# E8 (mathematics

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E8 (mathematics)
In mathematics, E8 is any of several closely related exceptional simple Lie groups, linear algebraic groups or Lie algebras of dimension 248; the same notation is used for the corresponding root lattice, which has rank 8. The designation E8 comes from the Cartan–Killing classification of the complex simple Lie algebras, which fall into four infinite series labeled An, Bn, Cn, Dn, and five exceptional cases labeled E6, E7, E8, F4, and G2. The E8 algebra is the largest and most complicated of these exceptional cases. Wilhelm Killing (1888, 1888, 1889, 1890) discovered the complex Lie algebra E8 during his classification of simple compact Lie algebras, though he did not prove its existence, which was first shown by Élie Cartan. Cartan determined that a complex simple Lie algebra of type E8 admits three real forms. Each of them gives rise to a simple Lie group of dimension 248, exactly one of which is compact. Chevalley (1955) introduced algebraic groups and Lie algebras of type E8 over other fields: for example, in the case of finite fields they lead to an infinite family of finite simple groups of Lie type.

Basic description
The Lie group E8 has dimension 248. Its rank, which is the dimension of its maximal torus, is 8. Therefore the vectors of the root system are in eight-dimensional Euclidean space: they are described explicitly later in this article. The Weyl group of E8, which is the group of symmetries of the maximal torus which are induced by conjugations in the whole group, has order 696729600. The compact group E8 is unique among simple compact Lie groups in that its non-trivial representation of smallest dimension is the adjoint representation (of dimension 248) acting on the Lie algebra E8 itself; it is also the unique one which has the following four properties: trivial center, compact, simply connected, and simply laced (all roots have the same length). There is a Lie algebra En for every integer n ≥ 3, which is infinite dimensional if n is greater than 8.

Real and complex forms
There is a unique complex Lie algebra of type E8, corresponding to a complex group of complex dimension 248. The complex Lie group E8 of complex dimension 248 can be considered as a simple real Lie group of real dimension 496. This is simply connected, has maximal compact subgroup the compact form (see below) of E8, and has an outer automorphism group of order 2 generated by complex conjugation. As well as the complex Lie group of type E8, there are three real forms of the Lie algebra, three real forms of the group with trivial center (two of which have non-algebraic double covers, giving two further real forms), all of real dimension 248, as follows: • The compact form (which is usually the one meant if no other information is given), which is simply connected and has trivial outer automorphism group. • The split form, EVIII (or E8(8)), which has maximal compact subgroup Spin(16)/(Z/2Z), fundamental group of order 2 (implying that it has a double cover, which is a simply connected Lie real group but is not algebraic, see below) and has trivial outer automorphism group. • EIX (or E8(-24)), which has maximal compact subgroup E7×SU(2)/(−1,−1), fundamental group of order 2 (again implying a double cover, which is not algebraic) and has trivial outer automorphism group. For a complete list of real forms of simple Lie algebras, see the list of simple Lie groups.

These matrices were computed after four years of collaboration by a group of 18 mathematicians and computer scientists. 12692520960… The 248-dimensional representation is the adjoint representation. 26411008. this is the only form. 2450240. however. 79143000. 2275896000. Representation theory The characters of finite dimensional representations of the real and complex Lie algebras and Lie groups are all given by the Weyl character formula. 820260000. which are classified in the general framework of Galois cohomology (over a perfect field k) by the set H1(k. 6696000. 2642777280. 4825673125. Over an algebraically closed field.. 203205000. 6696000. 8634368000 (twice).E8 (mathematics) 2 E8 as an algebraic group By means of a Chevalley basis for the Lie algebra. 146325270. The announcement of the result in March 2007 received extraordinary attention from the media (see the external links). 3875. The values at 1 of the Lusztig–Vogan polynomials give the coefficients of the matrices relating the standard representations (whose characters are easy to describe) with the irreducible representations. 3929713760. or “twists” of E8. coincides with H1(k. 4881384. 2903770000. there are often many other forms. the non-compact and simply connected real Lie group forms of E8 are therefore not algebraic and admit no faithful finite-dimensional representations. the nodes are read in the seven-node chain first. consequently. the real connected component of the identity of these algebraically twisted forms of E8 coincide with the three real Lie groups mentioned above.E8). an analogue of Kazhdan–Lusztig polynomials introduced for reductive groups in general by George Lusztig and David Kazhdan (1983). over other fields. to the surprise of the mathematicians working on it. .[1] Over R. 301694976. 6899079264. one can define E8 as a linear algebraic group over the integers and. The most difficult case (for exceptional groups) is the split real form of E8 (see above). however. the calculation for the split form of E8 is far longer than any other case. 1763125. The Lusztig–Vogan polynomials for all other exceptional simple groups have been known for some time. 6899079264. The representations of the E8 groups over finite fields are given by Deligne–Lusztig theory. over any commutative ring and in particular over any field: this defines the so-called split (sometimes also known as “untwisted”) form of E8. with much of the programming done by Fokko du Cloux. 779247. 4096000. 248. 2172667860. The coefficients of the character formulas for infinite dimensional irreducible representations of E8 depend on some large square matrices consisting of polynomials.e. 30380. the Lang–Steinberg theorem implies that H1(k. because the Dynkin diagram of E8 (see below) has no automorphisms. 281545875.E8)=0. where the largest matrix is of size 453060×453060. 146325270. meaning that E8 has no twisted forms: see below. the Lusztig–Vogan polynomials. 76271625. 147250. 4076399250. Over finite fields. 70680000. 248 and 147250 (corresponding to the eight nodes in the Dynkin diagram in the order chosen for the Cartan matrix below. 344452500. with the last node being connected to the third). The fundamental representations are those with dimensions 3875. meaning that they admit no non-trivial algebraic coverings. led by Jeffrey Adams. 2450240. 27000.Aut(E8)) which. 1094951000. the next integer with this property is 175898504162692612600853299200000 (sequence A181746 in OEIS)). The dimensions of the smallest irreducible representations are (sequence A121732 in OEIS): 1. 30380. but with a subtlety concerning the fundamental group: all forms of E8 are simply connected in the sense of algebraic geometry. i. There are two non-isomorphic irreducible representations of dimension 8634368000 (it is not unique.

due to Hans Freudenthal and Jacques Tits (Landsberg & Manivel 2001). Explicitly. This algebra has a 120-dimensional subalgebra so(16) generated by Jij as well as 128 new generators Qa that transform as a Weyl–Majorana spinor of spin(16). In particular. Construction In the so-called even coordinate system E8 is given as the set of all vectors in R8 with length squared equal to 2 such that coordinates are either all integers or all half-integers and the sum of the coordinates is even. E8 root system A root system of rank r is a particular finite configuration of vectors. Geometry The compact real form of E8 is the isometry group of a 128-dimensional Riemannian manifold known informally as the 'octo-octonionic projective plane' because it can be built using an algebra that is the tensor product of the octonions with themselves. This can be seen systematically using a construction known as the magic square. called roots. the root system must be invariant under reflection through the hyperplane perpendicular to any root. It is convenient for many purposes to normalize them to have length √2. by taking an arbitrary combination of signs and an arbitrary permutation of coordinates. which span an r-dimensional Euclidean space and satisfy certain geometrical properties. All the root vectors in E8 have the same length. there are 112 roots with integer entries obtained from Zome model of the E8 root system. and 128 roots with half-integer entries obtained from .E8 (mathematics) 3 Constructions One can construct the (compact form of the) E8 group as the automorphism group of the corresponding e8 Lie algebra. These statements determine the commutators as well as while the remaining commutator (not anticommutator!) is defined as It is then possible to check that the Jacobi identity is satisfied. projected into 3-space. and represented by the vertices of the 421 polytope. The E8 root system is a rank 8 root system containing 240 root vectors spanning R8. It is irreducible in the sense that it cannot be built from root systems of smaller rank.

requiring that the sum of all the eight coordinates be even). The 112 roots with integer entries form a D8 root system. In the odd coordinate system E8 is given by taking the roots in the even coordinate system and changing the sign of any one coordinate. the latter two are usually defined as subsets of E8). The E8 root system also contains a copy of A8 (which has 72 roots) as well as E6 and E7 (in fact. 4 Mathematical representation of the physical Zome model isomorphic (?) to E8. equivalently. The roots with integer entries are the same while those with half-integer entries have an odd number of minus signs rather than an even number.E8 (mathematics) by taking an even number of minus signs (or. E8 with thread made by hand . There are 240 roots in all.

[2] . a stem extension by the cyclic group of order 2 of an extension of the cyclic group of order 2 by a group G) where G is the unique simple group of order 174182400 (which can be described as PSΩ8+(2)). Weyl group The Weyl group of E8 is of order 696729600. the particular choice displayed above has the unique property that the positive roots are then exactly those whose rightmost nonzero coordinate is positive.G. however. Each node of this diagram represents a simple root.2 (that is. Dynkin diagram The Dynkin diagram for E8 is given by . One choice of simple roots for E8 is given by the rows of the following matrix: Graph of E8 Hasse diagram The set of simple roots is by no means unique (the number of possible choices of positive roots is the order of the Weyl group). Two simple roots which are not joined by a line are orthogonal. This diagram gives a concise visual summary of the root structure. and can be described as O (2): it is of the form 2.E8 (mathematics) 5 Simple roots A set of simple roots for a root system Φ is a set of roots that form a basis for the Euclidean space spanned by Φ with the special property that each root has components with respect to this basis that are either all nonnegative or all nonpositive. A line joining two simple roots indicates that they are at an angle of 120° to each other.

[3][4] and constitutes one of the infinite families addressed by the classification of finite simple groups. and its outer automorphism group is that of field automorphisms (i.−) is the Euclidean inner product and αi are the simple roots.. generally written E8(q). namely 74 337804753143634806261388190614085595079991692242467651576160 ≈ 3. Its number of elements is given by the formula (sequence A008868 in OEIS): An incomplete simple subgroup tree of E8 The first term in this sequence. which is simple for any q.e. The entries are independent of the choice of simple roots (up to ordering). cyclic of order f if q=pf where p is prime). This group E8(2) is the last one described (but without its character table) in the ATLAS of Finite Groups.E8 (mathematics) 6 Cartan matrix The Cartan matrix of a rank r root system is an r × r matrix whose entries are derived from the simple roots. This lattice is rather remarkable in that it is the only (nontrivial) even. Simple subalgebras of E8 The Lie algebra E8 contains as subalgebras all the exceptional Lie algebras as well as many other important Lie algebras in mathematics and physics. E8 root lattice The integral span of the E8 root system forms a lattice in R8 naturally called the E8 root lattice. the order of E8(2). Specifically. The height of the Lie algebra on the diagram approximately corresponds to the rank of the algebra. unimodular lattice with rank less than 16.38×10 . Chevalley groups of type E8 Chevalley (1955) showed that the points of the (split) algebraic group E8 (see above) over a finite field with q elements form a finite Chevalley group. A line from an algebra down to a lower algebra indicates that the lower algebra is a subalgebra of the higher algebra. Lusztig (1979) described the unipotent representations of finite groups of type E8. is already larger than the size of the Monster group. . The Cartan matrix for E8 is given by The determinant of this matrix is equal to 1.[5] The Schur multiplier of E8(q) is trivial. the entries of the Cartan matrix are given by where (−.

(−1.½) in the last two dimensions. It transforms under E7×SU(2) as a sum of tensor product representations. We may again see the decomposition by looking at the roots together with the generators in the Cartan subalgebra.27) consists of all roots with permutations of (−1. which has no smooth structure. together with the Cartan generators corresponding to the first 7 dimensions. under certain physical conditions the electron spins in it exhibited two of the 8 peaks related to E8 predicted .1) consists of the roots with permutations of (1.133) consists of all roots with (1. In 1982.0) in the last three dimensions.½.E8 (mathematics) 7 Subgroups The smaller exceptional groups E7 and E6 sit inside E8.0).27) consists of all roots with permutations of (1.−1) and E6×SU(3)/(Z/3Z) are maximal subgroups of E8.0.1) and the Cartan generator corresponding to the last dimension.0) or (½.−½. Michael Freedman used the E8 lattice to construct an example of a topological 4-manifold. M.−½) or (½. both E7×SU(2)/(−1. (−½.−½) in the last two dimensions. Invariant polynomial E8 is the automorphism group of an octic polynomial invariant.56) consists of all roots with permutations of (1. • (3.½) in the last three dimensions. (−½. The Dempwolff group is a subgroup of (the compact form of) E8. we may see that decomposition by looking at these. which acts on the underlying vector space of the Lie group E8 but does not preserve the Lie bracket. which may be labelled as a pair of dimensions as (3. Since the adjoint representation can be described by the roots together with the generators in the Cartan subalgebra.27). the E8 manifold.0. Tennant.0.0. Coldea.0). thought to be the lowest order symmetric polynomial invariant of E8.0.−1.78) + (3. • (1.78) consists of all roots with (0. The Thompson group fixes a lattice and does preserve the Lie bracket of this lattice mod 3. In the compact group.½) in the last three dimensions. Wheeler et al. (−1. (0. D.−1). when similarly restricted. (0. The 248-dimensional adjoint representation of E8. In this description: • (8. • (2. It is contained in the Thompson sporadic group. E8 is the U-duality group of supergravity on an eight-torus (in its split form).0.−½) or (½.0.0.1). and E.0.0).1. these notations may strictly be taken as indicating the infinitesimal (Lie algebra) representations).−½) in the last three dimensions. E8×E8 is the gauge group of one of the two types of heterotic string and is one of two anomaly-free gauge groups that can be coupled to the N = 1 supergravity in 10 dimensions.1.0.0). in particular in string theory and supergravity. together with the Cartan generators corresponding to the first 6 dimensions. • (3.0. together with the Cartan generator corresponding to the last two dimensions.1) + (1.0) or (−½.−½.−1).½. One way to incorporate the standard model of particle physics into heterotic string theory is the symmetry breaking of E8 to its maximal subalgebra SU(3)×E6.1) consists of the roots (0.0).0. • (1. transforms under E6×SU(3) as: (8. The finite quasisimple groups that can embed in (the compact form of) E8 were found by Griess & Ryba (1999).0. giving an embedding of the Thompson group into E8(F3).56) (since there is a quotient in the product. (2010) reported that in an experiment with a cobalt-niobium crystal.0) or (½.−1.27) + (3.−1. A. In this description: • (3. R.[6] Applications The E8 Lie group has applications in theoretical physics. The 248-dimensional adjoint representation of E8 may be considered in terms of its restricted representation to the first of these subgroups.133) + (2. (1.1) + (1. (−1.

has written an apparent disproof of Lisi's theory. cfm?id=a-geometric-theory-of-everything). Simple Groups of Lie Type. J. E. [9] Greg Boustead (2008-11-17). "Sur certains groupes simples" (http://projecteuclid. MR1886087 • Chevalley. Second Series 7: 14–66.E8 (mathematics) by Zamolodchikov (1989) . op. P. PMID 21141358.. The Tohoku Mathematical Journal.org/bull/1999-36-01/S0273-0979-99-00771-5/home... doi:10. Ryba. American Mathematical Society.ams. Springer-Verlag. K. Jakob Palmkvist (2007). Tennant. Lectures on exceptional Lie groups (http://books. p. Graduate Texts in Mathematics.2748/tmj/1178245104. Smeibidl. J. html). New Series 36 (1): 75–93. scientificamerican.tmj/1178245104).1090/S0273-0979-01-00934-X. are part of the E8 Lie algebra. E. doi:10. 85. Academic Press. Rapinchuk. ISBN 0-12-558180-7). doi:10. [7] " 'Most beautiful' math structure appears in lab for first time" (http:/ / www. Andrei S. MR1653177 • Killing. Retrieved January 8. ISBN 0198531990 [3] Carter.1007/BF01211904 • Killing. Claude (1955). "The octic E8 invariant". "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformations-gruppen". (1991). newscientist. G. 2010. Parker. Telling. Atlas of Finite Groups: Maximal Subgroups and Ordinary Characters for Simple Groups. (2010). R.2. Wawrzynska. Wilhelm (1888). American Mathematical Society. Prabhakaran. com/ article/ dn18356-most-beautiful-math-structure-appears-in-lab-for-first-time. Norton. Frank (1996). com/ News/ 2010/ 03/ General-Science-Physics-Mathematics-Answers-inside-the-enigmatic-E8/ ).. MR0073602 • Coldea. 29 March 2010. "Garrett Lisi's Exceptional Approach to Everything" (http:/ / seedmagazine.. Владимир П.4 [2] Conway.1126/science. Roger W. com/ news/ 2008/ 11/ garrett_lisis_exceptional_appr. New Series 39 (2): 145–205. "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformations-gruppen". Vladimir P. Richard A. doi:10.[8] thus explaining all known fundamental interactions in physics and to stand as a possible theory of everything. Алгебраические группы и теория чисел.1090/S0273-0979-99-00771-5. Mathematische Annalen 33 (1): 1–48. "Quantum Criticality in an Ising Chain: Experimental Evidence for Emergent E8 Symmetry". . doi:10. "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformations-gruppen".. (1994). The Finite Simple Groups. "Finite simple groups which projectively embed in an exceptional Lie group are classified!" (http://www. ISBN 978-0-226-00526-3. J. .html). [10] "Answers inside the enigmatic E8?" (http:/ / www. M. "The octonions" (http://www.org/bull/2002-39-02/S0273-0979-01-00934-X/ home. Robert A. (1999). doi:10. Mathematische Annalen 31 (2): 252–290. [6] Martin Cederwall.. O. cit. Retrieved 24 January 2012. John C. John Wiley & Sons.org/euclid. Wheeler.[7] Garrett Lisi's 2007 theory "An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything" attempts to describe how the combined structure and dynamics of all gravitational and Standard Model particle fields. php).. D.[9] Skip Garibaldi. . (2002). Habicht.. Algebraic groups and number theory. References • Adams. R&D Mag. Robert L. Рапинчук.. [8] A. (2009). Science 327 (5962): 177–180. D. including fermions. Chicago Lectures in Mathematics. Wiley Classics Library. Robert Turner. Scientific American 303 (6): 54–61.ams. arXiv:hep-th/0702024 [hep-th]. Curtis. com/ article. ISSN 0040-8735. John Horton. Oxford University Press..1007/BF01444109 • Killing. et al. p. §2. Bulletin. (1989). 235. "A Geometric Theory of Everything" (http:/ / www. Robert Arnott (1985). doi:10. 251. rdmag. ISBN 5-02-014191-7 (English translation: Platonov. M. Weatherall (2010). SEED Magazine.1038/scientificamerican1210-54. New Scientist. January 2010 . ISBN 0-471-50683-4 [4] Wilson. A.[10] 8 Notes [1] Платонов.html).1007/BF01446792 . ISBN 1-84800-987-9 [5] Conway &al.1180085 • Griess. A. Mathematische Annalen 34 (1): 57–122. Wilson. Wilhelm (1889). doi:10.com/ books?isbn=0226005275). University of Chicago Press. Наука. Андрей С. Simon Phillips. Lisi. Wilhelm (1888). Bulletin. MR1428422 • Baez. an expert on exceptional Lie groups.google. E.

Journal of Algebra.liegroups.1142/S0217751X8900176X.1007/BF01207837 • J.pdf) Slides for a popular talk on E8. • American Institute of Mathematics (March 2007). Volume 239. (1989). arXiv:math/9908039v1 (http:// www.E8 (mathematics) • Killing.org/E8/) • The n-Category Café (http://golem. Landsberg and L.org/abs/math/9908039). doi:10. MRR545068 • Lusztig.ph.edu/~dav/e8plane. Oxford.html) from MIT • The list of dimensions of irreducible representations of the complex form of E8 is sequence A121732 in the OEIS.org/kle8. David (1983). Second Series 30 (3): 315–338. A. doi:10.1007/BF01389103 • Zamolodchikov.1093/qmath/30. Vogan. George (1979). Cosmology. Gravitation. B.org/) • Kazhdan–Lusztig–Vogan Polynomials for E8 (http://www. Mathematische Annalen 36 (2): 161–189.060 Matrix and Found Happiness (http://math.utexas.8697. International Journal of Modern Physics A.html) • D. Issue 2. "Integrals of motion and S-matrix of the (scaled) T=Tc Ising model with magnetic field". Vogan.301. The Quarterly Journal of Mathematics. doi:10.html) — University of Texas blog posting by John Baez on E8 Other • Graphic representation of E8 root system (http://www-math. Mathematicians Map E8 (http://aimath. Nuclear Physics 4 (16): 4235–4248. The projective geometry of Freudenthal's magic square. Particles and Fields. George. "Die Zusammensetzung der stetigen endlichen Transformations-gruppen". "Singularities of closures of K-orbits on flag manifolds.narrative.math. doi:10.arxiv. . Inventiones Mathematicae (Springer-Verlag) 71 (2): 365–379.2000.edu/~dav/E8TALK. MR1017357 9 External links Related to the calculation of the Lusztig–Vogan polynomials • Atlas of Lie groups (http://www. Vogan. edu/kle8.edu/category/2007/03/news_about_e8. or How We Wrote Down a 453. Manivel (2001).1006/jabr. pages 477–512. • Lusztig. The Character Table for E8. ISSN 0033-5606.html) • D. Wilhelm (1890). doi:10.3.mit.060 × 453. "Unipotent representations of a finite Chevalley group of type E8".liegroups. Narrative of the Project to compute Kazhdan–Lusztig Polynomials for E8 (http://atlas.M.mit.umd.".