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Mikhail

Mikhail S.KONSTANTINOV

S.KONSTANTINOV

Gennadiy

Gennadiy G.

G. FEDOTOV

FEDOTOV

Moscow

Moscow Aviation

Aviation Institute

Institute

Viacheslav

Viacheslav G.

G. PETUKHOV

PETUKHOV

Khrunichev

Khrunichev State Research

State Research and

and Production

Production Space

Space Center

Center

OBJECTIVE FUNCTION: PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATION

J = mf ⋅|(v-vast)Tvast|

**Launch date and transfer
**

Impact point in the vicinity

duration should be

of asteroid’s perihelion

optimized

1) Retrograde orbit

2) Impact in the vicinity Giant planets swingbys or

of S/C perihelion low-thrust should be

3) S/C aphelion distance considered

should be maximized

1) Swingbys are prefered in

Minimum propellant comparison with thrusting

2) Transfer duration tends to

maximal

THEREFORE…

**Thanks ACT & Dario Izzo
**

for an interesting problem

FLYBY CONSTRAINTS: ASYMPTOTIC VELOCITY ROTATION

Maximal angles ⇒ flyby sequences E…JSA or E…JSJA are prefered

180

160

140 Mercury

Venus

120

Earth

Max betta, deg.

100 Mars

Jupiter

80

- heliocentric parabola

Saturn

60

40

20

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Vinf, km/s

LOW-THRUST TRAJECTORY: BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Initial point: Swingby:

x(0 ) = x 0 , + V∞+ −

p = − pv ,

v

p v (0 )

V∞

v (0 ) = v 0 + V∞ , v + = v pl + V∞+ ,

pv (0 )

m(0 ) = m0 . x = x pl ,

where

⎛ ⎞

⎛ cos β ⎞ ⎜ ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟

Final point: V∞+ = M ⋅ ⎜ sin β cos γ ⎟, β max = π − 2 arccos⎜ 2 ⎟

⎜ sin β sin γ ⎟ ⎜1+ r V ∞ ⎟

x(T ) = x ast ,

p min

⎝ ⎠ ⎜ ⎟

⎝ µ ⎠

( T

)

p v (T ) = m(T )sgn (v (T ) − v ast ) v ast v ast , ⎛ − V∞−yV∞− −

V∞xV∞z− ⎞

p m (T ) = 1.

⎜V∞x − − ⎟

⎜

⎜

(V ) + (V )

− 2

∞x

− 2

∞y (V∞−x ) + (V∞−y ) ⎟⎟

2 2

⎜ V∞−xV∞− V∞−yV∞−z ⎟

M = ⎜V∞−y − ⎟

⎜ (V ) + (V )

− 2

∞x

− 2

∞y (V∞x ) + (V∞y ) ⎟

− 2 − 2

⎜ − ⎟

⎜ V∞z 0 (V∞x ) + (V∞y ) ⎟

− 2 − 2

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

VERSIONS OF TRAJECTORY PROFILE AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

**1. Flyby sequence in the inner Solar system
**

(aphelion increasing + apsidal line positioning)

1.1. EV…E or EV…V coast flyby sequence

1.2. EE, EV, VE or VV trajectory using low-thrust arc

2. Retrograde trajectory shaping in the outer Solar system

using Giants flybys and/or low thrust

EJSJA, EJSA, ESJA, ESA or EJA flyby sequence using low-thrust arcs if necessary

- or -

•• Lambert

Lambert solver

solver

EA trajectory using low-thrust arc(s). •• Conic-patched

Conic-patched interplanetary

interplanetary trajectory

trajectory calculation

calculation based

based on

on

the

the Kepler

Kepler equation

equation

•• TPBVP

TPBVP solver (numerical

solver (numerical integration,

integration, targeting

targeting to

to the

the next

next

planet varying the trajectory arc duration and departure

planet varying the trajectory arc duration and departure

asymptotic

asymptotic velocity

velocity direction).

direction). Trajectory

Trajectory arc

arc can

can include

include one

one

thrusting

thrusting arc

arc using

using parametric

parametric thrust

thrust steering

steering

•• Power-limited

Power-limited (LP)

(LP) problem

problem solver

solver

•• Constant

Constant ejection velocity (LP-to-CEV) problem

ejection velocity (LP-to-CEV) problem solver

solver

PROBLEM COMPLEXITY

**1. Large number of routes under consideration:
**

Swingby

1st planet 2nd planet … Mth planet

1 orbit 2 orbits … N orbits

1st half of orbit 2nd half of orbit

Descending node Ascending node

**2. Local optimization of low-thrust arcs: bifurcations, numerical stability and
**

convergence problems

**Global optimization assumes using of reliable local optimization techniques.
**

Local optimization technique of multiply swingbys low-thrust trajectory is insufficiently elaborated.

So, some simplifications are inevitable.

Due

Due to

to problem

problem complexity

complexity

researcher’s

researcher’s intuition

intuition and

and experience

experience should

should be

be used

used

along

along with

with optimization

optimization techniques

techniques using

using

SOFTWARE

**EPOCH – LP-problem solver E-ProTO – multi-orbits trajectory optimization,
**

CEV-problem

**GALTT – Gravity-Assisted Low-Thrust
**

Trajectory Evaluation

PL – CEV-problem solver

**Other software: Legend:
**

• LP → CEV continuation (frozen trajectory structure) - previously developed and exploited software

• Lambert solvers - modified software

• Conic-patched interplanetary trajectory calculation - new-developed software

based on the Kepler equation

TRAJECTORY DESCRIPTION: INITIAL FLYBY SEQUENCE

1.

1. EV,

EV, 440.667

440.667 days

days 2.

2. EVE,

EVE, +1322.383

+1322.383 days,

days,

pericenter

pericenter radius 40795.8 km

radius 40795.8 km

4.

4. EVEVE,

EVEVE, +368.930

+368.930 days

days ,,

3. pericenter

pericenter radius

radius 8756.6

8756.6 km

km

3. EVEV,

EVEV, +452.055

+452.055 days

days ,,

pericenter

pericenter radius

radius 16696.8

16696.8 km

km

TRAJECTORY DESCRIPTION: EARTH-to-EARTH TRAJECTORY ARC

**1. Tangential thrust 2. LP-trajectory 3. CEV-trajectory
**

(braking)

1 2

**Boundary conditions, Continuation 5.
**

5. EVEVEE,

EVEVEE, +1200.0

+1200.0 days

days ,,

continuation wrt. gravity LP → CEV, pericenter

pericenter radius

radius 7936.0

7936.0 km,

km,

transfer thrusting

thrusting 29.861 + 221.237 ==

29.861 + 221.237

parameter

251.098

251.098 days

days

duration

30

0

-30

Pitch, deg.

-60

-90

-120

-150

-180

8500 8700 8900 9100 9300 9500 9700

MJD2000

TYPICAL POWER-LIMITED PROBLEM

T

1 T d 2x

2 ∫0

Purpose: To minimize J = a adt for a dynamical system obeying the differential equations = Ω x + a,

dt 2

and having following boundary conditions: t = 0: x(0) =x0, dx(0)/dt = v0, m(0) = m0, t = T: x(T) = xf, dx(T)/dt = vf..

Here T is final time, a is thrust acceleration, x and v are vectors of spacecraft position and velocity respectively, Ω is gravity potential.

**Let apply Pontryagin’s maximum principle to reduce this OCP to the TPBVP.
**

Hamiltonian of this dynamical system is H = -aTa/2 + pxTv + pvTΩx + pvTa. So, optimal control is a = pv and equations of optimal

motion become following:

d 2x ⎫

= Ωx + pv , ⎪

dt 2

⎪

2 ⎬

= −Ω xxp v ,⎪⎪

d pv

dt 2

⎭

The boundary conditions for rendezvous mission has form: t = 0: x(0) =x0, dx(0)/dt = v0, t = T: x(T) = xf, dx(T)/dt = vf .

⎛ x(T ) − x f ⎞ ⎛ p x ( 0) ⎞

In fact, it is necessary to solve equation f(z) = 0, where f (z ) = ⎜ ⎟ is vector of residuals, z = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ is vector of

⎜ v(T ) − v ⎟ ⎝ p v ( 0) ⎠

⎝ f ⎠

unknown TPBVP parameters, px = -dpv/dt.

ALGORITHMS FOR POWER-LIMITED PROBLEM

Continuation

Continuation (homotopy)

(homotopy) technique

technique is

is used

used for

for LP-problem

LP-problem solving.

solving.

Purpose

Purpose ofof continuation

continuation method

method

“Regularization”

“Regularization” of numerical trajectory

of numerical trajectory optimization,

optimization, i.e.

i.e. elimination

elimination (if

(if possible)

possible) the

the methodical

methodical

deffects

deffects of

of numerical

numerical optimization.

optimization. Particularly,

Particularly, there

there was

was stated

stated and

and solved

solved problem

problem of of trajectory

trajectory

optimization

optimization using

using trivial

trivial initial

initial approximation

approximation (the

(the coasting

coasting along

along the

the initial

initial orbit

orbit for

for example).

example).

CONTINUATION TECHNUQUE

Continuation (Homotopy) Technique Application to Optimal Control Problem (OCP)

dx ⎫

= Hp , ⎪

Problem: to solve non-linear system Optimal motion equations dt ⎪

⎬

f (z ) = 0 (1) (after applying the maximum principle): dp

= − H x ⎪⎪

with respect to vector z dt ⎭

**Let z0 - initial approximation of solution. Then Boundary conditions (an example): x(0) = x 0 , x(T ) =x k
**

f ( z0 ) = b (2)

where b - residuals when z = z0.

Boundary value problem parameters and

Let consider immersion z(τ), where τ is a scalar parameter, residuals: z = p(0), f = x(T ) − x k

and equation f ( z) = (1 − τ )b

(3) ∂x(T )

with respect to z(τ). Obviously, z(1) is solution of eq. (1). Sensitivity matrix: fz =

∂z

Let differentiate eq. (2) on τ and resolve it with respect to dz/dτ:

dz

= − f z−1 ( z)b , z( 0) = z0 Associated system of optimal motion o.d.e.

dτ (4) and perturbation equations for residuals and

sensitivity matrix calculation: dx ⎫

Just after integrating eq. (4) from 0 to 1 we have solution of = Hp , ⎪

dt

eq. (1). ⎪

dp

= −H x , ⎪

Equation (4) is the differential equation of continuation dt ⎪⎪

algorithm (the formal reduction of non-linear system (1) into d ⎛ ∂x ⎞ ∂x ∂p ⎬

initial value problem (4)). ⎜ ⎟ = H px + H pp ,⎪

dt ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ∂z ∂z ⎪

d ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ∂x ∂p ⎪

Differential equations (4) are integrated using a high-order ⎜ ⎟ = − H xx − H xp ⎪

Runge-Kutta method with adaptive step size control. dt ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ∂z ∂z ⎪⎭

∂x ∂p

Extended initial conditions: x(0) = x 0 , x(T ) =x k , = 0, =I

∂z ∂z

OCP-SOLVER BASED ON CONTINUATION ALGORITHM

**Reduction of optimal control problem
**

to the boundary value problem

by maximum principle

CONTINUATION METHOD

Initial residuals b calculation

Initial by optimal motion o.d.e. integrating

approximation z0 for given guess value z0

of boundary value problem parameters

**1st version Continuation method’s o.d.e. integrating 2nd version
**

of o.d.e. right- dz of o.d.e. right-hand

= − f z−1 ( z)b , z( 0) = z0

hand side dτ side calculation

calculation with respect to τ from 0 to 1

**Associated integrating of optimal motion Integrating of optimal motion equations for
**

equations and perturbation equations for current z(τ) to calculate current residuals f(z,τ)

current z(τ) to calculate current residuals f(z,τ) and for pertubed z(τ) to calculate fz(z,τ) by finite-

and sensitivity matrix fz(z,τ) difference technique

Solution

z(1)

CONTINUATION WITH RESPECT TO GRAVITY PARAMETER (1/3)

Occasional reasons of continuation algorithm failure: sensitivity matrix degeneration (bifurcation of optimal solutions)

Mostly bifurcations of optimal planetary If angular distance will remain constant during continuation, the continuation way in

trajectories are connected with different the parametric space will not cross boundaries of different kinds of optimal

number of complete orbits. trajectories. So, the sensitivity matrix will not degenerate.

The purpose of the technique modification - to fix angular distance of transfer during continuation

**Earth-to-Mars, rendezvous,
**

launch date October 1, 2001,

V∞= 0 m/s, T=200 days

1 - Earth at launch

2 - Earth at arrival

3 - Mars at arrival

4 - intermediate trajectories (τ < 1)

5 - optimal trajectory (τ = 1)

**Sequence of trajectory calculations using Sequence of trajectory calculations using
**

basic continuation method continuation with respect to gravity parameter

CONTINUATION WITH RESPECT TO GRAVITY PARAMETER (2/3)

**Let x0(0), x0(T) - departure planet position when t=0 and t=T;
**

xk - target planet position when t=T. Let suppose primary gravity parameter to

be linear function of τ, and let choose initial value of this gravity parameter µ0

using following condition:

**1) angular distances of transfer are equal when τ=0 and τ=1;
**

2) When τ=1 primary gravity parameter equals to its real value (1 for

dimensionless equations)

**The initial approximation is SC coast motion along departure planet orbit. Let
**

the initial true anomaly equals to ν0 at the start point S, and the final one equals

to νk=ν0+ϕ at the final point K (ϕ is angle between x0 and projection of xk into

the initial orbit plane).

**The solution of Kepler equation gives corresponding values of mean anomalies M0 and Mk (M=E-e⋅sinE, where
**

E=2⋅arctg{[(1-e)/(1+e)]0.5tg(ν/2)} is eccentric anomaly). Mean anomaly is linear function of time at the keplerian orbit: M=M0+n⋅(t-t0),

where n=(µ0/a3)0.5 is mean motion. Therefore, the condition of angular distance invariance is Mk+2π Nrev=nT+M0, where Nrev is number

of complete orbits. So initial value of the primary gravity parameter is

µ0=[( Mk+2π Nrev - M0)/T]2a3,

and current one is

µ(τ)=µ0+(1-µ0) τ.

The shape and size of orbits should be invariance with respect to τ, therefore

v(t, τ)=µ(τ)0.5 v(t, 1).

CONTINUATION WITH RESPECT TO GRAVITY PARAMETER (3/3)

**Equations of motion: x&& = µ ( τ)Ω x + p v , p
**

&& v = µ ( τ)Ω xx p v

x (0) = x 0 , x& (0) = µ 1/ 2 ( τ) v 0 ,

Boundary conditions:

x (T ) = x k , x& (T ) = µ 1/ 2 ( τ) v k .

⎛ x (T ) − x k ⎞

Residuals: f =⎜ ⎟

⎝ x (T ) − µ ( τ) v k ⎠

1/ 2

z = (pv(0), dpv(0)/dt)T = ( p v o , p& v o )

T

Boundary value problem parameters:

dz ⎛ ∂f ⎞

Equation of continuation method: = −f z−1 (z )⎜ b + ⎟, z (0) = z 0

dτ ⎝ ∂τ ⎠

where

d 2 ⎛ ∂x ⎞ ∂x ∂p v

2 ⎜ ⎟ = µ ( τ)Ω xx + ,

b = f(z0) dt ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ∂z ∂z

d 2 ⎛ ∂p v ⎞ ⎡∂ ∂x ∂p v ⎤

2 ⎜ ⎟ = µ ( τ) ⎢ (Ω xx p v ) + Ω xx ,

⎛ ∂x (T ) ∂p v o ∂x (T ) ∂p& v o ⎞ dt ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎣ ∂x ∂z ∂z ⎥⎦

f z = ⎜⎜ d ⎟

⎝dt

( ∂x (T ) ∂p v o ) d

( ∂x ( T ) ∂p& v o ) ⎟

⎠

d 2 ⎛ ∂x ⎞ ∂µ

⎟= Ω x + µ ( τ)Ω xx

∂x ∂p v

+

2 ⎜

dt ,

dt ⎝ ∂τ ⎠ ∂τ ∂z ∂z

d 2 ⎛ ∂p v ⎞ ∂µ ⎡∂ ∂x ∂p v ⎤

2 ⎜ ⎟= Ω xx p v + µ ( τ) ⎢ (Ω xx p v ) + Ω xx ,

⎛ ∂x ⎞ dt ⎝ ∂τ ⎠ ∂τ ⎣ ∂x ∂z ∂z ⎥⎦

∂f ⎜ ⎟

= ⎜ ∂x& ∂τ ⎟

∂τ ⎜ − 1 ∂µ ⎟ ∂x (0) ∂x& (0) ∂x (0) ∂x& (0) 1 ∂µ

⎜ v k⎟ = = = 0, = v0 ,

⎝ ∂τ 2µ 1/ 2 ( τ) ∂τ ⎠ ∂z ∂z ∂τ ∂τ 2µ ( τ) ∂τ

1/ 2

**∂p v (0) ∂p& v (0) ∂p v (0) ∂p& v (0) ∂p v (0) ∂p& v (0)
**

= = E, = = = = 0.

∂p v0 ∂p& v0 ∂p& v0 ∂p v0 ∂τ ∂τ

TYPICAL CEV-PROBLEM WITH THRUST SWITCHINGS

d 2x P ⎫

T

P = Ω x + δ e,⎪⎪

Purpose: To minimize J = ∫ δ dt for a dynamical system obeying the differential equations dt 2

m ⎬

w dm P

0

= −δ , ⎪

dt w ⎪⎭

and having following boundary conditions: t = 0: x(0) =x0, dx(0)/dt = v0, m(0) = m0, t = T: x(T) = xf, dx(T)/dt = vf.

Here δ is step-like thrusting function, P – thrust, w – exhaust velocity, m – spacecraft mass.

d 2x P pv ⎫ d 2p v ⎫

Pontryagin’s maximum principle reduces this OCP to the following TPBVP: = Ωx + δ ,⎪ = −Ω xxp v , ⎪

dt 2

m pv ⎪ dt 2

⎪

⎬ ⎬

dm P

= −δ , ⎪ dpm

= −δ 2 pv ,⎪⎪

P

dt w ⎪⎭ dt m ⎭

⎧1, if ψ s > 0,

t = 0: x(0) =x0, dx(0)/dt = v0, m(0) = m0, t = T: x(T) = xf, dx(T)/dt = vf, pm(T) = 0, where step-like thrusting function δ = ⎨

⎩0, if ψ s ≤ 0,

pv 1 + pm

and switching function ψ s = −

m w ⎛ x(T ) − x f ⎞ ⎛ p x (0) ⎞

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

In fact, it is necessary to solve equation f(z) = 0, where f (z ) = ⎜ v(T ) − v f ⎟ is vector of residuals, and z = ⎜ p v (0) ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ p (0) ⎟

⎝ pm (T ) ⎠ ⎝ m ⎠

LP-to-CEV CONTINUATION USING FROZEN TRAJECTORY STRUCTURE

**1. Sequence of thrusting and coasting arcs is assumed fixed
**

d 2x ⎡ P ⎤

2. Equations of optimal motion are following: = Ωx + δ ⋅ ⎢(1 − τ ) + τ ⎥p v ,

dt 2 ⎣ mp v ⎦

(the equations correspond to LP-problem

d 2p v

if τ=0 and to CEV-problem if τ=1) = Ω xx p v ,

dt 2

dm P

= −δ ,

dt w

dp m P

= δ 2 pv .

dt m

pv 1 + p m

2. Switching function: ψ = −

m w

ψ(t) Thrusting

x ( 0) = x 0 ,

3. Initial conditions:

pv

v ( 0) = v 0 + V ∞ , ψ(t1)

pv

m ( 0) = m 0 . ψ(t2)

t1 t2 T t

4. Final conditions: ⎛ x − x ast ⎞

⎜ ⎟

( )

⎜ p v − τ ⋅ m sgn v v ast v t ⎟

T

∆t1 ∆t2 ∆t3

⎜ pm ⎟

⎜ ⎟

f= ⎜ ∑ ∆t i − T ⎟=0

⎜ i ⎟ k(∆ti)

⎜ k (∆t1 )ψ (t1 ) ⎟ 1

⎜ ⎟

⎜ M ⎟

⎝ ( arc

)(

⎜ k ∆t N −1 ψ t N −1

arc

)⎟

⎠

ε 2ε ∆ti

-1

Multiplier providing minimal arc length ε

EARTH-to-ASTEROID POWER-LIMITED TRAJECTORY

**Continuation wrt. Continuation wrt.
**

gravity parameter boundary conditions

TRAJECTORY DESCRIPTION: FINAL (CEV) EARTH-to-ASTEROID TRAJECTORY

6.

6. EVEVEEA,

EVEVEEA, +6130.0

+6130.0 days

days ,,

pericenter

pericenter radius

radius 7600.0

7600.0 km,

km,

thrusting 2798.027 days

thrusting 2798.027 days

Pitch Yaw

0 0

-30

-60 -30

Pitch, deg.

Yaw, deg.

-90

-120 -60

-150

-180 -90

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800 9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000 MJD 2000

FINAL (CEV) EARTH-to-ASTEROID TRAJECTORY

180

169.233°

150

Inclination, deg.

120

90

60

30

0

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000

1

0.95

Eccentricity

0.9

0.85 eemax = 0.998161

max = 0.998161

0.8

0.75

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000

FINAL (CEV) EARTH-to-ASTEROID TRAJECTORY

3.00E+08

**2.50E+08 rrppmin = 1.755×1066 km
**

min = 1.755×10 km

Pericenter radius, km

2.00E+08

1.50E+08

1.00E+08

5.00E+07

0.00E+00

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000

2.04E+09

2.02E+09

Apocenter radius, km

2.00E+09

1.98E+09

1.96E+09

1.94E+09

1.92E+09

1.90E+09

1.88E+09

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000

FINAL (CEV) EARTH-to-ASTEROID TRAJECTORY

1.14E+09

1.12E+09

1.10E+09

1.08E+09

SMA, km

1.06E+09

1.04E+09

1.02E+09

1.00E+09

9.80E+08

9.60E+08

9.40E+08

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000

180 180

150 150

**Argument of pericenter, deg.
**

120 120

RAAN, deg.

90 90

60 60

30 30

0 0

-30 -30

-60 -60

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800 9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000 MJD2000

FINAL (CEV) EARTH-to-ASTEROID TRAJECTORY

2.00E+09

1.80E+09

Heliocentric distance, km

1.60E+09

1.40E+09

1.20E+09

1.00E+09

8.00E+08

6.00E+08

4.00E+08

2.00E+08

0.00E+00

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000

4.50E+01

4.00E+01

3.50E+01

Velocity, km/s

3.00E+01

VVfin = 28712.01 m/s

fin = 28712.01 m/s

2.50E+01

2.00E+01

1.50E+01 VVmin = 686.42 m/s

min = 686.42 m/s

1.00E+01

5.00E+00

0.00E+00

9800 10800 11800 12800 13800 14800 15800

MJD2000

COMPLETE TRAJECTORY

Objective

Objective function

function value:

value: 1364042.86 kg⋅km22/sec

1364042.86 kg⋅km /sec22;;

Route:

Route: EVEVEEA

EVEVEEA

Launch

Launch date:

date: JD

JD 2457556.7

2457556.7 (June

(June 17.2,

17.2, 2016)

2016)

Escape

Escape velocity:

velocity: 2.474133

2.474133 km/sec

km/sec

Total duration:

Total duration: 9914.034 days

9914.034 days

Final

Final S/C

S/C mass:

mass: 1070.187

1070.187 kg

kg

10. 2001 TW229 arrival

8. 5th swingby (Earth)

**4. 3rd swingby (Venus)
**

7. 2nd thrusting arc

rd

9. 3 thrusting arc 2. 1st swingby (Venus)

**3. 2nd swingby (Earth)
**

6. 1st thrusting arc

1. Earth departure

**5. 4th swingby (Earth)
**

EXAMPLE OF LOCAL OPTIMIZATION COMPLEXITY:

DIRECT EARTH-to-ASTEROID TRAJECTORY

1. Initial S/C orbit: line of apsides along to asteroid’s line of apsides;

pericenter radius equals to earth orbit radius at departure date;

J=89000 J=330000 J=351000 apocenter radius corresponds to asymptotic velocity 2.5 km/s;

inclination equals to 0.

2. Final S/C orbit: line of apsides along to asteroid’s line of apsides;

pericenter radius equals to asteroid’s pericenter radius;

inclination and apocenter radius are varied.

3. Problem: minimum-time transfer to the final orbit

J=529000 with constrained minimal heliocentric distance (0.2 AU).

The constraint is regulated by number of orbits (continuation

wrt. gravity parameter), final inclination, and final apocenter

radius.

4. Solvers: a) Averaged optimal control problem (maximum principle,

continuation technique, E-ProTO software).

b) Unaveraged optimal control problem (maximum principle,

continuation technique, averaged solution as an intial guess,

E-ProTO software)

DIRECT EARTH-to-ASTEROID TRAJECTORY: RESULTS

**INITIAL ORBIT: 1.0 × 1.4239976 AU, i = 0°
**

FINAL ORBIT: 1.8815331 × 8.1846558 AU, i = 136.5°

FINAL MASS: 436.365 kg

MINIMAL HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCE: 0.2009528 AU

TRANSFER DURATION: 20.658 (thrusting) + 4.784 (coasting) = 25.442 years

J = 529207.74 kg⋅km2/s2

TECHNIQUES OF MULTIREVOLUTIONAL OPTIMIZATION

**Equinoctial orbital elements are used:
**

i

, e x = e cos (Ω + ω ), e y = e sin (Ω + ω ), i x = tan cos Ω, i y = tan sin Ω, F = ν + ω + Ω

p i

h=

µ 2 2

**Here p, e, ω, ν, i, Ω are Keplerian elements, µ - primary gravity parameter. It is considered conventional CEV-problem without any
**

constraints on thrust direction.

Maximum principle reduces the problem into TPBVP. The numerical averaging over the orbital period is used for computational

consumption reducing and numerical stability increasing. A numerous versions of boundary conditions were considered.

The continuation (homotopy) procedure was used to solve minimum-time problem (see 4.1.1). The simple typical guess values:

ph0 = ±1, pex0 = pey0 = pix0 = piy0 = 0 (initial values of co-state variables), T = 1 (dimensionless orbital period referred to the initial

orbit) as a rule provides stable convergence of optimization. Of course, initial values of co-states from the OCP solution having

close boundary conditions provides improved convergence.

Solver of minimum-propellant problem uses minimum-time solution as initial approximation. The factored secant update algorithm

is used for minimum-propellant problem.

Both techniques demonstrates their robustness and efficiency and there were used for a numerous applied problems.

CONCLUSION

**1. Tolerable objective function value was obtained without using
**

Jupiter/Saturn flybys

2. Global optimization should be supported by reliable methods of local

optimization

3. Continuation technique allows to find “global” minimum among local

minimums depending on restricted number of parameters (boundary

conditions, transfer duration, number of orbits)

4. THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION

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