# Formal report

Linear Circuits

Name: Nishant Mangesh Jalgaonkar Matriculation Number: A0074538X Lab Group: 2I2 Date: 7th March 2012

500 Experimental Gain 9. Experiment one We use an inverting op-amp and compare the theoretical and experimental values of gain. with the dual channel oscilloscope.037 . We connect the circuit as shown in the following diagram: Adjust the sine wave generator on the Elite II Circuit design test system to give an output of 1 Vpp at 1 KHz.096 Input Peak to Peak Voltage (V) 1.000 Error % 1.061 Output Peak to Peak Voltage (Vpp) 10.896 Theoretical Gain 10.Objectives The objectives of this experiment are to understand the properties of an ideal operational amplifier. to understand the limitations of a practical operational amplifier and to be familiar with typical applications of an operational amplifier. Frequency (kHz) 1. Monitor Vi and Vo.

681 16 16.00 9.01 0.00 4.00 7.0 0.50 2.00 10.7371 From observation it is clear that the half power cut off frequency.50 4.0 8.00 1.681 1.00 0.0 0.616 16 15.5094 2. We obtain a graph for gain vs.50 8.8 7.50 0.998) lies between 30 and 40 kHz.00 8.5314 6.0 0. The data obtained was as follows: Frequency (KHz) Input Peak to Peak Voltage (V) Output Peak to Peak Voltage (V) Gain 0.0151 10.00 0.3626 4.641 1.Experiment two We vary the frequencies in the previous experimental setup and tabulate the gain for various frequency values.6 1.00 5.0 128.50 3.0 32.50 9. or the frequency where the gain drops to 0.6341 8.8 14 11 8.1 . Frequency Gain 11.00 2.00 6.50 10. frequency.0000 9.7032 5.4 10.50 7.5 Frequency 2.50 1.06 1.601 9.1 1 10 20 30 40 50 60 100 1.641 1.50 6.50 5.9939 10.641 1.00 3.641 1.5181 9.641 1.0 0.4 4.64 1. The graph obtained is as follows: Gain vs.7071 of the gain at 1 KHz (in this case 6.

(i. Now. The data table obtained is as follows: Frequency (kHz) 1. to ground. input with a 10 KΩ resistor instead of the straight wire.002V This is because making the resistance at the non-inverting input equal to R1//R2. This non-zero voltage present represents the offset voltage at the operational amplifier inputs.286 kHz.C.e. Measure the d-c output voltage again.Using the above graph and data table we compute that the half power cut off frequency is approximately 39. The experimental values that we measured were: Initial Voltage Reading: 0. ground the non-inverting. output voltage with the voltmeter. It is non-zero. Experiment three Remove the sine wave generator and short the input Vi. R1 in parallel with R2) minimizes the differential effects of the input bias currents flowing into the inverting and non-inverting terminals of the operational amplifier (since both the bias currents are now flowing through the same resistance).320 Input Peak to Peak Voltage (V) 25. Experiment four Now we use a non inverting op-amp and compare theoretical and experimental data values. Does it decrease? Yes it does.800 Experiment al Gain 11.097 . Measure the D.000 Error % 1.014 Input Peak to Peak Voltage (V) 2. although ideally it should be zero with no input signal.005 V Final Voltage Reading: -0.121 Theoretical Gain 11.

However.7 volts is maintained. . after the Input voltage drops below -5Volts the diode breaks down and an output voltage of roughly -0. Then the appropriate readings are taken by varying voltages to determine the transfer characteristics. Transfer Characteristics 6 5 4 DC Output Voltage (V) 3 2 1 0 -10 -5 -1 -2 DC Input Voltage (V) 0 5 10 -15 From -10 to -5 Volts (Input) the zenar diode ensures a constant output of 5 Volts.Experiment five The circuit is now connected as shown in the figure.

735 4.35 Analog vs Digital Output 5 4.874 2.637 1.019 0.5 4 3.5 0 0 1 2 3 Digital 4 5 6 7 Analog Output (volts) Experimental Theoretical Conclusion .5 1 0.Experiment SIX The following is the circuit diagram of the digital to analog converter.5 3 2. Digital Input S2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 S1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 S0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Experimental Output Voltage (V) 0.498 3.257 1.5 2 1.114 3.

Through this experiment we are now aware of the practical applications of an op-amp and also acutely aware of its physical limitations. We have used it as an inverting. . non inverting amplifier and also as a digital to analog converter.