MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS

(Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife) NOTIFICATION New Delhi, the 28th July, 1989 S.O. 594(E).—In exercise of the powers conferred by sections 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986), the Central Government hereby makes the following rules, namely : 1. Short title and commencement. (1) These rules may be called the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989. (2) They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the official Gazette. 2. Application. These rules shall apply to hazardous wastes as specified in Schedule and shall not apply to(a)waste water and exhaust gases as covered under the provisions of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974) and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981) and rules made thereunder; (b)wastes arising out of the operation from ships beyond five kilometres as covered under the provisions of the Merchant Shipping Act,. 1958 (\44 of 1958) and the rules made thereunder, (c) radio-active wastes as covered under the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962) and rules made thereunder, 3. Definitions. In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires,(a) "Act" means the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986); (b) "applicant" means a person or an organisation that applies, in Form 1, for granting of authorisation to perform specific activities connected with handling of hazardous wastes; (c) "authorisation" means permission for collection, reception, treatment, transport, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes granted by the competent authority in Form 2;’

(d) "authorised person" means a person or an organisation authorised by the competent authority to collect, treat, transport, store or dispose of hazardous wastes in accordance with the guidelines to be issued by the competent authority from time to time; (e) "export" with its grammatical variation and cognate expression means taking out of India to a place outside India; (f) "exporter’ means any person under the jurisdiction of the expor.6ng country who exports hazardous wastes and the exporting country itself, who exports hazardous wastes’ (g) "facility" means any location wherein the processes, incidental to the waste generation collection, reception, treatment, storage and disposal are carried out; (h) "Form" means Form appended to these rules; (i) "hazardous wastes" means categories of wastes specified in the Schedule; (j) "hazardous wastes site" means a place for collection, reception, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes which has been duly approved by the competent authority; (k) "import" with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means bringing into India from a place outside India; (l) "importer" means an occupier or any person who imports hazardous wastes; (m) "operator of a facility" means a person who owns or operates a facility for collection. reception, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes; (n) "Schedule" means Schedule appended to these rules; (o) "State Pollution Control Board" means the Board appointed under sub-section of the section 4 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 (6 of 1974); and under Section 4 of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution3 Act, 1981 (14 of 1981); (p) "transboundary movement" means any movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes from an area under the national jurisdiction of one country to or through an area under the national jurisdiction of another country or to or through an area not under the national jurisdiction of any country, provided at least two countries are involved in the movement; (q) the words and expressions used in these rules and not defined but defined in the Act, shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Act.

reception. storage and disposal of hazardous wastes. (2) The occupier or any other person acting on his behalf who intends to get his hazardous waste treated by the operator of a facility under sub-rule (1). Responsibility of the occupier for handling of wastes. treatment. . treatment. as the case may be. reception. Grant of authorisation for handling hazardous wastes. treatment. possesses appropriate facilities. transport storage and disposal of such wastes shall make an application in Form 1 to the State Pollution Control Board for the grant of authorisation for any of the above activities: Provided that the occupier not having a facility for the collection. 5. storage and disposal of hazardous wastes shall make an application to the State Pollution Control Board in Form 1 for the grant of authorisation within a period of six months from the date of commencement of these rules. transport. technical capabilities and equipment to handle hazardous wastes safely. shall make an application in Form 1 to the State Pollution Control Board for the grant of authorisation for any of the above activities: Provided that the operator engaged in the business of the collection. stored and disposed of only in such facilities as may be authorised for this purpose. treated. storage and disposal of hazardous wastes shall make an application to the State Pollution control Board in Form 1 for the grant of authorisation within a period of six months from the date of commencement of these rules. (4) The State Pollution Control Board shall not issue an authorisation unless it is satisfied that the operator of a facility or an occupier. treatment. transport.4. reception. (2) Every occupier generating hazardous wastes and having a facility for collection. (1) The occupier generating hazardous wastes listed in column (2) of the Schedule in quantities equal to or exceeding the limits given in column (3) of the said Schedule. shall give to the operator of a facility. (1) Hazardous wastes shall be collected. storage and disposal of these wastes either himself or through the operator of a facility. (5) The authorisation to operate a facility shall be issued in Form 2 and’shall be subject to conditions laid down therein. reception. shall take all practical steps to ensure that such wastes are properly handled and disposed of without any adverse effects which may result from such wastes and the occupier shall also be responsible for proper collection. treatment. (3) Any person who intends to be an operator of a facility for the collection. reception. such information as may be specified by the State Pollution Control Board. transport.

if in its opinion. labelling and transport of hazardous wastes. after giving reasonable opportunity of being heard to the applicant refuse to grant any authorisation. the authorised person has failed to comply with any of the conditions of the authorisation or with any provisions of the Act or these rules. (1) Before hazardous wastes is delivered at the hazardous waste site. and such person shall comply with such directions. 1988 and other guidelines issued from time to time. (iii) The authorisation shall continue to be in force until it is renewed or revoked. may. labelling and transport of hazardous wastes shall be in accordance with the provisions of the rules issued by the Central Government under the Motor Vehicles Act. Inventory of disposal sites. the occupier or operator of a facility shall ensure that the hazardous wastes is packaged in a manner suitable for storage and transport and the labelling and packaging shall be easily visible and be able to withstand physical conditions and climate factors. (1) The Slate Pollution Control Board may cancel an authorisation issued under these rules or suspend it for such period as it thinks fit. (1) The State Government or a person authorised by it shall undertake a continuing programme to identify the sites and compile and publish periodically an inventory of disposal sites within the State for the disposal of hazardous wastes. (ii) An application for the renewal of an authorisation shall be made in Form lr before its expiry. (3) The State Government or a person authorised by it shall undertake a continuing programme to compile and publish an inventory of sites within the State at which . (2) Packaging. (7) The State Pollution Control Board. (2) Upon suspension or cancellation of the authorisation and during the pendency of an appeal under rule 12. (2) The State Government or a person authorised by it shall undertake an environmental impact study before identifying a site as waste disposal site in the State. 6. 8.(6)(i) An authorisation granted under this rule shall unless sooner suspended or cancelled. 7. Packaging. be in force for a period of two years from the date of issue or from the date of renewal. Power to suspend or cancel an authorisation. the State Pollution Control Board may give directions to the persons whose authorisation has been suspended or cancelled for the safe storage of the hazardous wastes. after giving the authorised person an opportunity to show cause and after recording reasons therefor.

Where an accident occurs at the facility or on a hazardous waste site or during transportation of hazardous wastes. (1) Import of hazardous wastes from any country to India shall not be permitted for dumping and disposal of such wastes. 11. after examining the communication received under subrule (2) and on being satisfied that the import of such hazardous wastes is to be used for processing or reuse as raw material grant permission for the import of such wastes subject to such conditions as the Central Government may specify in this behalf and if. treatment. information relating to the amount. (2) The exporting country or the exporter as the case may be. besides the location and description. import of such wastes may be allowed for processing or re-use as raw material.hazardous wastes have at any time been stored or disposed of and such inventory shall contain. 10. nature and toxicity of hazardous wastes at each such site as may be associated with such site. 9. Accident reporting and follow-up. (2) The occupier and operator of a facility shall send annual returns to the State Pollution Control Board in Form 4. in Form 6. (3) The Central Government shall. of hazardous wastes shall communicate in Form 6 to the Central Government (the Ministry of Environment and Forests) of the proposed trans-boundary movement of hazardous wastes. reception. However. however. the Central Government is not satisfied with the communication received under sub-rule (2). (4) Any importer importing hazardous wastes shall provide necessary information as to the type of hazardous wastes he is to import. . to the concerned State Pollution Control Board/the Central Pollution Control Board in the case of Union Territories. after examining each case on merit by the State Pollution Control Board or by an officer authorised in this behalf. storage and disposal of hazardous waste shall maintain records of such operations in Form 3. (5) The State-Pollution Control Board shall examine the information received under the sub-rule (4) and issue such instructions to the importers as it considers necessary. transport. the occupier or operator of a facility shall report immediately to the State Pollution Control Board about the accident in Form 5. Records and returnes. Import of hazardous wastes. may refuse permission t-o import such hazardous wastes. (1) The occupier generating hazardous waste and operator of a facility for collection.

12. pigments. 7 Wastes from paints. 5 Non-halogenated hydrocarbons including solvent. Regulatory Quantities 3 5 kilogrammes per year the sum of the specified substance calculated as pure metal. 200 kilogrammes per year calculated as nonhalogenated hydrocarbons. .8 Waste Category No. Waste Category No. 1000 kilogrammes per year calculated as oil and oil emulsions. (2) Every appeal shall be in writing and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order appealed against and shall be presented within thirty days of the order passed. 6 Waste Category No. Appeal. Thallium and Cadmium bearing wastes. 9 Waste Category No. 10 Waste oil and oil emulsions.(6) The Central Government or the State Pollution Control Board. SCHEDULE [See rules 3 (i). (7) Any person importing hazardous wastes shall maintain the records of the hazardous wastes imported as specified in Form 7 and the records so maintained shall be open for inspection by the State Pollution Control Board/the Ministry of Environment and Forests/the Central Pollution Control Board in the case of Union Territories or an officer appointed by them in this behalf. 4 Type of wastes 2 Mercury. Wastes from Dyes and Dye intermediate 200 kilogrammes per year containing inorganic chemical compounds. Halogenated hydro-carbon including solvents Waste Category No. (1) An appeal shall lie. Waste Category No. 3(n) and 4] CATEGORIES OF HAZARDOUS WASTES Waste Categories 1 Waste Category No. glue. Wastes from Dyes and Dye intermediate containing organic chemical compounds. calculated as oil or oil emulsions. shall inform the concerned Port Authority to take appropriate steps regarding the safe handling of the hazardous wastes at the time of off-loading the same. as the case may be. 50 kilogrammes per year calculated as organic chemicals. Arsenic. against any order of suspension or cancellation or refusal of an authorisation by the State Pollution Control Board to the State Government and to the Ministry of Environment and Forests in the case of the Central Pollution Control Board. varnish 250 kilogrammes per year and printing ink. 50 kilograms per year calculated as helogenated hydrocarbons. calculated as inorganic chemicals.

1. Short title and commencement. Wastes Category No. 14 Asbestos. 15 Wastes from manufacturing of pesticides 5 kilogrammes per year and herbicides and residues from pesticides calculated as pesticides and and.-In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 6. toxic organics. herbicides formulation units. the 27th November. 13 Phenols. irrespective of any quantity. 1986 (29 of 1966).18 Discarded containers and Containers linears of hazardous and toxic wastes. STORAGE AND IMPORT OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL RULES. oils emulsions and spend chemical and inceneration ash. 12 Sludgesarising from treatment of waste waters containing heavy metals. 1989 S. Irrespective of any quantity. Waste Category No. 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act. 1989 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS (Department of Environment. Waste Category No. MANUFACTURE. Storage and import of Hazardous Chemical Rules. 11 Tarry wastes from refining and tar residues 200 kilogrammes per year from distillation or prolytic treatment. their intermediate products. 966(E). the Central Government hereby makes the following rules. Forest and Wildlife) NOTIFICATION New Delhi. namely . Irrespective of any quantity.O. . 5 kilogrammes per year calculated as phenols. (1) These rules may be called the Manufacture. 200 kilogrammes per year calculated as Acids/Alkalies. (2) They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the official Gazette. calculated as tar Waste Category No. 1989. Waste Category No. 200 kilogrammes per year calculated asbestos.17 Off-specification and discarded products. Waste Category No.Waste Category No. 16 Acid/Alkaline/Slurry Wastes Category No.

or (iii) pipeline. other than storage associated with an installation on the same site specified in Schedule 4 where that storage involves atleast the quantities of that chemical set out in Schedule 2.(a) "Act" means the Environment (Protection) Act. 1986 (29 of 1986). means bringing into India from a place outside India. Definitions. (h) "industrial activity" means(i) an operation of process carried out in an industrial installation referred to in Schedule 4 involving or likely to involve one or more or hazardous chemicals and includes on-site storage or on-site transport which is associated with that operation or process.2. as the case may be. (f) "import" with its grammatical variations and cognate expression. In these rules. (ii)any chemical listed in Column 2 of Schedule 2. fire or explosion involving one or more hazardous chemicals and resulting from uncontrolled developments in the course of an industrial activity or due to natural . (g) "importer" means an occupier or any person who imports hazardous chemicals. (d) "exporter" means any person under the jurisdiction of the exporting country and includes the exporting country who exports hazardous chemical. (e) "hazardous chemical" means(i) any chemical which satisfies any of the criteria laid down in Part I of Schedule I and is listed in Column 2 of Part II of this Schedule. (j)"major accident" means an occurrence including any particular major emission. (iii) any chemical listed in Column 2 of Schedule 3. unless he context otherwise requires. or (ii) isolated storage. (c) "export" with its grammatical variations and cognate expression. (i) "isolated storage" means storage of a hazardous chemical. (b) "Authority" means an authority mentioned in Column 2 of Schedule 5. means taking out of India to a place outside India.

the quantity of that chemical specified in the corresponding entry in Columns 3 & 4 of that part. used. the total quantity of all substances of that class specified in the corresponding entry in Column 3 & 4 of that part 3. stored.(i) in the case of a hazardous chemical specified in Column 2 of Schedule 2.(a) an industrial activity in which a hazardous chemical. and . (iii) in the case of substances of a class specified in Column 2 of Part 11 of Schedule 3. which satisfies any of the criteria laid down in Part I of Schedule I and is listed in Column 2 of Part II of this Schedule is or may be involved. Duties of authorities. (m) "site" means any location where hazardous chemicals are manufactured or processed. 4. (ii) in the case of hazardous chemical specified in Column 2 of Part I of Schedule 3. (n) "Threshold quantity" means. Subject to the other provisions of these rules.events leading to serious effects both immediate or delayed. General responsibility of the occupier during industrial activity. (k) "pipeline" means a pipe (together with any apparatus and works associated therewith) or system of pipes (together with any apparatus and work associated therewith) for the conveyance of a hazardous chemical other than a flammable gas as set out in Column 2 of Part II of Schedule 3 at a pressure of less than 8 bars absolute: the pipeline also includes inter-state pipe (l) "Schedule" means Schedule appended to these rules. handled. disposed of and includes the whole of an area under the control of an occupier and includes pier. the quantity of that chemical specified in the corresponding entry in Columns 3 & 4. the authority shall perform duties as specified in Column 3 of Schedule 5. inside or outside the installation likely to cause substantial loss of life and property including adverse effects on the environments. (1) This rule shall apply to. jetty or similar structure whether floating or not.

(ii) provide to The persons working on the site with the information. (3) Where an occupier has notified a major accident to the concerned authority under respective legislation.(a) identified the major accident hazards. Industrial activity to which rules 7 to 15 apply.(a) an industrial activity in which there is involved a quantity of hazardous chemical listed in Column 2 of Schedule 3 which is equal to or more than the quantity specified in the entry for that chemical in Columns 3 & 4 (Rules 10-12 only for Column 4) and (b) isolated storage in which there is involved a quantity of a hazardous chemical listed in Column 2 of Schedule 2 which is equate to or more than the quantity specified in the entry for that chemical in Column 1 (2) For the purposes of rules 7 to 15. (2) The concerned authority shall on receipt of the report in accordance with sub-rule I of this rule shall undertake a full analysis of the major accident and send the requisite information to the Ministry of Environment and Forests through appropriate channel. (2) An occupier who has control of an industrial activity in term of sub-rule (I) shall provide evidence to show that he has. (1) Where a major accident occurs on a site or in a pipe line. if necessary. 5. in Schedule 6. (1) Rules 7 to 15 shall apply to.(b) isolated storage in which there is involved a threshold quantity of a hazardous chemical listed in Schedule 2 in Column 2 which is equal to or more than the threshold quantity specified in the Schedule for that chemical in Column 3 thereof. 6. and furnish thereafter to the concerned authority a report relating to the accidents in installments. he shall be deemed to have compiled with the requirements as per sub-rule I of this rule. or . and (b) taken adequate steps to (i) prevent such major accidents and o limit their consequences to persons and the environment. Notification of Major accident. the occupier shall forthwith notify the concerned authority as identified in Schedule S of that accident. training and equipment including antidotes necessary to ensure their safely.

(a) "new industrial activity" means an industrial activity which(i) commences after the date of coming into operation of these rules. Where(a) at the date of coming into operation of these rules an occupier is in control of an existing industrial activity which is required to be reported under rule 7(1). (b) an "existing industrial activity" means an industrial activity which is not a new industrial activity 7. (1) An occupier shall not undertake any industrial activity unless he has submitted A written report to the concerned authority containing the particulars specified in Schedule 7 at least 3 months before commencing that activity or before such shorter time as the concerned authority may agree and for the purpose of this paragraph an activity in which subsequently there is or is liable to be a threshold quantity or more of an additional hazardous chemical shall be deemed to be a different activity and shall be notified accordingly (2) No report under sub-rule (I) need to be submitted by the occupier if he submits a report under rule 10(1) 8. it shall be a sufficient compliance with that rule if he reports to the concerned authority as per the particulars in Schedule 7 within 3 months after the date of coming into operation of these rules or within such longer time as the concerned authority may agree in writing. 9. Transitional provisions. Updating of the site notification following changes in the threshold quantity. which affects the particulars specified in that report or any subsequent report made under this rule the occupier shall forthwith furnish a further report to the concerned authority. or (ii) if commenced before that date is an industrial activity in which a modification has been made which is likely to cover major accident hazards and that activity shall be deemed to have commenced on the date on which the modification was made. Notification of sites. Where an activity has been reported in accordance with rule 7(1) and the occupier makes a change in it (including an increase or decrease in the maximum threshold quantity of a hazardous chemical to which this rule applies which is or is liable to be at the site or in the pipeline or at the cessation of the activity. . or (b) within 6 months after that date an occupier commence any such new industrial activity.

make a further report which shall have regard in particular to new technical knowledge which has affected the particulars in the previous report relating to safely and hazard assessment and shall within 30 days or in such longer lime as the concerned authority may agree in writing. (2) Where an occupier has made a report in accordance with rule 10 and sub-rule (1) of this rule and that industrial activity is continuing the occupier shall within three years of the dale of the last such report. until five years from the date of coming into operation of these rules. Preparation of on-site emergency plan by the occupier. the concerned authority may. it shall bc a sufficient compliance with sub-rule (I) of this rule in the occupier on or before ninety days from The date of the coming into operation of 1hcse rules sends to the concerned authority in information specified in Schedule 7 relating to that activity. within 6 months after coming into operation of these rules. Updating of reports under rule 10. (2) In the case of a new industrial activity which an occupier commences. . an occupier has sent a safely report relating to an industrial activity to the concerned authority. (1) Subjects to the following paragraphs of this rule. unless he has prepared a safely report on that industrial activity containing The information specified in Schedule 8 and has sent a copy of that report to the concerned authority al least ninety days before commencing that activity. an occupier shall not undertake any industrial activity to which this rule applies. (1) Where.10. 11. it shall bc sufficient compliance with sub-rule (I) of this rule if the occupier sends to the concerned authority a copy of the report required in accordance with that sub-rule within ninety days after the date of coming into operation of these rules. (3) In The case of an existing industrial activity. (1) Where an occupier has made a safety report in accordance with sub-rule (I) of rule 10 he shall not make any modification to The industrial activity to which that safely report relates which could materially affect the particulars in that report. send a copy of the report to the concerned authority 12. Requirements for further information to be sent to the authority. unless the has made a further report to take account of those modifications and has sent a copy of that report to The concerned authority at least 90 days before making those modifications. or by virtue of sub-rule (2) (a) (ii) of rule 6 is deemed to commence. Safety reports. in accordance with rule 10. requires him to provide such additional information as is specified in the notice and the occupied shall send that information to the concerned authority within such lime as is specified in The notice or within such extended time as the authority may subsequently specify 13. by a notice served on the occupier.

within six months of coming into operation Of these rules.(1) An occupier shall prepare and keep up-to-date an on-site emergency plan detailing how major accidents will be dealt with on the site on which the industrial activity is carried on and that plan shall include the name of The person who is responsible for safety on the site and the names of those who are authorised to take action in accordance with the plan in case of an emergency (2) The occupier shall ensure that the emergency plan prepared in accordance with sub-rule (I) lakes into account any modification made in the industrial activity and that every person on the site who is affected by the plan-is informed of its relevant provisions. Preparation of off-site emergency plan by the authority. and . before that activity is commenced. (b) in the case of an existing industrial activity. and such other persons as it may deem necessary. the occupier shall provide the concerned authority with such information relating to the industrial activity under his control as the concerned authority may require. (2) For the purpose of enabling The concerned authority to prepare the emergency plan required under sub-rule (1).(a) in the case of a new industrial activity. Information to be given to persons liable to be affected by a major accident. including the nature. (3) The concerned authority shall prepare its emergency plan required under sub-rule (1). (1) The occupier shall take appropriate steps to inform persons outside the site either directly or through District Emergency Authority who are likely to be in an area which may be affected by a major accident about(a) the nature of the major accident hazard. extent and likely effects off-site of possible major accidents and the authority shall provide the occupier with any information from the offsite emergency plan which relates to his duties under rule 13. (b) in the case of an existing industrial activity within 90 days of coming into operation of these rules. (3) The occupier shall prepare the emergency plan required under sub-rule (a) in the case of a new industrial activity before that activity is commenced. (1) It shall be the duty of the concerned authority as identified in Column 2 of Schedule 5 to prepare and keep up-to-date an adequate off-site emergency plan detailing how emergencies relating to a possible major accident on that site will be dealt with and in preparing that plan the concerned authority shall consult the occupier. 14. 15.

(2) An occupier. In case. Collection. (3) The occupier while obtaining or developing a safety data sheet as specified in Schedule 9 in respect of a hazardous chemical handled by him shall ensure that the information is recorded accurately and reflects the scientific evidence used in making the hazard determination. . 16. who has control of an industrial activity in term of sub-rule 1 of this rule. provision should be made for other effective means like tagging or accompanying documents. any significant information regarding hazard Of a chemical is available.(b) the safety measures and the "Do’s’ and ‘Don’ts" which should be adopted in the event of a major accident (2) The occupier shall take the steps required under sub-rule (I) to inform persons about an industrial activity. chemical and toxicological data as per the criteria given at Part I of Schedule 1.(a) the contents of the container. in the case of an existing industrial activity in which case the occupier shall comply with the requirements of subrule (I) within 90 days of coming into operation of these rules. before that activity is commenced. The information shall be accessible upon request for reference. Disclosures of information. (b) the name and address of manufacturer or importer Of the hazardous chemical. and before disclosing the information the concerned authority shall inform that other person of his obligations under this paragraph. (1) Where for the purpose of evaluating information notified under rule 5 or 7 to 15. except. (5) In terms of sub-rule 4 Of this rule where it is impracticable to label a chemical in view of the size of the container or the nature of the package. the concerned authority discloses that information to some other person that other person shall not use that information for any purpose except for the purpose of the concerned authority disclosing it. (1) This rule shall apply to an industrial activity in which a hazardous chemical which satisfies any of the criteria laid down in part I of Schedule I and is listed in Column 2 of Part II of this Schedule is or may be involved. 17. shall arrange to obtain or develop information in the form of safety data sheet as specified in Schedule 9. (c) the physical. it shall be added to the material safety data shet as specified in Schedule 9 as soon as practicable. Development and Dissemination of Information. (4) Every container of a hazardous chemical shall be clearly labelled or marked to identify.

1989 framed under the provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act. 19. the concerned authority shall serve on him a notice (in this para referred to as "an improvement notice") requiring that person to remedy the contravention or. . (iii) mode of transport from the exporting country to India (iv) The quantity of chemical(s) being imported. (ii) the port of entry in India. (1) If the concerned authority is of the opinion that a person has contravened the provisions of these rules. (1) This rule shall apply to a chemical which satisfies any of the criteria laid down in Part I of Schedule I and is listed in Column 2 of Part II of this Schedule. (4) The concerned authority at the State shall simultaneously inform the concerned Port Authority to take appropriate steps regarding safe handling and storage of hazardous chemicals while off-loading the consignment with the port premises. (3) If the concerned authority at the State is satisfied that the chemical being imported is likely to cause major accident. as the case may be. the matters occasioning it within such period as may be specified in the notice. (2) Any person responsible for importing hazardous chemicals in India shall provide at the time of import or within thirty days from the date of import to the concerned authorities as identified in Column 2 of Schedule 5 the information pertaining to(i) the name and address of the person receiving the consignment in India. (6) The importer of the hazardous chemical of a person working on his behalf shall ensure that transport of hazardous chemicals from port of entry to the ultimate destination is in accordance with the Central Motor Vehicles Rules. it may direct the importer to take such steps including stoppage of such imports as the concerned authority at the State may deem it appropriate.18. Improvement notices. (5) Any person importing hazardous chemicals shall maintain the records of the hazardous chemicals imported as specified in Schedule 10 and the records so maintained shall be open for inspection by the concerned authority at the State or the Ministry of Environment and Forests or any officer appointed by them in this behalf. Import of hazardous chemicals. and (v) complete product safety information. 1988.

Ray F. Supervised control was based on a sound knowledge of the ecology and analysis of projected trends in pest and natural-enemy populations. Dr. 20. These methods are performed in three stages: prevention.[1] For their leadership in developing and spreading IPM worldwide. insect control was "supervised" by qualified entomologists. by notification in the Official Gazette. at any-time. entomologists in cotton-belt states such as Arkansas were advocating a similar approach. Smith received the 1997 World Food Prize. . make suitable changes in the Schedules. Integrated pest management ). and intervention. History Shortly after World War II. when synthetic insecticides became widely available. Power of the Central Government to modify the Schedule. Integrated pest management (IPM) is an integrated approach of crop management to solve ecological problems when applied in agriculture. Perry Adkisson and Dr. This was viewed[weasel words] as an alternative to calendar-based insecticide programs. The Central Government may. observation. entomologists in California developed the concept of "supervised insect control"[citation needed]. and insecticide applications were based on conclusions reached from periodic monitoring of pest and natural-enemy populations.(2) A notice served under sub-rule (1) shall clearly specify the measures to be taken by the occupier in remedying said contraventions. Around the same time. It is an ecological approach with a main goal of significantly reducing or eliminating the use of pesticides while at the same time managing pest populations at an acceptable level. Under this scheme.

[1] Principles An IPM system is designed around six basic components: The US Environmental Protection Agency has a useful set of IPM principles. Preventive cultural practices: Selecting varieties best for local growing conditions. 2. but at another site it may not be acceptable. IPM added the multidisciplinary element. such as host-plant resistance and cultural manipulations. If many of the pests are killed then any that have resistance to the chemical will rapidly reproduce forming a resistant population. nematologists. removal of diseased plants to prevent spread of infection). Acceptable pest levels: The emphasis is on control. IPM was formulated into national policy in February 1972 when President Nixon directed federal agencies to take steps to advance the concept and application of IPM in all relevant sectors. together with plant quarantine and 'cultural techniques' such as crop sanitation (e. and weed scientists. involving entomologists. inspection and second. environmentally unsafe. (references: "The History of IPM". and other measurement methods and monitoring tools are . is the first line of defense. President Carter established an interagency IPM Coordinating Committee to ensure development and implementation of IPM practices. 3. In the United States. BioControl Reference Center. meaning that it may be acceptable at one site to have a weed such as white clover." Chemical controls were to be applied only after regular monitoring indicated that a pest population had reached a level (the economic threshold) that required treatment to prevent the population from reaching a level (the economic injury level) at which economic losses would exceed the cost of the artificial control measures.[2] Visual inspection. Integrated control sought to identify the best mix of chemical and biological controls for a given insect pest. identification. [2] 1.Supervised control formed much of the conceptual basis for the "integrated control" that University of California entomologists articulated in the 1950s. IPM extended the concept of integrated control to all classes of pests and was expanded to include tactics other than just chemical and biological controls. Other tactics. The term "integrated" was thus synonymous with "compatible. Observation is broken into two steps. plant pathologists. and the attempt can be more costly. and maintaining healthy crops. became part of the IPM arsenal. called action thresholds. In 1979. Chemical insecticides were to be used in manner least disruptive to biological control. and apply controls if those thresholds are crossed. These thresholds are pest and site specific. IPM holds that wiping out an entire pest population is often impossible. not eradication. and frequently unachievable.g. first. IPM programs first work to establish acceptable pest levels. By not killing all the pests there are some un-resistant pests left that will dilute any resistant genes that appear. Artificial controls such as pesticides were to be applied as in integrated control. This stops the pest gaining resistance to chemicals produced by the plant or applied to the crops. insect and spore traps. but these now had to be compatible with control tactics for all classes of pests. Monitoring: Regular observation is the cornerstone of IPM.

with minimal environmental impact. chemical-based farms. Accurate pest identification is critical to a successful IPM program. 1. The main focus here is on promoting beneficial insects that eat target pests. Learn pest and host life cycle and biology. it may be too late to do much about it except maybe spray with a pesticide[citation needed]. and often at low cost. and the plant is no better off. Chemical controls: Synthetic pesticides are generally only used as required and often only at specific times in a pests life cycle. 4. lawn and turf areas. At the time you see a pest. weeds . Record-keeping is essential.used to monitor pest levels. Process IPM is applicable to all types of agriculture and sites such as residential and commercial structures. mechanical methods are the first options to consider. Many insects have had their development cycles modeled in terms of degree days. Biological controls: Natural biological processes and materials can provide control.: Bt. lawn and turf areas. Biological insecticides.[3] Although originally developed for agricultural pest management. the main focus of IPM programs was on agricultural insect pests. Reliance on knowledge.: nicotine. as is a thorough knowledge of the behavior and reproductive cycles of target pests.g.What is it? Cases of mistaken identity may result in ineffective actions. there is another stage of the life cycle that is susceptible to preventative actions. and tillage to disrupt breeding. pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues). For large-scale. spray costs can be incurred. and home and community gardens. using traps. entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes). observation. vacuuming. Often. Mechanical controls: Should a pest reach an unacceptable level. and further 'biology-based' or 'ecological' techniques are under evaluation. and other pests that interfere with the management objectives of sites such as residential and commercial structures. weeds. also fit in this category. Historically. and potentially lower overall costs of pesticide application material and labor. experience. IPM programs are now developed to encompass diseases. They include simple hand-picking. Many of the newer pesticide groups are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g. IPM can reduce human and environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals. and home and community gardens. erecting insect barriers. their physical development is dependent on the temperature of their environment. and integration of multiple techniques makes IPM a perfect fit for organic farming (sans artificial pesticide application). If plant damage due to over-watering are mistaken for fungal infection. 6. derived from naturally occurring microorganisms (e. 5. 2. Since insects are cold-blooded. Monitor the degree days of an environment to determine when is the optimal time for a specific insect's outbreak. An IPM regime can be quite simple or sophisticated. For example. Proper identification of pest .

cultural controls. Monitor or sample environment for pest population . there is a point at which action must be taken to control cost. but unacceptable in the fairway where it could cause confusion in the field of play. Soybeans are quite tolerant of defoliation.How did it work? Evaluation is often one of the most important steps. Options include. For this reason. learning what a pest needs to survive allows you to remove these. [10] This is the process to review an IPM program and the results it generated. so if there are a few caterpillars in the field and their population is not increasing dramatically.[7][8] An inoculative release would be a smaller number of pest predators to supplement the natural population and provide ongoing control. Different sites may also have varying requirements based on specific areas. For example. mechanical or physical control.[6] An inundative release would be one that seeks to inundate a site with a pest's predator to impact the pest population.[9] Chemical controls would include horticultural oils or the application of pesticides such as insecticides and herbicides. there is not necessarily any action necessary. Conversely. or using netting or other material to exclude pests such as birds from grapes or rodents from structures. there will be several options to consider.How many are too many? In some cases.all over or only in certain spots? Is the pest population increasing or decreasing? 4. Some factors to consider and monitor include: Is the pest present/absent? What is the distribution . or other naturally occurring materials. removing diseased areas of plants properly.How many are here? Preventative actions must be taken at the correct time if they are to be effective. 6. White clover may be perfectly acceptable on the sides of a tee box on a golf course. health or aesthetic) . monitoring must begin before it becomes a problem. Mechanical or physical controls include picking pests off plants. Also. Asking the following questions is useful: Did actions have the desired effect? Was the pest prevented . in school cafeterias where roaches may be expected to appear. This is an economic threshold.[4] 5. Cultural controls include keeping an area free of conducive conditions by removing or storing waste properly. For the farmer. Biological controls can be support either through conservation of natural predators or augmentation of natural predators. 3.[5] Augmentative control includes the introduction of naturally occurring predators at either an inundative or inoculative level. Traps are checked at regular intervals so populations can be monitored and controlled before they get out of hand. Choose an appropriate combination of management tactics For any pest situation. Establish action threshold (economic. A Green Pest Management IPM program would use pesticides derived from plants. Evaluate results . a certain number of pests can be tolerated.reproducing from last year's seed can be prevented with mulches. Tolerance of pests varies also by whether or not they are a health hazard (low tolerance) or merely a cosmetic damage (high tolerance in a non-commercial situation). biological controls and chemical controls. such as botanicals. that point is the one at which the cost of damage by the pest is more than the cost of control. once the pest is correctly identified. sticky traps are set out before school starts.

This demand has driven a similar increase in organically managed farmland. biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions. Approximately 35. and potassium. representing approximately 0. innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972.000 acres) worldwide are now farmed organically.8 percent of total world farmland (2008). and particularly synchronization so that plants get enough nitrogen at the right time (when plants need it most). livestock antibiotics. but getting enough nitrogen. rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. ecosystems and people. is likely the greatest challenge for organic farmers." —International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements[2] Since 1990.or managed to farmer satisfaction? Was the method itself satisfactory? Were there any unintended side effects? What can be done in the future for this pest situation? Understanding the effectiveness of the IPM program allows the site manager to make modifications to the IPM plan prior to pests reaching the action threshold and requiring action again.000 hectares (87. reaching $51 billion in 2008. plant growth regulators such as hormones. green manure. as of 2008 organic wild products are harvested on approximately 31 million hectares. Organic farming Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation. Organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations. as well as micronutrients and symbiotic relationships with fungi and other organisms to flourish.[7] Crop rotation and . compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm.. Organic agriculture combines tradition.200. It relies on ecological processes. phosphorus. based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM).[1] Organic farming usually involves mechanical weed control (via cultivating or hoeing) rather than herbicidal weed control.[3][not in citation given] In addition.[4] Soil management Plants need nitrogen. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers and pesticides. food additives.000. and genetically modified organisms. IFOAM defines the overarching goal of organic farming as: "Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils. the market for organic products has grown from nothing.

but the competition between the legume and the crop can be problematic and wider spacing between crop rows is required. and different plants leave different amounts of nitrogen.[7] Organic farmers also use animal manure. rather than weed elimination. aluminum sulfate. In turn. physical and chemical tactics to manage weeds without synthetic herbicides.[7] Biological research on soil and soil organisms has proven beneficial to organic farming. and may rely more on external inputs such as imported manure as well as grain legumes and green manures. In some cases pH may need to be amended. Together these methods help to control erosion. Organic standards require rotation of annual crops. Farms without livestock ("stockless") may find it more difficult to maintain fertility. Horticultural farms growing fruits and vegetables which operate in protected conditions are often even more reliant upon external inputs.[12] meaning that a single crop cannot be grown in the same location without a different. but in the U. can also increase soil nutrients. biological. Organic crop rotations frequently include weed-suppressive cover crops and crops with dissimilar life cycles to discourage weeds associated with a particular crop.[8]:43 Mixed farms with both livestock and crops can operate as ley farms. providing a healthier.[13] . Varieties of bacteria and fungi break down chemicals. and soluble boron products are allowed in organic farming. some compounds such as iron sulfate. which can support microorganisms that destroy common weed seeds. Intercropping. certain processed fertilizers such as seed meal and various mineral powders such as rock phosphate and greensand. intervening crop. due to decreased soil microbe community. a naturally occurring form of potash which provides potassium. by enhancing crop competition and phytotoxic effects on weeds. potentially aiding synchronization. they produce benefits of healthier yields and more productive soil for future crops. magnesium sulfate.[11] Organic farmers integrate cultural. more arable soil system.S. the Fabaceae family) which fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through symbiosis with the bacteria rhizobia.[11] Organic farmers strive to increase soil organic matter content. whereby the land gathers fertility through growing nitrogen-fixing forage grasses such as white clover or alfalfa and grows cash crops or cereals when fertility is established.[9] Fields with less or no manure display significantly lower yields. Crop residues can be ploughed back into the soil. Natural pH amendments include lime and sulfur.[10] Weed management Organic weed management promotes weed suppression. which is sometimes used for insect and disease control. mechanical. although grain legumes may fix limited nitrogen because they are harvested.green manure ("cover crops") help to provide nitrogen through legumes (more precisely. plant matter and animal waste into productive soil nutrients.

nematodes. all of which eat a wide range of pests. selection of pest-resistant crops and animals.[14] Weeds can be controlled by grazing. Some naturally-sourced chemicals are allowed for herbicidal use. but tend to fly away. and Mulching . Similarly. strawberries. A few selective bioherbicides based on fungal pathogens have also been developed. tobacco. crop protection using physical barriers.[15] reviving the practice of keeping cotton patch geese. and corn. the use of beneficial organisms to reduce pest populations. corn gluten meal. Cultivation . however.Blocking weed emergence with organic materials. high-density planting. provision of habitat for beneficial organisms. sanitation to remove pest habitat. Praying mantis tend to move more slowly and eat less heavily. remove existing weed growth and prepare a seedbed for planting. Examples of beneficial insects include minute pirate bugs. before the 1950s. Mowing and cutting . mites). Predatory mites are effective for controlling other mites. At this time. tight row spacing.g.Disturbing the soil after seeding. geese have been used successfully to weed a range of organic crops including cotton.Using heat to kill weeds.Other cultural practices used to enhance crop competitiveness and reduce weed pressure include selection of competitive crop varieties. Lacewings are also effective. and essential oils. Organic farmers use a wide range of Integrated Pest Management practices to prevent pests and diseases. common in the southern U. crop rotation and nutrient management. plastic films.Removing top growth of weeds. such as row covers. Parasitoid wasps tend to be effective for their selected prey. bigeyed bugs. and to a lesser extent ladybugs (which tend to fly away). and late planting into warm soil to encourage rapid crop germination.Turning the soil between crops to incorporate crop residues and soil amendments. and crop diversification through companion planting or establishment of polycultures.[16] Controlling other organisms See also: Biological pest control Organisms aside from weeds that cause problems on organic farms include arthropods (e. fungi and bacteria. For example. Flame weeding and thermal weeding . or landscape fabric.[11] Mechanical and physical weed control practices used on organic farms can be broadly grouped as[14] • • • • • Tillage . insects.S. but like all small insects can be less effective outdoors because the wind controls their movement.[8]:66-90 . Organic farmers often depend on biological pest control. These include. but are not limited to. These include certain formulations of acetic acid (concentrated vinegar). organic herbicides and bioherbicides play a minor role in the organic weed control toolbox. some rice farmers introduce ducks and fish to wet paddy fields to eat both weeds and insects.

[20] Synthetic pesticides allowed for use on organic farms include insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils for insect management. spinosad (a bacterial metabolite).7% use pyrethrum (Lotter 2003:26). naturally-occurring pesticides are allowed for use on organic farms. and Bordeaux mixture.[20] . Fewer than 10% of organic farmers use these pesticides regularly. With some exceptions.When these practices are insufficient to prevent or control pests an organic farmer may apply a pesticide. a naturally-occurring fatty acid in milk and coconuts.[18] but variability among formulations and preparation methods may contribute to inconsistent results or even dangerous growth of toxic microbes in compost teas. like most conventional insecticides. These include nicotine sulfate.3% of vegetable growers in California use rotenone while 1. These are sometimes called green pesticides because they are generally. and synthetic substances are prohibited. one survey found that only 5. safer and more environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides. Naturally-derived insecticides allowed for use on organic farms use include Bacillus thuringiensis (a bacterial toxin). neem (a tree extract) and rotenone (a legume root extract). Agricultural Research Service scientists have found that caprylic acid. arsenic.[19] Some naturally-derived pesticides are not allowed for use on organic farms. which may attack or out-compete certain plant pathogens.[8]:92[unreliable source?] Rotenone and pyrethrum are particularly controversial because they work by attacking the nervous system. These are mainly effective for diseases affecting roots. Naturally-derived fungicides allowed for use on organic farms include the bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. and strychnine. but not necessarily. Pesticides with different modes of action should be rotated to minimize development of pesticide resistance.[17] Compost tea contains a mix of beneficial microbes. copper hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate for managing fungi. and the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. as well as other natural plant extracts have antimicrobial characteristics that can help. pyrethrum (a chrysanthemum extract).