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That’s why the rewards for getting one are good: a degree illustrates a person can commit to one thing for at least 3 years, work hard, meet deadlines and remain dedicated over the long‐term and through a few nights burning the midnight oil working on essays, treatments or just brainstorming narrative ideas during a serious mental block. Are you ready to make the commitment, and stick to it? If you really are; in 3 years you will leave this institution with a qualification and a set of skills and experiences that have the power to start‐up and sustain your whole career. That’s 1st prize. Start working for it today. Here are some tips to help you on your way: 1 Take some responsibility for your own learning Tertiary Learning is not like high school. At a tertiary level you are expected to take more responsibility for your learning. This entails following up lectures with wider reading and research. A lecture is a starting point and not an end‐point. For examples, if you find a lecture on the representation of disability interesting then rent a relevant movie (My Left Foot, A Beautiful Mind) and start analyzing for yourself. Read more about the concept and theory of representation or about disability politics. What are your own thoughts? To be a responsible and effective theatre practitioner or film maker you have to have your own mind and have thought deeply about a huge number of subjects and issues as well as having worked on your discipline specific technical skills. At a tertiary level the lecturers are not supposed to give you all the information to pass, like they were expected to at school. Gaining full benefit from the intellectual aspects of the AFDA Learning programme or from any degree course is YOUR responsibility. Start with attending all of your Core Course lectures and continue by researching, reading and using your mind when you watch a film or stage performance to relate it to what you are learning. By the time you leave AFDA your mind should be as fine‐tuned and ready for industry as your knowledge and skills related to your discipline. Have initiative when it comes to your own learning. Find various sources of information….the AFDA resource centre is not the only library in town! There are mainstream cinemas, art‐house cinemas, there are film and theatre journals, there are entertainment/arts sections in The Star and the Mail and Guardian. Read! Read! Read!! You are a degree student! Know what is going on in your own region, and your own country. What is happening to South Africans today, outside of your world? Never assume that a piece of information is not relevant to you because it does not specifically pertain to your chosen discipline. You are not only here to practice craft skills but to become someone who has the ability to conceptualise and solve problems innovatively. Create links between the information on offer and your own understanding of the world you live in.
Page | 1 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July)
be it your friend’s work. Make sure you have back‐ups. paper clips. If you are not filming during the holidays try to maximize your earning potential during these periods. folders). o Manage your time You need to ensure you get the right balance of study. word or page numbers required. Do not allow such work to interfere with scheduled times when you are expected to be at school. The lecturers are not going to spoon‐feed you and mother you through the process. student fun and proper relaxation. If you have two deadlines close together. 3 Plagiarism It is a serious breach of the AFDA Course Guidelines for you to copy any material from another person. Empower yourself with the little pieces of logistical knowledge you need to succeed: o What are your deadlines this term? Find out from the first day of term and plan for how you will complete each assignment on time. from a website. It happens to a few people every time: they miss a deadline because the computer crashed and they never made a copy. This is an offence that would lead to disciplinary action if detected. 2 Self‐Management At tertiary level you are the navigator of your own success. What is plagiarism exactly? Page | 2 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) . spacing. Do keep in mind that the lecturers know your field of study. stress and in‐fighting inevitably caused by bad time management and intense working to a tight deadline. layout. The course guidelines provide this information so be sure to read through them thoroughly before you start typing your treatment. o Know what is expected Familiarise yourself with the course guidelines. do you know how many lectures you need to attend in order to obtain your due performed status? Furthermore. Use the facilities wisely and timeously. So it is important to collaborate to create a good work ethic in your project group. If you need to do part time work in order to fund your studies. how are you going to make sure you do both assignments to the best of your ability and do not spin yourself into a flurry of panicked last minute activity culminating in work that does not reflect your abilities? o What resources do you need to complete your treatments? Be ready and stock up early on the things you may need as you near a deadline such as the necessary folders as specified in the course guidelines. make note of what you are required to deliver in terms of presentation of treatment work (font. printer cartridges or whatever else you may need. a hole puncher. book or article. without acknowledging the source and therefore implying the work is your own thoughts. ensure that you do not take on too much. Just in case there is a last‐minute rush to meet your deadline do not increase the stress on yourself by being unprepared. If every group member starts their research and project preparation from day one of each term then you will make it as a group to the end of each term without the sleep deprivation. The AFDA programme is demanding and relies upon team work. so it is usually very obvious to them when you have “borrowed” the material from someone else. There is not a computer for every student so consider getting ahead and getting going with your written work. and any other expectations. For instance. You do not want to find yourself in the position of being penalized because you unwittingly breached a course guideline.
they will be learning how to reference and probably losing marks when they fail to do so properly. It is part of getting a degree and you cannot avoid it. Being widely read and informed in your field increases your credibility. If you are handing in this work as part of a course that will lead to a degree you have to follow these procedures. Page | 3 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) . They are still not your ideas. o It also gives weight to (supports) your argument. which is the preferred way to reference material at AFDA. Ask any degree student you know from any institution. whether that source has been formally published. To do so is to deceive your lecturers into thinking these are your own thoughts and you will be marked for work that is not originally your own. The next section of this orientation pack will explain the Harvard referencing system. there may be something they have not seen before they wish to explore or to check your use of the material. Why is it wrong? If you do not acknowledge the source of the work then you are alleging the work is your own. Always be consistent and correct. Is it to my benefit to show my sources? Of course! Firstly it is the right thing to do. Then as you write your essay or treatment. Firstly. you need to make thorough notes as you are reading and researching so that when you write your essay or treatment.It is the deliberate use of the work or ideas of any other person without adequate acknowledgement of the original source. The sooner you learn this the more credible your work will be to your lecturers. This is academic protocol. it allows those that read your work to consult your sources themselves. You will actually be rewarded for the research you have done IF you acknowledge your sources properly. 4 Referencing your work At AFDA we use the combined Harvard method of referencing. How do I acknowledge my sources? There are formal systems for this that you MUST follow. As you make notes write down all the information you will need if you use that idea or quotation in the work you submit. bad practice. add the referencing as you go along. comes from a friend who says it’s ok for you to borrow his/her work or if it is freely available on the internet. To do so is unethical. Use the Harvard method to ensure that you have a full reference in your text to the sources listed in your reference list. you know where you got any idea from. Thirdly. And. Secondly to acknowledge your sources is to show you have researched widely and understand what is happening in the field of study and for this you will receive marks. Doing this at the end is a lengthy task (if you have done sufficient research). against the AFDA course guidelines and may lead to a disciplinary procedure if detected. o It shows that you’ve done research and o care about the quality of your work. this includes if you put the idea into your own words.
’ b. If there is no date then type ‘n. The author’s surname. 6. J. not country or state/province. 1987b. and then include an in‐text reference at the end of the quote. 4. followed by a full stop. The format is always the same: Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) Page | 4 . then the authors initials (full stops after each initial). If you read a book but did not reference it in your essay you may NOT list it in your reference list. use double quotation marks. Notes on Reference Pages Every single item in your reference page must be referenced in your essay (using in‐text referencing). If there are two authors list both names. Fiske. Never use footnotes for referencing. Each entry starts on a new line. 2.d. but the following is a good rule of thumb: a. The next entry begins on a new line. followed by a full stop. 3. Eg. do not use numbers or bullet points for references. a comma. All entries in the reference page must be in alphabetical order. 1987a. 5. City of publication followed by a colon. Title and subtitle of the book or article in italics. If there are several items from the same author then list them in chronological order (oldest item first). 7. o At an undergraduate level all the theories you explain should be based on other author’s work and as such should be referenced. e. Fiske. o It tells the reader where they can find the theory/quote you have referenced. if there are more than two authors then you may use the first author’s name followed by ‘et al. The reference page is always a separate page at the end of the essay and in‐text references should always appear within the text. 8. c. o It shows that you did not plagiarise your essay. Whenever you make reference to someone else’s work ensure you use an in‐text reference: o If you are quoting directly from someone’s work. Publisher followed by a full stop.Harvard Referencing How to write a Reference Page 1. In‐Text Referencing In‐text referencing is useful for the following purposes: o It proves that you read the items in your reference list ‐ if you cannot provide an in‐text reference for an item in your reference list then do NOT include the item in your reference list. Once the conclusion of your essay has been written. start on a new page. Specific information for each type of source you might use is below. The year of publication. J. If you are uncertain look up the publisher’s website online to determine which city they operate from. Type the heading ‘References’ in bold. Note this is the city of publication. o If you are explaining someone’s theory/idea/experience you must still include an in‐text reference so the reader knows where the theory comes from. If you need to reference a number of films in your essay after the reference include a ‘Filmography’ and reference films/television shows as noted below. d.’ (which stands for ‘no date’) instead. If there are several items from the same author in the same year then add a letter after the year.
The title of the journal is italicised. The season "Fall" follows the page reference. volume or number of issue: page reference. 1988. 1993. a) Kruger.. J. issue number (=3). date of issue. Title of article. year. Psychology today. page number) if you wish to return to the previous author’s theory. Posner. Date. 1993:13) Article: Periodical ‐ journal has a seasonal date Author. Seeing the mind. Title of article. example: (1987: 80). Date. Communicare. 1987: 67) is applied in my film. o If you continue discussing the same author’s work but are referencing a different page you need only reference the year and page in brackets. Next the year followed by a colon. R. If you have already mentioned the author’s name in the paragraph then you only need list the year and page number in brackets. A journal article indicating journal title. Fall. Title of journal.References are usually in brackets. page numbers (=12‐15) and date (=March 11). Science. 45(2):10‐36. Title of journal. 7(3):12‐15. 1993. The semantics of advertising. Consulting psychology journal: practice and research.. Finally the page number..T. Sexism in advertising. & Palmer. NOT the title of the article. Oct 29. Example b: In‐text referencing: (Klimoski & Palmer. volume or number of issue: page reference. Example: The concept of intertextuality (Fiske. Date. b) Klimoski. M. NB. I. In‐text referencing: Posner (1993:A12) Page | 5 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) .P. volume (=7). 19:34‐37. S. Article: Magazine (magazine = popular literature) Author. Season. Title of journal. The ADA and the hiring process in organisations. March 11. S. o If you begin discussing another author’s work then you must include a full reference (name. Title of article. 262:673‐674. First is the author’s surname followed by a comma. volume of journal (number of issue):page reference. o o o o o o Referencing Each entry is formatted as follow: Format Examples Notes Article: Periodical ‐ journal has a volume number and an issue number Author. 1986. Lee.
S.). Book: Single author Author.L. Title: subtitle. III & Craik.G.). ‘Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory’. Kent. Book: Corporate author Author. Variety of memory & consciousness. 1998.I. Date. Title of book. Stewart. A. R. Place: Publisher. The Argus: 3.M. Title of article. DC: When an organisation "writes" a book it is known as the corporate author.’ thereafter (‘et al’ means “and others” in latin). Title. Bellville: Sanlam.) Page | 6 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) . Book: Two or more authors Authors. In Editors of book (eds. Date. May 17. Date. a) Bjork. o Sanlam is also the publisher. Your textual reference would read: (Henderson et al. Title: subtitle.T. P. If a book has more than two authors then list the first author and type ‘et al. Henderson. a) Sanlam. The title of newspaper is followed by a colon. M. S. Example b: The personal author (if there is one) is subordinate to the organisation. 1988.L. NJ: Erlbaum. Place: Publisher. New York: Van Nostrand. Title: subtitle of the chapter. The Ultimate History of Video Games. 309‐330. p. 1989. New York: Three Rivers Press. Hillsdale. 123). Date. Should privatisation prosper? SAA in the year 1990. (1992. F. 1987:64). Place: Publisher. Place: Publisher.Article: Newspaper ‐ Author Author. The ampersand (&) before the last name NB. b) Employee Benefit Research Institute. Annual report: 1998. The day of the month follows the page reference. R. Page references. Washington. 1987. The date of the annual report is also part of the title. February). 2001. Example a: o Sanlam is the name of an organisation. and Smith. Source of health insurance and characteristics of the uninsured (Issue Brief No.. Treat like a magazine or journal. The tenets of moral philosophy. unless the volume or issue number is known. Date. (eds. Book: Chapter from a book with different contributors Authors. In Roediger H. Title of the newspaper in italics. Month and day. Title of newspaper: page reference.
The first word of the subtitle starts with a lower case letter. The allegorical novels of J. The nature of the physical universe. Book: Two items by same author in the same year Authors. N. Date(a). 124‐139. 35(6):34‐41. Lower case e in 'eds'.: Prentice‐Hall. Gillian S.O. Englewood Cliffs. September. College English. p. The chapter is by one person (or more) and the book by another (or more). The title ends with a full stop before the edition statement. 1987. Place: Publisher. Place: Publisher. (eds). 1981. Aspects of style in the novels of J. Title: subtitle.. Coetzee. Book: Edition other than the first Authors. Book: Editors (or compilers) Authors. & Larson. 1984. Gillian S. "The" is ignored in filing. 1982b.b) Puttnam. New York: McGraw‐Hill. Title: subtitle. R. T. ed.. Oxford: Oxford University Press..). Gardner. 3rd rev. The items are alphabetical by title: The allegorical ..P. Title. a) Brunner. following the names. Ampersand (&) before the last name.L. First Name) The III that follows the name of Roediger indicates that this H. The date is followed by and "a" or a "b". Pringle. b) Mitchell. The title of the book is in italics. The place of values in a world of facts. Roediger is the third generation. Coetzee. Hieroglyphic writing: the Egyptian legacy. & Smithson. Subtitle: separated from the title with a colon.J. A. H. Date.M. R. (Qualification). People in organizations: an introduction to organizational behavior. NOT the title of the chapter. J. B.A. NJ = State of New Jersey in the USA. Name(s) of author(s) of book is given in inverted format (Last name. Ppringle.. R. (eds). Date. & Smith. (eds). Grahamstown: Rhodes University. (PhD thesis). The first word of the subtitle starts with a lower case letter (an. Harmondsworth: Penguin.. Child psychology: an introductory guide for parents and teachers. In Duff. You have consulted a chapter of the book. G.. 3rd ed. 1982a. W. Page | 7 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) . 1972. Place: Publisher. Edition. files before Aspects. Bibliographic detail of the book starts with a round bracket before the "In".M.
] South Africa. The author. Title of act. Publisher will be the official printer/publisher for the government of that country. K. Title of the paper: The role of the court. pp. Date. Date. Truther. Title of paper. Date of correspondence. Date.Brochures Name of organisation that produced the brochure. Give the full name of the department. 1982. Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities.S. South Africa. Cite only the paper read by Truter.. Date.] Page | 8 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) . Bloemfontein. The official name of the country is the entry element. 18‐23 June 1994.. [Original copy in records of the Town Council of Stellenbosch. Johannesburg: The Institute. [Brochure]. Guidelines for chairmen of publications committees. Description of the type of correspondence. [Note of location of the original document] Theron. 1993:1) Conference proceedings Author. The format is given in square brackets at the end of the entry. Mavis. Name of department. Author. Place and date of conference..g. Title. 4th ed. Place: Publisher. Lawrence. 46‐59. Correspondence Author of the letter. Research and Training Center on Independent Living. 1994. [Laws. Pretoria: Government Printer. Department of Home Affairs. Published conference proceedings. Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the South African Institute of Translators.] Government publications: Departments Correct name of country. Title of published document. The role of the court interpreter in the new South Africa. Letter to the Town Clerk of Stellenbosch. C. 1997. [Laws. South Africa: Government Printer UK: Her Majesty's Stationery Office – HMSO USA: US Government Printing Office Government publications: Laws Name of country (jurisdiction). Date. Title of brochure. Place: Publisher. page reference(s). In‐text referencing: ("Research and Training Center". 5 May. Date. Pretoria: Government Printer. [Brochure]. Title of the published volume: Proceedings. Atomic Energy Act. Author. No 92 of 1982.. KS: Author. Lawrence is subordinate to the company / organisation that produced the brochure. Place (of publication): Publisher. 1980. 1993. edition. e.
[4 September 1996].htm. Volume: Page references. 2009.. Secondary source (one source cited in another source) Author. M. The official name of the country is the entry element. McKiernan. Curtin. Description of interview with day.. Available: URL (Internet address).iastate. month and year.). When the cited work (the first work) was not read then the in‐text reference will look like this: Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart. 1993. Give the full name of the department. 1987. Atkins & Haller.edu/~CYBERSTACKS/Aristotle. [Online].. Title.public.. AFDA is the copyright holder of all scripts and films produced by students while at AFDA. P. The copyright holder is usually the studio that produced the film.W. [Date you accessed the site]. Title: Sub‐title. Page | 9 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) . G. Coltheart et al later refers to this study in their article titled "Models of reading aloud. Date. Script/Screenplay Writer. Dene. 1996. City of publication: Copyrightholder. The secondary source (the second source) should be given in the reference list. Models of reading aloud: Dual‐route and parallel‐ distributed‐processing approaches. Schaie." (The study is cited in Coltheart et al.. Example b: You have had a personal conversation with K. Date. Black Swan Screenplay. Cape Town. [Cassette recording in possession of author] b) Schaie. April 18. Interview Name of person interviewed. Title of webpage. Coltheart. [Online]. A study was done by Seidenberg and McClelland. & Haller. et al. 1993) confirmed that . Date. Interview with the author on 4 August 1987. Example a: You have interviewed Dene Smuts and have taped the interview.. 100: 589‐608. 1993. M. B. The city of publication (if not available) is the same as the city the copyright holder is located in. Available: http://www. New York: Protozoa Pictures. Project Aristotle: automated caterogization of Web resources. M.W.. Journal Title. K. Psychological review. Curtis. Date (last updated). [Personal communication].. [format] a) Smuts. Atkins. Heyman. Title of the act is in italics Internet Author.
New York and Washington. [format if other than print] a) Potgieter. D. Month and day of broadcast. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. Page | 10 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) . Theses and dissertations Author. R. 1983. Entry is under the title of the programme. Title of article. (M Com‐ verhandeling). Date.) In example a you used the microfiche copy of the thesis ‐ the format is given in square brackets at the end of the entry. University of Victoria. London: BBC. British Columbia. [Mikrofiche] b) Almeida. Use the language of the publication ‐ if the thesis is in Afrikaans. Place: Academic institution. Title: subtitle. The title of the programme is in italics. Oct 11. Degree. Date. 1990. Video (or DVD) Title: subtitle. (MA‐thesis. Father's participation of family work: consequences for father's stress and father‐child relations. if it is in English.Television broadcast Programme Title. Place: Publisher. give the bibliographic detail in Afrikaans. give the bibliographic detail in English. Pretoria: UNISA. [Video recording] The format [video recording] is placed at the end of the entry in square brackets. M. 1985. 1993. Place: Broadcast service.S. [format] The interview game. Die advertensiewese in Suid‐Afrika: 'n kritiese ondersoek. DC: Public Broadcasting Service. Canada. Date.
Writing the Report/Assignment: Harvard Referencing Style. School of Dramatic Art: Rules and Style Guide. Witwatersrand School of Arts. Available: http://www.d. n.d.uct.lib.References University of Cape Town.ac. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand. n.za/infolit/bibharvard. [Online]. Page | 11 Academic Writing Orientation (Updated 13 July) .htm [28 April 2011].
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