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**Mihály Bencze and Florin Popovici
**

Department of Mathematics

Áprily Lajos College

Braşov, Romania

Florentin Smarandache, Ph D

Professor

Chair of Department of Math & Sciences

University of New Mexico

200 College Road

Gallup, NM 87301, USA

E-mail: smarand@unm.edu

Abstract.

In this short paper we prove that the square of an odd prime number cannot be a

very perfect number.

Introduction.

A natural number n is called very perfect if σ (σ (n)) = 2n (see [1]), where σ ( x )

means the sum of all positive divisors of the natural number x.

**We now prove the following result:
**

Theorem. The square of an odd prime number cannot be a very perfect number.

**Proof: Let’s consider n = p 2 , where p is an odd prime number, then
**

σ (n ) = 1 + p + p 2 , σ (σ (n )) = σ (1 + p + p 2 )= 2 p 2 .

We decompose σ (n ) in canonical form, from where 1 + p + p 2 = p1α1 p2α 2 ... pαk k . Because

p ( p + 1) + 1 is odd, in the canonical decompose there must be only odd numbers.

p1α1 +1 − 1 pkα k +1 − 1

σ (σ (n) ) = (1 + p1 + ... + p1α ) ... (1 + pk + ... + pkα ) =

k

... = 2 p2

p1 − 1 pk − 1

Because

p1α1 +1 − 1 pα k +1 − 1

> 2,..., k >2

p1 − 1 pk − 1

one obtains that 2 p 2 cannot be decomposed in more than two factors, then each one is

> 2 , therefore k ≤ 2 .

Case 1. For k = 1 we find σ (n) = 1 + p + p 2 = p1α1 , from where one obtains

1

p1α1 +1 = p1 (1 + p + p 2 ) and

p1α1 +1 − 1

σ (σ (n)) = = 2 p 2 , p1 (1 + p + p 2 ) − 1 = 2 p 2 ( p1 − 1) ,

p1 − 1

from where

p1 − 1 = p (pp1 − 2 p − p1 ) .

The right side is divisible by p , thus p1 − 1 is a p multiple. Because p1 > 2 it results

that

p1 ≥ p − 1 and p12 ≥ ( p + 1) > p 2 + p + 1 = p1α1 ,

2

thus α1 = 1 and

σ (n) = p 2 + p + 1 = p1 , σ (σ (n)) = σ ( p1 ) = 1 + p1 .

If n is very perfect then 1 + p1 = 2 p 2 or p 2 + p + 2 = 2 p 2 . The solutions of the

equation are p = −1 , and p = 2 which is a contradiction.

**Case 2. For k = 2 we have σ (n ) = p 2 + p + 1 = p1α1 p2α 2 .
**

p1α1 +1 − 1 p2α 2 +1 − 1

σ (σ (n) ) = (1 + p1 + ... + p1 ) (1 + p2 + ... + p2 ) =

α α2

⋅ = 2 p2 .

p1 − 1 p2 − 1

Because

p1α1 +1 − 1 pα 2 + 1 − 1

> 2 and 2 > 2,

p1 − 1 p2 − 1

it results

p1α1 +1 p2α 2 +1 − 1

= p and = 2p

p1 − 1 p2 − 1

(or inverse), thus

p1α1 +1 − 1 = p ( p1 − 1) , p2α 2 +1 − 1 = 2 p (p2 − 1),

then

p1α1 +1 p2α 2 +1 − p1α1 +1 − p2α 2 +1 + 1 = 2 p 2 (p1 − 1)(p2 − 1),

thus

σ (n) = p 2 + p + 1 = p1α +1 p2α

1 2 +1

and

p1 p2 ( p 2 + p + 1) = 2 p 2 ( p1 − 1)( p2 − 1) + p1α1 +1 + p2α 2 +1 − 1

or

p1 p2 p ( p + 1) + p1 p2 − 1 = 2 p 2 ( p1 − 1)( p2 − 1) + ( p1α1 +1 − 1) + ( p2α 2 +1 − 1) =

= 2 p 2 (p1 − 1)(p2 − 1) + p (p1 − 1) + 2 p (p2 − 1)

accordingly p divides p1 p2 − 1 , thus p1 p2 > p + 1 and

p12 p22 ≥ ( p + 1) > p 2 + p + 1 = p1α1 p2α 2 .

2

Hence:

Π1 ) If α1 = 1 and n = 2 p 2 ,

2

then

p12 − 1 pα 2 + 1 − 1

σ (n) = p 2 + p + 1 = p1 p2α and

2

= p , and 2 = 2p ,

p1 − 1 p2 − 1

thus p1 + 1 = p which is a contradiction.

Π2 ) If α 2 = 1 and n = 2 p 2 ,

then

p α1 + 1 − 1

σ (n) = p 2 + p + 1 = p1α1 p2 and 1 = p , and

p1 − 1

p22 − 1

= 2p,

p2 − 1

thus

p2 + 1 = 2 p , p2 = 2 p − 1

and

σ (n) = p 2 + p + 1 = p1α (2 p + 1) ,

1

from where

4σ (n) = (2 p − 1)(2 p + 3) + 7 = 4 p1α1 (2 p − 1) ,

accordingly 7 is divisible by 2 p − 1 and thus p is divisible by 4 which is a contradiction.

Reference:

[1] Suryanarayama – Elemente der Mathematik – 1969.

[Published in “Octogon”, Braşov, Vol. 5, No. 2, 53-4, October 1997.]

3

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