Entheogens in the Study of Religious Experiences: Current Status Author(s): William A.

Richards Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of Religion and Health, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Winter, 2005), pp. 377-389 Published by: Springer Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27512886 . Accessed: 10/01/2012 11:15
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observing by carefully a newly-invented moons of Jupiter instrument called the telescope. on a paper presented to the Research is based on Religion Spirituality. alleged beauty more vast and awesome. Loyola College. March 2003. Bruno had been burned Ten years previously infinitely is a clinical also theologically-trained. APA Division 36. mystical experiences. Columbia Maryland.. the planet. to be valid of the universe that the geocentric model concludes presumed to mention and the psychological spiritual contemporaries?not by his the that accompanied it?is limited and outmoded. through as they rotate behind Galileo has noted that the moons periodically disappear he In conjunction with his other observations and calculations.D. Richards. and "Mystical and Archetypal Experiences Correspondence *The current of Terminal Patients in DPT-Assisted Psychotherapy" Conference in 1978.org).Journal of Religion and Health. when sometimes entheogens legal research reported to pursue which has been difficult due to Federal in recent decades This area of research. degrees (csp. legis as a frontier is presented in the psychology of religious about lation and concerns drug-abuse.T. 4. consciousness. in supportive. including Theological at the University Two of his of G?ttingen and Abraham at Brandeis Maslow Leuner University. Richards.1007/sl0943-005-7177-8 Entheogens of Religious Current in the Study Experiences: Status* WILLIAM A. currently psychologist. and A. Beyond Weltanschauung is the universe of Ptolemaic of the crystalline spheres Astronomy. A. archetypal experiences. RICHARDS and mystical addresses of archetypal This article the potential ABSTRACT: experi significance are employed ences contexts. Vol. 44. the question validity. of and Health: have been published articles of Religion by he Journal previously "Implications LSD and Experimental to William articles Mysticism" co-authored with Walter Pahnke in 1966.net. is given dimensions Consideration spiritual of experiential the apparent be understood. Ph. His graduate studies with Hanscarl School and Catholic the Andover-Newton University.Winter 2005 (? 2005) DOI: 10. theological of entheogens may of both archetypal KEY WORDS: entheogens. our understanding of to have that could prove for advancing implications profound experience to how the action of consciousness. William S. richards3@earthHnk. The abuse of an instrument and resistance to paradigm change In a scene from Bertolt Brecht's the 1939 play Galileo. and mystical experiences. universality and initial reflections. 377 ? 2005 Blanton-Peale Institute . as a senior in private in Baltimore and pursuing fellow of the research with practice entheogens on Spiritual are from the Yale Divinity Council Practices School. No.M.

Later in the play other censor him and force him to recant. to telescopes them to be incredibly valuable tools if considering we learn to use them wisely and responsibly. nor the contents so the remarkable of cells within the microscope. phantastica. states of consciousness alternative encountered the action of entheo during are not intrinsic states and archetypal to the gens. As the telescope is to astronomy. but Galileo now has evidence to When Aldous Huxley calling reality (1963) published The Doors of Perception in 1954. to break down when we seek spatio-temporal This metaphor loca begins tions for the content experienced during the action of entheogens for. Galileo a theologian of his day: a philosopher. Fm reminded of Karl Jaspers' (1954) Space. substances themselves. or the microscope so are entheogens to psychiatry is to biology. about themselves. a very bad reputation as they've been selling in Amsterdam and very well have been using them to spy on women. psychotom various and psychodysleptics). voyeurs scholars leave Galileo isolated and frustrated. to the The for uttering this claim. "Human beings repetitive know. He invites them to look through the instrument and see for themselves that a new paradigm marvelous their confirmation of his discovery. Causality are fundamentally more reminder than they that. they'd know it was only?a hallucination. all who say that the They quote the divine Aristotle comments is valid." of Time. mysticomimetics writers?including Grof (1975)?have Alan Watts likened these substances (1962) and Stanislav or microscopes. hallucinogens. the intuitive. and the church fathers. including mystical visions. of reality awaits the scholars demur and ultimately refuse his invitation. on the sacred molecules we now call "entheo In the scholarly literature but previously names have called many different 2001) (Jesse. imetics. have Telescopes. though we may be able to pinpoint the parts of our brains that manifest increased when states of consciousness different noetic occur.378 Journal of Religion and Health at the stake support in the company stands beside his telescope of So. if they humored system geocentric and looked through his silly tube. convinced that they already know the truth about the structure of reality. gens". after all. of to the profundity attention of the mystical glimpses he personally had experienced the action during into the nature of mescaline?the . As the cosmos of religious is not within the psychology experience. psycholytics. or ever can know. authorities (including psychedelics. for they are However. and especially. and if they thought they saw what he claims to be true. he knows within power and the conceptual political paradigm that the vistas he has seen still are valid and someday will be redis himself covered by scientists in future generations. Someone Galileo that. the same heresy. Though he crumbles under the of his day. activity that accompanies transcendental knowledge experiences profound typically includes a conviction that the spiritual world is beyond the Kantian categories and Substance. the authorities and a mathematician. in Brecht's play. telescope.

as they have experienced to these persons and guidance dif many support of consciousness. employing 1973. in collaboration I have sought with colleagues.William A. visionary-archetypal. 1976).. methylenedioxyamphet (LSD). perinatal. wrote for missionary to use with penitent Indians 1938): priests (LeBarre. Grof. typically who have strong psychological defenses. the report he published mild described encountered with very low dosage or with persons imagery. interpreting dreams. ferent realms to personal ranging from sensory-aesthetic and classically psychodynamic. Zaehner found himself in the Roman Church's lack of caught up irrationally and fear of entheogens. 1980. Vision. 1995. well captured in the following confessional knowledge a Spanish de Leon. or by tracing circles and figures on water? . I have During my career as a clinical psychologist to be able to work within had the unique frame good fortune legal research to interact with many and personally works different human beings while were active in their systems.. Savage. Richards et al. It is true that he did not experience anything close to the Beatific Vision during the period of time mescaline aesthetic active in his system. dipropyltryptamine amine of the sacredmushrooms (MDA) or psilocybin (the active ingredient in religious used for at least 2000 years ceremonies in Mexico and Central as potential of psychotherapeutic and as tools in America) processes catalysts itself. mystical the study of consciousness .. Huxley's an article assertions "The Menace of Mescaline.? was Entheogenic research and alternative states of consciousness and psychologist of religion.. respected British. Dost thou suck the blood of others? Dost thou wander about at night calling upon demons to help thee? Hast thou drunk peyote or given it to others to drink .C. Yensen McCabe. Most of my experience has centered entheogens around research studies (Kurland. & Olsson. I have had the honor of offering my presence. Pahnke.. 1972. religions. Art thou a sooth-sayer? Dost thou foretell events by reading omens." entitled by publishing Zaehner stressed the difference between what he called "monistic mysticism" con and "theistic mysticism" and claimed that "artificial interference with to do with what Christians sciousness" could have nothing call "The Beatific Not of variables of set and setting.. R. Over the years." the potency comprehending so far as to take mescaline Zaehner went himself and pub (1961) eventually lish a report of his experience to prove his point. Yensen lysergic acid diethylamide (DPT). 1971. Richards 379 of the Peyote cactus used today in religious rituals of ingredient psychoactive Church?a well the Native Roman American Catholic. Rhead & 1997. In spite of the brilliance of his mind. that Padre Nicholas in Mexico.. psychotic. et al. 1977. et al. states. Zaehner of comparative countered scholar (1954). Richards. Savage & Dryer.

alter blood . of breathing that and patterns and particular diets. or natural interaction sexual religious liturgies. chooses question although overload. 1999. that I considered in our neurochemical activities between That there appear to be correlations or secular. 2001). fasting chemistry. Newberg. visions and which I choose to label "psychotic. a powerful entheogen. "higher reaches and I In this article. complete or influenced The by many hopes and suggestions. religion. In accordance with Abraham Maslow's of (1964) discussions of these experiences I believe that many truly may be experiences. by reported during It may that: an experience. Newberg & d'Aquili." Archetypal panic or paranoia. to pursue. torted. apply this same attitude or meditation. to them. during exceptional or during sacred moments in not pre childbirth. in ways that maximize the potential and entheogens characterized minimize of states of consciousness the likelihood by confusion. fresh and surprising one assigns of private to any life experience is a matter truth-value judgement to alternative I would and faith" (Richards. some readers might become motivated earnestly hope Concerning To address the question of experiential validity states of consciousness and mystical the validity of the archetypal Imust preface these observations the action of entheogens. postures. of prayer states of consciousness that occur during periods or sensory isolation times of sensory or athletic in artistic performance. or dis pure utterly convincing suggestive. is fascinating brains and various sacred (d'Aquili & experiences. mystical in most but I would not use the label "psychotic" of us experience. are very different from the everyday forms of consciousness unitive. be that "any life experience is simply noting or mildly or incomplete. as is the knowledge that is secreted in the (DMT). I would that another any experience or interpreta the integration to engage in behavior felt compelled during moments if that person tion of someone's experience destructive. and may well be a factor chemical factories within biological and mystical in so called (Strassman. sleep special including practices. I will discuss a few of the observations my colleagues over the years of that could have for the psychology relevance have made are subject to continuing I which All of these observations research. major peak health and the so-called of exceptional mental and indicative revelatory awareness reference of human nature".380 Journal of Religion and Health for experiences with to develop the art of preparing and refine persons for safety and benefit. 2002). experiences religious "spontaneous" 2001). been to hypothesize influenced that and the biochemical substrate of expe meditative deprivation. It is reasonable has changed by traditional always riencing focused attention. normally dimethyltryptamine each of our skulls. or validity sume to judge of the sacredness I might to treasure.

that the infant but also (Pahnke & Richards. the ego. entheogens quickly that Locke's idea of our minds tabula rasa at birth?sheets of paper being on which It may well be anyone may write?is white. true?as Wordsworth and others have suggested?the fades as lan memory guage and ego develop." psychic structure". Where cally encoded. Alas. the experience of pass both the archetypal one's essence drawn in and through into the unity the vision being lovingly of the Godhead and wisdom itself. if not most. (3) Intuitive Knowledge. during settings. gemstones cally occur just prior to. who described archetypal experiences in the context occasioned of a period of (LSD) by lysergic acid diethylamide in the early 1960s: psychotherapy . Richards. and (6) Ineffability & Paradoxically. the the archetypes "come from" is a mystery." The Christian for many vision of the Christ and. Carl Jung stones of (1959). 1966. often are or nirvana?so-called as samadhi. presence impressive stract such as precious and light itself. the published report of a minister and mystical (Hart. (5)Deeply Felt Positive Mood. or the beyond ech which The term "archetypal". foreign to their personal archetypes volved than the particular in the literature belief system or readings person's of comparative who works with learns Anyone religions. duckies. we know that more is in enculturation. and the second. by such names seems to encom term "The Beatific Vision" terms. typi symbols. (2) Transcendence called of Time and Space. I have attempted Classical which to define elsewhere mystical experiences. Archetypal in which the Christ. Buddhist (the goddess Virgin Mary or ab in the pantheon other of gods and goddesses. beholds Bodhisattvas. woefully inadequate. (4) Sacredness. 1978) in the six categories of (1)Unity. of religion. or everyday the self. or following. or Quan Yin or any of compassion). for some. refers to states psychology subject-object dichotomy oes back to Philo through the mind. metals. in the crib not only is seeing mental images of teddy bears and of the Christ if this is visions and of Shiva dancing. persons appear mystical experiences in supportive the action of entheogens visions. refers to "foundation the innately of the perhaps symbolic "furnishings of mystical forms of emergence in the used and technically strictly of awareness the ego. of perception. "eastern satori.William A Richards 381 The It is universality important of archetypal to stress and mystical experiences that both visionary-archetypal and classically to be accessible for many. dipropyltrypamine in conjunction with brief psychotherapy. consciousness. I've chosen to illustrate this by quoting briefly from two reports of entheogen the first by a cancer patient who received (DPT) sessions. 1968). they are geneti Perhaps or spiritually are known to encounter As people accessed. The term "mystical".

Exquisite. but infinitely everywhere. In mystery. Utmost love and pity and compassion unable to see beyond their own senses. Overall I think that I am a much more content individual. Could see God's view of humanity. Indescribable. Time gone. radiant quality here. Magnificent light. I have a much greater and deeper understanding other people . The actual changing from this life to whatever was before this life seemed to be involved in a very bright silver mass of energy with very strong electrical current. .. Oneness. and a much greater capacity to try to fulfill other people's needs. their machines of destruction. Felt helpless for all those suffering souls to stop it. Incredible luminescent light. their wars. 1968). This seemed an eternity or in no time. Like power. their bodies. never seen before. I love Him with a profundity be I did not walk to Him but was and time 'there"?space yond description. In the eternal and infinite. In-Godness. having had the great opportunity to just glimpse for a very short moment the overall thinking of God. meaningless. Yet I could grasp His feet and ankles. Then moments power?friendly Moses' unconsumed burning bush. but eternally now.. Unforgettable. No time. their lusts and desires. Small things in life that Imay have overlooked of I seem to appreciate now. Beyond description. their five little senses. When Iwas there everything seemed to make sense. Profound love. Strangely enough I felt that I had been in that mass of energy at one time before. The experience seemed to me to be as if Iwas going from this world back to another world before this life had occurred. I could have walked through these friendly flames unharmed. Emotionless. No self. love. hates and jealousies. in resplendent. I seemed to transcend time and space and I lost complete identification with the "real" world. to be reassured that there is a very beautiful. Watching mankind destroy itself. a magnificent beauty. Utmost. No Self was within and without. Space gone. Filled all space. wrote: Vastness. All one. . There was immeasurable power. The basic theme that I perceived was that life continues to go on and we are basically some I form of essence from a Supreme Being and we are part of that Supreme Being don't have the fear of death that I once had I have found that everyday living seems to be much more enjoyable. one in which love was very much a part. of possibly being brought into his confidence for just a brief period. Indestructible fire. sensations. using a more free. Magnificent of flames of fire. He had form. No wholly other or beyond but in it. Part of it.. loving masterful plan in this Universe for all of us.382 Journal of Religion and Health The cancer patient wrote: I first went to a place that seemed to completely [After entheogen administration] lack the qualities of this world as we know it.. poetic style. A different. Nowhere. their feelings. selfless. I was bodyless. The minister (Hart. It was a very beautiful world. yet I was not really seeing. IN the infinite. vision of Christ standing motionless radiant Then. All one. but I could almost see through Him.

" to claim the holy grail of enlightenment. One there are several fascinating thoughts with which entheogen. Richards 383 I embraced this formless form with an infinite the light. than contemporary and Meister mystics? Eckhart. is simply come close to have and never taken entheogens persons repeatedly Many or psychodynamic. but person by person. they are seen as sacred molecules by the Creator provided is congruent to personal and spiritual contribute This perspective growth. akin to spring water. May suggest and mystical other persons who have been blessed by profound archetypal of entheogens the past few decades. "God has not left Himself unwitnessed. who successfully of Religion of Freedom retain legal access to them under our guarantee (Smith & Snake 1996). which faith encounters this God's power. past and present. in which with the manner they are viewed by Indians. experiencing spiritual profound of the potency of set and of variables largely due a lack of understanding Another using heaven . John of the Cross. and those of many I humbly that Mary Hart's experience. 81) so aptly quipped. all mankind at the once. or Shankara. and In-Christ. Beyond words. As Paul Tillich (1966. the leaders of the including in the United have fought to Native American Church States. the profound love and pity of suffering humanity. They and sense out of the idea of the It makes one. of the everyday offer is that the stereotype I would ego thought of to arrogantly crash through the gates the power of an entheogen "a stereotype." Some theological reflections such experiences their occur For those who might tend to devalue because rence appears to have been rendered more of an probable by the ingestion to wrestle. A slow shifting back to the sense I merged. or Plotinus. not in general. then became separate. p. tragedy. states of consciousness. infinitely.William A. is Brother David Steindl-Rast's that entheogens (2001) suggestion may best be as "sacrament?is"?manifestations of nature. who revere them as intrinsic to their religious rituals. the action during during experiences merit of psychologists is it that we the serious attention of religion? Why are much more prone to quote from Teresa of Avila. separate yet love. St. A universal sense of the purpose of the crucifixion?the meaning. person and non-person. I took on all the pain of the world. of God giving his Son to this suffering A most deep understanding of the meaning world Imoved into His love-suffering and felt the cost of His life. viewed or herbs. Unforgettable." Within ashes "through to framework. Trinity?three in one. Friendly power and love filled of being In-God.

encounters those who would that the experiences that occur are "cheap grace". recognize the significance scholar of comparative has acknowledged of his own religions. than the mystical seems to become illumined by new the also . not of going "too deep" into the psyche. "Ecstasy pointed as a highly who many will Huston readers esteemed Smith. in settings that are less than gens by persons who employ very low dosage an unfulfilled for experiences desire that never optimal. interpersonal relationships as having their own significance. the ego. quite engendering seem fully to occur. with our puritanical and "religious lives. As Huston Smith (2000." Especially experiences" we have tended to be wary of religious and Calvinistic if heritage. p. day world nevertheless beauty fundamental or basic states of consciousness. suggest not fueled by sufficient and mortification. afforded the action of an entheogen with of attitudes opportunities by to the Sacred. To self. when it occur. experiences to have direct applicability to social change and active do not appear they in the world. and carry water. relatively mystical complete experiences an intensified to contribute discover that many persons appears impetus to normative to the historical world in their return upon consciousness. in his professional with and personal experiences entheogens development. has articulated the important distinction between "religious repeatedly in the West. When the setting. which we participate may be viewed Many men states of mind who have glimpsed and women enlightened by what ever means and care for their brothers do chop wood.384 Journal of Religion and Health as well as factors of purity one approaches and dosage. 27) has is not fun. Although. I would years of meditation point to the condensed and personal agony suffering experienced by many as they struggle their psychodynamic forms of resistance persons through and as they view their past failings in life in the light towards the Divine of experiences of unconditional love. unconditional humble and devotion transcen trust. theory." out. or everyday its own death and insignificance." Many are very time-consuming access and may to very provide unquestionably more states of consciousness altered much than intense mildly readily to spend and mystical The compulsion increasing experiences. archetypal a glimpse amounts of Enlightenment of time in search of for some be may of the meditative of frustration and incompleteness fueled by a feeling expe use of entheo This also may be a factor in the repetitive riences themselves. In contrast. every and in and the historical dramas and meaning. of theme concept or in Neo-Platonic the everyday world to be less is perceived maya. courage as gifts humbly are experienced as dental experiences inevitably received. It could be that the "otherwordliness" and ques involvement with some meditative and spiritual is tionable relevance associated disciplines the result. with Ideal" or the "Suffering the ancient "Bodhisattva Servant" harmony as expressed in the Hindu in the Second Isaiah. but rather the consequence of "not going deeply meditative and traditions procedures enough.

may most wisely For now. p. to be synthesized. and respectful with it requires incredible communication patience can be employed never fear that entheogens who may safely and colleagues known and yet There are many different substances.William A Richards 385 to observe It is of interest that many persons who have or archetypal the action during experienced experiences profound mystical to repeat in the an entheogen little eagerness the experience of manifest to integrate and short-term. humbly in his book The Psychology Maslow of Science. of people who call themselves the thoughts and behavior religious. stressed (1966. entheogenic responsibly. this is the best profane "Studying sacralization and greater way towards greater respect. During agencies. 150) does not necessarily the mystery it. the Structure of Being. 1997) and there are many dif of their use. How God Manifests the Mind Revelation. for which they and how the selected be made be most substances may safe." and sanctification in the could be the safest of entheogens. Future frontiers in the psychology of religious experience on the thoughts does not focus primarily that men have about the nor about in response to the ever-changing how they behave to about the universe. perhaps of religion. it boldly attempts that is being discovered knowledge as they must be at itself and its laws. feeling typically to pursue It is at this point that many become motivated here and now. in of God. at a much higher level of richness. or could psychologists Similarly. relationship to ensuring the safety and potential benefit of a healthy the prior establishment interpersonal . One tool in this process employed manner. revere is discovered? As and appreciatively what astronomers. this requires of the collaboration of psychologists legally accessible. even the illusive essence of Consciousness itself? Consciousness. Realistically. Indeed. astronomers times as they peer through still manage new models of reality. richer understanding. Awestruck the universe comprehend to make their telescopes. they have much apply. regulatory process. with more traditional meditative disciplines discipline. measurements and to formulate Astronomy universe. most wise and responsible how could this occur? First. ferent most approaches including (Shulgin & Shulgin. studying of the mystery could focus on the study of Transcendence itself?the Sacred. projects this States in the United and in other countries. sisters in the world. 1991. and medical with psychopharmacologists in well-designed colleagues religion of federal that meet the standards. like Would we view such study as "profane". to of religion in addition could it be that psychologists someday. are most we need to determine which entheogens persons safe. and merit research the approval.

life and consciousness stuff out of which perhaps spirals Another the genes that comprise that fade them. or photons." Let me mention apply through possibilities that I find especially intriguing: If indeed. (2) the indestructibility of us all within that is. at which centers could be established volunteer who someday subjects and could receive pass medical screening psychological entheogens. in addition Narby sense that somehow can perceive oriented the senses. we have an internally even DNA is made. and (4) the consciousness. while the same percentage some Christian isolated Hindu subjects would experience imagery. of truth. quanta of indestructible to the into the mystery calls our attention energy. Jung's concept of the "Collective Unconscious" is not only a creative but an inner realm to which all of us have potential access. of us who are or choose to participate in order to foster our knowledge For those in advancing and pursuing interested knowledge about themselves the nature of human many research.386 Journal of Religion and Health with a guide and the incorporation of visual and auditory forms of support states of consciousness. I would processes 25% of a sample of culturally-isolated that approximately Christians suggest some Hindu of culturally would experience imagery. immortality. rea to come to such centers for personal. it is easy to dismiss such speculation Although an alternative to begin to explain such phenomena? is a model Here propose of knowledge threshold could explore experience The noetic (intuitive) that both physicists and psychologists of religious together. has been made what really is going on? One intriguing suggestion by Jeremy to our five externally-oriented (1998) who speculates that. of our personal of enculturation. in mystical states insights invariably of the reality of God or whatever one's favorite (1) confirmation including alleged noun may be for the ultimate Source or Ground of Being. dare we ask things when our eyes are closed. in research. (3) the interrelatedness out of which the idea of the Brotherhood ofMan arises. are profound. of consciousness. Some might apply spiritual sons alone. the period of alternative during If this were research retreat and interdisciplinary accomplished. Narby that such light and suggests that DNA does emit light. and described may be experienced by human beings can any of us as schizoid. it awaits further idea. simple to validate or not we really have access to experiences and images that are not part whether To throw out a hypothesis. in this area. It should be relatively and systematic mapping exploration. beauty and love?an almost absurd idea to consider absoluteness of philosophical could explore the reliability Research relativism. area of potential concerns of the nature exploration fascinating see all know and mystical We themselves. that we visionary experiences But. and the ultimate themselves. period in this of such . present questions and spiritual and about the laws and processes consciousness that awareness. discovery if we learn to look inward. interest and have little be willing Others might to contribute to research. as one navigates a few so-called "inner space. even in nocturnal dreaming.

largely has been as an expression of our concerns about the drug abuse of governments to lump all the world tendency throughout problem nar between and not to distinguish them. century quarter in some sites in Europe again now will progress with very and carefully-designed the United States. above all. knowledgeably and spiritual. is beginning research are many who There In the psychology of share the hope that the pitfalls of the 1960s will be avoided and that research steadiness ." The dangers. they may provide access. how such knowledge engender changes in subsequent and behavior attitudes everyday living. Richards 387 in different ways by different perhaps how they are expressed people insights. stated that the two drugs stood in polar they invariably to one another: whereas heroin lured one away from one's prob relationship lems and failed relationships. Watt's (1966) comments and the promise lie in when of these substances. to which but the knowledge themselves. 1960. and they have been rediscovered and then forced into the underground as most are is especially This cultures. ignored. It is of special 1993. Gable. it is of interest to note that. bursting with possibilities. Strassman.William A. What as well as potential Shadows and spiritual acceptance. in treatment to compare heroin addicts with LSD-assisted the psychotherapy two substances. That is why to have a bad reputation have in the narcotic-abusing tended users to escape from have tried them and sought as. and befriending growth have been around for at least 2000 years. not even between drugs together cotics and entheogens. employed. and entheogens community repressed experienced they have to the growing and spiritual edge of personal growth. in (Cohen. but not too much on "the taboo of knowing who you are. we must is the "current perhaps and the admit that this entire field. psychological who now reapproach must research with entheogens Scientists do so with conscious respect towards the sacred realms to which they may provide access. The What current status of research status" of research with entheogens? As a whole. Perhaps. entheogens of Alan truth. to be cultures that include entheogens there appears what we tend to fear is not the very little abuse of these substances. characterized are their own Jungian by panic and paranoia. during they have typically so-called run from "bad trips". that. in a spirit of interdisciplinary After a They also need to progress cooperation. when we asked Actually. and with wisdom. if not since the dawn Entheogens of man. LSD tended to lead one directly into the heart of them. or catalyze in may and. remarkable by many entheogens to have very low addiction considered and negligible potential organic toxicity interest 1984). in their religious rituals. psychological of resolution and divine experiences demands the confrontation of the Shadow. when emotions the period of drug action. I'm reminded Perhaps we want to know truth. realms of dormancy.

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