An introduction to the history of metals conservation

The Metals Conservation Summer Institute May 27- June 7, 2006, Worcester, MA, USA Valentin Boissonnas, HEAA Arc, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

An introduction to the history of metals conservation

An introduction to the history of metals conservation

1. Traditional techniques and materials

Traditional techniques and materials 2.An introduction to the history of metals conservation 1. The first conservation research centres .

Traditional techniques and materials 2. Chronological survey of concepts and techniques .An introduction to the history of metals conservation 1. The first conservation research centres 3.

original surface .An introduction to the history of metals conservation 1. Traditional techniques and materials 2. The first conservation research centres 3. patina. Chronological survey of concepts and techniques • Corrosion.

original surface Conservation treatments of bronzes . Chronological survey of concepts and techniques • • Corrosion. The first conservation research centres 3. Traditional techniques and materials 2. patina.An introduction to the history of metals conservation 1.

patina. Chronological survey of concepts and techniques • • • Corrosion. The first conservation research centres 3.An introduction to the history of metals conservation 1. Traditional techniques and materials 2. original surface Conservation treatments of bronzes Conservation treatments of iron .

Traditional techniques and materials Traditional products and techniques used on metal artefacts aimed at maintaining their function and preventing their deterioration .

etc. polishing Chemical treatments: dissolution of corrosion products (vinegar. lemon juice. resins.) Protective coatings: prevention of atmospheric corrosion after cleaning (paints. metallic coatings) • .Traditional techniques and materials Traditional products and techniques used on metal artefacts aimed at maintaining their function and preventing their deterioration • • Mechanical treatments: Riveting. oxalic acid. lacquers. soldering.

Traditional techniques and materials .

Traditional techniques and materials • 1000 BC: Egyptians use excellent varnishes. heated combinations of oils and natural resins .

gypsum and vegetable pitch. • . AD 75: Iron can be protected from rust by means of cerussa (lead oxide). Bronze can be coated with turpentine and pitch. heated combinations of oils and natural resins Pliny.Traditional techniques and materials • 1000 BC: Egyptians use excellent varnishes.

gypsum and vegetable pitch. AD 75: Iron can be protected from rust by means of cerussa (lead oxide). Bronze can be coated with turpentine and pitch.Traditional techniques and materials • 1000 BC: Egyptians use excellent varnishes. boil it in linseed oil and pitch • • . 12th century: To protect iron. heated combinations of oils and natural resins Pliny. Theophilius.

Bronze can be coated with turpentine and pitch. gypsum and vegetable pitch. 12th century: To protect iron. Theophilius. AD 75: Iron can be protected from rust by means of cerussa (lead oxide). heated combinations of oils and natural resins Pliny. boil it in linseed oil and pitch Cellini.Traditional techniques and materials • 1000 BC: Egyptians use excellent varnishes. 17th century: First description of mechanical cleaning of archaeological bronzes with small chisels and hammers • • • .

gypsum and vegetable pitch. Smear armour with the salve. 17th century: First description of mechanical cleaning of archaeological bronzes with small chisels and hammers Traditional recipe for knights armour. Theophilius. 1616: Pour olive oil in a heavy mortar. AD 75: Iron can be protected from rust by means of cerussa (lead oxide). put white lead into it and rub it again until it becomes black. Bronze can be coated with turpentine and pitch. boil it in linseed oil and pitch Cellini. stir it well with a pestle until it warms itself. 12th century: To protect iron.Traditional techniques and materials • 1000 BC: Egyptians use excellent varnishes. heated combinations of oils and natural resins Pliny. Pour a little oil of tartar into it and with Neat’s foot oil or old fat make a salve. • • • • .

mainly made from Rhus vernicifera • • • • • . boil it in linseed oil and pitch Cellini. AD 75: Iron can be protected from rust by means of cerussa (lead oxide).Traditional techniques and materials • 1000 BC: Egyptians use excellent varnishes. 12th century: To protect iron. gypsum and vegetable pitch. 17th century: First description of mechanical cleaning of archaeological bronzes with small chisels and hammers Traditional recipe for knights armour. 1616: Pour olive oil in a heavy mortar. Pour a little oil of tartar into it and with Neat’s foot oil or old fat make a salve. Bronze can be coated with turpentine and pitch. put white lead into it and rub it again until it becomes black. stir it well with a pestle until it warms itself. Far East: Lacquers are used well before the Christian area. Theophilius. heated combinations of oils and natural resins Pliny. Smear armour with the salve.

The first major conservation research centres Königliches Museum Berlin inaugurated in 1888. Rathgen soon becomes head of the research department and will stay there for 40 years doing pioneering work. Otto Olhausen (1840-1922) establishes the first scientific conservation lab and hires Friedrich Rathgen (18621942) as assistant. ‘Die Konservierung von Alterthumsfunden’ (1898) .

. ‘Antiquités en fer et en bronze. Leur transformation et leur conservation’ (1917) Works mainly with electrolytic reduction techniques to stabilize bronze and iron finds. heads the conservation department.The first major conservation research centres National Museum of Denmark in Copehagen (1855) Gustav Rosenberg (18781941).

The first major conservation research centres The British Museum London 1920 the conservation research department is opened by Dr. third 1926) . ‘The Cleaning and Restoration of Museum Exhibits’ (first report 1921. second 1923. Alexander Scott after many objects were damaged because of bad storage conditions during the 1st World War.

. ‘The Conservation of antiquities and works of art’ (1956. 1971) Robert Organ. joins the research lab in 1951 where he works for 14 years before heading for the Royal Ontario Museum and later for the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. a physicist.The first major conservation research centres The British Museum London 1926 Harold Plenderleith is appointed conservation-scientist and heads the conservation & research department.

The first major conservation research centres Columbia University Professor Colin Fink and his assistant Charles Eldridge are working at Columbia University in the electrochemical department. The Metropolitan Museum of Art installs its first conservation laboratories at Columbia University following the example of the British Museum. . They publish in 1925 a manual on the conservation of bronze antiquities.

‘Studies in Conservation’ appears in 1952 first .The first major conservation research centres Rutherford Gettens. works at the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington on the technology of Chinese bronzes. chemist and metallurgist. Fogg Art Museum in Harward publishes ‘Technical Studies in the Field of the Fine Arts’. After the war museums scientists will found in 1950 the International Institute for Conservation (IIC).

Helps developing major concepts such as the integrity of the object and the location of the ‘primitive surface’ or ‘skin’. .The first major conservation research centres France-Lanord (1915-1993) A founding member of the Laboratoire d’Archéologie des métaux de Nancy in France.

1850-1900 Digging up problems Schliemann Milkau Schliemann Rathgen .

1850-1900 Digging up problems .

’ . amassing thousands of iron objects in need of treatment once removed from the soil (Hansen 2001).1850-1900 Digging up problems ‘During the 1860's it was possible to "excavate" as many as sixty-six grave barrows from an Iron Age graveyard in Ringerike. Norway. in ten days.

Vanino / Seitter). others accept a variety of colours. as long as the surface is uniform and smooth (Hausding). Various attempts are made to chemically describe the variations in colour from green to blue to red with the burial context and the composition of the artefacts.1850-1900 Digging up problems Corrosion: First interpretations are Corrosion rather confused. Some call only nicely preserved green surfaces Edelrost or Patina (Krause. Boissonnas .

.1850-1900 Digging up problems Corrosion: Many bronzes are excavated from peat bogs and Corrosion preserve a metallic surface. Others. The acceptance of metallic surfaces and the application of stripping techniques might well have been influenced by those early finds from Northern Europe. from lake dwellings. just have calcareous deposits.

Bacteria discovered on such items lead to the suspicion that they are responsible for this ‘bronze disease’.1850-1900 Digging up problems Active Corrosion on copper alloys is first described by Mond and Cuboni (1893) and then by Frazer and Nicols in 1898. Contaminated objects are systematically sterilized at 120-150°C. Ellis & Hermanis Boissonnas Boissonnas .

Van Langh . Others are less convinced.1850-1900 Digging up problems Cleaning of copper alloys : The total removal of corrosion products is considered important by certain to regain the aesthetically pleasing metallic shine of the metal (Bibra 1869). as many objects are first stripped and then patinated to satisfy an esthetical look (Petrie 1888).

heating and quenching. Fragments were regularly soft soldered as no adhesives existed that had the necessary strength to hold load bearing metal pieces.1850-1900 Digging up problems Mechanical Cleaning of copper alloys : All traditional mechanical methods were in use. abrasive papers. grinding tools. hammers. Animal glue (fish bladder) was mostly used for smaller parts. Boissonnas . such as wire brushes. drilling and doweling were standard operations.

Removal of all accessible core material! After brushing with wire brush objects are coated with nitrocellulose lacquer in order to ‘give back a metallic look’. Rathgen .1850-1900 Digging up problems Electrochemical cleaning of copper alloys : Finkener (1886) advocates electrolytic reduction in potassium cyanide (Cyankalium) baths and stripping by hydrogen evolution before thorough washing.

1850-1900 Digging up problems
Electrochemical cleaning of copper alloys: alloys Axel Krefting (1883), suggests to remove all corrosion layers, preventing further rusting. Bronzes are stripped for 24h by immersion in sodium hydroxide with zinc granules without external electrical source. Other obscure methods exist at the time, such as dipping coins in liquid lead (Pb), followed by quenching in cold water and leaving over night in milk. Is supposed to give a beautiful olive coloured patina.

Rathgen

1850-1900 Digging up problems
Protective coatings for copper alloys: alloys Protective coatings are already used to protect, consolidate, but also to improve the look of bronzes. Mostly linseed oil, bees wax or shellac. The invention of cellulose nitrate coatings (Celluloid or Zapon lacquers) is considered a major step in improving surface coatings and is immediately adopted by many conservators. Paraffin wax will replace bees wax and improve long term protection.
Ashmolean Museum Oxford

1850-1900 Digging up problems
Cleaning & stabilization methods for iron: iron Peter Petersen (pre 1870): boiling in linseed oil and coating with hot beeswax (later replaced with Copal varnish). Axel Krefting (1883): electrolytic stripping techniques. Coating with paraffin wax. Other coatings such as stearin, shellac, linseed oil are frequently used.

Boissonnas

1900-1920 Towards a better understanding Brittner Mallowan Williams Brittner .

Rathgen .1900-1920 Towards a better understanding Corrosion & mechanical cleaning of copper alloys: alloys 1905 Corrosion that contains detail is defined by Rathgen as a noble patina. He also suggests that it is possible to find it by mechanical means. 1917 Rosenberg is the first to talk of an original surface and how it can be replaced by corrosion products.

Born .1900-1920 Towards a better understanding Mechanical cleaning of copper alloys: alloys An interesting method is described by Springer who coats bronzes with hot and liquid animal glue. While drying it shrinks and pulls off mostly external corrosion products.

From then onwards chlorides are acknowledged by most to be the source of active corrosion. Conservation treatments now aim at removing chlorides from objects in order to stabilize them. Sometimes even chlorides are attributed to the good preservation of bronze surfaces! It is Rathgen (1889). This has priority over the growing concept of preserved information within corrosion products. Krefting (1892) and then Petrie (1904) who suggest that chlorides are the reason for actively corroding bronzes. .1900-1920 Towards a better understanding Active Corrosion on copper alloys : The debate about what influences the corrosion of copper alloys continues.

1900-1920 Towards a better understanding Stabilization of copper alloys : Rosenberg advocates a localized stabilization method by using aluminium foil and an Agar Agar / Glycerol electrolyte to electrochemically reduce copper chlorides into stable cuprite or tenorite. Rathgen .

. 1917 Rosenberg suggests heating iron up to 800 oC. and animal fats. Boiling in paraffin or microcrystalline wax. waxing. Other impregnation methods use water glass. dammar resin.1900-1920 Towards a better understanding Stabilization of iron : 1904 William Flinders Petrie uses on-site washing of iron in water. quenching in potassium carbonate. Subsequent boiling in frequent changes of distilled water until no more chlorides. oven drying. 1905 Rathgen & Finkener propose boiling iron in molten potassium cyanide. natural rubber. linseed oil.

1920-1950 New concepts and old recipes British Museum Carter Schorsch British Museum .

who now considers a corroded surface far more important than a shiny surface of bare metal. With the introduction of the Rosenberg method there is an alternative to stripping actively corroding bronzes. Plenderleith .1920-1950 New concepts and old recipes Corrosion: Corrosion Total removal of corrosion products is being seriously questioned by Rathgen in his reedited book (1924) and Scott (1926). the loss of such surfaces observed with some treatments is still accepted in order to stabilize objects. However.

Alkaline Rochelle salt and citric and sulphuric acid. Plenderleith Born .1920-1950 New concepts and old recipes Cleaning copper alloys: alloys Vigorous chemical cleaning methods are still used such as electrochemical cleaning. boiling in sodium phosphate.

sometimes combined with Alkaline Rochelle salt. Protective coatings come from the automobile and aircraft industry. then zinc powder).1920-1950 New concepts and old recipes Stabilizing copper alloys Scott (1921) suggests long immersion in sodium sesquicarbonate. Nichols (British Museum 1924) uses localized stabilization treatments such as silver nitrate (later modified to silver oxide. Cellulose acetates and Perspex are replacing traditional natural waxes. Boissonnas .

Soon abandoned.1920-1950 New concepts and old recipes Stabilizing iron: iron Scott (1921) suggests to use long soaking in sodium sesquicarbonate. as unstable and most irreversible. Dammar varnish as surface protection. Boissonnas . In 1933 he tries natural rubber in solution and advocates the use of chlorinated rubber to consolidate fragile metals.

The use of nitrogen filled storage containers are first used for finds of the Sutton Hoo treasure in 1946. Rathgen .1920-1950 New concepts and old recipes Stabilizing iron: iron For both bronzes and iron finds the use of controlled storage in sealed cases with buffering materials (silica gel) are beginning to be used after Rathgens 1924 publication.

1950-Today .

that can be located with the help of markers. Organ But only in 1990ies the original surface is defined as the surface that represents the object when abandoned. Bertholon (2000) abandoned defines the original surface more precisely as limitos. For France-Lanord and surface Eichhorn preservation of original surface has priority over stabilization.1950-Today Corrosion: Corrosion Increasing awareness of corrosion crusts and the concept of original surface. markers Boissonnas .

Most unfortunately this harsh method is still used today on some excavations and in labs that lack trained personnel. Boissonnas .1950-Today Electrolytic treatments of copper alloys: alloys 1956 Plenderleith still recommends the use of electrolytic reduction in sodium hydroxide.

The measurement of the corrosion potential of the object with a reference electrode allows a precise and controlled reduction of only unwanted corrosion products (chlorides). EDF pushes technique further for treating marine bronzes under cathodic protection in sodium sesquicarbonate. Increases removal of chlorides without stripping current corrosion products.1950-Today Electrolytic treatments of copper alloys: alloys In the 70ies France-Lanord proposes electrolytic reduction with low current. This treatment has been adapted as standard treatment for marine bronzes. Pennec .

Arc’Antique . In the 90ies potentiostatic reduction helps refining this technique. preventing hydrogen bubbling and reducing acidifies corrosion products to metallic lead. After 2nd World War. mineralized silver is also converted into metallic particles by electrolytic reduction.1950-Today Electrolytic treatments of lead and silver alloys: alloys Consolidative reduction of very corroded lead also uses a low current.

such as Alcaline Rochelle salt. EDTA. alcaline dithionite (for chlorinated marine bronzes). citric acid. EDTA. Most research went into improving these existing recipes and changing to less aggressive chemicals. All these products can etch copper alloys and if not properly used. formic acid. Sodium tripolyphosphate (replaced Calgon). Calgon. Boissonnas . sodium hydroxide. sodium dithiolate (for copper sulfates). formic acid and sulfuric acid. ammonium hydroxide.1950-Today Chemical cleaning of copper alloys: alloys Various complexing agents and acids were used.

AMT.1950-Today Stabilization of copper alloys: alloys 1967 Madsen introduces Benzotriazole (BTA). a corrosion inhibitor developed for the copper industry. The most recent studies use it in combination with another corrosion inhibitor. Widely adopted by the conservation community. Madsen .

All these polymers were were replaced by acrylic resins such as Paraloid (in US Arcyloid) as well as combined with stabilizing agents (Incralac).1950-Today Protective coatings for copper alloys: alloys New protective coatings appeared after the 2nd World War such as Frigilene and Ercalene (nitrocellulose lacquers). J. Scott . Bedacryl (butyral methacrylate) and soluble nylon both proved insoluble after a while. On outdoor bronzes microcrystalline waxes are still used today.

walnut shells etc.1950-Today Cleaning of iron The introduction and adaptation of air abrasive cleaning with various abrasive powders (aluminium oxide.) improved cleaning techniques tremendously. X-ray radiography and tomography greatly improved assessing and cleaning of corroded iron. Boissonnas . sodium bicarbonate.

but much metallurgical information is destroyed. These heat treatment involves temperatures of up to 850°C. Pearson . Replaced by controlled electrolytic reduction techniques.1950-Today Stabilization of iron 1964 Hydrogen reduction is first used for the conservation of iron finds from the Vasa. Pearson Successful for stabilization of cast iron artefacts.

Today it is still used in some labs as a pre-treatment before desalination and mechanical cleaning. The created hydrogen plasma is highly reactive and reduces iron oxides.1950-Today Stabilization of iron Hydrogen gas plasma emerges in the 80ies as the ideal treatment for large amounts of artefacts. Boissonnas . Proved not effective enough to reduce all chlorides.

Cast and wrought iron is treated. Lacoudre . wood.1950-Today Stabilization of iron 1984 EDF sets up a research programme advocating electrolytic techniques. but also non-conducting materials such as leather. paper or porcelain. 1987 The Titanic is discovered and 1800 items are conserved at EDF using innovative electrolytic techniques.

They are currently also used in situ to monitor and stabilize submerged iron artefacts. Lacoudre Arc’Antique .1950-Today Stabilization of iron Electrolytic techniques have greatly improved and the use of reference electrodes has given us safe tools to work with.

such as akaganéite. Boissonnas .1950-Today Stabilization of iron A new desalination method using alcaline sulfite baths was introduced in the late 70ies and has been widely adapted for chloride contaminated archaeological iron. This method breaks down insoluble chloride containing products.

cannot be dissolved. mostly acrylic polymers such as Paraloid (Acryloid) for indoor iron artefacts. epoxy resins are widely used in conservation of all materials due to their strength and durability. as they continue to break up. Outdoors epoxy resins or polyurethane resins are used for their durability.1950-Today Adhesives & protective coatings for iron After 2nd World War. Much iron was consolidated and glued with epoxies such as Araldite. However. They replace traditional soldering methods that often damaged the patina and were highly irreversible. but cannot be retreated. Today we struggle with such objects that have not undergone desalination. Lacquers are still in use. . epoxy resins once cured.

1950-Today Preventive conservation of metals .

ESCAL foils Wallert .1950-Today Preventive conservation of metals Dessicants and barrier films: Silica gel.

1950-Today Preventive conservation of metals Dessicants and barrier films: Silica gel. ESCAL foils Oxygen scavengers: Ageless. RP System Boissonnas Wallert .

1950-Today Preventive conservation of metals Dessicants and barrier films: Silica gel. RP System Pollution scavengers: Activated charcoal. Wallert . impregnated textiles. ESCAL foils Oxygen scavengers: Ageless.

ESCAL foils Oxygen scavengers: Ageless. ….. RP System Pollution scavengers: Activated charcoal. Boissonnas . Pollutant identification: Oddy test. Beilstein test. impregnated textiles.1950-Today Preventive conservation of metals Dessicants and barrier films: Silica gel.

Tomorrow? .

Tomorrow? • Achieve better understanding of corrosion mechanisms Boissonnas Selwyn .

Tomorrow? • Achieve better understanding of corrosion mechanisms • Achieve better understanding of current treatments. develop new and safer methods Boissonnas .

develop new and safer methods • Deal with an ever increasing mass of previously conserved and freshly excavated objects Boissonnas .Tomorrow? • Achieve better understanding of corrosion mechanisms • Achieve better understanding of current treatments.

Tomorrow? • Achieve better understanding of corrosion mechanisms • Achieve better understanding of current treatments. develop new and safer methods • Deal with an ever increasing mass of previously conserved and freshly excavated objects • Improve standards and facilitate access to education and training in conservation Boissonnas .

E. 1993 Restaurierung antiker Bronzewaffen.. Jakobson. A. UFR dÕ et archˇ ologie. lag. 1992 Theorien und Konzepte zur Bronzekonservier ung von 1860 bis zum Beginn der 40er Jahre. Treatment. 38. In: Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. Leur Transformation et Leur Conservation. Illustrierte Wochenschrift ber die Fortschritte in Gewerbe. Dept. London: James & James. Diplomarbeit am Institut f r Technologie der Malerei. 34. Berlin Bradley. F. F. 533 Krefting. 1-11 Brinch Madsen. Studies in Conservation 8. 1951 The Corrosion Situation: Past. 1902 Zapon und seine Verwendung zur Conservierung von Sammlungsgegenst nde. Berlin/Leipzig. 1889 Uber eine neue Anwendung des elektrischen Strohmes zur Conservierung antiker Bronzen. 41. Vol. with Especial Reference to Metallic Exhibits. 1993 The history of and prospects for the conservation of metals in Europe... p. Los Angeles Setlik. 1988. Leipzig . 1963 Aspects of bronze patina and its treatment. British Museum occasional paper No 65. Colorants. Corrosion.R. Conservation. Evans. p. Amsterdam: Central Research Laboratory for Objects of Art and Science. Artefacts Conservation in Denmark at the Beginning of the Last Century. Vol. Staatlichen Akademie der Bildenden K nste Stuttgart. & Seitter E. The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. International Symposium on the Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. London: Oxford University Press. 1985 The Corrosion and Conservation of Metallic Antiquities and Works of Art. Berlin/Leipzig Rhousopoulos. Chemiker-Zeitung. In: Neue Museumskunde. 454-455 Stambolov. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties. p. Protective coatings for metals. M. 93-111 Rosenberg. 2. Iron conservation at the National Museum of Copenhagen .Bibliography Bertholon R. sowie Reinigung und Konservierung von Alterth mern. J 1992 Zur historischen Entwicklung der Kenntnis von Korrosionsprodukten auf kulturgeschichtlichen Objekten aus Kupferlegierungen. Vanino I. Th¸se de doctorat. p. No. p. Preprints of the Jubilee conservation conference Papers. Umgearbeitete Auflage.. Ihre nat rliche und k nstliche Bildung auf Kupfer. F.A. H. 1984. Rathgen. A. 1888 The treatment of small Antiquities. In: Early Advances in Conservation (V. localisation et ne approche des mˇcani smes de conservation. 1903 Die Patina. Third Edition 1955. G. 1987. W. Krause. Jg. Kristiania. Repair and R estoration. Berlin/Leipzig. organische Stoffe. 2000 La limite de la surface dÕorigi des objets mˇ talliques archˇologi ques : caractˇris ation. 7th Triennial Meeting Copenhagen 1984. In:. Iron Corrosion Theories and the Conservation of Archae ological Iron Objects in the 19th Century with an Emphasis on Scandinavian and German Sources. discipline archˇ ologie. Gilberg. 65. Industrie und Wissenschaft. 1892 Om nogle Metallers Oxydation ved noitrale Saltes Medvirken. Berlin Rathgen. I. Heft 2. T. The conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art. O. p. 1933 Deterioration and Restauration. B. 706-711 Gilberg. 80. Pest. 5-8 Scott. 1-9 Petrie. In: Recent Advances i n the Conservation and Analysis of Artifacts.. A. Band II Sammlung Guttmann. Teil. Industrie und Wissenschaft. Jg. 1911 †ber di e Reinigung und Aufbewahrung der Altertumsfunde. p. Metalle und Metalllegierungen. 1915 Die Konservierung von Altertumsfunden I. 1955. Band 11. In: Chemistry and Industry. Berlin Jg 7. F. F. Oddy. p. In: Current problems in the conservation of metal antiquities. Videnskabs-Selskabet. 13. HartlebenÕs Ver Wien. XV. Getty Publications. British Museum Occasional Paper No. Berlin Verhandlungen 8. Weekly publication of the Society of Chemical Industry London. art Born. Berliner Beitrage zur Archaometrie. 1988 The History of Bronze Disease and its Treatment. D. Universitˇ de Paris -1 Panthˇo n Sorbonne. Vorhandlinger 16. Japan. Daniels Ed. 1924 Die Konservierung von Altertumsfunden II & III. M. Friedrich Rathgen: The father of modern archaeological conservation. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. In: Preprints of the International Counsil of Museums Committee for Conservation. Prometheus. The Museum Journal. 1-26 Organ. In: Prometheus. W & Burns. p. London: British Museum. A. Scott. T. 59-70 Ihrig. 2.H.196-198 Rathgen. 1882 Ein neues Verfahren zur Konservierung von Eisen-Alterth mer. Oct. 1956. M. Present and Future. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. p. R. 1903 †b er nat rliche und k nstliche Patina. London: Summer school press. 95 Riederer. In: Early advances in Conservation. 1926 The Cleaning and Restoration of Museums Exhibits. T. Third report upon Investigations conducted at The British Museum. Illustrierte Wochenschrift ber die Fortschritte in Gewerbe. AIC Journal vol 26. 2. 1932 The Romance of Museum Restauration. p.485-487 Rathgen. U. 85-89 Plenderleith. Tokyo. 498-499 Scott. Heidelberg. Auflage. of Conservation. No. Nr. H. 33.M. 1987. Ethnologie und Urgeschichte.A. Theorie & Praxis der Museumsarbeit. A. p. Copenhague: Gyldendalske boghandels sortiment. 2002 Copper and Bronze in Art. Jakobson.A.past and present. prˇse ntˇe et soutenue publiquement Paris. Teil. 1987. In: Zeitschrift f r Ethnologie der Berliner gesellschaft f r Antropologie. 1917 Antiquitˇ s en Fer et en Bronze. Nr.. 1989. London Scott. R. In: Archaeological Journal 45. Nr. Verlag Philipp von Zabern. p. b. Stein und steinartige Stoffe.).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful