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**9.1 Crack Tip Opening Displacement
**

9.1.1 CTOD by Elastic Approach

9.1.2 CTOD by Strip Yield Model

9.1.3 Alternate Definition of CTOD

9.1.4 Measurement of CTOD

• Hinge Model

• Modified Hinge Model

9.2 J-Integral (Energy release rate)

9.2.1 Definition

9.2.2 Computation of J

Analytical approach

Experimental approach

9.3 Crack Growth in Elastic Plastic Materials

9.3.1 Criteria for Crack Growth

9.3.2 J-R curves

9.3.3 Stability of Crack Growth and Tearing modulus

9.4 Summary

Applies to materials that exhibit “time independent” nonlinear behavior.

Example - Elastic-Plastic deformation

9.1 Crack Tip Opening Displacement

A. A. Wells (1961) Cranfield, U.K

Fracture tests on structural steels were found to be too tough to characterize by the

LEFM. Wells noticed that the crack faces move apart before fracture. Based on these

observations, he proposed Crack Tip Opening Displacement as a fracture criteria.

9.1.1 CTOD by Elastic Approach

Assuming the effective crack length is based on the Irwin’s plastic correction,

The opening displacement, δ is:

Where r

y

· r

p

*

·

1

2π

K

I

2

σ

ys

2

, for P

σ

condition.

κ · 3− 4ν, for P

σ

condition

κ ·

3−ν

1+ν

, for P

ε

condition

µ ·

E

2(1+ν)

, Shear modulus

CTOD ·

4

π

G

I

σ

δ · 2u

y

· 2

κ +1

µ

K

I

r

y

2π

CTOD= δ · 2v

y

=

4

π

K

I

2

σ

ys

E

9.1.2 CTOD by Strip Yield Model

δ ·

8

π

σ

ys

a

E

ln Sec

πa

2σ

ys

¸

¸

_

,

Replacing the logarithmic term ln by series, after simplification we get:

δ ·

K

I

2

σ

ys

E

1 +

1

6

πσ

2σ

ys

¸

¸

_

,

2

+...

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

CTOD=δ ·

K

I

2

σ

ys

E

·

G

I

σ

ys

, for P

σ

condition

CTOD= δ ·

K

I

2

mσ

ys

E

·

G

I

mσ

ys

m is a non-dimensional factor,

m =1 for p-Stress

m = 2 for P-strain

9.1.3 Alternate Definitions of CTOD

(a) Displacement @ the original crack tip

(b) Displacement at the intersection of

90

o

points from the advancing crack tip.

These methods are commonly used in finite element analyses for estimation of

CTOD. The two methods become identical if the crack blunts in a semicircle.

9.1.4 Measurement of CTOD using Three-Point Bend Specimen

(a) Hinge Model

• Extend crack flanks to an intersection point.

• Calculate the rotation factor, r

• From similar triangles δ

r W −a ( )

·

V

r W − a ( ) + a

Or

δ ·

r W− a ( )V

r W− a ( ) + a

r(w-a)

a

(b) Modified Hinge Model

The hinge model is inaccurate when displacements are primarily elastic.

δ · δ

el

+δ

p

·

K

I

2

mσ

ys

E

*

+

r

p

W− a ( )V

r

p

W− a ( ) + a

P

σ

Condition: m =1 & E

*

· E

P

ε

Condition : m=2 & E

*

·

E

1−ν

2

Eshelby’s Conservation of Energy Theorem: In a singly connected

domain (no singularities), the rate of change of potential energy (Π) is zero.

9.2 The J-Integral

9.2.1 Definition

ds

Γ

T x

2

x

1

Where I, j, and k = 1,2 and

U is the strain energy density defined by

U(ε) · σ

ij

dε

ij

0

ε

∫

J · J

x1

· Un

1

−σ

ij

∂u

i

∂x

1

n

j

¸

¸

_

,

ds

Γ

∫

J · J

x1

· Un

1

−σ

ij

∂u

i

∂x

1

n

j

¸

¸

_

,

ds

Γ

∫

· 0

J · Udy −σ

ij

∂u

i

∂x

1

n

j

ds

¸

¸

_

,

· Q

Γ

∫

Γ

∫

Consider the crack extension in x

1

or x direction, then

Cherapanov (1966) and Rice (1967) applied the concept of

conservation of energy principles to crack problems and

showed that the J

x

integral is independent of the contour chosen

(path independent) and it measures the severity of the crack tip

if the integral is taken around a crack tip.

x

1

x

2

A

C

B

Γ

n

ds

9.2.2 J-integral is a variation of total potential energy

with respect to direction of crack growth

J

X

k

·

∂

∂

X

k

Π, where Π ·U −V

U = Strain Energy

V = Potential Energy due to applied load

ΦΨn

i

ds

Γ

∫

· Φ

∂ Ψ

∂ x

i

dA

A

∫

+ Ψ

∂ Φ

∂ x

i

dA

A

∫

Divergence Theorem:

x

1

x

2

A

C

B

Γ

n

ds

n

1

n

2

ds

dx

2

dx

1

n

1

n

2

Consider the J

xk

integral, the change of potential energy for a unit

translation in x

k

direction of the closed region Γ.

J

x

k

· Un

k

−σ

ij

∂u

i

∂x

k

n

j

¸

¸

_

,

ds

Γ

∫

J

x

k

·

∂ U

∂ x

k A

∫

dA − σ

ij

∂

∂ x

j A

∫

∂ u

i

∂ x

k

¸

¸

_

,

dA −

∂ σ

ij

∂ x

k A

∫

∂ u

i

∂ x

k

¸

¸

_

,

dA

Apply divergence theorem

Interchange dummy variable (j & k), we get

J

x

k

·

∂ U

∂ x

k A

∫

dA −

∂

∂ x

k

σ

ij

∂ u

i

∂ x

j

dA

∫

¸

1

]

1

1

OR J

x

k

·

∂

∂ x

k

U −V ( )dA

A

∫

¸

1

]

1 ·

∂ ∏

∂ x

k

9.2.3 Graphical Interpretation of J-Integral

A

B

E

Load

P

Displacement, v

∆v

∆P

a

a+∆a

J ·

∂Π

∂a

¸

¸

_

,

Fixed P

· −

∂Π

∂a

¸

¸

_

,

Fixed v

J ·

∂v

∂a

¸

¸

_

,

0

P

∫

dP Fixed P

J · −

∂P

∂a

¸

¸

_

,

0

v

∫

dv Fixed v

For elastic materials, J = G, strain energy release rate.

9.2.4 Path Independence of J

Consider a contour integral D-C-B-A-F-E-D, Since it is a closed path

and does not include singularities, the total integral is zero.

x

1

x

2

A

C

B

D

F

E

Γ

1

Γ

I · Q

Γ

DEF

∫

+ Q

Γ

FA

∫

+ Q

Γ

ABC

∫

+ Q

Γ

CD

∫

· 0

For traction free crack problems,

crack face integrals are zero.

I · Q

Γ

DEF

∫

+ Q

Γ

ABC

∫

· 0 · Q

Γ

DEF

∫

− Q

Γ

CBA

∫

J · Q

Γ

DEF

∫

· Q

Γ

CBA

∫

· −

∂ ∏

∂x

· −

∂ ∏

∂a

or

Note: dx = da

Therefore, J is defined as the rate of change of total potential energy

with respect to the crack length.

The PE includes elastic and elastic plastic energy.

Thus J-integral is path independent.

9.2.5 Calculation of J Integral

(a) Analytical approach

Examples: Elastic (Cracked strip)

Elastic-plastic (Dugdale model)

(b) Experimental approach

Area between the load-deflection curves

for crack lengths a and a+da)

Elastic Problem: Semi-infinite crack in an infinite strip of thickness

2h subjected to uniform displacement in thickness direction.

E

F

o

A

B

C

D

x1

x2

vo

v0

x1 = -∞

x1 = ∞

2h

Let the displacement @ x

2

= ±h be ±v

o

.

1. Select the contour path, OA, AB, BC,

CD, DE, EF, and FO.

2. Create a table of normal vectors

displacements, and stresses.

3. From the table it is clear that only line integral

on the path CD will contribute to the J.

First term:

∴J

x1

· Un

1

−σ

ij

∂u

i

∂x

1

n

j

¸

¸

_

,

ds

Γ

CD

∫

U ·

1

2

σ

11

ε

11

+σ

22

ε

22

+σ

12

γ

12

( ) ·

Ev

o

2

2h

2

∴

Ev

o

2

2h

2

CD

∫

ds ·

Ev

o

2

2h

2

ds

−h

h

∫

·

Ev

o

2

h

Second term:

σ

11

∂u

1

∂x

1

n

1

+σ

12

∂u

1

∂x

1

n

2

+σ

21

∂u

2

∂x

1

n

1

+σ

22

∂u

2

∂x

1

n

2

· 0 + 0+ 0 + 0

∴J ·

Ev

o

2

h

Dugdale Strip Yield Example

Consider a contour G within the yield zone and on the top and bottom

surfaces of the crack faces. That is the distance traversed in x

2

-direction

is zero.

J

x 1

· Un

1

−σ

ij

∂u

i

∂x

1

n

j

¸

¸

_

,

ds

Γ

CD

∫

The contour path is along A0, OB and BA. On the path AO and OB

Stresses: σ

11

= σ

12

= 0 and σ

22

= σ

ys

Normal Vectors:

n

1

= 0 and n

2

= -1 on AO

n

1

= 0 and n

2

= 1 on OB

n

1

= -1 and n

2

= 0 on BA (zero distance)

Because n

1

is zero on both AO and OB, the integral of

strain energy density is zero, only the second part of the integral

contributes to the J-integral.

2a

δ

A

B

O δ

d

Contour path

Γ

J · − σ

22

∂u

2

∂x

1

n

2

ds

∫

J · − σ

∂u

2

+

∂x

1

−

∂u

2

−

∂x

1

¸

1

]

1 dx

1

0

d

∫

J · − σ

∂(u

2

+

−u

2

−

)

∂x

1

¸

1

]

1 dx

1

0

d

∫

Because δ =u

2

+

−u

2

−

J · − σd(u

2

+

−u

2

−

)

0

d

∫

· + σ(δ)dδ

0

d

∫

For elastic - plastic materials, σ(δ) = σ

ys

, then

J · σ

ys

δ

o

,

Where δ

o

is the crack tip opening displacement.

2a

δ

A

B

O δ

d

Contour path

Γ

Experimental Measurement of J

Landes & Begley’s Method

J =-

1

B

∂U

∂a

( )

fixed ∆

9.3 Crack Growth in Elastic-Plastic Materials

Stable

crack

growth

a

af

∆a

JR-curve

Rf

JR

No Fracture

Fracture

J

R

Curve

Crack growth criteria

Initiation of growth:

J ≥ J

o

During the stable growth: J ≥ J

R

Stability of Crack Growth

Crack growth is stable if the rate of change of J W.r.t a is less than

the rate of change of J

R

with respect to a, crack length.

Crack growth is stable if

dJ

da

<

dJ

R

da

Crack growth is unstable if

dJ

da

≥

dJ

R

da

Tearing Modulus:

Paris, Tada, Zahoor & Ernst defined the J-R stability equation

in a non-dimensionalized form as

Crack growth is unstable if

E

σ

ys

2

dJ

da

≥

E

σ

ys

2

dJ

R

da

Tearing modulus T ≥ T

mat

, Tearing resistance of the material.

Hutchinson and Rice & Rosengren independently showed that J characterizes the

crack tip condition in a nonlinear elastic material. They assumed power law

relationship between stress and plastic strain. If the elastic strains are included, the

uniaxial stress-strain equation is given by

J as a Stress Intensity Parameter

ε

ε

o

·

σ

σ

o

+α

σ

σ

o

¸

¸

_

,

n

Ramberg-Osgood Equation

HRR showed that for J to be path independent, stress and strain must vary as 1/r.

In addition, near the crack tip elastic strains are small compare to total strains and

thus the stress-strain equation reduces to a simple power law.

From these 2 conditions

σ

ij

· k

1

J

r

¸

¸

_

,

1

n+1

ε

ij

· k

1

J

r

¸

¸

_

,

n

n+1

k1 and k2 are constants. The above equation reduce to square root singularity for n=1.

σ

ij

· σ

o

EJ

ασ

2

I

n

r

¸

¸

_

,

1

n+1

˜ σ

ij

(n,θ) ε

ij

·

ασ

o

E

EJ

ασ

2

I

n

r

¸

¸

_

,

n

n+1

˜

ε

ij

(n,θ )

J define s the amplitude of the HRR singularity. A structure in a small scale yielding has 2

singularity dominated zones. Elastic zone and plastic zone.

Power law eq.:

ε

ε

o

·

σ

σ

o

¸

¸

_

,

n

Under J field

1. U. 9. for P condition. Wells noticed that the crack faces move apart before fracture. A. he proposed Crack Tip Opening Displacement as a fracture criteria. Shear modulus 2(1 + ν ) κ= CTOD = 4 GI π σ . σ 2π σ 2 ys κ = 3 − 4ν.K Fracture tests on structural steels were found to be too tough to characterize by the LEFM. δ is: r κ +1 δ = 2uy = 2 KI y µ 2π Where ry = rp* = 1 K I2 .1 CTOD by Elastic Approach Assuming the effective crack length is based on the Irwin’s plastic correction.9. Based on these observations. for P condition σ 2 4 KI CTOD = δ = 2v y = π σ ys E 3−ν . for P condition ε 1+ ν E µ= .1 Crack Tip Opening Displacement A. The opening displacement. Wells (1961) Cranfield.

9. after simplification we get: 2 2 KI 1 πσ + . for Pσ condition σ ys E σys CTOD = δ = 2 KI GI = mσys E mσ ys m is a non-dimensional factor. 1 + δ= σ ys E 6 2σ ys 2 K G CTOD = δ = I = I .1. m =1 for p-Stress m = 2 for P-strain .2 CTOD by Strip Yield Model δ= πa 8 σ ys a ln Sec 2σ π E ys Replacing the logarithmic term ln by series...

.9. These methods are commonly used in finite element analyses for estimation of CTOD.1. The two methods become identical if the crack blunts in a semicircle.3 Alternate Definitions of CTOD (a) Displacement @ the original crack tip (b) Displacement at the intersection of 90o points from the advancing crack tip.

• Calculate the rotation factor. r • From similar triangles V δ = r (W − a ) r (W − a) + a Or δ= r ( W − a)V r( W − a) + a (b) Modified Hinge Model δ = δel + δ p = 2 rp (W − a )V KI * + rp ( W − a) + a mσ ys E The hinge model is inaccurate when displacements are primarily elastic.4 Measurement of CTOD using Three-Point Bend Specimen a r(w-a) (a) Hinge Model • Extend crack flanks to an intersection point. P Condition : m = 1 & E* = E σ Pε Condition : m =2 & E* = E 1− ν 2 .9.1.

1 Definition Eshelby’s Conservation of Energy Theorem: In a singly connected domain (no singularities). and k = 1. the rate of change of potential energy (Π) is zero. then ∂u J = J x1 = ∫ Un1 − σ ij i n j ds ∂x 1 Γ ∂u J = ∫ Udy − σ ij i n j ds = ∫ Q ∂x 1 Γ Γ Γ n A C x2 ds x1 B . Γ ds x1 x2 T ∂u J = J x1 = ∫ Un1 − σ ij i n j ds = 0 ∂x 1 Γ Where I. j.2.2 The J-Integral 9.9.2 and U is the strain energy density defined by U(ε ) = ∫ σ ij dε ij 0 ε Cherapanov (1966) and Rice (1967) applied the concept of conservation of energy principles to crack problems and showed that the Jx integral is independent of the contour chosen (path independent) and it measures the severity of the crack tip if the integral is taken around a crack tip. Consider the crack extension in x1 or x direction.

2 J-integral is a variation of total potential energy with respect to direction of crack growth J Xk = ∂ Π. the change of potential energy for a unit translation in xk direction of the closed region Γ.2. ∂u J x k = ∫ Un k − σ ij i n j ds ∂x k Γ Apply divergence theorem ∂ σ ij ∂ ui ∂U ∂ ∂ ui dA − ∫ dA J xk = ∫ dA − ∫ σ ij ∂ x j ∂ xk A ∂ xk A A ∂ xk ∂ xk Interchange dummy variable (j & k).9. ∂ Xk where Π = U − V Γ n x2 ds A n2 n1 n2 U = Strain Energy V = Potential Energy due to applied load Divergence Theorem: ∂Ψ ∂Φ ∫ ΦΨnids = ∫ Φ ∂ x dA + ∫ Ψ ∂ x dA Γ A i A i dx1 ds dx2 C n1 x1 B Consider the Jxk integral. we get ∂U ∂ ∫ σ ij ∂ ui dA J xk = ∫ dA − OR ∂ xk ∂ xj A ∂ xk ∂∏ ∂ ∫ (U − V ) dA = ∂ xk A ∂ xk Jxk = .

3 Graphical Interpretation of J-Integral ∂Π ∂Π J= = − ∂a Fixed P ∂a Fixed v Load P ∆P A a a+∆a B E ∂v J = ∫ dP Fixed P 0 ∂a P ∆v Displacement. strain energy release rate. J = G.2. v ∂P J = − ∫ dv Fixed v 0 ∂a v For elastic materials.9. .

2. J is defined as the rate of change of total potential energy with respect to the crack length. I= ΓDEF ∫Q + ∫Q = 0 = ∫Q − ∫Q ΓABC ΓDEF ΓCBA or J= ΓDEF ∫ Q = ∫Q = − ΓCBA ∂∏ ∂∏ =− ∂x ∂a Note: dx = da Thus J-integral is path independent. Since it is a closed path and does not include singularities. Therefore. the total integral is zero. . I= Γ1 x2 A C F D x1 E Γ B ΓDEF ∫Q + ∫Q + ∫Q+ ∫Q =0 ΓFA ΓABC ΓCD For traction free crack problems. The PE includes elastic and elastic plastic energy. crack face integrals are zero.4 Path Independence of J Consider a contour integral D-C-B-A-F-E-D.9.

9.2.5 Calculation of J Integral (a) Analytical approach Examples: Elastic (Cracked strip) Elastic-plastic (Dugdale model) (b) Experimental approach Area between the load-deflection curves for crack lengths a and a+da) .

EF. BC. v0 1. 3. Select the contour path. ∴J x1 = ∂u Un1 −σ ij i n j ds ∂x1 ΓCD E x1 = -∞F A B x2 o D x1 2h x1 = ∞ C vo ∫ First term: U= ∴∫ Ev 2 1 (σ 11ε 11 + σ 22ε 22 + σ 12γ 12 ) = o 2 2h2 2 Evo Ev 2 ds = o 2 2h2 CD 2h −h ∫ ds = h Evo2 h Second term: σ 11 ∂u1 ∂u ∂u ∂u n1 + σ 12 1 n 2 + σ 21 2 n1 + σ 22 2 n2 = 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 ∂x 1 ∂x1 ∂x 1 ∂x1 ∴J = Evo2 h . CD. OA.Elastic Problem: Semi-infinite crack in an infinite strip of thickness 2h subjected to uniform displacement in thickness direction. From the table it is clear that only line integral on the path CD will contribute to the J. 2. Create a table of normal vectors displacements. Let the displacement @ x2 = ±h be ±vo. and FO. and stresses. AB. DE.

∂u J x 1 = ∫ Un1 −σ ij i n j ds ∂x1 ΓCD The contour path is along A0. the integral of strain energy density is zero. On the path AO and OB Stresses: σ11 = σ12 = 0 and σ22 = σys Normal Vectors: n1 = 0 and n2 = -1 on AO n1 = 0 and n2 = 1 on OB n1 = -1 and n2 = 0 on BA (zero distance) Because n1 is zero on both AO and OB. OB and BA. only the second part of the integral contributes to the J-integral.Dugdale Strip Yield Example Consider a contour G within the yield zone and on the top and bottom surfaces of the crack faces. B δ 2a δ A d Contour path Γ O . That is the distance traversed in x 2-direction is zero.

σ (δ ) = σ ys .plastic materials. .B δ 2a δ A d Contour path Γ O J = − ∫ σ 22 d ∂u2 n ds ∂x 1 2 ∂u + ∂u− J = − ∫ σ 2 − 2 dx1 ∂x1 ∂x1 0 ∂ (u + − u − ) 2 2 J = −∫ σ dx 1 ∂x 1 0 d d d 0 + Because δ = u2 − u − 2 − J = − ∫ σd(u + − u2 ) = +∫ σ (δ )dδ 2 0 For elastic . then J = σ ysδ o . Where δ o is the crack tip opening displacement.

Experimental Measurement of J Landes & Begley’s Method J=- 1 ∂U ( ∂a ) fixed ∆ B .

Tearing resistance of the material. .3 Crack Growth in Elastic-Plastic Materials Crack growth criteria Initiation of growth: J ≥ Jo During the stable growth: J ≥ JR JR Curve JR JR-curve Rf No Fracture Fracture a af ∆a Stable crack growth Stability of Crack Growth Crack growth is stable if the rate of change of J W.t a is less than the rate of change of J R with respect to a.r.9. Zahoor & Ernst defined the J-R stability equation in a non-dimensionalized form as E dJ E dJ R Crack growth is unstable if 2 ≥ 2 σ ys da σ ys da Tearing modulus T ≥ Tmat. Tada. dJ dJ R Crack growth is stable if < da da dJ dJ R Crack growth is unstable if ≥ da da Tearing Modulus: Paris. crack length.

θ ) n 1 ασ o EJ n+1 ˜ ε ij (n.: 1 n J n+1 σ ij = k1 r J n +1 ε ij = k1 r n ε σ = εo σ o k1 and k2 are constants. the uniaxial stress-strain equation is given by σ n ε σ = + α σ εo σ o o Ramberg-Osgood Equation HRR showed that for J to be path independent.θ ) ε ij = E ασ 2 I nr n J define s the amplitude of the HRR singularity. Elastic zone and plastic zone. The above equation reduce to square root singularity for n=1. From these 2 conditions Power law eq. In addition. stress and strain must vary as 1/r. A structure in a small scale yielding has 2 singularity dominated zones. Under J field EJ n +1 ˜ σ ij = σ o ασ 2 I r σ ij (n. . They assumed power law relationship between stress and plastic strain. If the elastic strains are included. near the crack tip elastic strains are small compare to total strains and thus the stress-strain equation reduces to a simple power law.J as a Stress Intensity Parameter Hutchinson and Rice & Rosengren independently showed that J characterizes the crack tip condition in a nonlinear elastic material.

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