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Assignment 1 to

(0401564)

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Q. Analyze the structural design process in terms of applied loads, generated stresses (tension, compression, shear, flexure and torsion) and material properties available to deal with the applied loads. Define for each stress type (or combination of stresses) the relationship between the load and behavior/resistance of material, and then explain the process using risk analysis and explain how risk is managed in the design process. You can define the risk as the potential of failure under the load. Solution: Loads can be classified (in terms of resistance into the following categories 1. Normal loads to be resisted by reinforcement or framing (gravitational loads, shear, flexure, torsion, ... etc) 2. Environmental loads to be resisted by reinforcement framing (wind loads and seismic loads) In general the loads, the material and the capacity are given into this diagram

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The interpretation of this triangle is the following statement on basis of load for any given load to be sustained by a certain material. The capacity is the ability of the section of this material to resist the load. Also, for any structure we have the ratio of load to capacity (or the L/C ratio) has to stay less than 1.00 always. There are many types of load resisting structures such as reinforced and prestressed concrete structures, steel structures, timber structures and stone structures. Reinforced concrete design will be taken as an example to analyze its process against risk assessment and management. Risk analysis for inelastic bending (flexure) loads Parameter Value Comment Yield strength of reinforcement Material property fy Steel Area Material property As Base of concrete section Material property b Effective depth of concrete section Material property d Effective compression depth of the Material property A section Span of concrete section Material property l Compressive strength of concrete Material property fc Youngs modulus of elasticity of Material property Ec concrete Moment of inertia of the section Material Property I The given load (regardless of its type) Load L

General capacity reduction factor

Failure Criteria

Criterion

Tension equals compression in the section Compression strength is reduced Load is magnified to the ultimate The ultimate moment is calculated by structural analysis from ultimate loads

Comment

To have equilibrium in the section The reduction factor for concrete is 0.85 To magnify the loads To determine the maximum moments applied (depends on type of structure)

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= 2

< 1.00

= f (L, l, Ec, I)

The inputs of this function varies a lot between different cases of members whether it was loading or material properties

Risk characterization

Risk management

Risk Assessment Loads on slabs or beams L=M = 2 Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads 2. Miscalculation of capacity 3. Material degradation 4. Excess deflection of the member 1. Overestimating loads (magnification of load) 2. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3. Combination between safety and Economy

Commentary: Concrete flexural sections are designed based on the fact that the moment is nothing but tension and compression acting simultaneously but each force dominates an area in the section where the other force has the opposite are. It has been an axiom that concrete is very week in tension (about 10% of compressive strength). So, from very long ages, designers have to choose between one of the following; either making the whole building in pure compression which is not all the time applicable or to provide some reinforcement (steel here) to take care of the tension loading in the flexural section.

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For steel reinforcement, codes have developed an envelope that the reinforcement has to fall within its limits. That means steel has a minimum area to guarantee the elastic behavior of the section under the given flexural loading which is 3 = . . . . 4

, =

The same thing for maximum allowed steel area that designers use it to guarantee that the section will not undergoes a sudden failure mechanism. The following figure explains some parameters

Figure acquired from Reinforced Concrete Design Book by McCormac and Brown 8th ed. Now for columns and compression reinforced concrete members Risk analysis for compressive loads Value fy As Ag fc

4

Parameter

Yield strength of reinforcement Steel Area Gross sectional area of the member Compressive strength of

Comment

Material property Material property Material property Material property

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concrete The given load (regardless of its type) General capacity reduction factor

Failure Criteria Criterion Value Comment Compression is resisted by By statics C = Cc + Cs both concrete and steel The ultimate load is Magnify the load UL The capacity equation Reduce the capacity C = (0.8)[0.85 fc(Ag As) + As fy] The magnified load over = < 1.00 This number HAS to be less reduced capacity equation than 1.00 always 0.8 0.85 + Risk Assessment Hazard Identification Loads on compression members Hazard Quantification (Load) L=P Section response (Capacity) C = [0.85 fc(Ag As) + As fy] Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads Risk characterization 2. Miscalculation of capacity 3. Material degradation 1. Overestimating loads (magnification of load) Risk management 2. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3. Combination between safety and Economy

Commentary: In compressive loads the failure might be because of the previously discussed factors, the deflection here will not be that important as the deflection is resisted by compressive characteristics of concrete. So, no risk is there regarding the deflection of columns unlike the deflection of beams where tension in the beam plays an important role in the falure of the beam because of deflection.

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Parameter

Yield strength of reinforcement Steel Area Base of concrete section Effective depth of concrete section Span of concrete section Compressive strength of concrete Shear strength of concrete Spacing between stirrups The given load (regardless of its type) The ultimate shear applied General capacity reduction factor

Comment

Material property Material property Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material Property Load Translation from loads into shear Reduction factor for the whole capacity (0.75)

Criterion

The maximum load is calculated The Maximum moment is calculated Stirrups are needed if the ultimate shear is greater than half of the reduced capacity Shear is resisted by both steel and concrete After selecting desired steel diameter, spacing is calculated

Comment

Magnify the load To determine the maximum moments applied (depends on type of structure) Since stirrups are repeated two times per section By statics Calculate Vs from the given equation in the previous line

(Vs + Vc) = Vu

= = < 1.00

Risk Assessment

Hazard Identification Hazard Quantification (Load) Section response (Capacity)

Risk characterization

Risk management

Shear loads L=V = + Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads 2. Miscalculation of capacity 3. Material degradation 1. Overestimating loads (magnification of load) 2. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3. Combination between safety and Economy

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Parameter

Yield strength of reinforcement Shear reinforcement Torsional reinforcment Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of concrete cross section Gross sectional area Perimeter of the studied cross section Cross sectional area enclosed withen the outside hoop Gross area enclosed by shear path (0.85 Aoh) Perimeter of torsion reinforcing Effective depth of concrete section base of concrete section Compressive strength of concrete Shear strength of concrete Cracking torque of concrete Spacing between stirrups The given load (regardless of its type) Factored axial load The ultimate shear applied The ultimate torsion applied General capacity reduction factor Crack angle System of units factor

Risk analysis for torsional loads Value fy Av At Acp Ag pcp Aoh Ao ph d b fc Vc Tcr s L Nu Vu Tu

Comment

Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material property Material property Material property Material Property Material property Material Property Load Load Translation from loads into shear By direct structural analysis

Reduction factor for the whole capacity (0.75) used to be taken as 45 to distinguish between customary units and SI units

Criterion

The maximum load is calculated The Maximum moment is calculated Stirrups are needed if the ultimate shear is greater than half of the reduced capacity Shear is resisted by both steel and concrete After selecting desired steel diameter, spacing is calculated

Comment

Magnify the load To determine the maximum moments applied (depends on type of structure) Since stirrups are repeated two times per section By statics Calculate Vs from the given equation in the previous line

(Vs + Vc) = Vu

= = + < 1.00

This number HAS to be less than 1.00 always This is only for shear

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> 1

2 1 = 4

> 1

1+

Checking the ability of the Solid section to take the given toesional loading

1.7

2

+ 3

3 = 8 for customary units 3 = 2/3 for SI units Here the magnified load has to be less than the reduced capacity for the section

Checking the ability of the Hollow section to take the given toesional loading

+ 2 + 3 1.7

ML RC

= 2 cot

In any way, stirrups area must not be below the given limit

+ 2 = 4

4 = 3/4 for customary units 4 = 1/16 for SI units 5 = 50 for customary units 5 = 1/3 for SI units

cot 2

, =

5 6

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Risk Assessment

Hazard Identification Hazard Quantification (Load) Section response (Capacity)

Risk characterization

Risk management

Shear loads L=V = + Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. Underestimating or miscalculation of loads 2. Miscalculation of capacity 3. Material degradation 1. Overestimating loads (magnification of load) 2. Underestimating Material Strength (reduction of capacity) 3. Combination between safety and Economy

Commentary: For Shear loads, the failure in the section because of the principal tensile stresses that the section is to carry. Since the shear loads means a principal tensile stress that is inclined at 45, so, by default the reinforcement is to be inclined at that angle, but because of difficulties in framing, codes specify some equations (like the previously stated ones) to overcome this issue. For torsion loads, designers used to depend on the previous load resisting designs. But now when safety factors have reduced relatively after 2005, designers shall now have concern of failure because of torsion. Even though being lengthy, the approach of torsion reinforcement design is like shear design approach in principal. They both care about principal tensile stresses that develop in the section because of various loads that are encountered by the structure.

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It is important to mention that this model of risk analysis is for reinforced concrete structures. For other types of structures the equations will be different but the concept will be the same. It is also important to mention that all types of loading that any reinforced concrete structure faces (dead, live, hydraulic, snow, seismic etc) will be translated into the ultimate magnified load (UL or U) that will have one of three possible effects on structure (flexure, compression and shear). The magnification of loads can be done using magnification factors (based on the used code of design) for the loads as following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. U = 1.4 (D + F) U = 1.2 (D + F + T) + 1.6 (L + H) + 0.5 (Lr or S or R) U = 1.2 D + 1.6 (Lr or S or R) + (1.0 L or 0.8 W) U = 1.2 D + 1.6 W + 1.0 L + 0.5 (Lr or S or R) U = 1.2 D + 1.0 E + 1.0 L + 0.2 S U = 0.9 D + 1.6 W + 1.6 H U = 0.9 D + 1.0 E + 1.6 H ACI equation 9-1 ACI equation 9-2 ACI equation 9-3 ACI equation 9-4 ACI equation 9-5 ACI equation 9-6 ACI equation 9-7

Where the used abbreviations are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. U: the ultimate (magnified) design load D: dead load F: loads due to weight and pressure of fluids T: total effects of temperature, creep, differential settlement and shrinkagecompensating concrete 5. L: live load 6. H: loads due to weight and lateral earth pressure of soils, groundwater pressure or pressure of bulk materials 7. Lr: roof live loads 8. S: snow loads 9. R: rain loads 10. W: wind loads 11. E: earthquake or seismic loads. These load magnification combination conforms to the IBC code and ASCE code requirements.

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Risk analysis for service time of the structure Value Water Cement Ratio W/C Clear cover to reinforcement S Service life time T Environmental Condition Ea Parameter Failure Criteria Criterion

Service life time is a function of clear cover to reinforcement, the severity of the environmental condition and water cement ratio (in some cases)

Comment

Material property Material property Material Property Load

Comment

This function is widely variable since we have three unknowns of which one of them (Environmental condition) is by itself a very complicated (unstable) function

Risk characterization

Risk management

Risk Assessment Environmental conditions are unbearable enough by the structure L = Ea T = f (S, Ea, (W/C)*) Probability of failure because one or more of the following 1. Underestimating or miscalculation of cover to reinforcement 2. Underestimating of environmental conditions 3. Material degradation 1. Overestimating of environmental effects 2. Underestimating Material Strength 3. Provide good quality -impermeable concrete 4. Use of suitable admixtures 5. Protection of reinforcement 6. Use of corrosion inhibitors 7. Choice of non-corroding reinforcement 8. Combination between safety and Economy

Commentary: Environmental impacts that are given here are not the normal loading that the structure is designed to carry. It is the environmental condition that the structure will face; such as humidity, high concentrations of hard salts (such as, sulfurs, chlorides or carbonates) that will cause the concrete to degrade and therefore, on the final run, corrosion of reinforcement that will make the capacity of the section to be reduced

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References 1. McCormac, Jack C. and Brown, Russell H., Design of Reinforced Concrete, eighth edition, John Wiley and sons. (2009) 2. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318M 08) and Commentary. American concrete institute (2008) 3. Al-Toubat, Salah. Lecture notes for Reinforced Concrete Design I course. Spring semester 2010. University of Sharjah. UAE. 4. Al-Samarai, Mufid. Lecture notes for Advanced Concrete Technology course. Fall semester 2011. University of Sharjah. UAE. 5. Own work experience.

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