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University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Chemical Engineering

MODULE OUTLINE Module Code: ENCH4RT Credits: 8 Module Title: Applied Reactor Technology 2012

80 hours in total. This includes 36 hours of contact time (lecture, tutorial, practical times and assessments), and an additional 44 hours of self-study and revision.

In order to register for this module, you must have achieved 50% in ENCH3RT.

An earlier course on chemical reactors treated ideal reactor systems. In contrast, this course illustrates the more complex approach which is often necessary in real applications. In these cases, thermal effects, mass transfer limitations, wall effects, complex rate expressions, multiple reactions, axial/radial diffusion, and economic optimisation, may all be important. An analysis of heat and mass transfer in catalytic beds leads on to case studies based on several important industrial reactions. Techniques are developed for the modelling of these systems.

Candidates will be able to deal with the complex issues which become important in real industrial installations, involving approximations, economic decisions, solutions for conditions in catalytic beds, the effects of heat and mass transfer limitations and the choice of reactor configurations.

Thermal effects, mass transfer limitations, complex rate expressions, multiple reactions, axial/radial diffusion, and economic optimization, risk and uncertainty. Case studies based on industrial reactions (SO2 oxidation, NH3 synthesis, phthalic anhydride production in a tubular reactor, batch polymerization of vinyl chloride, fluidised bed catalytic reactor, bio-reactor design). Techniques are developed for the modelling of these systems.

CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE Objective of practical: Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide using statistical methods to identify reaction kinetics A differential bed reactor is maintained at an elevated temperature with a mixture of CO in O2 and N2 passing over the catalyst. Flow conditions and the temperature are varied in order to elucidate the reaction kinetics.

Appropriate data analysis must be performed by each group and the results presented by the group in a mini-report (objectives, raw data, calculations, brief discussion, conclusions; NO introduction, NO literature, NO materials and methods) during the post-practical interview.

Two class tests and a final examination are used to assess understanding and measure the students ability to solve problems using basic principles. A component of the final mark also arises from the performance of the students in the laboratory practical, and in the subsequent post-practical group interview.

If for any reason you are absent for one of the two tests you must satisfy the course coordinator that you have an acceptable reason, in which case you may be eligible to sit a make-up test in the last week of the semester. If you do not present a good reason for absence you will receive a zero score. Doctors certificates justifying absence from tests or tutorials must be presented to the course co-ordinator within 1 day of the period covered by the certificate. Clinic certificates will not be accepted unless signed by a doctor, with a registered practice number.

Lectures: One double period each week: Thursday 2nd & 3rd period (08h40 - 09h25 & 09h35-10h20): Woodburn lecture theatre Tutorials: One single period every week: Friday 5th period (11h25 - 12h10) (CEW) (not all periods will necessarily be used): REGISTERS WILL BE TAKEN AT TUTORIALS Tests: Test 1: Friday 9 March 5th period (11h25 - 12h10) Test 2: Friday 20 April 4th and 5th period. (10h30 - 12h10) Practical: Located in the new laboratory extension (see schedule for your own group) Monday 6th - 11th period (12h20 - 17h40) Thursday 7th - 11th period (13h15 - 17h40) PostPractical: Post practicals will take place exactly 2 weeks after your practical in room 02-011 in the following time slots: Monday (14h30 - 15h15) Wednesday (14h30 - 15h15) Post prac bookings will be automatically generated, and may only be changed if there is a clash with another 4th year practical. MakeupTest: (special cases only):

11th May Friday 5th period (11h25 - 12h10) : (Venue to be announced)

The material in this module belongs to ECSAs categories Engineering Sciences (knowledge area 3) and Design Synthesis (knowledge area 4). This is an ECSA exit level course, which must be passed (together with ENCH4MT Advanced Mass Transfer) to comply with: Exit level outcome 2: Application of scientific and engineering knowledge (Competence to apply knowledge of mathematics, basic science and engineering sciences from first principles to solve engineering problems). In particular the application of uncertainty and risk will be addressed in the practical and in general design issues relating to industrial reactors.

In order to be granted a Duly-Performed certificate and access to the final examination, students must meet the following requirements: Satisfactory completion of the practical (including post-practical) Attendance and completion of all tutorials

A class mark, which contributes 25% to the final mark, is made up as follows: Test 1: 10% (60 min) Test 2: 10% (60 min) Practical: 5% Total: 25% The examination at the end of the semester is two hours long, and this mark, scaled by 0.75, is added to the class mark for the final result.

Prescribed: a) Fogler,H.S. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering 3rd Edition Prentice-Hall PTR (1999) Recommended: a) Rase, H.F. Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plants Vol. 2 John Wiley & Sons (1977) [out of print, but available in library] b) Levenspiel, O. Chemical Reaction Engineering 3rd edition (1998) John Wiley & Sons c) Froment,G.F./Bischoff,K.B. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design 2nd Edition (in library) (1990) 3rd edition (available for sale) (2010) John Wiley & Sons d) Rase, H.F. Chemical Reactor Design for Process Plants Volume 1 John Wiley & Sons (1977) [out of print, but available in library]

e) Carberry, J.J. Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering McGraw-Hill (1976) References: f) Carberry, J.J. Some aspects of catalytic reactor engineering Trans I Chem E 59 (1981) [available on LAN] John Wiley & Sons (1972) g) Forster, F. Improved reactor design for ammonia synthesis Chem Eng, Sept (1980) [available on LAN] h) Pierru, A. & Alexandre,C. Optimise PVC reactor Hydrocarbon Processing , June (1973)

Dr K Foxon Room 02-011

Lectureslot RT1,2&3 RT4&5 RT6&7 RT8&9 RT10&11 RT12&13 RT14&15 RT16&17 RT18&19 RT20&21

Wednesday2ndand3rd Topic Date 1Intro



Friday5th event Date

11Feb Lecture3 18Feb 25Feb 04Mar 11Mar 18Mar 25Mar 01Apr 08Apr 15Apr 22Apr Varsityvac 29Apr Varsityvac

16Feb 23Feb

02Mar 09Mar 4TubularPhthalic 16Mar

23Mar 30Mar

06Apr 13Jun

1 2 4 5 6 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Tut1 Tut2 Tut3 Test1



Tut4 Tut5 Tut6 Test2


Tut8 20Apr FridayTimetable VarsityVac



7Polymerisation RT22&23 RT24&25 RT26

04May 11May 18May

22 23 06May 24 25 13May 26

Tut7 Tut9