A freight forwarder, forwarder, or forwarding agent is a person or company that organizes shipments for individuals or corporations to get large

orders from the manufacturer or producer to market or final [1][2][3] point of distribution. Forwarders will contract with a carrier to facilitate the movement of goods. A forwarder is not typically a carrier, but is an expert in supply chain management. In other words, a freight forwarder is a "travel agent," for the cargo industry, or a third-party (non-asset-based) logistics provider. A forwarder will contract with asset-based carriers to move cargo ranging from raw agricultural products to manufactured goods. Freight can be booked on a variety of carrier types, including ships, airplanes, trucks, and railroads. It's not unusual for a shipment to move along its route on multiple carrier types. International freight forwarders typically arrange cargo movement to an international destination. International freight forwarders, have the expertise that allows them to prepare and process the documentation and perform related activities pertaining to international shipments. Some of the typical information reviewed by a freight forwarder is the commercial invoice, shipper's export declaration, bill of lading, and other documents required by the carrier or country of export, import, or transshipment. Much of this information is now processed in a paperless environment. The FIATA short-hand description of the freight forwarder as the 'Architect of Transport' illustrates clearly the commercial position of the forwarder relative to his client. In Europe there are forwarders that specialize in 'niche' areas such as rail-freight and collection and deliveries around a large port. The latter are called Hafen (port) Spediteure (Port Forwarders). A forwarder in some countries may sometimes deal only with domestic traffic and never handle international traffic. One of the earliest freight forwarders of record is the now defunct Thomas Meadows and Company Limited of London, England. The firm was established in 1836 and was acquired by Rockwood International Freight Inc. in 1989. Rockwood was acquired by Delmar International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1990. According to "Understanding the Freight Business," written and published by the executive staff of Thomas Meadows and Company in 1972, the advent of reliable rail transport and steamships created the demand for the then fledgling freight forwarding industry. New world trade patterns developed between Europe and North America, creating additional demand. The first international freight forwarders were actually inn keepers in London who held and re-forward the personal effects of their hotel guests. The original function of the forwarder was to arrange for the carriage of his customers' goods by contracting with various carriers. His responsibilities included advice on all documentation and customs requirements in the country of destination. His correspondent agent overseas looked after his customers' and kept him informed about matters that would affect movement of goods. In modern times the forwarder still carries out those same responsibilities for his client. He still operates either as a domestic US carrier, or otherwise with a corresponding agent overseas or with his own company branch-office. In a single transaction, it can happen that the forwarder may be acting as a carrier (principal) or as an agent for his customer or both

A typical day for a freight forwarder would primarily consist of talking with clients and warehouse around the world. Taking this information and passing it along to the appropriate party whether that be an SSL (Steamship Line), United States Customs or the customer themselves. Along with making sure that the freight the client is importing or exporting gains entry into the country a freight forwarder must(most of the

time) arrange for said freight to be picked up and delivered to the final consignee's place of business. This requires contacting trucking companies, rail lines and even sometimes exporting the goods to a different country for final delivery. A lot of this is now done over the Internet and phones. A typical freight forwarder will spend most of the day at a desk in front of a computer.

container vs. provide ideas on optimal and most cost effective shipping alternatives. . people thought of customs brokers and freight forwarders as simply agents somehow linked to the shipping industry. County Chamber of Commerce. conference vs... and (2) Processes the documentation or performs related activities incident to those shipments. . "Freight Forwarder: Transport Architect". He must coordinate the complexity of financial.If necessary. For example. . "Forwarder's Procedure". The international freight forwarder must have an intimate knowledge of transportation techniques. Journal of Commerce. at last. National Customs Brokers & Freight Forwarder's Association " 'Ocean freight forwarder' means a person in the United States that: (1) Dispatches shipments from the United States via common carriers and books or otherwise arranges space for those shipments on behalf of shippers..Arrange forwarding to seaboard of the cargo loaded aboard ship. International Trade Line of Balto. Assist in negotiating inland and ocean rates. the forwarder performs an essential role in America's constantly growing foreign trade".Part 510...What is an International Freight Forwarder? . exclusive use.2(n) of "Licensing of Ocean Freight Forwarders" What specific functions does a freight forwarder normally perform? .. and has to know how to advise and act in the best interests of his exporter principal.. . The myriad of documentation requirements and government formalities are the details commonly handled by the Freight Forwarder. he will: . March 6.e.... . 1989 "Freight Forwarders can be thought of as travel agents for cargo shipped to overseas locations. transport and other service activities.. non-conference.. willing and able to provide the expert know-how and expertise needed to arrange for the movement of cargo from inland points to foreign destinations with maximum speed and efficiency and at the least cost to the exporter. both their possibilities and limitations.Arrange for insurance coverage. . air vs.. . ... Often called the "Architect of Transport". Many forwarders offer the same service on air freight and are consolidators. 1992 issue "An international freight forwarder brings together all the loose ends that must be coordinated if American products are to be shipped to foreign buyers in the course of our nation's international trade.Arrange consolidations of less-than-container load lots. Preliminary advice to the exporter: Explaining exporter's responsibilities / obligations under Terms of Sale (Incoterms®) requested. consolidation vs. these go-betweens are being given their due as crucial middlemen in making life easier for importers and exporters. They are both small and large firms that have been licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission as fit. arrange free domicile delivery abroad." .. As intermodal transportation becomes more complex. ocean. Most employ highly skilled and knowledgeable staffs who search for the most economical means to ship your cargo. .". January. breakbulk. Assist in determining the best way to ship i. Simply put. the freight forwarder is the cargo expediter.Arrange to receive export shipment for a client at any point of origin in the United States. "Once upon a time. the job of freight forwarder becomes more essential and difficult. courtesy of Journal of Commerce 1." . Now...

or remitting or advancing freight or other moneys or credit in connection with the dispatching of shipments. 2. where applicable. Can put exporter in touch with experts in the fields of trade financing. Advise of drawback opportunities for previously imported cargo being exported. which exporters can use as guidance. Normally prepare dock receipt. certificate of origin.explanation of methods of payment. AID documents. Advice as to what the exporter should accomplish and what the forwarder will accomplish for him. transshipment.S/overseas ports. consequences resulting from late delivery of freight and/or late documents. 3. special customs invoices. government export requirements. number/kind of packages. ` Choosing the steamship line as required. warehouse receipt. port of export. Recommendations regarding receiving payments for exports -. international banking. document discrepancies that can cause slow or non payment and/or confiscation of freight in foreign port.Packing / Marking recommendations. Advice as to possible problems may encounter: Improper packing. Review import licenses. bill of lading. Provide NVOCC consolidation services to exporters for LCL and FCL modes. Booking the freight / Shipping Operations: Provide custody and control of material in transit. direct vs. Estimate complete Export transportation and related costs for quotes (on Proforma invoice) and L/C. and marine insurance. Most forwarders have a "library" of information on U. Mechanics of booking and shipping: special handling considerations. Expedite production and delivery. size and type of container. cheapest method of shipping not always the best. inspection certificate. where stuffing takes place. ETA destination required. Explain port functions in connection with export. Handling freight or other moneys advanced by shippers. Interpret and control Letters of Credit. Coordination of positioning empty container to be delivered / returned (inland carrier). port of destination. Documentation for shipping: Certify and notarize invoices. commodity precise description. . insurance certificate. international marketing.

consignee or consignee's broker. the forwarders are usually asked to do so because of their knowledge of the available coverage and their limitations. or containerization. and what papers are required for it. shipper's export declaration.May prepare or assist in preparing with exporter: commercial invoice. They also arrange for the distribution of large lots. This includes directions on stowing and container use. 5. The ten major functions a forwarder can perform are: 1. Notification made for insurance. timely and safe fashion. Thanks to more efficient routing an exporter's goods may be more competitive in new markets. in accordance with the client's instructions. Transport Insurance: Unless the exporters make their own insurance arrangements. L/C. the most elementary role of the international freight forwarder is to arrange for the movement of goods from point A to point B. They give advice on foreign import regulations. 5. payment. in the most economical. marking and labelling. Packaging: They advise on or arrange for appropriate packaging. Warehousing and Distribution: Freight forwarders arrange storage. 2. and give advice on facilities. Customs Clearance: Freight forwarders need a basic knowledge of how local and foreign customs clearance works. consignee's broker. and advice purposes. 4. draft. Functions of the International Freight Forwarder According to the CIFFA. drawback forms. Notifications made in connection with the shipment: Notification normally made to exporter/shipper. rates and procedures. exporter's foreign sales representative. export license. Rate and Contract Negotiations: Forwarders command a large volume of freight and are thus in a . Best Routing: Freight forwarders can recommend the best (economical/timely/safe) routing and book space with a carrier. 4. consular invoices. consignee. forwarder may trace as necessary. transmittal letters. packing list. contract. Distribution of negotiable documents for collections: Forward documents to Bank. including re-labelling and re-shipping. While shipment is underway. 3. either after customs clearance or while still "in bond". 6. assist in filing claim when necessary and correct errors learned after the fact.

Furthermore. once delivered to the carrier. . freight forwarders can provide the exporter with an initial quotation on the following: · Cost of freight · Port charges · Consular fees · Cost of special documentation · Cost of insurance · Fee of the freight forwarder This information may be used to prepare an accurate price quotation for the foreign buyer. at great savings to the exporter. weather or riots. 9. Groupage/Consolidation: Smaller shipments may be moved into a full carload/trailer load/container load. 7. do indeed move out and reach their destination. strikes. Finding Alternatives: Forwarders are flexible and can find alternative ways of moving the goods in the case of an emergency such as earthquakes. 8. attend to reforwarding and customs clearance and are available for advice and consultation. A World-Wide Network: With branches or correspondents in all major ports/cities they act as groupage or degroupage agents.position of strength to obtain the best possible rates. Follow-Up: Forwarders stay in touch with their customers and see to it that their shipments. 10.

In such cases. What is a back to back shipment. cargo description. back to back bill of lading is when there is an NVOCC operator involved or when a Freight Forwarderwants to issue their own bill of lading. 2009 by Manaadiar This was a question from one the readers of the blog....?? Posted on November 23. the House Bill of Lading issued by the NVOCC/Freight Forwarder will be an EXACT replica of the Master Bill of Lading issued by the actual Shipping line.In order to meet the diverse requirements of the trading community Agency operations undertake Freight forwarding and other logistics operations like Air Freight.. Implementing a comprehensive system enables Freight forwarding companies to streamline operational and managerial process and gain better control of their business benefiting them and their customers These solutions have enabled the Agents / Freight Forwarders   Track Jobs and Job costing by estimating margins right from enquiry stage Revenue and profit management by automating work flows for transactions that dont match revenue norms  Tracking estimated and actual costs and margins Job Wise  Remove Duplication of work once for local requirements and once for Principal requirements  Operations by sharing of information across all functions  Better financial management due to real time invoicing and receivables management. measurements etc etc will all remain the same.. The only difference will be that the shipper. The EBMS team has enabled automation of these operations by simple processes that could meet such diverse and low revenue earning operations.. LCL consolidations etc. In the HBL    the Shipper will usually be the actual shipper/exporter of the cargo (or as dictated by the L/C) the Consignee will usually be the actual receiver/importer of the cargo (or as dictated by the L/C) the Notify could be the same as Consignee or any other party as dictated by the L/C) In the MBL    the Shipper will usually be the NVOCC operator or their agent or the Freight Forwarder. consignee and notify party details will be different in the HBL and MBL. . Well. number of containers. The rest of the details like vessel/voyage information.. weight... the Consignee will usually be the destination agent or counterpart or office of the NVOCC operator or the Freight Forwarder the Notify could be the same as Consignee or any other party. seal numbers. Its usually known as a back to back bill of lading rather than shipment as the shipment is actually the same but the documentation will be different.

On the other hand the NVOCC cannot act as an agent of a freight forwarder. This is a very important difference between NVOCC and freight forwarder. so one has to be very careful to make sure that the vital details remain the same when issuing a HBL on a back to back MBL. with intermodalism.The contract of carriage is generally governed by the contract of carriage of the Master bill of lading which usually overrides the House Bill of Lading contract as far as insurance cover is concerned. Transport has changed from sea transport from port to port being dominant to simply “transport” of . The NVOCC accepts the liabilities of a carrier in certain cases. The egg is an obvious example. Freight forwarding does not differ much in this aspect. As a matter of fact the NVOCC is agent based in its activities. The freight forwarder primarily specializes in transit. From earliest times human beings have used objects designed to hold other things. It is important to note that a freight forwarding company can act as an agent for NVOCC. Even nature did this before man thought of it. It is interesting to note that apart from the differences mentioned above between the NVOCC and the freight forwarder. also by land or by air. However. The freight forwarders on the other hand do not own and operated their own or leased containers. NVOCC specializes in transit. NVOCC stands for Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier. The status of ‘virtual carrier’ is accorded in certain areas to the NVOCC whereas freight forwarder is not accorded the status of virtual carrier. The huge scale of the system and the manner in which the system has influenced and affected the maritime industry leads to new ways of seeing transport of goods by sea and. The NVOCC operators in certain countries are requested to file their tariffs with the government regulatory bodies and thus create a public tariff. there are no major differences between the two.. though some differences exist between them. goods in transit and the major destination. The freight forwarder on the contrary is not required to file his tariffs with the government regulatory bodies and create a public tariff in the process. The use of containers in shipping is also not new. Rate this: Freight Forwarder vs NVOCC Freight Forwarder and NVOCC do almost the similar functions. It is important to know that the NVOCC would have its own branch at the other destination where it would deposit the goods issuing bills of lading in the process. Containerisation system. Containers are not new. The freight forwarder does not accept the liabilities of a carrier in any case. Jars for oil and wine were used thousands of years ago. what is new today is the concept of “unitisation” and the system of containerisation that results from unitisation. One of the main differences between NVOCC and Freight Forwarder is that the NVOCC sometimes can own or operate their own or leased containers.

communication. without intermediate reloading. both physical (the “hardware”) and non-physical (the “software”). utilisation and load factors. marketing. general and break-bulk cargo ships. particularly those . having corner fittings for these purposes. brief mention will be made of some of the hardware. the standards imposed by the International Standards Organisation (“ISO”). In such an integrated transport system. the latter mainly comprising relationships between the parties involved in the system and other variables. transport itself is integrated. documentation. the use of containers to move goods in international trade has probably introduced a safer system of cargo transport with the goods less subject to pilferage because of the reduced handling of individual packages. ft. ships. trains. (d) of a size such that the area enclosed by the four outer bottom corners is either: (i) at least 14 sq. clerical functions. cranes and handling methods to the procedures. no link in the transport chain can be overlooked. While goods are integrated or unitised into containers. and so on.) or (ii) at least 7 sq. which is what containerisation is all about.) if it is fitted with top corner fittings. m. m. port congestion. In addition to allowing gains in operating efficiency. and also documentation and computers.” The containers can have standardized dimensions..goods. the entire container is frequently stolen. There are a number of good books available. Containerisation in its modern form is considered to have started in the United States in the 1950s but there are records of containerisation systems even before the Second World War and also during the war when containers were used to supply the United States military. the berths and shore infrastructure such as container yards (CY) and container freight stations (CFS). electronic data interchange and standardisation of hardware and software.. the other modes of transport used such as in the rail and road haulage sub-systems. (75 sq. 11(1) of the “International Convention on Safe Containers” which entered into force in 1977: “Container” means an article of transport equipment: (a) of permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use.” A “corner fitting” is: “. A “container” is best defined in Art. Containerization has brought about a “revolution” in the industry and ships are more productive. Here. The non-physical sub-systems involve container leasing versus owning. The physical components comprise the containers themselves (commonly called “boxes”). an arrangement and apertures and faces at the top and/or bottom of a container for the purpose of handling. (b) specially designed to facilitate the transport of goods by one or more modes of transport. while pilferage may have reduced. competition between carriers. a container ship being probably six times more productive than older. but many ocean carriers. from the design of containers. (150 sq. availability of trained personnel. However. the ships that carry them. relationships between different carriers. stacking and/or securing. The containerisation system has many components. (c ) designed to be secure and/or readily handled. processing time such as with Customs. ft. To describe the entire system sufficiently well would require a complete book.

was able to establish a standard code. which has most of the containers owned by carriers or lessors. The TEU is a “twenty-foot equivalent unit”. Eventually. 1. a seminar was held in the EEC to consider all the aspects of increased dimensions. in those early days of containerisation. This was because.. “stripping” or “devanning” (emptying) and also those being transported on other modes of transport. say. and is a “Forty-foot equivalent unit”. In some countries national inland regulations and essential infrastructures may require to be changed to facilitate the transport of oversized containers. 30 feet and 40 feet. The lengths can vary between 10 feet. to give each container some unique identity (See BIC Codes). about 60 per cent are in TEUs. there was considerable confusion because of the variety of numbering systems developed independently by container owners. The increase of dimensions does have an impact on the organisation of combined transport. The 20 feet and 40 feet boxes are the most common. especially on the inland transport legs. In 1968 the ISO also began work on developing an international standard for the marking of freight containers. based in Paris. compared to those owned by container lessors (approximately 44 per cent). the International Container Bureau (“BIC”).from the United States. In some countries “high cube” boxes can be used. This not only militates against many developing countries but also has transformed a large . and other uses. ISO standards for size vary from 8 feet to 8 feet 6 inches in height and 8 feet in width. No agreement could be reached on a long-term strategy on maximum dimensions but there may be a possibility that the ISO standards may be amended in the future. to name only a few. giving rise to new terminology: “TEU” which is one unit of measurement of ship size. The heights used also depend on the clearance beneath bridges and tunnels when the containers are used in land transport modes. perhaps 3. many other lengths are used. The “FEU” is also commonly used. the price per container becomes very high. Also in the U. where the heights go up to 9 feet 6 inches. use other measurements.000 and 5. At the end of 1989. each by different carriers. 20 feet. 48 feet and 52 feet. Containers are expensive and to outfit a ship carrying. shipment on board the vessel. cargo handling statistics. In the United States. Standardization is beneficial because of interchangeability of the containers between transport modes. Most containers are owned by the ocean carriers.S.000 boxes may be needed to make an allowance for containers which are stored ashore awaiting “stuffing” (loading).000 TEUs. the “BIC-Code”. uniformity of handling devices and methods (which lead to the ease of training for handlers) and minimum wasted space on board the transport vehicle and at storage areas on land. by 1971. The construction cost of containers has risen gradually in the last few years and with insurance and certification as to strength and fittings. ranging up to 45 feet. The ISO has established standards for container strengths and fitting in addition to sizes. In the United Kingdom. the economy of mass production. nearly 60 per cent of the containers are in FEUs. There are other owners. The use of non-standard containers can cause some problems especially in some countries where the infrastructure cannot cope with the dimensions of such boxes. Therefore a large amount of capital can be tied up in the containers themselves. approximately 51 per cent of the total TEUs. who are neither ocean carriers nor lessors.

The feeders serve from peripheral ports to transhipment ports on a “through service” or a RTW service. The ships can be broadly classified into those providing deepsea. feeder services. some ships going eastwards and others westwards.sector of the maritime industry into a heavily capital-intensive industry. each container-guide system forming a “cell”. for the “mother ships” along the trunk routes. The largest container operators use this type of ship. lift-off” (“Lo/Lo”) capacity. However. Such cargo can be bulk (in “con-bulkers”) or vehicles. Some liner operators offer a “round the world service (“RTW”) or “global service” where large ships may go around the world in opposite directions. These ships offer a solution to one of the deficiencies of fully—cellular container vessels. because of loading and discharging requirements for the large container units. these have to be carried in the square of the hatch and this can interfere with the stowage of general cargo shipped in the wings of the cargo holds. They are also loaded on deck in guides-and maybe stacked up to four or five or even six high. These ships can carry secured containers and also general cargo on the same leg of the voyage. There is thus little or no wasted space. the cargo is transhipped. ocean services and those providing short-sea. general cargo and also containers although. instead of fixed cell guides for the containers. other fittings on board the ship are used to secure the containers from shifting and being damaged or even lost overboard because of the vessel’s movement in a seaway. which has “roll-on. Three main types of container ship can be identified: (a) the “fully-cellular container ship”. (b) the “cellular ship with Ro/Ro capability”. “Partly-cellular container ships” are designed to carry part loads of containers in fixed cell guides. such as cranes and/or derricks. the larger ships are gearless and depend on shore-based cargo gear. This type of ship is popular on the Europe to Austral-Asia trades. This latter type can also carry containers without cell guides but with container-securing fittings. the ships are also important physical components of the containerisation system. The containers may be six or more deep in the cargo holds. Some multi-purpose vessels can carry break-bulk. Extensive feedering is essential for operators to maintain utilisation and “load factors” which return reasonable profits on the large capital investment. In the transport of cargo in containers. The ships may or may not have their own cargo-handling fittings and equipment. in which case they are “multi-purpose container ships” (see below). These main trade routes are “trunk routes”. The ships providing ocean services are larger and faster and operate over longer routes with fewer ports of call. . The transhipment also requires large investment. although even larger container ships which are used for discrete liner services may bring cargo to load centres for transhipment on a RTW service. At the load centres. roll-off” facilities for vehicular cargo as well as container “load-on. which are not really suitable for long or bulky units of cargo. The feeder ships are smaller. (c) the “multi-purpose container ship” (or “combination container ship”) where containers can be carried on one leg of a voyage and other types of cargo carried on the return. particularly for storage facilities. Feeder ships bring cargo to “load centres” which are main ports of call. cargo handling facilities and inland transport modes. where containers are loaded into vertical guides. Generally.

This way gradually. Containers can act as mode of storage anywhere along the transport route. Rodgers was built in Montreal in 1955 which was owned by the White Pass & Yukon Route.modal system started operating. Benefits of Containerization Goods in lots which are too small for the traditional bulk transport can be moved using containers. Following part explains the containerization in past. thus it minimizes the waiting time. trucks. It prevents poor handling of goods that results from bulk transport systems. The unit represents the space that would be used by a standard 20-ft. In its maiden trip it carried 600 containers between Skagway. railroad cars and planes. Container ships provide regular service to overseas ports. truck and ships. present future: The carrying of containers through ships started in 1951 between Alaska and Seattle. Alaska and North Vancouver. substantial amount of time and labor cost is saved which would otherwise have incurred in loading and unloading goods. but also helps to reduce the inventory costs and increases reliability. using ISO standard containers. As containers are moved intact. Containerization reduces the transit time which not only offers a means of marketing for the producer that bulk systems cannot provide. The concept of containerization is considered as the key innovation in the field of logistics which has revolutionized freight handling in the twentieth century. British Columbia. These containers could be moved by rail. The first purpose built container shipthe Clifford J. 8 Containerization is an inter-modal system of transporting the general cargo or product in lots which are too small for the traditional bulk transport system. . Containerization is best option for high-value and delicate cargo as it provides safety from human and natural factors.-long container. The goods can be easily moved from one location to another in these containers which can be loaded intact onto the container ships. the whole inter.The average size of container vessels is usually specified in “TEUs” per ship.

Types of containers available to meet different needs: Open top bulk containers Open side containers General purpose dry vans Platform containers High cube pallet wide containers Containers with temperature controlling facility Ventilated containers Tank containers . the US trucking industry player innovated the idea of using large containers. Theiler & Sons Goods. Today. trucking and railway it became possible to develop fully integrated system. nearly 90% of non bulk cargo moves by containers put on transport ships. It has revolutionized the cargo shipping. Spain and Finland while countries in Africa and South America use narrower gauges. Some of the largest global players containerizing containers today are Bowen Exports. With the abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission's regulatory. With the use of ISO standard containers. transferable on an inter-modal basis. LLC and Patrick Global Shipping. Australia.Malcom McLean. Worldwide standardization of sizes of containers has lessened the problems of incompatibility and gauge. deregulation of maritime rates. The cargo is not visible and hence less likely to be stolen and also doors of the containers are sealed so that its safety can be assured. Today most of the trains in the world operate on 4 feet 8½ inch gauge track but many countries like Russia. the size and shapes of commercial vehicles carrying containers are also getting standardized. One fourth of world's total containers start from China. Present Today containerization has become the integral part of logistics. improved cargo security is seen as an added benefit of containerization. Today.

    . As the Internet and other new communication technologies are developing. Such benefits are forcing the industry to make it more favorable in terms of cost.Flush folding flat-rack containers Future Containerization reduces time in transit. The Asia's share of containerized exports to world's total exports is expected to reach nearly 64 % in 2015. In the mid 1920s Milwaukee Railway and Chicago North Shore started using shippers' vehicles and motor carrier vehicles on flatcars between the route of Milwaukee and Chicago. These containers could be shifted from railroads to ships or trucks. Also. flexibility and speed. Seatrain Lines carried railroad boxcars on ships to move goods between Cuba and New York. these flatcars got more equipped with new decks. In the early 1950s. it is expected to bring more innovations which will further simplify the tasks of logistics. the inventory costs and increases reliability. Container traffic from Asia is expected to grow more rapidly in near future. The containerization in terms of expansion is expected to be far rapid in China. Past The effort to ship cargo in container initiated in the beginning of 19th century. the Chicago Great Western Railway and the New Haven railroad began transporting highway freight trailers on flatcars. . Later. The containers used at that time were much smaller than what we see today. Many companies are designing the freighters capable of 14000 TEU.

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