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NRW and the Water Balance

By : Ir. Zainuddin Md. Ghazali Ranhill Utilities Sdn Bhd


16 November 2009

CONTENTS
What is NRW? NRW Components Awareness, Location, Repairs Moving Towards NRW Reduction

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Water Utilities around the Globe, ..

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have a common problem

much precious water

is being lost

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There is too much ..

NRW Non-Revenue Water

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The Worldwide Challenge


NRW is a world wide problem It is also a Management Problem!

Measure

Monitor
Maintai n

Pressure

Time

Repairs

Detectio n

Strateg y

Equipme nt

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WHAT IS NRW?

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What Is NRW?
Definition of NRW Non Revenue Water is defined as water produced by treatment plants, but which is not billed to customers.

NRW = Volume of Water Produced - Volume of Water Billed

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What Is NRW?
If P = Production, C = Consumption
Formula :

P - C = NRW% P
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WHERE NRW CAN OCCUR

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NRW Conponents
WATER TREATMENT PLANT

DISTRIBUTION

NETWORK

CONSUMER
(BILLING SYSTEM)

Physical Losses

Commercial Losses
Consumer meter consumer

Water Treatment Plant

watermeter

Balancing Reservoir

BoosterPump

Service Reservoir

Not all WTPs are metered Faulty Meters. Inaccurate WTP meters

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Leakages : Distribution mains. In the booster pump houses. Air valves. Scour valves Balancing reservoirs & suction tanks Overflow from resevoir . Theft of level control and monitoring equipment.

Pipe Bursts Leakages : Reticulation mains. Communication pipes. Sluice valves. Air valves Scour valves. Hydrants. Unstable pressure Water theft.

Billing system. Faulty meters. Aging meters Inaccessible meters Water theft.

NRW Components
Contribution to NRW: Pipe burst/leaks Meter errors Mistake in Bills Tanks overflow Daily operation activities Illegal connection/water theft

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NRW Components
Pipes Burst & Leaks Main pipes leaks Main pipes crack Connection pipes leaks Main pipes Burst Ferrule leaks Connection leaks Valve/Air Valve leaks

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NRW Components
Causes of pipes burst & leaks Low quality pipes Pipes not correctly stores Pipes moves not correct Pipes not correctly installed High Pressure Pressure Surge Soils Type Maintenance not correctly done

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NRW Components
Pipe Burst / Leakage

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NRW Components

Leakage Pipe Crack


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NRW Components
Reservoir & Tank Losses

Losses at reservoirs can occur in two ways Reservoir Overflows Reservoir Leakage

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NRW Components
Reservoir Overflow
Reservoir overflows need to be stopped through the use of pump pressure control or through altitude / float valve installation.

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of reservoir level showing signs of overflow occurring

NRW Components
Reservoir Overflow

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NRW Components
Reservoir Overflow

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NRW Components
Reservoir Leakage
Reservoir leakage needs to be monitored and when an unacceptable level is reached, repair or replacement should ensue.

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A Water leaking from an elevated tank

NRW Components
Causes of Reservoir / Tank Errors Poor design Poor construction & materials Poor meter maintenance Lack of overflow control Old age

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NRW Components
Apparent Losses Meter reading errors Meter under registration Meter accounting errors Water theft

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NRW Components Factors Affecting Apparent Losses


Meter Reading Errors

Economic Target for Apparent Loss


Water Accounting Errors Meter UnderRegistration

Existing Apparent Loss

Water Theft
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NRW Components Elements of Apparent Losses


Customer Meter Inaccuracies Unauthorized Consumption
illegal connections, theft and fraud

Customer Data Base (accounting) Errors Data Collection (meter reading) and data transfer/management Errors

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NRW Components
Meter Inaccuracies : Causes Meter Errors Wrong installation Poor materials, improper installation Poor water quality, intermittent supply Unsuitable size (lack of meter flow profile) Inappropriate class and type of meter Roof Tanks Lack of proper maintenance / replacement Customer tampering of meter
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NRW Components
Factors Effecting Meter Accuracy 1. Mechanical
Worn bearings Worn Vane blades Water Quality Stalling of vane at low flow

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NRW Components
Factors Effecting Meter Accuracy 2. Electro-Magnetic
Excess voltage in the meter Corrosion of pipe materials Water Quality

3. Ultrasonic
Movement of transducer Air in the water Water Quality
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NRW Components
Customer Services 1. Customer meters
Meter size: Match to consumption Replacement meters. New installations Review meter replacement policy Test meters to identify accuracy with age profile. Replace meters at agreed age Replace damaged/failed meters Work with manufacturers to improve service Meter servicing trial Update customer records on replacement
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NRW Components
Customer Services 2. Meter reading
Regular reading

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Accurate reading Zero readings Low readings Damaged meters Look for water theft Look for leakage Customer side leakage Tampered meters

Meter readers

NRW Components
Customer Services 3. Customer Accounts
Identify all accounts

Ensure all properties connected and registered


Regular customer counts

Check all vacant properties Quick update of account details


Analyse customer data

Review customer accounts to identify anomalies Look for changes in consumption


Follow up on disconnections Relate accounts to DMZs
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NRW Components
Customer Services 4. Reticulation Mains Replacement
Check all connections:
Illegal connections

Bypasses Illegal connections


Water theft

Meters bypassed
More than one property connected.

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NRW Components
Customer Services 5. Water Theft
Meters reconnected without approval. Meter bypass. Illegal connections. Tampered meters. Analyse data:
Zero readings Billing data for problems Correct tariff

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NRW Components
Common Examples

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NRW Components
Water Theft

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NRW Components
Meter Tampering and By Passes Regular visual inspection Look for anomalies in billing records Compare consumption rate to average values
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NRW Components

Meter Tampering

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NRW Components

Real /Physical Losses Apparent/Commercial Losses

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IWA Standard Water Balance


Billed Authorised Consumption Unbilled Authorised Consumption Apparent Losses Billed Metered Consumption Billed Unmetered Consumption Unbilled Metered Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption Unauthorised Consumption Billing & Customer Meter Inaccuracy Leakage On Overflows At Storage Tank Real Losses Leakage On Transmission And Distribution Main Leakage On Service Connections Up To Point Of Customer Meter Non Revenue Water Revenue Water

Authorised Consumption

System Input Volume

Water Losses

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AWARENESS, LOCATION & REPAIR

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Awareness, Location & Repair


Water Losses : Strong Burst Time 2 hours Losses Rate - 30m3/hour Total Losses = 60m3

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Awareness, Location & Repair


Water Losses : Medium Burst/Leaks Time - 14 days Losses rate - 1.5m3/hour Total Losses = 504m3

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Awareness, Location & Repair


Water Losses : Small Leaks Time -3 months Losses Rate - 0.5m3/hour Total Losses = 1080m3

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Importance of increased activity


30 Flow (m3/hr) 10

0.1 Day

Mains Burst: 60 m3 Lost A awareness L location R repair


Time (days)

A LR

5 Flow (m3/hr) 2

Connection Burst: 504 m3 Lost 14 days

A
1 Flow (m3/hr) 0.5 Ranhill Water Services

R
Time (days)

Valve Leak: 1080 m3 Lost 90 Days

R
Time (days)

TIME IS EVERYTHING
Volume of Water Lost Cubic Metres per Day

Volume Lost= Quantity X Time

Volume of Water lost over Time Total Time to Stop the Leak

Awareness Time in Days

Location

Repair

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AWARENESS

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Use of MIS System


Stoner Network Modeling Arc GIS

Database

Analysis
Billing

Data Loggers Leakage

Reporting

Management Decision
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Use of MIS System


Leakage Reporting
Locate leak locations graphically

Network Analysis
Construction of Network Model Reporting of Model Analysis Graphically

Customer Information System



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Show non-functioning meters graphically Show unpaid bills graphically System Analysis Automatic calculation of area NRWs

Telemetry System
Pressure and flow data is retrieved on request via a modem using a computer in Thames operations office

Typical pressure data retrieved via telemetry WTP / Pump Station river

Typical flow data retrieved via telemetry

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DMA

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DMA
Establishment of DMA Mapping Zero Pressure Test (ZPT) Legitimate Night Flow (LNF) T Factor

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DMA
Flow Recording Minimum Night Flow (MNF) Net Night Flow (NNF) = MNF LNF Peak Flow Average Flow

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DMA
Leakage Control Monitoring
NNF Step Valve

Leakage Reduction
Step Testing Leakage Detection Check NNF After Repair

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24 Hours Flow Graph

Flow l/s

Minimum Night Flow

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DMA Flow Analysis


Averaged Wkly Night Flow (cubic metres/hr.) Reduction due to Detection or Rehabilitation effort

Intervention Limit Increasing UFW


Non-detectable UFW

Base Level for UFW

Non-metered consumption

Metered Consumption

1 Time (Weeks)

52

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LOCATION

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Location
Passive Leak Detection
Repair only leaks that become visible above ground

Active Leak Detection


Actively seek non visible leaks and repair them in a short period

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Location
Visual
Customer Complaint Operational Staff

Inspection & Sounding


Acoustic Listening Sticks Ground Microphones Electronic Listening Equipment

Correlating
Leak Noise Correlator Leak Noise Loggers
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Location
Leakage Detection

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Location
Leakage Detection

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Location
Billing and Meter Reading Meter Reader Report Customer Feedbacks Operational Staff Report Customer Surveys Automatic Bills Checks
Zero reads Low readings

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Location

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Location
Complicated piping causing problem in identifying meter to property Multiple meter causing problems in identifying meter to property

Multiple meters causing problems in identifying meter to property

Pipeline re-routed causing difficulty in identifying meters to property

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REPAIR

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Good Working Practices


Good Quality Materials Good Quality Tools & Equipment Backfilled & Compact Sand Around Pipe Good Experienced Monitoring Provided Safety Protection Equipment Increase Health & Safety

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Repair

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MOVING TOWARDS NRW REDUCTION

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Moving Towards NRW Reduction


Remember : NRW Reduction NOT a Single Activity NRW reduction
not an isolated technical problem tied to overall asset management and operation not a one-off activity, requires long term commitment and perseverance

Successful NRW reduction programs connected to overall utility strengthening and asset management programs
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NRW Reduction

The reduction of NRW is the responsibility of all departments & organization

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Framework for NRW Reduction


ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Management Support Reliable Data Funding Staff Capacity & Know How

NRW

Network Operations Commercial Operations

Customer Support
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Operations & Maintenance

Asset Management

NRW Reduction
ENABLING WORKS
District Metering Network Analysis Baseline Studies Telemetry Implementation Digital Mapping Leakage Reporting

NRW REDUCTION ACTIVITIES


Detection & Repair Pressure Control Pipe Replacement Reservoirs Controls Trunk Mains

Customer Surveys

Billing Analysis

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Moving Towards NRW Reduction


Support of Enabling Environment (Policies & /Regulations) Policymakers
understand importance of NRW reduction support NRW initiatives demand accountability for successful action

Regulation
utility charter highlights NRW performance contracts with targets for NRW periodic review progress against targets sufficient funding for NRW reduction
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Moving Towards NRW Reduction


Support & Commitment from Management (all levels)
Direction with realistic targets and sufficient incentives Internal cooperation Sufficient manpower allocation Capacity building, external assistance Organization, procedures, performance targets Equipment: tools, equipment, vehicles Appropriate funding Active lobbying, advocacy with the external environment

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Moving Towards NRW Reduction


Successful leakage reduction programs: dependent on many elements from management support, adequate funding to analytical capacity a challenge but with the certainty of great benefits essential for improving service provision and operating efficiency of all utilities/waterworks

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Starting a NRW programme


Depends obviously on present situation (baseline) Need to assess
How bad is the problem? What is known about NRW? Is management convinced and supportive? What do the politicians think? Will customers go along? Willingness to allocate money to NRW? Staff with knowledge, willing, able to learn? Is there energy to undertake change?

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Starting a NRW programme


Key considerations in preparing strategy How prepared is the utility for tackling NRW? How many conditions are met; whats missing? Are sector reform and utility strengthening necessary? Can NRW program be successful under present conditions (what is current capacity)?

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Key Elements Of NRW Reduction Strategy


Establish objectives Get internal and external support Set ambitious but realistic targets Provide incentives for staff (prestige) Plan new investments to specifically include NRW reduction Consider outsourcing NRW reduction (private sector)

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Field activities to reduce NRW can begin right away!


Much can be done immediately with very little resources
repairing visible leaks updating network maps using leak detection equipment updating customer database searching for illegal connections

Start with addressing apparent losses!


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Thank you
www.ranhillutilities.com.my

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