: because the company was undercapitalize and this was unfair to the customers to not be protected.


Summary: Plaintiff’s daughter drowned in swimming pool run by Seminole Hot Springs Corporation. Present action to hold defendant Cavaney personally liable for the judgment against Seminole. Cavaney

is shareholder, secretary, and treasurer, Board member, and also the corporation’s lawyer. Cavaney kept the records in his office.

The trial court entered judgment for plaintiffs for $10,000. Defendant appeals.

Tort Actions Against the Corporation?

Judge Trainer says limited liability doesn’t apply to Caveney comingled personal funds with corporate funds and there were no assets in the corporation

Leasing the Pool: Is a lease an asset? Not if the market value is less than lease

Traynor says there are 3 situations in which we pierce the corporate veil:

• •

Stockholders treat the corporate assets as their own and add and withdraw at will Stockholders hold themselves out as personally liable for the debts of the corporation Stockholders provide inadequate capitalization AND actively participate in the management of the business. ○ Why? Because the managers are the ones who should be buying the insurance. Passive shareholders do not buy insurance. Passive shareholders do not decide to open the pool to the public. The active direction/management of the business should deal with the costs of doing business and should be held liable for failure to insure against foreseeable risks of the business.

○ But what does Traynor MEAN by active involvement?  The fact that Cavaney kept the records in his office was enough in this case was
enough for Traynorto say he was actively involved. But he wasn’t there on a daily basis, he wasn’t the president, he wasn’t responsible for getting insurance…

 how important is the active involvement part of the test? Ans: not very. The
undercapitalization, for Traynor, is the important part of this test because it’s really easy to find active involvement.

Was the capital inadequate in this corp?

ZERO capitalization case. No $ in the business and no insurance and it is foreseeable that there would be an injury or death at a swimming pool

What was the basic rule of law? Limited Liability to shareholders

"Piercing the Corporate Veil" = disregarding the corporate entity; it defeats limited liability, and may occur in cases of: • • • treating the corporate assets as one’s own, adding or withdrawing capital at will holding one’s self out as being personally liable for the corporation providing inadequate capitalization to run business affairs, and take active part in managing

Different states have different rules: In New York, “piercing the corporate veil” may be possible in cases of: • • • • undercapitalization commingling of corporate and personal assets failure to follow corporate protocols failure to keep records

wiki definition: The corporate law concept of piercing (lifting) the corporate veil describes a legal
decision where a shareholder or director of a corporation is held liable for the debts or liabilities of the corporation despite the general principle that shareholders are immune from suits in contract or tort that otherwise would hold only the corporation liable. This doctrine is also known as "disregarding the corporate entity". The phrase relies on a metaphor of a "veil" that represents the veneer of formalities and dignities that protect a corporation, which can be disregarded at will when the situation warrants looking beyond the "legal fiction" of a corporate person to the reality of other persons or entities who would otherwise be protected by the corporate fiction. Piercing the corporate veil is not the only means by which a director or officer of a corporation can be held liable for the actions of the corporation. Liability can be established through conventional theories of contract, agency, or tort law. For example, in situations where a director or officer acting on behalf of a corporation personally commits a tort, he and the corporation are jointly liable and it is unnecessary to discuss the issue of piercing the corporate veil.

Walkovsky v. Carlton (New York, 1966)
Carlton (cab owner) was solvent (have enough money) whenstarted the business, because he was insolved at the time when he was incorporated. But he runs out of money afterwards.

Summary: • 40 taxi cabs under 20 corporations Walkovsky is run down by a cab, sues the company, total assets of corp = 2 cabs Courts will not equate insolvency with under capitalization…it is initial capitalization that concerns them, the working of what looks like intentional fraud

• •

Generally, some fraud (like undercapitalization) must occur, plus the shareholder whose personal assets are at risk must be involved in corporate decisions (active participation).

Wiki: Walkovszky v. Carlton, 223 N.E.2d 6 (NY 1966)[1], is a leading decision on the conditions under
which Courts may pierce the corporate veil. A cab company had shielded themselves from liabilityby incorporating each cab as its own corporation. The New York Court of Appeals refused to pierce the veil on account of undercapitalization alone.

Justice Keating, in dissent, said that Carlton should be liable. The corporation was intentionally undercapitalized in order to avoid liability, which is a clear abuse of the corporate entity. The interests of the state in protection of victims of negligence is a sufficient basis to pierce the corporate veil. He held that "a participating shareholder of a corporation vested with a public interest, organized with capital insufficient to meet liabilities which are certain to arise in the ordinary course of the corporation's business, may be held personally responsible for such liabilities." This "insufficient capitalization" rationale has not been widely persuasive with courts, perhaps due to a fear that it would chill entrepreneurial activity.

Pillsbury v. Honeywell, Inc. (Minnesota, 1971)

Pillsbury wanted a list of shareholders ,so bought a share to become a shareholder.

Lost because it was not for economic benefit of the company.


Background: Pillsbury wanted access to shareholders list and corporate records regarding munitions manufacture Shareholder seeks from corporation access to original and current s/h ledgers and records related to munitions manufacturing. Loses at trial. Purpose? Communicate with other shareholders, attempt to change Board and policy. Did Delaware or Minnesota law apply? Trial court chooses Delaware. What is the rule for inspecting corporate records in Delaware? Shareholder must show a “proper purpose, germane to his interest as a shareholder.” What is a “proper purpose?”

• • • •

○ curiosity, speculation, or vexation? No ○ desire to change management for economic benefit? Yes
○ Opposition to the war is not a problem so long as interest in getting records is to safeguard the company (Pillsbury was not trying to safeguard the company so he shouldn’t be able to get the shareholder’s list)

Court looks to precedent, McMahon versus Dispatch Printing ○ inspection denied in NJ because purpose was to embarrass a board member

Court says Pillsbury standing as a shareholder is dubious ○ ○ shares purchased to bring this suit, not for economic returns his only motive was to impress his opinions on others

Trial court found that Pillsbury did not have an interest in either Honeywell’s or in his own financial well-being ○ Could someone challenge Honeywell’s munitions manufacture? Yes, but only if motivated by profits

What's a "proper purpose?" Generally limited to economic interests.

Trail Court affirmed

Shlensky v Wrigley (Illinois, 1968)

Wrigley : Director, did not wanted the lights in the court As long as director is acting in good faith and is reasonable and believes in what he does (even if he is wrong) he has the right to not put the lights. Summary:

Chicago National League Ball Club (Cubs) This is an appeal from [a dismissal by the trial court of the original suit, the original suit being a shareholder action filed against the company's board of directors for negligence and mismanagement. The corporation was also made a defendant. Plaintiff sought damages and an order that defendants cause the installation of lights in Wrigley Field and the scheduling of night baseball games. Defendant Philip K. Wrigley is also president of the corporation and owner of approximately 80% of the stock

Majority shareholder and inside board of directors make corporate policy. Minority shareholders sue, claiming that shareholder value is being squandered.

○ Shlensky--Wrigley violated his duties to the firm ○ Plaintiff argues according to the logic of Dodge v. Ford Motor Co.
 10% shareholders sue, claiming that corporate policy to amass profits in the firm was a policy to benefit the community, not the shareholders--thus Ford must pay dividends.

○ But…Court looks to the logic of Wheeler v. Pullman Iron and Steel Company
 'It is, however, fundamental in the law of corporations, that the majority of its stockholders shall control the policy of the corporation, and govern the lawful exercise of its franchise and business. The majority of shares of its stock, or the agents by the holders thereof lawfully chosen, must be permitted to control the business of the corporation in their discretion, when not in violation of its charter or some public law, or corruptly and fraudulently subversive interests of the corporation or of a shareholder.'

"Business Judgment Rule" ○ Director must discharge duties    (a) in good faith (b) with the care of an ordinary prudent person (c) in a manner "reasonably believed" to be in the best interests of the corporation

Insulates a director who, in good faith, made bad decisions; Courts generally are reluctant to engage in "Monday morning quarterbacking"

Trial Court is Affirmed

Wiki: Brief Fact Summary
The plaintiff was a shareholder in The Chicago National League Ball Club, Inc., a Delaware corporation. He brought a derivative suit against the company's directors and majority shareholder and President, Phillip K. Wrigley, charging that Wrigley did not exercise reasonable care in his failure to schedule night games, which, according to the plaintiff, resulted in the company suffering economic losses. The plaintiffs suit was dismissed for failure to state a cause of action and he appealed. Rule of Law and Holding "Courts will not step in and interfere with honest business judgment of the directors unless there is a showing of fraud, illegality or conflict of interest."

Worldcom had a lots of problems and hired Breeden to fix them. He writes a letter and specify the types of boards Summary: Richard Breeden (former chairmen. Monitor) proposed corporate governance reforms for MCI. Breeden is a former chairman of the SEC who was a court-appointed "corporate monitor" for the troubled company (formerly WorldCom). The company must adhere to the proposals unless excused by a court order. • • Corporate Liability Failings at WorldCom: ○ Officers    ○ Board     Inadequate controls Governance issues / cronyism Ethical failures Limited exposure Ethical failures Inadequate controls Cronyism “golfing and buddies”

Shareholders  Lack of transparency

“entire country has a stake in finding ways to improve what is already a very good system”

Types of Boards • • • • • Passive Board – WorldCom Certifying Board- MCI under Breeden Engaging Board – MCI under Breeden Intervening Board Operating Board

Breeden Letter • • • Limits on choosing shareholders Limits on compensation Transparency requirements

Note on Antitrust and Competitive Tactics:
Goals for Antitrust Laws: • • Keep markets competitive Efficient allocation of resources

Per se violations: • Always illegal

Rule of reason violations • Must adversely affect competition

3 Categories of Antitrust laws: • • • Single firm actions Multiple firm actions Mergers and acquisitions

Common AntiTrust Issues:

Price Discrimination-Robinson-Patman Act (amendment to the Clayton Act) = illegal to charge different prices to different buyers when the difference causes competitive injury

Vertical Agreements-example- agree not to sell to another retail chain in order to do business with corporation(s). Rule of Reason Standard used here. Courts must have proof that there is an adverse affect on competition Horizontal Market Acquisition-market share leader acquires another firm in the same market, presumed price increases. In order to avoid this issue parties may divest lines, plants or patents to deal with concerns.

Managing Antitrust Risk: • • • Make sure tactics are legal (laws not black and white) Decide if lawsuit is likely (not all violations are prosecuted) Determine costs to lawsuit (direct and indirect – including uncertainty, time and effort, and bad publicity) High Risk Areas: ○ ○ Price Fixing Market Division

3 Types of Violations: • Price: Fixing, collusion NonPrice: Market division, group boycott, strategic alliances, non-compete agreements, joint lobbying Leveraging: Patent pools, cross licensing, exclusive dealing, conditional sales

US versus Oracle (PeopleSoft Acquisition)
Must define the market by product and geography to see if the have a monopoly ( department of justice said that geography was US, and Oracle said their definition for the product was too specific, and the geographic market was to narrow and should include Europe too = Oracle won—was not a monopoly)

Summary: Department of Justice sues Oracle during 2004 to prevent the acquisition of Peoplesoft under the Clayton Act on grounds that it would substantially lessen competition. Clayton Act, Section 7 Prohibits mergers and acquisitions where the effect "may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly." Determining whether a merger will have that effect requires a thorough economic evaluation or market study. "market definition" analysis Section 7A of the Clayton Act, called the Hart-Scott-Rodino Act, requires the prior notification of large mergers to both the FTC and the Justice Department. Requirement

"Market definition" requires the identification of the "relevant market" Relevant market: Both Product and Geography Government argument:

Relevant product market was in "high-function" enterprise software, in which only Oracle, SAP, and Peoplesoft competed. Relevant geography = US, because prices overseas do not affect domestic prices and visa versa.

Oracle argument:

No, this product definition is to specific for market Product includes mid-market products

○ DOJ: these only offer routine HR and financial functionality, unlike the high-function
products. ○ Oracle: No, this geographic market is too narrow, should include Europe at least.

Court Finds for Oracle

Salomon and the Treasury:
Mozar using others name to purchase products (other errors) – He should have been reported as soon as it was find out, instead they cover the situation and let things got worse.

Background on Treasury Bond Scandal: Set in June 1991, two months prior to Salomon Brothers' announcement that thefirm had violated the Treasury Department's rules governing the auctions of new Treasury securities. Salomon Vice Chairman John Meriwether must decide how to address problems that continue to appear in the management of the firm's government bond trading activities. In April 1991, one of his managers admitted that he had submitted an illegal auction bid in February 1991. Now, one month later, there is mounting speculation in the press that Salomon tried to corner the market

Summary: Salomon and Investment Banking Community • • • Salomon Brothers – founded in 1910 – (82 years old); eventually ranked 4th in US Also, SB helps clients evaluate potential M&A (for a fee) Arbitrage – buying securities at a low price in one market then selling at a slightly higher price in a different market

• • •

Firms willing to commit large amounts of capital could generate substantial returns from these small companies Meriwether headed Arbitrage unit until late 1980s, then picked to head all of SB’s fixed income securities activities Controversial compensation system negotiated with CEO

Treasury BondScandal: In April 1991, Mozer admitted that he had submitted an illegal auction bid in February 1991. Mounting speculation in the press that Salomon tried to corner the market for May 2-year notes. Result of Case: In 1991, Salomon was caught submitting false bids to the U.S. Treasury by Deputy Assistant Secretary Mike Basham, in an attempt to purchase more Treasury bonds than permitted by one buyer between December 1990 and May 1991. Who was Salomon? What was their competitive advantage?

• •
• • • • • •

Government bond specialist Information network  customers Talent and creative employees Holding inventory as service to customers $60 million compensation over 12 people (sustainable?- compensation increasing as revenues decreasing) $3.5 Billion capital base Increasing market share “flat” local org

What problem did Meriwetheer face in early June?

• •

Mozer- report him? US Treasury upset and May squeeze Risk of investigation

How serious was Mozer’s conduct? • Serious      Using Warburg’s name Playing fast and loose with customers Playing with reputation Cover-up? Risk in investigation

     •

Formal > 35% SEC regulation Manipulative and deceptive Government might “ignore” the problem – what precedent does that set?

Not Serious

 Rules not formalized
• Informal Implied

 $ not a big deal?
 • Beneficial to US Treasury and Company

What aspects of Solomon’s organization or culture contributed? • • • Inadequate supervision Inadequate control Redesign incentives?  • Anyone who breaks laws should lose their bonuses (but this didn’t happen in the case of Solomon)

Suppress written confirmation (regulation about record-keeping)

What options are available to Meriwether? • Notify Government of February “Squeeze” Fire Mozer/Fire Murphy  Pro:

•  Con: • • • •

Sends a clear signal internally and externally that Mozer’s conduct was in appropriate (employees, customers, US Treasury) CYA

Go to competitor (employees and or customers) Could Backfire Blab- employees saying if you think that is bad here are other things going on? Reputation damage

Feb? (information known and held for over 5 months)- looks bad

Discipline Mozer and Notify SEC of actions

What does it take to be a successful trader? • • • • In depth knowledge Ruthlessness Aggressive Intuition/instinct ○ Value/demand ○ trend • • • • • • • • Risk loving Flirting at the boundaries Creativity Bluffing Information + (-) Nimble (take info, analyze and make good decisions quickly) Deceive Detached emotionally

What makes for an effective trading organization? • • • • • • Capital reserves Flat organization locally Talent Leverage Good relationship with clients Competitive advantage/sustainable Acess to organizational info Reputation Secondary girth (less important) Resources/inventory Motivating

• • • •

Incentive compensation structure

Squeeze-unpredicted shortness of supply or high demand for product

3 Lines Crossed • • • 35% Section 10b Record Keeping

Section 10 -- Manipulative and Deceptive Devices It shall be unlawful for any person, directly or indirectly, by the use of any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce or of the mails, or of any facility of any national securities exchange -a. To effect a short sale, or to use or employ any stop-loss order in connection with the purchase or sale, of any security registered on a national securities exchange, in contravention of such rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe as necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors. Paragraph (1) of this subsection shall not apply to security futures products. b. To use or employ, in connection with the purchase or sale of any security registered on a national securities exchange or any security not so registered, or any securities-based swap agreement (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach -Bliley Act), any manipulative or deceptive device or contrivance in contravention of such rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe as necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of investors. Rules promulgated under subsection (b) that prohibit fraud, manipulation, or insider trading (but not rules imposing or specifying reporting or recordkeeping requirements, procedures, or standards as prophylactic measures against fraud, manipulation, or insider trading), and judicial precedents decided under subsection (b) and rules promulgated thereunder that prohibit fraud, manipulation, or insider trading, shall apply to security -

based swap agreements (as defined in section 206B of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act) to the same extent as they apply to securities. Judicial precedents decided under section 17(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 and sections 9, 15 , 16 , 20 , and 21A of this title, and judicial precedents decided under applicable rules promulgated under such sections, shall apply to security-based swap agreements (as defined in section 206B of the GrammLeach -Bliley Act) to the same extent as they apply to securities.

What happened?

• • • Result:

Mozer placed bid under the client’s name (Mercury) without authorization and for the company as well which resulted in more than 35% of the shares Asked the client (Mercury) to request that the firm not respond to the letter from the Treasury Did it again Mgrs never reported to SEC

Fined $290 million, the largest fine ever levied on an investment bank at the time, weakening it and eventually leading to its acquisition by Travelers Group. CEO Gutfreund left the company in August 1991; a SEC settlement resulted in a fine of $100,000 and his being barred from serving as a chief executive of a brokerage firm.

Lysine price fixing international, US government went after them. 100M to prove importance that they will go after you. Violated the Sherman act. Summary: Lysine Price Fixing Conspiracy    3 ADM executives indicted on price fixing and market allocation Violated Sherman antitrust act, conspired w/ 4 other companies in the lysine market Conspirators agreed on price levels, sales volumes, had meetings to monitor price agreements fine ever

 Company pleaded guilty and was sentenced with $100M which is the largest criminal antitrust

 Meant as signal that these violations made by individuals and cartels would be vigorously
prosecuted wherever they are  Individuals involved with wrongdoing will be prosecuted as well as company

Ring of Thieves, MCI
 Walter Pavlo: cooked the books – Reported uncollected revenue, hiding accounts receivable, start sending money to
Caiman Island – – Prepaid card resellers Turned unpaid bills into promissory notes

White Collar Crime an Overview

 White collar crime: committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the
course of his occupation; nonviolent crimes committed in commercial situations for financial gain

 Most common offenses: antitrust, computer/internet fraud, credit card fraud,
phone/telemarketing fraud, bankruptcy fraud, healthcare fraud, insurance fraud, bribery, insider trading, money laundering, kickbacks, economic espionage, tax evasion, trade secret theft

 White collar crime costs the US more than $300B annually
  Commerce Clause gives Congress authority over White Collar Crime Some Federal agencies also have authority over WCC such as the FBI, IRS, Secret Service, EPA, Customs, SEC

 States also have agencies to enforce at State level.

Kiplinger: Are You Guilty of Insider Trading?
 Context of information matters: burglar (someone that breaks into your house and takes your
stuff when you are not home) can act on information he finds: no duty to his victims  Trading on information that rightly belongs to someone else the works, you cannot trade on that speculation—both informer and trading are in trouble (if you see or hear something important and it is use to generate income)  Both informer and trader are in trouble

 Mosaic theory: if you see suits in the office that lead you to believe there may be a merger in

SEC targets small fry traders

White Collar Crime Alert
 Coming down harder in people doing white collar crime

 Accounting fraud case in Houston (Dynergy Inc.) sentenced more than 24 years in prison
   Judges are rejecting guilty plea bargains Increasing tension among sentencing court, prosecutors, and defense counsel in white collar cases Harsher sentences for offenders

TEECE: The Knowledge Economy and Intellectual Capital Management
Free Trade has lowered tariff and non-tariff barriers The decreased cost of information flow, increases the in the number of markets, the liberalization of product and labor markets in many part of the world, and the deregulation of international financial flows is stripping away many traditional sources of competitive differentiation and exposing a new fundamental core as the basis for wealth creation. That fundamental core is the development and astute deployment and utilization of intangible assets, of which knowledge, competence, and intellectual property are the most significant. Also included are other intangible such as brands, reputations, and customer relationships.

Two classes of explanation for the use of knowledge management: • • What has been obvious to some- namely, that knowledge and its applications are at the very roots of modern economic growth and prosperity-has not been transparent to all. Relates to structural changes that have occurred in the economies of advanced countries.

Liberalization of Markets – tariffs are lower, transportation costs are lower Expansion of what’s tradable – Most apparent in securities markets where swaps, index futures, program trading, etc are now commonplace. Also firms are outsourcing more. Few firms‘corner the market’ anymore. Strengthening of Intellectual Property Regime: important in all industries. The Growing importance of increasing returns driven by: 1. Standards and network externalities. Must be compatible.

2. Customer Lock-in 3. Large up front costs 4. Producer Learning – more efficient as expertise is gained. ○ Decoupling of information flows from the flow of goods and services: New IT and the adoption of standards are greatly assisting connectivity. Can do things online like buy insurance (no salesman needed). Also helps with sharing of information. Ramifications of new information and communications technologies: basically ERPs exist to connect all different departments. Networking computer makes it easier to collaborate. Formalization (the sharing of personal knowledge) may impede learning. Product Architecture and Technology ‘Fusion’: new products are rarely stand-alone. They are usually components of broader systems. Implications: changes dynamic of competition and competitive advantage. Must have nontradable assets for advantages.

○ ○

The Nature of Knowledge: • • • • Codified/Tacit – difficult to articulate in a way that is meaningful and complete Observable/Non-observable in Use – can be bought and reverse engineered Positive/Negative Knowledge – keep failures secrets because of embarrassment Autonomous/Systemic Knowledge – that which yields value without major modifications of the system in which it might be embedded (fuel injection did not require change to cars but they run better) Intangible Assets, Tangible Assets, and IP

Differences between Intangible and Tangible Assets Knowledge (intangible) assets Use by one party need not prevent use by another Does not ‘wear out’; but usually depreciates rapidly Hard to calibrate (increase with the tacit portion) Limited (patients, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, etc) and fuzzy even in developed countries. Physical (tangible) assets Use by one party prevents simultaneous use by another Wears out; may depreciate slowly or quickly Easier to calibrate (depends on transportation and related costs) Generally comprehensive and clearer, at least in developed countries



Transfer Costs

Property Rights

Enforcement of Property Rights

Relatively difficult

Relatively easy

Characteristics of Legal Forms of Protection in the USA Mask Works (semi conductor industry only) Yes Semiconductors

Consideratio ns


Trade Secret


Trademar k

National Uniformity Protected Property Scope of Protection

Yes Expression of Idea Exclusive right to reproduce, prepare derivative works, publically distribute, display and perform Creation of work

No Secret information Right to make, use and sell secret and to protect against, improper use or disclosure From date of conception or receipt of secret information

Yes Invention Right to exclude others from making, using, selling

Yes Goodwill Proscribes against misreprese ntation of source

Effective date of protection

Patent application date

Cost of obtaining prosecution Term of protection




Use and/or filing date of US application issuing as principal registratio n on or after 11/16/198 9 Low

First commercial exploitation


Life of author plus 50 years, or 70 years

Possibility of perpetual protection; or termination at any time by improper disclosure

20 years

Perpetual if used correctly and diligently policed

10 years

Cost of maintaining protection Cost of enforcing rights against violators


or individual developme nt by others Moderate









Replicability, Imitability, Appropriability

Appropriabilityregimes can be used to describe the ease of imitation.

Appropriability Regimes for Knowledge Assets Inherent replicability Easy Hard Weak Moderate Appropriability Appropriability Moderate Strong Appropriability Appropriability

IP Rights

Loose Tight

The main classes of nontradable assets today are locational assets, knowledge assets and competences.

Inherent Tradability of Different Assets Characteristics 1. Recognition of Trading opportunities 2. Disclosure of attributes 3. Property Rights 4. Property boundaries 5. Item of Sale 6. Variety 7. Unit of Consumption Inherent Tradability Know-How/IP Inherently Difficult Relatively difficult Limited (patents, trade secrets, copyright etc.) Often fuzzy License Heterogeneous Often Clear LOW Physical commodities Inherently easy Relatively easy Broad Generally sharp Measurable Units Homogeneous Weight, volume, etc HIGH

Some Sectoral Difference in the Market for Know-How Challenge Recognition Disclosures Interface issues Royalty Stacking, royalty based dilemmas Value Context Dependent Patent Strength Development cycle Know How Market Works Complementary Assets: ○ Licensing: the licensing of technology and IP is of course a direct manifestation of transactions in the market for know-how. If the market is efficient, then the IP ought to be able to extract full value by simply selling their assets in the market. Dynamic Capabilities: ability to sense and seize opportunities. about new markets, new technologies, and competitive threats. ○ ○ ○ Organizational Action: must seize after the opportunity is sensed. Implications for the Theory of the Firm: Stress entrepreneurial side not administrative. Conclusion: Knowledge, competence, and related intangibles have merged as the key drivers of competitive advantage. Chemical/Pharmaceutical Manageable Handled by NDA, patents common Compatibility generally not an issue Infrequent Strongly so Generally high Often long Generally well Electronics Extremely complex, often impossible More difficult Compatibility generally critical Frequent Very strongly so Sometimes limited Generally short Often poorly

○ External Sensing: During ‘sensemaking’ the organization receives and interprets messages

The Teece Model David Teece clarified that two factors – imitability and complementary assets - will have a strong influence in determining who will ultimately profit from an innovation. Imitability refers to how easily competitors can copy or duplicate the technology or process underpinning the innovation. There are many examples of barriers a company could use to protect itself from imitation, including intellectual property rights, complex internal routines or tacit knowledge. Consider the case of RC Cola, it was the first firm to introduce a diet cola on the market, but since it could not protect itself from imitation soon Pepsi and Coca-Cola jumped in, and using their complementary assets (distribution channels, brand name, etc.) they appropriated all the profits of the segment. Complementary assets, therefore, are equally important. They include any activity that gravitates around the core innovation such as distribution channels, reputation,

marketing capabilities, strategic alliances, customer relationships, licensing agreements, among others.

If ability to imitate is high and complementary assets are freely available or unimportant it will be difficult to make money out of the innovation (exceptions can be made at the very short run). If complementary assets are tightly held and important and ability to imitate is once again high, the holder of such assets will be the one profiting on the innovation, independently of who developed it like in the diet cola case. If ability to imitate is low the innovator will find himself in a much better position. When complementary assets are not controlled by other economic actors he will be able to collect most of the profits being generated. When, on the other hand, complementary assets are important and tightly held negotiation will take place, profits will be shared in proportion to bargaining power of the parts involved. The Teece model can be used not only to predict who will profit from an innovation but also to understand what company will have higher incentives to invest in certain innovations. The threat of imitation and the importance of complementary assets had already being used under other frameworks, but usually they were employed individually or were used to dissect the overall market structure (i.e. Porter’s Five Forces) and not the innovation dynamics. The major flaw one can find the this theory is the lack of empirical evidence, which results from the difficulty to isolate the imitability and the complimentarily effects from other factors.

Aberlyn July 1993
Leasing an intangible asset

Main Ideas: Flip- Valuation of patent which allowed the company to offer financing for leasing the payments. This allowed the company to place the lease payments on the balance sheet and received capital for giving up relatively little capital. Aberlyn didn’t account correctly for the risk taking.

Problems with Aberlyn’s Process: • • • Hard to value Protecting patent Lessee defaulting – how do you use the patent you have acquired

Patent- right to protect something in court

Case Summary:
Aberlyn Capital Management, a venture leasing firm specializing in providing capital to biotechnology firms, proposes to introduce a new product. Aberlyn will base a lease on an intangible product: the patent of a biotechnology firm. This poses a series of short and longer run challenges.

Background Info • • • • Est. 1989 to provide investment banking services to biotech/biomed industries Developed concept of providing leases based on patents (this allowed growing firms to finance their need for working capital through leasing, rather than just equipment purchases) Strategy to lease intellectual property as a niche player Provided financing via bridge financings, private placements, venture leasing (1992) ○ ○ Leased tangible assets (i.e. lab equipment) to high-risk young firms Concluded biotech would be suitable for venture lease transactions   Biotech was representing an increasing share of venture transactions Biotech firms’ ability to access public markets uneven, w/ lengthy droughts

 Biotech very capital intensive; ratio was $75,000/emp vs $6-$10K/emp (mfg)
• Much of capital equipment was expensive but standardized

○ Compensation: Aberlyn was compensated with promised regular cash payments +
warrants to purchase common stock of the firms for which it provided financing

○ New deal called for Aberlyn to lease on an intangible asset: patent of a biotech firm  RhoMed would sell its patent to Aberlyn, lease it back for life of the 3-yr deal ○ Issues to consider:
 How much was the patent really worth? (US Patent #4,940670)

 Was Aberlyn being fairly compensated?

What were the risks in this novel transaction?

 If successful, how could Aberlyn capture max profits from its innovation (LR)

What is a patent? • • Protecting your intellectual property for a period of time The right to enforce this thing in a court.

What is Aberyln’s strategy?

• •

Innovator (Differentian) Niche player-venture leasing assets physical and intellectual Financial Innovator (venture providers) ○ FLIP- Finance Lease on Intellectual Property

Side Note: Understands VC market and patents

Money received in 3 forms: ○ ○ Regular Lease payments (interest payments); spread over UST rates or prime Money paid as a purchase option at the end of the lease; lessee can pay FMV not to exceed 25% of original cost of the equipment the lessee, at a certain date, for a prespecified exercise price;

○ “Warrant Coverage” Lessor (Aberlyn) granted warrants to purchase the common stock of  Lessor’s ability to sell or transfer warrants for 3 yrs was sharply restricted by
SEC Rule 144 (forbids sale of unregistered securities for two years after the transaction, limits the volume of sales in the following year; typically have “piggyback” rights

 “Warrant coverage” is % of the value of the cash advanced by the lessor
 “ Describes the amounts (but not he values) of warrants granted define the return available to a venture lessor

 Combination of lease payments and purchase prices and warrant coverage

Why that strategy? They understand the VC market and patents. (need more info here)

What are key elements of Aberlyn’s strategy?

• •

FLIP- Finance Lease on Intellectual Property Capabilities in ○ ○ valuation of intellectual property (IP) valuation of biotech (value is wrapped up in other capabilities of the firm)

Patent ○ Right to sue others for infringement of technology

Benefits of strategy to Aberlyn: • • • • • • • Accounting (when buy patent can put value of patent on balance sheet (versus company creates patent can only put cost of patent)) Secured interest/Residual (if company defaults they own the patent) Recurring payments Warrants Relationships, future deals (Intangible- relationships with companies for future business) Brand/Model validation Non-voting seat on board of directors

What are the risks of strategy to Aberlyn? • Validation is difficult ○ ○ • Hard to find out value of patent Conflicts of interesting how patents are evaluated

Protect; ownership (have to protect patent)- could be pushed back on lessee, however, if they don’t protect and they default

Aberlyn had 2 rounds of VC funding totaling $60M • Invested in 32 biotech firms, telecom ($50M fund)

Who is RhoMed? • • • Candidate for a FLIP Biotechnology firm specializing in developing radio-pharmaceutical (i.e. nuclear medicine) 1994: settlement after “interference”

• •

1996: changed name to Interfilm, than to Palatin Tech 1998: State Street Bank – 1st to patent an official “Business Method”

Why should it matter than RhoMed couldn’t make it work? • • If no one else cares there is no value in it Ideas has to be coupled with idea on how to form a revenue stream

Evaluation techniques: (need more work here) First looked at it from cancer treating perspective Then looked at it from royalty 10% discount factor (maybe they should have used 15-20% instead) Didn’t capture how widely the numbers could swing Looked at segment from Collin and rector (sp?)

Professor’s outside experience says that: Most deals made on people (95%) and only (5%) of cases bet on patent. Being smart with more information is still better than less



• • • • •

1994 an “interference” was launched pitting RhoMed’s patent and an application by Immunomedics (holding 1141 patents) Oct. 1995 settlement Rhomed agreed to No challenge of Immunomedics patent aware Merged into a shell company Interfilm Agreed to: Name change to Palatin Technologies (still around today with stock price at $0.12/share)

Aberlyn CM (still around today) Disclosures

• •

Investment types: startup, first and second stage, leveraged buyout, and special situation Industry Preferences: Diversified computer technology, food and beverage products, genetic engineering, and healthcare Investment (pref): $25M (min) Prefers to play the role of deal originator (SDC)

Main Takeaways • There is a lot of uncertainty (difficult to value, so much is wrapped up in the VC). ○ ○ ○ • • It is risky to build business model on this Valuation is wrapped up in other things Tried to do it right in building capabilities in valuating and evaluating space

Innovative idea was good Need to protect patents

Aberlyn – considering new proposal ○ ○ Emerging company in the nascent venture leasing business Leased tangible assets (i.e. lab equipment) to high-risk young firms common stock of the firms for which it provided financing

○ Aberlyn was compensated with promised regular cash payments + warrants to purchase ○ New deal called for Aberlyn to lease on an intangible asset: patent of a biotech firm  RhoMed would sell its patent to Aberlyn, lease it back for life of the 3-yr deal
○ Issues to consider:  How much was the patent really worth? (US Patent #4,940670)

 Was Aberlyn being fairly compensated?
 What were the risks in this novel transaction?

 If successful, how could Aberlyn capture max profits from its innovation (LR)

Aberlyn Capital Mgt • • • Est. 1989 to provide investment banking services to biotech/biomed industries Provided financing via bridge financings, private placements, venture leasing (1992) Concluded biotech would be suitable for venture lease transactions

○ Biotech was representing an increasing share of venture transactions
○ Biotech firms’ ability to access public markets uneven, w/ lengthy droughts

○ Biotech very capital intensive; ratio was $75,000/emp vs $6-$10K/emp (mfg)
 Much of capital equipment was expensive but standardized

Aberlyn attempted to adjust risk/return of its venture leasing portfolio ○ Kept a # of technical specialists both on its staff and on advisory boards

○ Intentionally constrained the firms to which it would provide leasing (min 2 rds) ○ Evaluated potential lessees on a five-part scale attempting to rank firms on the
basis of the likelihood that Aberlyn would be repaid; goals in Exhibit 5

○ Asked (in some cases) to have a nonvoting rep placed on BoD of any firm to which
Aberlyn would provide financing

Aberlyn’s returns could be received in three forms ○ ○ Regular lease payments (interest payments); spread over UST rates or prime Money paid as a purchase option at the end of the lease; lessee can pay FMV not to exceed 25% of original cost of the equipment certain date, for a prespecified exercise price;

○ Lessor (Aberlyn) granted warrants to purchase the common stock of the lessee, at a  Lessor’s ability to sell or transfer warrants for 3 yrs was sharply restricted by
SEC Rule 144 (forbids sale of unregistered securities for two years after the transaction, limits the volume of sales in the following year; typically have “piggyback” rights

 “Warrant coverage” is % of the value of the cash advanced by the lessor
 “ “ Describes the amounts (but not he values) of warrants granted

○ Combination of lease payments and purchase prices and warrant coverage define
the return available to a venture lessor

Aberlyn established policy guidelines for the terms it charged lessees, as a function of their position in Aberlyn’s five-part risk class

The Proposed Intellectual Property Leases

1992 – Aberlyn starts leasing patents

○ Aberlyn buys the patent, firm leases it back to gain the legal right to use patent
○ FLIP – Finance Lease on Intellectual Property – attractive for several reasons:  Lessees would be able to obtain working capital while giving up only a small equity stake

Helps reconcile firms’ economic value with their accounting statements • Firms can only value discoveries for the cost of the patent application; firms that acquire patents record them on their balance sheets at their purchase price (reflecting market value) ○ Temporary benefit: value of patent on firm’s balance sheet would shrink as the lease was repaid

FLIP implementation proposed several management problems for ACMC:  Valuation of the patent • Estimate ultimate profits from the patent, discount CF back to PV at a rate that reflects the transactions risk, then execute a sales & leaseback for up to 75% of the patent’s assessed value

If the patent was ever seized from a defaulting firm, predicting the resale market value would be difficult • • Would have to analyze value to firms with current patent positions in similar research areas, patent pending firms, etc. Might be forced to defend the patent from potential infringement while marketing it

Selection of the patent on which to base the lease – needed to select patents covering IP distinct and separate from the firm’s other claims

○ Aberlyn stated certain limitations on their use of IP leases
 Licenses would be restricted to issued US patents (no patent-pending)

 Aberlyn would not execute a lease for > 80% of the NPV of patent
 Patent leases restricted to 10% of overall investments by the fund

RhoMed, Inc.

Early 1993, Aberlyn’s mgt met Robert Stern, CFO of RhoMed ○ Dr Buck A Rhodes – Johns Hopkins- monoclonal antibodies (identical cultures) Technetium – written six textbooks and over 160 articles in referenced journals

○ Rhodes developed ways to label antibodies with small amounts of radioactive ○ Rhodes joins University of Arizona, Los Alamos National Lab, SVP (Scientific Affairs)
of Summa Medical Corp (firm goes bankrupt)

○ Rhodes starts own company out of his garage, financing from SBIR (Small Business
Innovation Research) program

 Within 1st year, RhoMed won two Phase I awards, one from NIH, led to a Phase
II award; other from DOE, led to $500K grant to commercialize

State establishes NMRDI (New Mexico Research and Development Institute)  NMRDI provides loans, receives royalties on future sales

○ Rhodes sought national lab assistance – CRADAs (Cooperative Research and
Development Agreements)

○ Rhodes tapped into third financing arm – strategic alliances w/ large pharmaceutical
firms motivated to work with and fund RhoMed because of product line under development:   RhoChek LeukoScan

 Collaborative Agreement with Sterling Winthrop
  Collaborative Agreement with Genentech Related projects to identify blood clots, ulcers, etc.

The Proposed Transaction

○ Aberlyn saw RhoMed as attractive FLIP candidate because:  RhoMed IP position was very strong
• •  Pioneers of biotech and nuclear medicine Aggressively pursued patent protection

Mgt team, having retained a controlling interest in the firm to this point, was unwilling to give up a large share of the firm to venture capitalists • Most VCs wanted 30% stake, control through strict covenants

 RhoMed had so little external financing in the past – clear example of the disparity
between accounting and economic value

○ Doug Brian, SVP Aberlyn, structured the deal:  Aberlyn pays RhoMed $1M, RhoMed doesn’t have to make any interest payments
until beginning of the second year. RhoMed would make 3 even payments of principal, at the end of years 1, 2, 3, plus 15% of the amount outstanding before the repayment (interest rate) – Risk Class 2

 Patent was valued at $5M – comfortable safety margin for Aberlyn; RhoMed could
purchase its patent back for $1 at the end of the three-year lease after repaying Aberlyn’s loan  Warrant Coverage of 10%; warrants’ life at 5 years and exercise price at $1.45

○ Aberlyn saw RhoMed’s mgt team as excited about the deal:  Leasing proposal consistent with RhoMed’s goal of assuring the firm’s progress
while maximizing their control over the firm’s equity

 Aberlyn had strong capability to raise capital from Euro/ME sources; this transaction
could serve as a bridge until a private placement (assuring financial stability until it made sense to go public)  IPO would be appropriate in October, 1994 after product development was further advanced

HAMER vs. SIDWAY (April 14, 1891)
He got the money from his uncle’ estate Summary: • • Uncle promised nephew $5,000 Uncle told nephew that he would give him $5K if he didn’t drink, swearing, play cards, or billboards etc. until 21 Uncle dies without paying

Consideration Doctrine -allows the common law to distinguish between contracts and mere promises of gifts (the latter are generally unenforceable). • • May be a benefit or a burden Court says it doesn’t matter if it is a benefit (still says he refrained from action that gave him consideration- he gave up something, each party in contract needs to bring sufficient consideration, in this case it was giving up his rights to receive $5K)

Offer and Acceptance-the bargain-bargained for exchange. A “meeting of the minds” • Do the words and actions of the parties constitute an offer, and an acceptance of that offer? Common law applies the mirror image rule: Parties must offer and agree to mirror provisions in order for a contract to be enforceable

Alaska Packers Ass’n v. Domenico 1902

Summary: Fisherman want more money on the high seas ○ ○ ○ In Alaska a group of men sign a contract with a company to work on a fishing boat for a season for $50 plus $0.02 per salmon Once in Alaska the men stopped working and said they wouldn’t keep working until the got $100 per person Is the court going to enforce the second agreement? They say no on the grounds that “the captain said he didn’t have any authority to

○ •

Workers gave no additional consideration for new rate/new contract (Doctrine of fresh consideration- comes in when trying to modify a contract)

Agency contract ○ Which employees can bind organization when they are making contracts?   Authority- explicit OR Job Description (is employee acting within their job description) AND other party reasonably believed the authority

• •

Fresh Consideration-has to have something new to bring to the table. modification of an existing contract requires new consideration Capacity- He did not have the authority to make the decision. thecommon law recognizes that parties to a contract must possess the necessary mental capacity to bargain. The common law generally recognizes both infancy and mental illness as bases for noncapacity Duress- The guy did not have any other option. The law requires that parties enter a bargain of their own free will. A party can claim duress in contracting to void the agreements

Common law elements in a defense of Duress (all four must exist) 1. Party involuntarily accepts a contract 2. Party robbed of “free will” 3. Party had no reasonable alternative 4. Stronger party makes improper threat (tortuous; in bad faith) If you can prove all four of these then weaker party can claim Duress.

Hawkins vs. McGee
He promise a perfectly good hand. There was evidence to the effect that before the operation was performed the plaintiff and his father went to the defendant's office, and that the defendant said before the operation was decided upon, "I will guarantee to make the hand a hundred per cent perfect hand or a hundred per cent good hand."

The plaintiff claims that the words establish the giving of a warranty. intention of entering "into any contractual relation whatever," and were only " expression

 The defendant argues no reasonable man would understand that they were used with the

in strong language”that he believed and expected that as a result of the operation would be a success The jury was permitted to consider two elements of damage: (1) Pain and suffering due to the operation; and

(2) Positive ill effects of the operation upon the plaintiff's hand.
Concluded: the plaintiff's damage is the difference between the value to him of a perfect hand or a good hand, such as the defendant promised him, and the value of his hand in its present condition, including any incidental consequences fairly within the contemplation of the parties when they made their contract. And they send it back to court and determine what it was. New trial was ordered

CVD vs. Markham
Summary: Employee contract was shown to be contrary to public interest, there was no breech of employee contract Markham did not have trade secrets because they did not reasonably protect them Jury ruled that Markham claimed ‘trade secret’ defense in bad faith Licensing Agreement found to be an attempt to restrain competition in the production of zinc sulfide and zinc selenide Licensing Agreement found to be an attempt to monopolize the production of zinc sulfide

Issues • • • • • • • • • • Duress? Trade Secret? Breach of Employment Markham’s “Proprietary” properties Licensing Agreement valid? Trade Secret Maintenance Breach of Licensing Agreement? Anti-trust issues? Re-negotiating provision breech? Valid consideration?

Was the Process protected? • Patent? There was an earlier patent about CVD process, similar to Markham. Patents need to be: ○ Novel ○ Useful ○ Non-obvious ○ Adequate description • With Markham there is uncertainty if there is proprietary information, info seems to fit all of the things listed her to make it patentable except the government paid for development of the technology so no novelty here If the bar to patentability is reasonably low the three things that Markham added could have given them a reasonable chance to get a patent Two steps ○ Get a patent ○ Validate it (bring it into court and see how enforceable it is) • • Patent is still a powerful tool even if small likelihood that it will get upheld in court Problem with coordination (no one steps forward to challenge these things because in doing so they still help their competitors)(no one steps forward even though they believe they would win in court) ○ Why didn’t Markham patent?  They didn’t believe there were commercial applications  Government use royalty-free  Then they would have to disclose methods (if they didn’t receive patent competitors in the process would have seen all of their info) ○ Wanted to pursue a trade secret?  Trade secret can’t be commonly known  Involves info that gives a commercial advantage  Firm has to make reasonable attempts to keep it secret  Not obvious – not put in the database of TS’s  Gas mixture, alumina tip, hexagonal bolt? In order to be a trade secret, the secret cannot be commonly known

• •

Trade Secret? • • • • • Has to be information that gives a commercial advantage Firm needs to make reasonable efforts to protect it and keep it secret Cannot be obvious- Engineers would come up with same solutions on their own Never had employees sign nondisclosure agreement No physical securing

Trade Secret (TS) for Markham on the following? • • • Gas mixture Alumina tip Hexagonal nut

Was the licensing agreement valid? ○ Capacity- made under duress? ○ Consideration ○ Offer and acceptance ○ Legal purpose  Anti-trust (if it furthers a monopoly, it’s illegal) • Did the employees breach their employment contract? ○ What may employment contracts do? • • • Protect confidential information Contain “reasonable” non-compete clause Cannot harm one’s ability to earn a living

○ Jury decided that the defendants did not violate their agreement because the agreement was contrary to public interest How could have Markham managed this problem better? • • • Very clear set of policies “License to kill” – 2 guys felt they had no other option Raytheon(Markham) appeals, pays CVD ~ $400K

Harvey Losee vs. Buchanan (NYS, 1873)

• •

Action brought to recover damages caused by the explosion of a steam boiler in Saratoga County, NY Unless the person who places a boiler somewhere is found at fault or with negligence, he/she is not liable for damages to their neighbor Innovation: Negligence

Hudson v. Swain (Georgia 2006)
Summary: Pile up on the Atlanta connectors. Order of cars: Swain – Warren – Corley – MW - Ross - Hudson

Swain admitted hitting Warren’s car (directly in front of her), but that collision didn’t cause any collision with the Hudson’s car, the 6th car in front of her Ken Hudson testified, “All [he knew] is that we were sitting still and next thing you know, we got hit.” According to Hudsons, the affidavits and Swain’s guilty plea to following too closely show that Swain’s failure to stop was the cause of their damages Hudsons point out, the essential elements of a cause of action in negligence are: ○ ○ ○ ○ A legal duty to conform to a standard of conduct raised by the law for the protection of others against unreasonable risks of harm A breach of this standard A legally attributable causal connection between the conduct and the resulting injury Some loss or damage flowing to the plaintiff’s legally protected interest as a result of the alleged breach of the legal duty

• •

Assuming Swain’s guilty plea established she breached the duty of due care, doesn’t establish her liability to Hudsons. “Negligence alone is insufficient to sustain recovery” ○ “no matter how negligent a party may be, if his act stands in no causal relation to the injury it is not actionable” whether Swain caused their damages (burden is on plaintiffs)

○ Whether the Hudsons pointed to specific evidence giving rise to a triable issue on
• Ken Hudson’s testimony was contradictory:

○ On motion for summary judgment a party’s self-conflicting testimony is to be
construed against him unless a reasonable explanation for the contradiction is offered. No explanations were offered, so the trial court was required to eliminate the favorable portions of the contradictory testimony, construe remaining testimony

in favor of the Hudsons – not enough to create an issue of fact on causation. Trial court was right in judging for Swain.

• •

Burden of evidence is on the plantiff by showing preponderance greater than 50% Duty one person owes to another is reasonable care.

Conclusion: “Therefore, even viewing all the facts and reasonable inferences from those facts in a light most favorable to the Hudsons, as the nonmoving parties, the trial court did not err by granting summary judgment to Swain.”

Judgment affirmed

Maybank v. S. S. Kresge Company, and G. T. E. Sylvania, Inc.
Summary: • Exploding flash cube injures a woman. She won because it prove that it was not reasonable that flash cubes will explote A flashcube which does not work properly and explodes is not merchantable. A flashcube that shatters might be merchantable Plaintiff proved injury to her person which is a compensable consequential damage for breach of an implied warranty of merchantability Plaintiff’s evidence exceeds mere conjecture in proving defendant sold her a defective product which proximately caused injury to her person Evidence was sufficient to carry the case to the jury on the claim of breach of an express warranty, negligence and strict liability. Doctrine of strict liability applies only in cases involving dangerous instrumentalities such as explosives (flashcube). Case hinges on whether the plaintiff presented evidence sufficient to get to the jury on the existence of implied warranty or merchantability which was breached by the seller. Plaintiff purchased the package of flashcubes for $0.88 from defendant’s K-mart store

• • •

An action for breach of implied warranty or merchantability entitles a plaintiff to recover without any proof of negligence on a defendant’s part where it is shown that: • • • • A merchant sold goods The goods were not “merchantable” at the time of sale The plaintiff (or his property) was injured by such goods The defect or other condition amounting to a breach of an implied warranty of merchantability proximately caused by the injury

• •

The plaintiff so injured gave timely notice to the seller Goods to be “merchantable” must be at least such as: ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Pass without obligation in the trade under the contract description; and In the case of fungible goods, are of fair average quality w/ the description; and Are fit for the ordinary purposes for which the goods are used; and Run, within the variations permitted by the agreement, of even kind, quality and quantity within each unit and among all units involved; and Are adequately contained, packaged, labeled as agreement may require; and Conform to the promises of fact made on the container or label if any

MacPherson v. Buick Motor Car (New York, 1916)

Judge Cardozo case – abandonment (not longer use the)of Privity Doctrine: you should only suit the person you have a contract with- provides that a contract cannot confer rights or impose obligations arising under it on any person or agent except the parties to it. In NY there was a law that you can not sue the manufacturer unless you had a contractual relationship with the company The law would not let McPherson sue the manufacturer due to no direct relationship. Cardozo said that was enough and changed the ruling to allow consumers to bring negligence claims to products.

• •

STRICT LIABILITY for "Defective" Products

William B. Greenman v. Yuba Power Products, Inc. and The Hayseed
• • • •
Greenman is making a chalice and has a Shopsmithand fails while making a lathe. The wood flies out and Greenman sues the Yuba. They go back to strick liability (you don’t have to prove except *) If they would have find Greenman negligible he will have lost, but he was not. In this case they use strict liability. Plaintiff's suit based upon NEGLIGENCE and WARRANTY is eschewed in favor of STRICT LIABILITY

○ Court announces a new test for liability*
  plaintiff is injured by product plaintiff was using product as intended

  •

plaintiff was not aware of "Defect" in design the "Defect" makes the good unsafe

The concept of "Defect" ○ DEFECT can be evinced through:    Mismanufacture Misdesign Warning Defects

Greenman was TRUE Strict Products Liability

○ Manufacturer was liable despite the showing of "REASONABLE ACTIONS"
○ ○ • Liability was based purely on the showing of DEFECT Of late, Negligence aspects have crept back into Strict Products Liability

JUSTIFICATIONS FOR STRICT LIABILITY ○ ○ ○ Cost better borne by the Marketplace Seller involved in a SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP with consumer Consumer is unduly burdened in Negligence or Contract law  ○ ○ special rules, requirements, burdens of proof

Fix deterrence at point of control Society expects safe products

Main Idea: Apple Juice Testing Don’t try to hide the evidence Do your due diligence

Summary: The CEO of Beech-Nut Nutrition Corp. must decide what to do when he receives information that the company's supply of apple juice concentrate may be adulterated. The concentrate is used in many of the company's juice products. It appears that others in the company may have had reason to doubt the authenticity of the concentrate for several years. The case illustrates the importance of accurate information and open channels of communication to ensure sound decision making by top management. Also illustrates how emphasis on financial objectives and designated goals may obscure important ethical and legal considerations. May be used to discuss organizational barriers to information flow, approaches to decision making, and the role of the FDA and other U.S. regulatory officials in ensuring food purity.

Parties Involved: Peter Andersen: Robert Shore: Tom Storer: N. Haskins: Bruce McIntosh: President/CEO of Beech-Nut Nutrition (appointed April, 1981) VP, Finance VP, Operations (Canajoharie native) Director, R&D Director, QA (Johnny Appleseed ??); reports to Storer

• • • • •

Consequences for Beech-Nut

Indicted by the Department of Justice on charges of the sale of adulterated and misbranded product. Company pleads guilty due to the “collective knowledge” of the organization: $2 million fine (largest ever paid by 6 times) $140,000 fees for FDA investigations Barred from federal contracting Also, $7.5 million settlement in class action suit against the firm Market share: dropped 20% 1987-88 Record losses in 1987 1988 costs (est.) $25 million for the controversy (fines, legal, lost sales) 1988 financial results: $15 million loss on $130 million sales 1989: Nestle sells Beech-nut to Ralston-Purina for a bargain (est. $65-90 million) Anderson DID SAVE $3.5 million by avoiding the destruction of the original product

• • • • •

Consequences for Anderson: • • • • Indicted by the DOJ on charges of the sale of adulterated and misbranded product. First trial: guilty, sentenced to 1 year in prison plus $100K fine Dimissed Subsequent trial: pled guilty to 10 felony counts of misbranding- sentenced to 5 years probation, 6 months community service, and $100K fine

Consequences for Storer:

• •

Indicted by the DOJ on charges of the sale of adulterated and misbranded product. Guilty, sentenced to 1 year in prison plus $100K fine.

Beech Nut Nutrition (A-2) • • • • FDA visits Canajoharie plant, collects samples from 4 different production batches, all made w/ concentrate supplied by Universal to be tested in new methodology in Buffalo Aug 11, NYS Dept of Agriculture and Markets informs McIntosh a jar of BN apple juice from a retail store tested as adulterated Aug 12, BN ships 30,000 cases of apple and assorted juices to Secaucus, NJ Aug 20, FDA is of the opinion the 4 samples in Buffalo were adulterated Maltby advises to ship 20,000 cases from Secaucus, NJ to Puerto Rico to avoid seizure by FDA; destroy the four batches the FDA samples came from Maltby also advised Andersen he could legally refuse to provide info to the FDA

• •

Beech Nut Nutrition (A-3) • • Negotiated recall October, 1982; spring of 1983, FDA receives Johnny Appleseed letter BN’s efforts to dispose of juice made from Universal concentrate, shipment to Puerto Rican distributor discounts made by Andersen, also to DR distributor, huge discounts, lacking documentation; evidence Universal is making phony concentrate

The Constitution of the United States Article I Section 8
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; … To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes; …To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Amendment 14 - Citizenship Rights. Ratified 7/9/1868.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. …

Amendment 15 - Race No Bar to Vote. Ratified 2/3/1870.
1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation

Heart of Atlanta Motel vs US (1964)
Enforce Civil Rights Act – raise question of how extensive is Commerce Clause • Motel does not let African Americans stay there • Congress relies on commerce clause to demand that it allow African Americans stay because people are moving between the states to stay in the Motel: “Interstate Commerce” Conclusion: Congress have to say how they were going to fix it. “But this is a matter of policy that rests entirely with the Congress not with the courts. How obstructions in commerce may be removed--what means are to be employed--is within the sound and exclusive discretion of the Congress. It is subject only to one caveat--that the means chosen by it must be reasonably adapted to the end permitted by the Constitution. We cannot say that its choice here was not so adapted. The Constitution requires no more.”


Gibbons vs Ogden (US 1824)
Fulton steamboats given monopoly power by state of NY from NY to NJ –  Courts says yes – congress can come in and interrupt what NY did and • Commerce Clause – Article 8 section 1 - Interstate means “between states” but not purely internal to a state. “Regulate” means to “control to the utmost extent” – very expansive!

Ollie’s Barbeque – yes – this business engages in interstate commerce b/c its
suppliers are from out of state

US v Lopez (1995) – (cannot bring handgun within 20yards of elementary school)
Rehnquist court – sets limitation on commerce clause – not enough that handguns/ammunition can be sourced out of state; Congress cannot criminalize handguns by schools federally – must leave as state issue – not want to continue centralizing government

Weiner v. McGraw Hill (NY 1982) At trial, Weiner’s case was dismissed consistent with EAW.

Appeal: Grounds the employment relation in contract law—not tort. While EAW is the presumption in employment, that presumption can be rebutted. Possible evidence: promises, handbooks, signing ceremonies. Here, the contract was formed at hiring, and there was consideration for the “just cause” provision.

Griggs vs. Duke Power (US, 1971)
Civil rights act went into effect and company installs tests that gives to all employees • • Trial court – says tests are not violation Supreme Court says – despite that tests don’t seem to be discriminatory, statistics show the same results – current employees who didn’t pass tests. Also, the test should be related with performance on the job. Disparate treatment – evidence that employer is treating different people differently – against Civil Rights act Disparate impact – statistical showing, even if employer’s policy is neutral on its face – also against Civil Rights Act (from this case) Defenses to disparate treatment (when statistics show that disparate proportion of whites/blacks, etc things that are defenses to these claims) ○ Bona fide occupational qualifications ○ Seniority and merit systems – so long as not purposeful discrimination

• • •

Meritor Savings Bank vs. Vinson (US, 1986)
woman claims sexual harassment • • • • Trial court – denied relief , they said it was voluntary Supreme Court – qualifies under Title 7 – as hostile environment, so they send her back to trial Quid pro quo violation – always a violation if offered to exchange job benefits for sexual favors Hostile working atmosphere violations – ○ Epithets, slurs, negative stereotyping, intimidating acts, and/or graphic materials that show hostility toward an individual or group ○ Other types of conduct that affect the work environment. ○ Must be pervasive – what does pervasive mean? – avoid it entirely! Supervisors are targets! can employee protect self Have reasonable policy and procedure that employees can use to complain – And employee must ACT on it! Person who is being harassed had to not avail themselves

• How • • •

Joe’s Stone Crab EEOC
Male waiters preferred in classy restaurants. Courts determined that this was discrimination based on gender.

Result: “Judge Hurley also awarded damages in the amount of $154,205 (plus interest) to four claimants who attended past Roll Calls but were denied employment. The court's damages were based on the difference in income from the women's actual work history compared to what it would have been had they worked at Joe's.”

Landgraf and Du Pont Merck
When Landgraf took over the leadership of DuPont Pharma and Imaging division in 1988, what challenges did he face in diversity? • • • Merger Pay Inequalities Rapid growth- opportunity?

How serious was the situation? Did he need to respond?

Landraf did the following things: • • He tried to raise people’s pay Created task force

Summary: December 1993, Kurt Landgraf just took over as CEO of DPM. Receives troubling letter, emails from AA’s in R&D (claimed dept discriminated against them)

• • • • •

Landgraf had planned to downsize by 15%: “Performance – No Excuses”; inclusive workplace African Americans afraid they’ll be the first to be terminated Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) contacted; threatened class action Joseph Mollica (former CEO) and David Martin (Exec VP of R&D) had retired and left Situation similar to one Landgraf faced in 1988 during a period of overhiring; “a manager’s nightmare, inheriting someone else’s garbage”

Imperatives: ○ ○ Resolve the equity issues inherent in the allegations of racial discrimination and the possibility of a costly, time-consuming and damaging lawsuit Meet the increased financial demands placed on DPM despite downsizing, reorganization, and a rapidly changing business climate in the pharmaceutical industry

Kurt Landgraf at DuPont:

• • •

Moved through variety of sales and marketing positions at J&J and UpJohn; felt DP was conservative, prejudiced, closed Headed pharmaceutical operations in Europe for 3 years; opened his eyes to the ways distrust of “the other” can undermine teamwork and business success Became Mgr of Corporate Plans Dept (long-range strategic vision) Named Director of Pharmaceuticals and Imaging, 1991 his division was absorbed into the JV Landgraf has no PhD, but “senior managers who are trained in the social sciences are far better managers than those with technical, hard science, or engineering degrees,” especially since “there is no right answer to lots of questions” Landgraf: graduate degrees in economics, business administration, sociology- best prep to lead

Diversity in DuPont’s Pharmaceutical Division:

1988: $50M 1991: $500M ○ ○


Establishing a vision for the organization, set of principles (grew up Catholic) 1991: philosophy was codified as the “DPM Corporate Behavioral Guidelines”

1986: DuPont acquires American Critical Care: worst acquisition in history of mankind 10/3/88: Landgraf receives unsigned letter to VP from “women and minority reps”; class action Landgraf asks MaryAnn Kummert to head a task force to investigate; Regional Sales Director Kummert given 3.5 months to come up with recommendations; anything reasonable: implement Task force: 10 people= 5 white women, 1 black woman, 2 black men, 2 white men ○ Unearthed pay substantial inequalities

• • •

○ Landgraf brings salaries for similar jobs up to parity, imposed strict guidelines on
overt forms of harassment, mandated sensitivity trainings, institutionalized the task force

○ In one day, Landgraf signed 188 pay changes to bring people to same pay

○ Kummert claimed more men were impacted (higher % of men than women in
company) ○ ○ Company spent $250,000 on mandatory “sensitivity training” workshops Fired one Senior Mgr, demoted another for breaking the rules team) ○ ○ Task Force met 3 times/year Herbert: level the playing field, create awareness of cultural sensitivity, create systems of accountability (especially critical); need to be financial disincentives to not performing

○ Hired consultant on diversity Kirson Herbert (AA, 20+ yrs exp, Kummert’s original

○ Kummert’s team recommend Diversity Task Force be a company-wide effort
○ Recommendations: 360-degree evaluation, mirror the hiring goals w/ US population (50% women, 25% minority); you only get what you measure

Jerry Gaylord (head of pharma salesforce) saw increased changes (increase in women), though he believed changes in the hiring pool would have resulted in a new gender mix anyways; believes finding highly qualified minority candidates is harder ○ ○ Goal was to develop “a population mixture to match that of our customers” Growing managed-care industry required a team sales approach; no access to “good-old-boys” network Landgraf’s changes; first off-site area sales mtg, women did way better than men

○ Mike George, Director of Worldwide Marketing in 1989 was very receptive to

DuPont Merck Pharmaceutical Company:

1/1/91 – DuPont and Merck merger; 3rd largest chemical OEM + largest US pharma maker ○ 50-50 Co-owned with a six person board drawn equally from the two parents

 DP brought entire pharma, R&D, 1,500 scientists (400 PhD), 600 salespeople,
administrative staff; Merck brought 10 employees, European rights to marketing several prescription medicines, marketing expertise, cash  For an undisclosed period of time, all profits would go into the JV; Merck’s products ~ 35% of sales, DP’s product ~65% of sales

The Changing Pharmaceutical Industry: • • • Highly fragmented: no company had > 5% market share; top 25 OEM’s had 75% of market Clinton administration health care reforms: intense pricing pressure 1990s: profits grew < half of the annual average of the 1980s – companies started shedding jobs

Kurt Landgraf as CEO: Going Forward at DPM: • • Monthly communication: outlined “strategies we intend to pursue to reach our vision” DuPont would be “fully functioning, but not fully integrated”

African-Americans at DuPont Merck: • 2+ AA employees group, email network (all informal)

Class Action Suit:

• •

Wendell Wilkerson joined DuPont in 1979 w/ PhD in Chemistry; late 50s/60s, involved in the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), other civil rights causes; worked directly w/ MLK Jr Wasn’t interested in DuPont because it was “conservative and racist”, but believed if he “worked his ass off, he could run the place” Started off with a great manager, than had a worthless one; 12-15 years of complaining loudly – WW sent a letter outlining his concerns and threatening a class action suit 12/1/93: CORE writes to Landgraf w/ “many concerns about the mistreatment and lack of promotional opportunities of AA within DuPont/Merck, especially in R&D”

Landgraf Responds: • Immediate inclination was to setup a meeting with the letter’s authors; when he learned through Herbert that WW’s Core Team was not a companywide group, he hesitated Landgraf instructed Herbert to work with Gloria Hammond (DPM Compliance officer) other AA’s to organize a forum to discuss employment issues

The African-American Employees’ Forum: • Duane Holland, DPM’s first AA VP of Workforce Development and Diversity, led the forum (just promoted days before); only one of 13 managers who did not have a division reporting to him Holland and Landgraf framed the Forum as a celebration of MLK’s values

No one on mgt committee able to respond to questions about employment for AA within scientific divisions because a successor to Martin hadn’t been named, Pieter Timmermans (SVP R&D) was absent, and Ken Kasses, President of Radiopharmaceuticals, arrived late

The African-American Scientist Program:

1992: Holland and David Grandison, Director of Worldwide Medical Affairs, formalized Wilkerson’s efforts by creating the AA Scientist Program 1993: contacts recommended 14 AA’s: 3 were interviewed, none received job offers

The Bi-Modal Workplace:

At the end of the Forum, that’s how Landgraf referred to DPM Donna Jones’ story illustrative of the bi-modality of DuPont/Merck environment ○ Moved from R&D< reorganized within marketing; in R&D, she was treated as a novelty by those more receptive to her being there; ignored by those less receptive to her there “Ignorance and fear” made her very uncomfortable – she’d never go back to R&D

Barriers to Success:

• •
• •

Landgraf expected Holland to pull together a task force, achieve results by EOQ Critics argued R&D was an elitist degree-driven division (Landgraf had no hard degrees) Scientists don’t look favorably on efforts that take them away from work, no quant results < 1% of all PhD’s awarded in the US/yr awarded to AA scientists – R&D had limited labor pool Timmermans argued:

○ 1988: Landgraf could create gender equity through hiring, not the case now
○ ○ Whenever there is “pressure and urgency to hire” the results were “disastrous” DPM has a responsibility to hire the best scientists to assure medicines were effective and safe and there would be no surprises 10-20 years down the road

Timmermans was committed to a diverse workforce, but found himself “constantly criticized because we cannot deliver quickly”


“Even in the toughest economic times… if you decrease the negatives, you end with a powerful motivator. It’s simplicity that works; PhD’s can’t understand this simplicity” David Grandison (AA) believed there was “no insurmountable barrier” to hiring qualified AA’s DPM should tied potentially good AA scientists to itself through educational support programs R&D Managers “believed in [diversity], but didn’t really work on it in an ongoing process”

• •

Landgraf’s Decision: • • • • • Needed to make a swift decision Under pressure to meet financial growth schedule of the organization set by parent companies Business success/failure rested on the success/failure of DPM’s R&D pipeline Needed to proceed with downsizing as equitably as possible Believed they shouldn’t “play the numbers game” yet supported numerical goals as “short-term” answers until corporate culture made them unnecessary Landgraf had one AA in mind for Martin’s head R&D position and he would personally review the employment records of every individual laid off during downsizing