^umril Uniumitg





Cornell Unlvaratty Library

UF560 .H73



on ordnance and armor:

3 1924 030 760 056

Cornell University Library


original of this


is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the
















With 493



B. P.




Entered according to Act of Congrees, in


year 1864,




In the Clerk's Office of the District Conrt of the United States for the Southern District of New York.







Dear Sir



inscription of

your name

in this

work on Ord-

nance AND Armor,

not only gratifying to

me on


grounds, and appropriate from a civilian student in the Art

of War, to a civilian ever foremost in improving and devel-

oping the materiel of war
respect, shared





an expression of that




at large, for the liberality

and enterprise to which, together with the

of your


are indebted for the ^mely " Monitor," the



Ordnance, and the introduction of the

Bessemer process.

am, dear



respectfully your friend,

A. L.




September 21, 1864.

the want of a

work on



requirements, and results of

modern Ordnance,


be genit,

erally admitted, the attempt of a Civil Engineer to supply

demands a word of explanation.
In Europe, the improvement and fabrication of ordnance,

and in America, the additional occupation of war, have so
engrossed the attention of the profession, that the compilation

and publication of the


and the



been almost necessarily neglected.

During several

visits to

Europe, with reference to his


profession, the author

had various and perhaps



facilities for

acquiring information on the subject.

intention, seeing that


of the facts
in the to

had not been
form of one or




throw them together

more pamphlets, with enough comment

make them homopractice'

But some account of the American

appeared indispensable
experts, professional

then an abstract of the opinions of

and otherwise, was obviously appro-

and useful


and, as only the intervals in professional

pursuits were devoted to the compilation of the matter, time

was constantly developing new
should of course be considered


and phases, which

so that

what was




intended as a mere record of results has, unintentionally,

and perhaps unavoidably, grown
If the

into the present treatise.

voluminous and,

certainly, the important facts,


been so presented as to aid the profession in improving the
great art of Defence, the highest expectation of the author

have been



to the discussions

and conclusions, he should

say, in

justice to himself, that, although they

have not been aided

professional training

and experience, they certainly have
partisanship, nor

not been influenced




and prejudices.

o H





CQ oa

02 02













P3 O O P? EH w .

—STANDARD GUNS AND THEIR FABRICATION DESCRIBED. Pariieulars and En- durance of Cast-iron Guns tested by Ordnance Select Committee. Experiments —Structure. Mortar — — ^Details of Structure and Experiments. The Stockton Guns. III. The Aemstrono Gun. — — — Ieon Guns —Thomas's. PAGB — 1 Charges. Capacity of Works. The Blakelt Gun. Particulars.—Details of Fabrication: Breech-Loading. Treatment of Steel and Fabrication. TVelght and Cost. Particulars. The Pareott Gun. Endurance. Cost. Material. Production and Charac- — — ter of the Material. Particulars Two and 36 Charges. Rifling. Longridge's Wire-wound Guns and Cylinders Brooke's Hooped Gun Particulars. Naylor. the new British Gun II The Whiiwoeth Guu. Bumford 12-in. Structure. II. and Guns for Russia. Fabrication. Endurance Miscellaneous Hooped Guns. Charges. Test. Bessemer Guns. CHAPTEE I.—Solid Steel Ouns. Gun. 50 and Endurance. Keupp's Guns.CONTENTS. Rifling. L The Meeset Steel and Iron Company's Guns. Early IV. Section I. Guns. Ammunition. Description of Guns. 66 Section tion. Prices.—Hooped Gun§. Relative Strength. ^Fabrication. ^Principles. Notes on History and Cost III. Details of Endurance in England and France. Brooklyn Navy Yard 12-in. Y. Details of Test of 20-Pounder. —Solid Wrougtat-Iron Onns. Proof.' Particulars. Miscellaneous Solid WEOuaHTII. Rifling. — Spanish Guns —Structure French Guns— and Endurance. PART FIRST. Atwater Gun. 21 Principles involved. the Prince Alfred Gun. Vickers &Co. Ames's 81 Section III. The Horsfall Gun Fabricaand Endurance. Particulars. Attick'a Bronze Reinforce. Description of 8 and 9-in. Mushet and Clare's 2 0-Pounder. .'s Gun-Steel. and Number made. Mallet's 36-in. — Fabrication. Ericsson's. Merset 90 Puddlet-Steel Guns '. Particulars and I. New Guns for British Government Particulars and Endurance. Gun hooped. ORDISTANCE. Service and Experimental Gima described. Endurance.

10-in. Other Defects of the System. PAGE Rodman and Dahlgren Guns. Greater Strains in Large Guns. Ball. Section stroying an Iron-Clad trated. One Gun cannot do both Kinds of "Work Enemy — Section II. Miscellaneous Cast-Iron Guns and Mortars Particulars and Charges. Unsettled State of the Question. Plates on Masonry 138 Dbtachikg Abmoe by Heavt Shot. — its Error . Chahners Target. Cause of greater Resistance of Solid Plate. Bolt and 150-lb. Considered. New Guns 20-in. 106 ^Figure. Guns. 15-in. Wire-Rope Bolt 154 Smashing Ships' Sides by Hbaty Shot. Particulars and Charges ofU.— Cast-Iron Onns. 15-in. Ball — Medium Effect. 11-in. Bellerophon Target. 150. Solid Plate. Warrior Taiget. Inferior Resistance of Lami- nated. —Tlie Work —Racking to toe Done. — — — — CHAPTER n. Russian Cast-Iron Guns Cost of Guns. Section IT. 68-Pounder and 110-Pounder against Laminated 6-in. Fastening Armor. Ball. Ball. tj-in.. Illustrations. Ball periments. Bolt —Yarious Plates—Late Ex13-in. and 307-^. 1. Cannot be judged from Small Targets. Solid and Laminated Armor combined. and 12 and 13-in. Necessity of Iron-Clads. Illustrations. Target. Ball better than Rifle-Bolts — 151 Solid and Laminated Aemoe. — Broken Plates stiU a Protection against Shells. 150-lb. lOJ-in. EZPEEIMENTS.—THE REQUIREMENTS OP GUNS—ARMOR. lO^in. Too much Time required. 230. Ball. PopularTheory of Destroying Armor by Shot of gets. 13-iu. 110-Pounder. and 10-in. Bolt. and Test of HoUow-Cast Gvins. "Weights and Telocities vice versd. Quality of Plates. Bolt. lOJ-in. Scott Russell's Target. 130-lb. and 131-lb. Steel Bolt. 300 and 330-lb. Steel Shot. Steel Shell. Iron. 150-lb. 13-in. Army and Navy Ordnance. Ball against 6i-in. Blakely's and Scott's Calculations Ill . Targets compared as to Effect of Vibration. — 15-in. 301-lb. 14-in. 11-in. Columbiads. Minotaur Target. CoNsroEEED. Two Systems of deand Punching Defined and Illus132 Effect of Telocity. 4|-in. 13-in. Iron. Object not to destroy Armor. —Strength compared. Ductility illustrated by Thames Iron "Works Plate. Balls and Parrott 150-lb. Local Effect prevents Distributed and it Examples. 15 and 11-in. Effect of Rams. Ball. —Heavy Sbot at Liow Velocities. Ball. 10-in. Iron. Tar- Laminated Target compared with on 4|-in. Backing. S. Test of New Ordnance. British Cast-iron Guns Endurance. Iron. Ball. Iron. Ball and 300-lb. Warrior Target. Difference Abmoe saves the Tessel trNDEE very low — 158 in Quality of Armor illustrated by American and English Plates 167 DiPMCULTY OF adapting THE HEAVY Shot SYSTEM. Ball. 11-in. PRm-ior Target. Fabrication. Bolts and 113-lb. Ball. Iron-Clad Atlanta. Difference in Range and Armor changes Conditions of Useful Effect. Armor hurt more than the Enemy. and Charges.— XX Contents. but the Enemy within Ductility of Telooities of Shot. Particulars. Ball. Target.

TTarrior Target. Greater Liability of Balls to waste Power in Self-Destruction. of Shot prepare the "Way Merits and Defects of each Reviewed. Conclusions on the Value of Different Projectiles Breaching Fort Pulaski (From the Report of General 222 Gillmore). Long Range Fight- ing. lOi-in. Ball. Steel Shells. Adtantaqe op SraGLE Hbavt Shot oter many Lisht Shot. Towers. Law of Penetration. 4}-in. Effect of Lead Shot on Iron — Plates. 5i-in. Velocity.. Ball. Loss of Velocity of Round Shot Range op Ieon-Clad 'Wabpaee. Warrior Target. and Charges. Two "Wasted Systems combined. Captain Fishboume's Views. Results. Bolt. Sheila. the Two Kinds and less Power is 218 220 General Conclusions Section T. Shot op Large Diameters. 300-lb.—Breaching: Masonry. Guns. 15-in. 11-in. and 130-lb. Conclusions Breaching Fort Sumter (From the Report of General Gillmore). Steel Shell. Velocity of Bound and Rifled Shots. Plate. 151-lb. Ranges and Nature of Batteries. M. Warrior Target. Wa/rrior Target. and Defects of Light Elongated Projectiles. 4i-in. Importance of — Rifles for other Purposes. Projectiles thrown. and their greater Penetrating Area. Illustrations. Remediable Defects of the Smooth-Bore. Effects considered 212 Section IT. Abstract op Report op Oednanob Select Committee on Breaching Martello Towers with Smooth-Bored and Rifled Guns. Character of Breach.. Mjiotaw 130-lb. 610-lb. Strain 205 of Large Balls on the Gun. Penetration. 5i-in.—The for each other. Guns. 13-in. 6-in. Metal requu-ed 230 to remove Sand Armor —Description —The "Work. Scott's 176 Section III. Probability 192 of Short Range. End of Rifles required 203 . Ranges of Large Balls 13-in. Armor-Punching Shells. Shot fired. — Expenditure of Ammunition. 229 Breaching Fort "Wagneb (From the Report of General Gillmore). Merits jectiles. Masonry Displaced. 301-lb.. lO^in. Ball. Armstrong's Views. Higb —^Law Of Resistance. 9-22-in. Mr. Plates. Ball. Destructive Effects in Turrets. Iron. Eecapltulation xxi —Commander Telocities. Bolt. Sub-Calibre Pro- Necessity of Rifling. 4i and 288-lb. Times of Flight.Contents. Chal- mers Target. Armor- and at Short punching Shells. Target. Examples. Wood Backing and Pacing 119 American ABMon-PtrNCHiNG Guns Considered 188 Conditions op Greatest Eppeot. Advantage of Laminated Armor in this Regard. Splinters. Sir Howard Douglass's Views.. of "Work. Effect of Salvos. Mr. Quality of Annor. 'Whitworth's Experiments.—SmaU Sbot at Experiments. 227 — . 148-lb. Steel Shell. Ball. Plate. Least Power ^Wasted by High Velocities — — — Ranges. Steel 5|-in. Professor Treadwell's Views Merits and Depeots op the System. Plate. Scott's and Sir W. Conditions of High Velocity. Steel Shell. Plate (Russian Experiments): 15-in. Punching below "Water.

Section I. Longridge's 234 II. 281 Section III. Safety of Ductility in Guns. Mallet. Theory. Defects and Advantages III.—CANNON METALS AND PROCESSES OP PABRICATION. Notes on the Origin of the System. Demonstrations —Rule for Increase of Strength. and Experiments. Dahlgren's Breech-Strap. Length of Hoops Wire. Want of Continuity. and Armstrong. and Ductility. CHAPTER m. 288 Effect of —Use. Professor TreadweU's Plan. Tensile Strength. Captain Palliser's Theory. Theory. 245 Theoretical Accuracy of Tension. Want of Continuity of Substance Permanent Enlargement of Hoops under Strain. Influence of Ranges — — . Parsons's Method and Demonstration. Wiard's Views. Hoops WITH lOTHAL Tension. 233 iNCREASlue THE THICKNESS OF THE WALLS. Shrinking on Hoops. Views of Siemens. Parrott.—THE STRAINS AND STEtrCTURE OP GUNS. Endurance of Guns. Work done in Stretching Metals to and beyond the Elastic Limit. Experiments. Parsons. Defects. Captain Blakely's Specification and Practice 250 — 256 — .—The Effects of Tibration. and Anderson Ductility. Longridge's Demonstration.. Sudden Vibration and Different Rates of Application of Force. Want of Uniformity in the Same and Different Irons- Chemical Differences. Blakely. Experiments. Il- lustrations. Unequal Shrinkage of Metal. and Lancaster. Use of Hoops —Theory. Weakness a Serious Rifled American and British IronsGuns. Mr.—Cast Iron. Mr. Limit of in Metals —Experiments. Professor TreadweU's. Another 240 Defects of the System.' 264 — 266 Section II. Greater Shrinkage of Strong Irons—Ex- Objection. How Provided by Whitworth. —^Pour Kinds of Strains brought on Guns. Captain Blakely's. periments —Cause. —Gain of Strength by Stretching —Experiments. Mr. Heavy and Light Porgings. Elasticity. Hoops with VAETma Elasticity. and their Relation. Method. Detection of Failure in Guns 308 . Mallet's Reasoning and Illustrations 292 Section II.—Resistance to Elastic Pressure. Advantages. Pressure. Blakely.— Tbe Effects of Heat. Defects of Wrought-Iron Hoops in this Eegard LoNaiTDDiNAL STRENGTH. I.—Elasticity Elasticity. Remedy 283 285 Conclusions CHAPTER IV. DiflSoulty of attaining it FoECme on Hoops. Lancaster. PAGE Section I. Safety due to Ductile Hoops. of Elasticity in Different Parts. Experiments. Clark. Mr. Statements of Colburn.xxii Contents.Wound Tubes. .. and Mr.

Gas Welding. Tensile Strength. Testimony about 33<l Armstrong Guns. —^Welds. Defects ^Imperfect Welds. Causes. Temper Test by Specific Gravity. and Compression by the Powder-Gas. Weight. Causes of Previous Failure of Steel Guns. Shape. Strength of Steel." Fabrica- Hollow Foeging and Process 348 Appearance of Fracture. Initial Strains. Professional Opinions Rolling. High and Low Uses of Elasticity and Ductility Iron and Steel Compared. Causes. Compression of Gun-Ohambers. Structure of Gun. Experiments. Requirements. Detection of Weakness. Safety. Description. Iron. Yeakel's Plan. Maintained Heat. Comparison 386 with Armstrong System. Rolling up a Gun from a Plate. Small Hammers. Failures before Fabrication. Improvements and Prospects of the Steel Maniifaoturo. Objects. Fracture due to Vibration. Failure of Forged Guns. "Want of Density in the Gun 318 Improvements in Poundinci Rodman's Peocess. Longitudinal Direction of Fibre. —Object. — — pression and Wear. State of of Heat of Firing Shape or Gdns. Defective Welds. Effects of Rapid and Slow Cooling. Uniformity. Density of Metal 322 Wiard's Peocess. Mersey Iron and Steel Company's Process. Effects of Heat of — — — Firing. the "Peacemaker. Failureof lOJ-in. Resistance to ComStee^ Defined.Contents. Shape of Surfaces. Effect Effect Initial 326 331 Resistance to Concussion and Weae 332 332 WEiaHT AND Cost Section III. Resistance to Compression Deterioration —Wrouglrt —Causes. Strength of Iron in — 344 — — Large Forgings. of the System. Weight and Cost of Guns Systems of FAEBiOATiNa WEoaoHT-IsoN Guns Solid Fohging. Cost. Cinder. Ames's — 363 The Armstrong Gun. Quality. Advantages —Process of Repair. Leading Features. Illustrations. Defects of 120-Pounder Shunt and Small Guns. Hollow Casting. Great Cost of the Process Welding. Effect of. Defects from Exterior Cooling. xxiii PAGK Defects in EotrNDiNG. Principles. How to perfect it. Resistance to Enemies' Shot. and "Wear. Experiments and tion. Natureof the Process. Uniformity. 366 the System for Heavy Guns Considered. Advan- tages of the Process. Solid-Cast Guns. Effect of Time in Eemoving Strains. Making Hoops of Iron and Steel — — Section IV. Strength and Endurance of Guns. Hardness. Advantages. Strength of Metal. Steel Hoops. Strength of Coils in Armstrong Gun.—Steel. Work of Guns and Armor-Plates Compared. Effect of Treatment. Bertram's Process and Results Hitchcock's System of Fabricating Guns. for Issue. Nature of Injury. Examples. Probable Advantages and Defects. — of Re-entering Angles on Strength Strain. Guns Returned Softness —Defects of the System. Griffon's Process. Effects of. Effect of Heat of Firing. Manner of Corrosion Want op Homogbneitt. Actual State of Strain in the Gun. 382 Exclusion of Oxide. Unequal Cooling and Contraction. Stretching of Hoops. Guns. Strains on a Homogeneous Tube —Remedies 388 .

Russian. Section VI. Pattison 449 The Compressing Explanation. 45I Armstrong. Early. Explanation. Table of Practice. Feenoh. Going out of Use . Modem for Gun-Cotton. Particulars 46O —Principles and Operation. Particulars and Results of 600-Pounder. French and Amer- ican Experiments Systems or Paeeioation.. Tables of Practice System. PAGE Methods op PEODTJcma Steel. Fitness for Guns. and Experimental. Early and Experimental. Lancaster. Rolling and Joining Hoops. how successfully used —Bronze. 'Wahrendorf's. 440 Whitworth. Forging Hollow. . Standard Projectiles. 453 Changes. Early Experiments. Timmerhaus's. Phosphorus and Aluminium with Copper Conclusions —Properties and Strength. Present. Experimental.xxiv Contents. Tables of Practice. Russian. like Scott's.— Other Alloys. Strength. Low Crucible Steel. Machine-dressed Pro. Principles and Improvements Illustrated. Hydraulic Machinery.—Puddled Steel Steel. Where and 418 Properties. Coating Projectiles with Segmental Shell. Armstrong and Whitworth Competition Shunt. jectiles. System. Bessemer — Process —Specimens produced. — — 432 Bcoeutric Shot. Spanish. Early PBUssiAtf System. Krupp's used in America —Specimens Exhibited. Lead. French System in other European Countries 437 in the Crimea. —Principles and Changes . 442 Lynall Scott's "Centrical" Experimental Projectiles. Modifications. 406 — Solid Forging. Eaddan.—RIFLING AND PROJECTILES—STANDARD FORMS AND PRACTICE DESCRIBED. Practice 447 Sawyer. Cartridges. CavaUi's. Austrian and English Experiments on Strength and Properties 422 428 CHAPTER v. SoUd Cast-Steel Guns . Thomas's New System. Aboukoff's Steel Dlustrated —To be Steel. Russian Shunt Rifling. Compressing by . its Sterro-Metal. —Early. 414 Section V. Field and Nayal Guns AuSTEiAN. Germs of all the Present Sys- tems 431 The Centering Explanation. Difficulties of Manufacture.

Scott. American System. Description of Guns. — Systems of Liability of Projectile to Injury. etc. Lancaster and "Whitworth Guns "Woolwich. Increasing Twist. Disadvantages of Armstrong's. Haddan. Commander Scott. Mr. Longridge. Endurance. Adaptation to Round Shot. French. 520 Range.. . Position of Centre of Gravity. Jeffert. James. Britten. Mr. Michael Scott's Tiews. Lancaster. etc. Tables of Particulars. 564 Shape op Armor-Punching Projectiles. Form of Projectile. Manufacture Practice Projectiles. Diagrams of Accuracy. Bates Shells for Lancaster. 1§62. Conclusions of Committee 600 DUTY OF RIFLED General Uses GTJNS. Thomas. Cost of Projectiles. Reed. Experiments and Charges 418 Armor-puncbing Whitworth. Mr. Pressure. Buckle. . Drift. 530 —Conditions. Tables of Range. Britten's Conclusions. Hotohkess. and Endurance 477 Stafford. TJse in Naval "Warfare. Fairbairn's Experiments Oapaoity and Destructivbness op Shells Elongated Shot from Smooth-Bores. Telocity. Accuracy. RateofTwist. Mr. Schemes Bessemer's — — 568 569 570 572 576 —Mackay's CONOLUSIONS Tblooity of Peojeotiles (Table) . and — — Experiments Telocity. "Whitworth. Schbnkl. 536 Projectile. Tiews of Major Owen. Results of Accuracy. Friction against the Air. "Weight of Twist of in Rifled . "Windage —Advantages Guns—French Experiments — Atwater Gun Strain. 560 Rifling Compared 562 Material for Armor-Punchinq Projectiles. Shunt. How Shells are fired. Britten. JeSery. Practice. 51G — especially. — Experiments at System Systems Compared Scott's — —Shunt. TiewsofMr. Stafford. System. Telocity the most Important Consideration. Liability to Injury. Early 492 495 Scott. Character of Groove Character of Projectile. "Wedging of Projectile. — Effects of "Want of Symmetry.'iW —Systems compared PlEiNQ Spherical Shot from Rifled Guns. Paerott. Blakbly 470 Pareott. Character of the Projectile Expanded and Compressed Shot. Captain Blakely. Object of Rifling Remedy. Systems Compared. Scott Holten metal. — Failure of Cast-iron Guns. of Shot and Shells. etc. Conditions. XXV PAGE The Expansion Explanation.— Contents. 600 Competitive Trial of Rifled Onns. Results of Experiments —Cause of Superiority of Steel. Efficiency of Shell. Ltnall Thomas's Early Results. Rifling. Particulars.

The Practice with Large Guns against Material not Adequate in Large it PASS 580 in the United States. 1858 632 .. and Eng- land. Trial Wedge Breech-Loader Described. Official Records. 1850. plates. Piring through Water. Advantages and Defects of the System. U. Aemsteono. Gas-Check. Large and Small. Plates. England Stevens. CONOLUBIONS PART SECOND. Embrasures. 1857 4-in. England. Stevens's Steam Loeiding and Cooling Machinery Described. Advantages Broadwbll.. 608 Blakelt. Time of Firing with Breech-Loaders and Smooth-Bores. —Screw Breeoh-Loader Described. Account of Experiments from Stevens. CHAPTER VI. Good Endurance of Guns. Material. 610 612 Whitwoeth. Small Breech-Loaders in Prance and on the Continent Gun Strained S81 Guns Weakened by Breech-Loading Parts by Heat of Gases when rapidly fired Remedy. S. 595 602 605 —Breech-Loader — Porms of Gas-Check.—BREECH-LOADING. Whitworth. and 624 626 1854 Totten. 1846 to 1856. Kbupp. Use on the Nmgatuck. Paixhans. PRUSSiiN. England. Description. Stevens. Minor Objections. and f-in. Nasmtth —Failure of Ordinary Screw Wahrendobf. Prance. Storm Peenoh. Adopted in England. 4i-ln. 1857 Comparison of 68-Pounder8 and 32-Pounders. 630 631 England. Experiments. 1841. Defects. Clay. Thin Plates. — Professional Opinions 582 Great Advantage— Past Firing. 1855. 1853 to 1855 Floating Batteries. Cavalli. Advantages. England. Plate. Burgoyne. 1856-7 8-in. Many Plans for Working Heavy Guns allow Steam Loading and Cooling 587 Standard Breech-Lioaders Described. in Chrono623 logical Order. Adams. U. U S. 1856. 1812. Cast-Iron Blocks. S. French 62'7 629 Iron— Steel. Described. Kinburn. Sighting takes more Time. Advantages Why old Plan failed.. Ford on Protected Masonry. Probability of quicker Loading Heavy Guns from the Muzzle Convenience of Breech-Loading in Turrets 583 586 Rapid Firing and Cooling Ouns by machinery. Pewer Guns and more Rounds. Similar Plans. Russia. EXPERIMENTS AGAINST ARMOR. England. Rapidity of Eire Endurance. When Past Piring is Important.xxvi Contents. Adapted from American Plan.

Plate.. . Nashua Target. Balls 776 778 La Flandre Target . 1861 Thorneycroft 10-in. Brady's Hog's-hair Target. Target. England. 1861 Hawkshaw'a 6-in. 6i. . 654 6i-in. Backing. Plate. 1862 Warrior and "Committee" Targets. 716 717 1862 Millboard Backing. S. Solid Plate. S. Scott Russell's and Samuda's Targets. England.. Target 1860 642 643 643 646 Iron Embrasure.. 1862 TJ. Various Plates. Contents. and 8-in. xxvii PAGE 636 636 637 various Plates The 'Prusty 4J-in. S 1862 "Committee" Target. England. and 7J in. 10-in. 12-in. Armstrong Gun. and 4-J-in Plates .. 1863 SeUeroptum Target. Laminated Target. 1863 St. 679 680 684 690 697 2-in. Plates. Petersburg. 1863 734 737 5J. TJ. . 8-in. Plate. Solid and Laminated Targets. and 4-5-in. Horsfall Gun. 1863 Oak Facing. England. Plate. 638 639 Jones's Inclined Target Comparison of Elongated and Spherical Thorneycroft 10-in. 1862 703 713 Warrior Target. England.. Whitworth Shells. Platea. England. Plate. 1859 Projectiles. and 10-in. Shell. _. England. 1861 665 661 Captain Cole's Cupola Various Backings. England. 1861 668 669 673 Warrior Target.. 1862 723 .work Inclined Plates get. England. 1862 Warrior Target . . England. 1863 744 746 753 757 Chahners's Target. England. England. Warrior Target.. 1864 Mantelets for Embrasures and 11-in. S. Wire Target Backing. TJ.. England. . 15 and 11 inch Guns. U. and "Alfred" 674 Gun Conclusions up to 1862 Stevens's Laminated Armor. 1863^ Nasmyth's "Wool Target. Laminated Shields. England. S. . Iron-Clad S. U. Inclined Laminated Targets TJ. Clark's Target 4J-in. 11-in. England. Plates. 4i-in.. England. Warrior Target. England.. 1862 Firing through "Water. England. 14-in. England. S. Plate. 1863 4i-in. U. S. Brown's Target. U. Rubber Facing and "Wood Backmg. 20-in. England.. 1862 Inglis's Shield. 765 766 766 772 and Parrott Shot. Special Committee. 610-lb. . Different Qualities of Iron and England Roberts's Target Falrbairn'a First Tar- 653 Armor on Brick. Shields Steel. 15-in. 1859 Special Committee. 1863 13-in. Atlanta. 1863-4. . 1862 Minotaur Target. 1859 .. 3-in. 1863-4 Steel Shot against Armor. Thorneycroft 14-m. 760 and 6J-in. and Rubber and Oak 724 1862 Parrott Gun. Sandwiched Iron and Rubber. 4i-in. 2-35-in. 1863 733 Target. 4^m.

PAGE ''85 ''89 and Ships T91 ''97 System of Manufacture as carried on in Austria Composition and Properties Hydroscopic Qualities tion '^^^ . as TreadweU to Hooping and Material making Wrought-iron Tubes . Report on the Application of Gun-Cotton to Warlike Purpose§—British Association. the Report of the " Select Com- mittee on Ordnance. as to the Method of 863 870 Parrott's Patents of 1861 and 1862 Ho-w Guns Burst. 1855 Blakely.. and Theory of Explosion —Scott Bussell Tension—History. 803 Information given by Baron lenk. Nature. 832 Guns Hooped with Thiery. APPENDIX... 1855 Armstrong. Application.xxviii Contents. 1S63. Armstrong. TreadweU —Evidence from vs. Chemical Considerations Mechanical Considerations Practical Apphcations. Bridges. concerning Manufacture. 888 889 Gnns . Blakely. 1849 852 856 860 TreadweU. 1834 Initial 837 Chambers. Wiard Liyman's Accelerating 874 885 Gun Endurance of Parrott and Whitworth Gnns at Charleston 886 Hooping old United States Cast-iron Guns 887 Endurance and Accuracy of the Armstrong 600-Ponnder CompetltiTe Trials -nrith 7-in. by Mr. and Schneider ]Hanufacture and Experiments in England. Experiments against Palisades. and Applica- 806 822 Eeport by Professors Redtenbacher. Schrotter." on the Question between Blakely and Armstrong. Nature.

Proof of Krupp's 40-Pounder Rifle XXII. including aU Incidental Expenses. Cost of Labor and Material. Hollow Cast-iron Army Ordnance . Whitworth's Proposals X. Guns burst at Sebastopol and Sweaborg 124 XXV. in which Indirect Expenses on Labor and Material. Particulars and Endurance of the Strengthened Cast-iron 26 34 37 48 49 55 Guns tested 61. for the Manufacture of Armstrong Guns and for other Purposes. to produce one lOO-Pounder Armstrong Gun. 1859. Particulars and Ammunition of the Parrott Guns XIII. 74 76 XVIII. are charged VIII. XVI. Approximate Proportions of Dimensions. Particulars of Armstrong Guns of the Latest Elswick Patterns IV.. Gun 62 66 72. Return showing the Prices of the Armstrong 24 Guns Manufactured by 26 TIL the Elswick Ordnance Company to March 31. Particulars and Charges of Whitworth Guns IX. ready for Proof.1 862 Statement showing the Cost of Armstrong Guns made in the Royal Gun Factories. Experiments on Longridge's Brass Cylinders XV. Particulars and Charges of U. Experiments with Longridge's 2-96-in. A. Proof of Krupp's 20-Pounder 99 100 XXI. Service Ammunition of Service Armstrong Guns ni. Armstrong Guns issued for Service shovring where made III. Proof of Krupp's 11 0-Pounder Rifle Rifle 98 XX.LIST OF TABLES. by Ordnance Select Committee since 1858 XIV. from Particularg of Service 12 12 13 — 15 the Commencement of the Manufacture. Armstrong Guns n. ^AGB I. 1862 22 V. Return showing the Amount of Money expended on Plant at Woolwich. and Depreciation. Trial of Blakely early 9-Pounder with Service Iron and Brass 9-Pounders XII. S. with two Tent-Pieces VI. in March. NO. Weights. S. Particulars and Charges of U. and Prices of Krupp's Solid Cast-Steel Blocks and of Guns 97 XIX. Particulars of Blakely All-Steel Ordnance and Ammunition XI. Results of Experiments on Wire-wound Cylinders XVII. 119 XXIII. to the 31st March.. Particulars and Charges of British Cast-iron Guns 126-129 . Return of Sums paid on Account of Experiments connected with Mr. Heavy Cast-Iron Navy Ordnance in Service 120 XXIV..

chiefly Cost of Guns . Velocity.Work at 1032 Character. strengthened by a Wrought-Iron Lining Tube LI. Parsons L. by Mr. Number. 100-Pounder. 196 XXXV. Masonry displaced in Breaching Martello Towers 223 XLII. 295 Metals Applicable to the Construction of Ordnance LIV. etc. XXTHI. XLIV. the 68-Pounder being taken XXXVII. Velocities of Parrott (6-4-in. Particulars and Charges of British Mortars Smashing and Dislocating Armor. LVIII. Showing XXXI. Ammunition. Range. Relation of Elastic Limit 2T2 273 and of Extension to Ultimate Cohesion 290 LII. Penetration in Brick. Ammunition expended Breaching Martello Towers 223 XLI. and Yards Range of Shots fired in the Breaching of Fort 227 Pulaski XL VII. etc. Tensile Strength of Wrought Iron LVII. Principal Experiments on hy Heavy Shot at Low Velocities 162-165 "Weight of Shot that may be Fired fronr Various Wrought-Iron SmoothBored Guns without Straining the Metal more than that of Service Guns is Strained 1''5 XXX. Radii of Rings for Hooping Guns XLIX. Range and Nature of Batteries employed in Breaching Fort Sumter. Calculation of the Strength of an Ordinary Service 68-Pounder Castiron Gun. Ranges. XXIX. Work done by Different Guns. XLVIII. Comparative XLVI. Effect of May 1. XXTII. Pomt-Blank Ranges Gun as Unity. Properties of Light and Heavy Wrought-Iron Porgings LV. Calculation of the Strength of the same 68-Pouuder. and Armor 191 XXXIL XXXin. and 13-in. 1862 194 195 Eeducing Windage of 68-Pounder. 200 205 Armstrong Muzzle-Loading Smooth-Bore in 9-22-in. List op Tables. XL. Endurance of a United States 9-inch Shell Gun LVI. Experiments at "West Point on Lead Shot against Armor XXXVI.) 100-Pounder. XXXIV. A. Guns and Charges used Breaching Martello Towers in 222 XXXIX.. Resisting Powers of Krupp's Cast-Steel as Compared with other Metals for constructing Ordnance 290 Elasticity LIIL Resistant Vis Viva of and of Rupture by Tension of the 291 294. 100- Pounder 208 XXXVIII.XXX HO. Ill Principal Experiments with Shot at High Velocities. Steel —Whildin Tensile Strength of Wrought Iron —Kirkaldy Resistance of Iron and to Compression—Anderson Expansion of the 40-Pounder Rifle 312 334 335 341 343 LIX made by the Mersey Iron and Steel Company .Work —Fort Pulaski . and Work done in Breaching Martello Towers 225. PAGE 1^" 131 XXVI. 228 230 249 XLVII. 226 226 XLV. of Projectiles used in Breaching Martello Towers 225 XLIII. Penetration of Armstrong Rifled and Spherical Projectiles into Brick. Solid the Advantage of one Heavy Shot over several Light Shots. Shells against 190. Relative Values and Bursting Charges of Projectiles.

July 25 and 26. Range and Deflection 40-Pounders —Armstrong Side Breeoh-Loading and Service 461 462 LXXXV. Range and 20.List of Tables. List of Armstrong Guns rendered unserviceable by proving VentPieces 374 of the best Speci- LXTI. Range and LXXXI. NO. Showing the Effects of Treatment on LXXI. Ship of Long and Short Armstrong 12-Pounders. 450 18S3 Deflection of LXXX. Shoeburyness. Southport. Practice with Armstrong's 7-in. Showing its Ultimate Tenacity and dimmishes Duetihty 403 LXX. Vienna — 424 425 425 427 LXXIY. Tensile Strength of Sterro-Metal —Experiments at the Arsenal. Guns LynaU Thomas's Gun. 373 LXV. Strength of Heavy and Light Porginga Kirkaldy LXL Strength of Heavy and Light Forgings Mallet LXIL Strength of Iron in the " Peacemaker " Gun — — 356 357 369 362 LXnL LXIV. Shoeburyness. Experimental Whitworth and Armstrong Guns 457 Practice Armstrong Breech-Loading 12-Pounder. Shunt-Rifled Mortar — Shells with Copper and Zinc Ribs 470 . —Whitworth 2. Experimental LXXXII. as tested by Kirkaldy 392 LXYIL Tensile Strength of Low Steel— Kirkaldy 400 401 LXTIIL The Uniformity and Extensibility of Wrought Iron and Steel Comthat decreasing the Specific Gravity of Steel increases its pared LXIX. April Practice 1861 458 Breech-Loading 12-Pounder. 1863 372. Experimental —Whitworth Breeoh-Loading 80-Pounder. xxxi PAGE LX. Excellent. Tensile Strength of Sterro-Metal Experiments of Polytechnic tution. LXXVIIL Ranges Nov. Shoeburyness. April 1861 459 1861 LXXXIII. to June 3. Analysis of Austrian Sterro-Metal Composition and Strength of Sterro-Metal. Various Qualities of Cannon Metals LXXIII. LXXVI. of Whitworth Rifled Deflection of LXXIX. Woolwich Practice LXXVII. 22. Range LXXXVL and Deflection of the Armstrong Side Breech-Loading Pounder Range and Deviation of the Armstrong 600-Pounder Deflection of the LXXXVIL Range and LXXXVIIL Range and Gun Armstrong 70-Pounder Muzzle-Loading 467 6-Grooved Shunt Gun Deviation of 70-Pounder Side Breech-Loadmg Armstrong 468 LXXXIX. The Work done in Stretching to Rupture several mens of Iron and Steel. Range and Accuracy H. May 460 461 70- LXXXI V. Vienna LXXV. 1860 446 446 9-in. — 2. Strength of Iron in the Horsfall List of all Gun Armstrong Guns returned to Woolwich and requiring Bepairs. Hardness of Cannon Metals Steel 404 405 405 Insti- LXXII. M.

Experiments against Jones's Inclined Target. Projectile and by charge. 1863 XCIV. Excellent." March 4. Artil- CXVI. lOO-Pounder Rifle." April 1 8. with Improved Projec512 and proposed Service Charges. April 18. Whitworth 68-Pounder 1858 against 4-m. 100-Pounder 10-lbs. 1862 Rifle. Sept. firing 1000 times with Point. XCIII. 1861-2 508 C. 576 Penetration of Water and Wood—Whitworth 24-Pounder Rifled Howitzer 63 Penetration of Water and Wood—^Whitworth 24-Pounder Rifled Howitzer 632 Penetration of Water and Wood—Whitworth 24-Pounder Rifled Howitzer 633 lum. Plates—H. with Rifled 32-Pounder Cast-Iron Guns. West ^'^ Point. 1861 658 671 CXXI. Experiments against the Warrior Target. West Rifle. 28. CI. Resistance of Bodies CVIII. 21. Oct. Experiments against the Warrior Target. S. as determined by the Electro-Ballistic Pendu- OXIIL CXTV. 1862 CXXIII. Practice tiles. the Parrott 6-4-in. Endurance of Cast-iron Guns Rifled on Mr. Experiments against the Thorneycroft 8-in. June 6. 200-Pounder 2. West West Point. and Pressure in. commenced May 485 488 502 and ended April 10-in. 18. 3. 21. 100-lb. March. Strain due to Various Kinds of Rifling ex. July 22-28 XCI. . M. Experiments against Jones's Target placed Vertically. Rifle. Resistance of Plates to Flat and Round Punches CXII. Windage of Round Shot in Rifled Guns 569 CXI. Twist and Deviation CV. Resistance of Bodies C VII. it 483 XOIL Trial of Parrott 8-in. and Particulars of Guns lery Records S. May 9. Trial of Parrott 300-Pounder Point. 1861 CXXII. Endurance of Competitive Rifled Guns XCT. Ranges of Large and CVI. 1861-'62 with Rifled 32-Pounder Cast-iron Guns with Improved Projec1859-61 Guns. 1862 682 685 687 .1 xxxii List of Tables. and 10-in. Comparative Ranges Small Rifled Projectiles 632 Atmosphere Atmosphere of Jeflery and Armstrong to the to the 535 536 Projectiles —Jeflery 539 551 563 CIX. Practice tiles cm. Targets. 1861 649 agaiust Masonry protected CXX. Range of. —compiled from British and U. 1861 640 CXVIII. Experiments against the "Committee Target. 6-4-in. 1861 Showing that the Rifle is more accurate than tlie Smooth-Bore with 516 Spherical Shot 522 CIT. Experiments by Iron. Oct. July 1 to July 19. Velocities of Projectiles. Aug. 1862 CXXIV. Trial of Parrott 1862. Bursting Charges of Shells— Trial of 1861 Britten's System 504 505 506 506 XCIX Practice with Rifled 3 2 -Pounder Cast-iron tiles Guns with Improved Projec- and -j\f Charges. PAGE XC. 1861. XCVI. 642 CXIX. Particulars of Rifling of Competitive Guns XCVn. Windage of Competitive Rifled Guns XCTIII. Velocities of Projectiles—Trial of Rifled Cast-iron 510 511 CII. Experiments against the "Committee Target. 635 CXVII. CXV.

backed with Rubber CXXXTII. Plate faced with 12-in. June 26. and 120Pounder. Plates with 12- CXXVL CXXVn. Scott Russell's Target and Mr. Plate. 1862 694 Experiments against the Minotaur Target. Not.. and against Mr. Backing Experiments against 5^. A. xxxiii PAGE CXXV.. 749 OXXXIX.. Experiinents against Captain Inglis's Second Shield. Experiments with Gun-Cotton. Pounder and 40-Pounder. Sept. 720 CXXIX. Competitive Test of Armor-Plates. John 740 745 747 Brown & Co CXXXTI. and 7^in. 1861 —Laboratory of Engineers' Com823 CXLIV. 16 and 25. CXXXT. July 1.. 1862 3. on Mantelets for Embrasures to protect Gunners against the Enemy's Rifle- men CXLII. against the Warrior Target. March CX2Z. ggg 1863. Experiments Oak 753 770 CXL. Shot and Shell that struck the Chalmers Target CXXXVIII. Experiments with Steel Shot on Gunnery Ship Excellent. Experiments agajnst the Chalmers Target against 4|-in. Plates.. Experiments against Solid and Rubber Target 730 Plate. Initial Telocities. Experiments against Inclined Iron 4|-in. and 5-in. etc. NO.. Feb. Feb. Portsmouth. 1862 699 Experiments with Whitworth 12-Pounder. Experiments against Laminated Target OXXXII. 725 728 729 CXXXIV. 2'35-in. Plates. 1862. Ordnance Committee's Experiments since October. 24 and 773 25. and 4-5-in. 70-Pounder. S-in. 1864 CXLI. Experiments against 44-in. 1864 CXL. Experiments against 2-in. 13. Analysis of Austrian Gun-Cotton mittee. Experiments against Inclined Iron and Rubber Target CXXXIII. etc. Experiments with the "Whitworth 120-Pounder and lO-Pounder against 4i-in. 1859. Comparison of Pressures and Velocities with Loose and Compressed British Powder Cannon Powder 890 893 3 . 706 CXXVIII. Analysis of Gun-Cotton of Various Years 824 827 CXLV. with Rubber and Oak 731 Plates.List of Tables. Analysis of the Gases of Gunpowder and Gun-Cotton CXLVI. and the 12-Pounder against 2i-in. in 775 12-Pounder 814 Gun CXLIII. Experiments against Wire Target CXXXI. CXLVn. 6^. roUed by Messrs. Samuda's Target.


25. 12. to 1 ft 1 ft. 110-pounder. 9. 1. 10. 6. | in. 10|-inch gun lOJ-inch . chamber. times enlarged. 1 ft. size. Arsenal construction. 110-pounder. ^ xviii xlvii mounted ccxxxii Armstrong Oim. " S. PAGE The "New Ironsides" The " SoLPERiNo" The " Waeeioe" The " Benton. 18. to 22. Longitudinal section. shovsing breech.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Longitudinal section Longitudinal section xiv xiv hollow-cast Columbiad hollow-oast hooped Parrott gun. to 1 ft Field-gun of 1859. 2. From a photograph Armstrong 20-pounder gun and limber." perspective view " v vi xi xii " " longitudinal section horizontal section cross section through boilers cross section through paddle-wheels xii xiii xiii " " " " " xiii British steel-lined coil gun. TJ. Section. From a photograph. 24. Bar coiled to make a hoop. 21. | in. to 1 ft. in. -^\ in. i% Longitudinal section. Top. 20. and projectile. Section. Half-longitudinal section. Section. Thread of breech-screw. to 1 ft. G-loirb " U. 8. Longitudinal section. From a photograph. side. and end of early 12-pounder. 5. S. 17. From a photograph The Armstrong 600-pounder Parrott 100-pounder. 110-pounder. Elevation. Bar for coH. Section. 110-pounder. 12-pounder. showing breech. lO^inohgun. J in. 600-pouuder mounted. to 1 ft. Longitudinal section. Elevation. ^d -]% in. 4. . showing breech-loading. mounted. behind vent-pieoe. 1 Longitudinal section. 300-pounder when rifled. 3. Rear elevation. 23.13. 1. Longitudinal section. Hoop welded and recessed to fit others. 2-pounder rifling four 16. 15. J in. 19. to 110-pounder. Section. 110-pounder. Fig. Weld thus formed. 12-pounder vent-pieoe. 11. Blakely steel and cast-iron gun xv xv xvi xvii La French field-gun. Furnace for welding hoops into a tube. Cross section. Longitudinal section. behind vent-piece. Plan. gun (the first built) after bursting.

Spanish steel-hooped gun. to 1 ft. to 1 ft. to 1 ft. -^3 in. 39. to 1 ft. -^. Longi- tudinal section. From a photograph. full size. Rifling of 9-inoh gun. 31.in. rifle. Cross section. de 30). 68-pounder. inch to 1 57. to 1 ft. Longridge's experimental vrire-wound 3-pouuder. Mr. Blakely Onn. 32 B. 41. 1i inch 9-inch rifle. Longitudinal section. "Whitworth. rifle. Parrott Onn. ft. -^g in. Elevation. Mr. Eleyation. 26. Va. 56. 51. Section. Longitudinal section. hooped by high-steel and cast-iron. Dundas's experimental wrought-iron gua 132-pounder of 1857. t-inoh 120-pounder. captured at Shipping Point. Longridge's experimental wire-wound 2-96-inch gun. Longitudinal section. to 1 34. Longitudinal section. 35. 45. Longitudinal section. Longitudinal section. in. to 1 ft. gun as built at Woolwich. 8-inch steel 200-pounder. -^ in. French steel-hooped gun (Carron. 32 A. 3Y. 8-^inoh gun in the Great Exhibition of 1862. Longridge's experimental wire-wound cylinder. as T-inch made by Mr. to 1 ft. -|^ in. Longridge's experimental wire-wound cylinder. Longitudinal section. 5-8-iQch steel rifle. i^ in. Longitudinal section. rifling. Fio. 900-pounder (12 J-in. 100-pounder (6'4-inch) rifle. made for Confederate service at Richmond. Longitudinal section. 36. 27. Breech-plan. Coil as Longitudinal section. -j^ in. to 1 ft. fuU size. Long. 40. Longitudinal section. full size. T-inch gun as designed Toy 29. TVliitwortta Guns. to 1 ft. 30. 28. 43.to 1 '^• 49. Brooke's 7-ineh hooped gun. 50. 32. -|^ in. Richmond.) 11-inch rifle sent to Charleston. Mr. Armstrong hooped cast-iron naval gun. Longitudinal section. -f-g -^g in. Longitudinal section. -f-g Longitudinal section. Experimental 9-pouuder. 54. -ft- in. wound. to 1 ft. 1862. 32 0. in. Longridge's experimental brass cylinder. Longitudinal section. Longitudinal to 1 section. de 30). to 1 ft. Mr. section. made for Confederate service at ft. Mr. 10-inch 8-inch rifle. Longitudinal section. Longitudinal section. Yo ™. Mr. 44. for Russia. Breech-loader. to 1 ft. tol ft. Rifle-groove and stud of (Carron. 52. Longitudinal section. to 1 ft. 70-pounder shot and Cross section. Longitudinal section. ft. Whitworth. 50 A. Breech of muzzle-loader. j'g m. Mr.xxxvi List of Illustrations. 33. Cross section. Machine for rolling hoops from solid cast-steel rings. Va. Cross section. hooped at Woolwich. Brooke's 7-inch hooped gun. Longitudinal section. Longitudinal section. New 70-pounder. and rifled for Elevation. 38. 47. 55. Miscellaneous 46. Longitudinal section. Armstrong cast-iron 70-pounder of 1860. Longitudinal section. Low-steel barrel. Hooped Guns. 32 D. Experimental 18-pounder. -^ to 1 ft. ^j in. 48. Whitworth. -i% in. rifle m. 53. . 42. -f-g -i% in.

82. cwt gun. . Krupp's jacketed gun burst at Woolwich. 71. 1 1 ft. Army 15-inch Columbiad. ^g 92. Mallet's SB-inoh wrought-iron mortar. Cross section. S. 84. -f-g in. Longitudinal section. Navy 15-inch gun. Krupp's jacketed gun burst at Woolwich. burst at Sweaborg. Mode of fabrication. i^ in. 68. Cross section. in. Russian 56-pounder. U. S. 67. -|^ in. Longitudinal section. to 1 ft 91. 65. 78. 59. Longitudinal section. to 1 ft ft. Longitudinal section. U. 63. to 1 ft y'j in. Elevation. Cross section. Half-longitudinal section of eacli. ~f^ in. Elevation. to 1 ft. Longitudinal section. -. 80. -i% in. ft Dahlgreu's breech strap for 7+-inch Dahlgren's breech-strap for 7-J-inch British 68-pounder (8-iuch). TJ. to 1 ft. to 1 ft. Longitudinal section. -. to 1 British 13-inch mortar. Brooke's 7-meh hooped gun. 81. Half-longitudinal section of each. U. 75. 72. Longitudinal section. -^ Elevation. Longitudinal section. Gnnti!. 61. -j^^ in. -i^^ Prince Alfred" hollow-forged 10-inch gun. Cross section. 12-inch in gun ft Solid Steel 69. to 1 ft section. to 1 ft. 64. Plan. U. 85. Elevation. i^^ in. 1 66. 60. Cast-Iron Ouns. Cross section. U. U. S. to 1 ft. 76. Ames's 50-pounder. to 1 ft Krupp's 9-inoh gun for Russia.in. -|\. Longitudinal section. 1^^ in.^5 in. British to 1 ft. Longitudinal section. 89. to 1 in. 90. Longitudinal section. Longitudinal section. S. -^ in. after fracture. Longitudinal section. ft. and TJ. " Longitudinal section. rifle. Krupp's 9-lnch gun in the Exhibition of 1862. ft to 1 ft -|% in. in. Navy 11-inch Dahlgreu gun. to 1 ft The Bumford 12-inch cast-iron gun. 4'2-inch rifled siege-gun. to 1 ft 79. to 1 ft. " Horsfall" solid forged 13-inch gun. Brooklyn Navy Tard. 88. S. Rifling.in. to 1 Pile for forging. Pig. to Navy 7^inch Dahlgren rifle. " Horsfall" solid forged 13-inch gun. 83. S. to Navy 7-}-inch Dahlgren rifle. . -^ in. Longitudinal Bessemer steel gun. Longitudinal section.List of Illustrations. Longitudinal section. fj. to 1 ft. 13-inch sea-service mortars. i^ 87. Army Army 10-inch Columbiad. Krupp's 12-pounder after being hit by shot. S. 86. British 8-inch (68-pounder) laid over United States 8-inch Columbiad. 77. Longitudinal section. Half- longitudinal section of each. 62. to 1 ft Solid 'Wronght-Iron Oun$. Longitudinal section. rifle. 74. in. to 1 ft. S.% in. -f-g in. -j^ in. hooped.% in. " Horsfall" solid forged 13-inch gun. -^ in. Russian 120-pounder. to 1 ft. British 8-inch sheU-gun. xxxvii 58. Attick's bronze reinforce. to 1 ft. Krupp's 9-inch gun in the Exhibition of 1862. -i%. 73. -^ in. to Lynall Thomas's 7-inch gun. Longitudinal section. U. -f^ ia. 70. S. Army and Navy IB-inch guns. 95 Plan. in. Elevation. to 1 ft.

J in. From a photograph. Cross section. to 1 ft. wood backing and 22 C. Target. Longitudinal 125. -. 114. Shot-hole through solid armor. Fig. 10-inoh target for 15-inch gun. Nashua Iron Works target. to 1 ft. 102. 97. elevation. 107. 93. Projectiles against Armor. Armor of the Galena (wooden vessel). size. side and armor through ports. 101 A. 119. Cross section. Wire-rope bolt for armor. Scott Russell's target. Front John Brown & Co. 1 Whitworth's flat-fronted armor-punching shell.'s " V good A 3 " plate after test. 120. Ericsson 14-iuch target.^f in. Cross section. and Structures of Guns. section. 10-inch target for 15-inoh gun. 122 D. Horizontal section. Concerning. in. to -^g in. ^ m. Chalmers's target. 108. two 68-pound6rs. Side elevation. to 1 ft. elevation. facing. Cross section. to 1 ft. Rear elevation. Side section. 5" after firing. Longitudinal 4i-inoh plate. Whitwortli's flat-fronted armor-punching shell.xxxviii List of Illxtsteations. tbe Strains 129-135. 127. 103. in. Scott Russell's target. to 1 10-inch target as strack by 11-inch shot. 4|-inch plate. Horizontal section. The Warrior's The War7W-'5 section. ft: 10-inoh target for 15-incli gun. 103. Confederate iron-clad Atlanta. 122 B. 6|-inch laminated target punched by Dahlgren 10-inch gun. | in. 97 A. Dahlgren target " No. The Bellerophon target. . Horizontal section. Cross section. 96. 7i-inch cannon chamber with 50-lb. 121. Longitudmal section. 128. Plat-fronted 126. Elevation. 122. Fracture of spherical shot upon striking armor. cartridge. Longitudinal sections. ball and 35-lb. Cross section. Cross section. 101. Front elevation. Side elevation. Cross section. 122 A. plate after 4|^-inch Thames Iron Works Thames Iron Works plate after two 68-pounders. Shot-hole through laminated armor. Elevation. The Warrior's armor. Cross section. End Plan. Front elevation. Warrior target. 115. 112. ball and 34-lb. after an 11 -inch shot. ^ in. -J 1 ft. 113. 94.wood backing and facing. 9i-inch cannon chamber with 100-lb. Cross section. after an 11-inch shot. 118. 106. i in. Nashua Iron Works target after 6-inch shot. 111. 109. Prom a photograph. Front elevation. 104. Front elevation. to 1 ft. 123. Cross section. Thames Iron Works plate after two 68-pounders. side 124. to 1 ft. -J- The Warrior target. 99. 95. Thames Iron Works plate after two 68-pounders. cartridge. Thames Iron Works " A 2 " plate after test. Whitworth projectile. 117. Cross section. and strain of the inner layers of Illustrations of the superior stretching cylinders subjected' to internal elastic pressure. Hawkshaw's 10-inch laminated target. Front elevation. 105. 98. Fig. 110. Front elevation. 116. Cross section. Cross section. Cross section. 100. and armor at cross bulkhead. to 1 ft. Side and front elevatioas. ^ Staflbrd's sub-calibre shot. Elevation. Scott Russell's armor.

Longitudinal section. showing defects. at Woolwich. 146. Cross section. 173. to 1 ft. Longitudinal 156. to 1 ft. Cross section. -^ in.List of Illustrations. Longitudinal Concerning the Materials and Fabrication of Oons. 145. to 1 ft.\- Palliser's internal tube. section. Armstrong hoop. i% in. Longitudinal section Cross section. Lancaster's strengthened 32-pounder. Longitudinal section. gun distorted show the effects of irregular cooling and bad shape. Longitudinal section. 138-142. The " Peacemaker. Illustration of the effect of different rates of applying force. 172. Longitudinal section. 147. strengthened by Parsons's internal tube. 68-pounder. to 1 ft. Longitudinal section. to 1 ft. Wiard's cast-iron gun. Diagram illustrating the increase of weight by decreasing the strength of cannon metals. 143. Longitudinal section. Diagram illustrating the "work done" in stretching metals within and beyond their elastic limits. Elevation. Captain Blakely's 9-inch high and low steel and cast-iron gun. Rents from cooling. 176. 163. to 1 ft. 168. 160. 158. Armstrong 110-pounder. 175. -^g in. Armstrong coil. Elevation. Longitudinal section. 166. 174. Longi- in. -i\ in. 150. 'Wrought-iron cylinder after 20 heatings and coolings. Longitudinal section. Wiard's cast-iron gun. Longitudinal 68-pounder. Gun burst under a seam in the hooping. Longitudinal section. Breech-screw of Whitworth gun. -^ in. 157. -^g in to 1 ft. to 1 ft. Longitudinal section. strengthened -. Forging for Mallet's 36-inch mortar-chamber. 170. Sheet of iron rolled up to form a gun. by Captain by Captain Palliser's internal tube. 164. 151. 159. 131. 68-pouuder. Longitudinal section. -^ in. Wiard's cast-iron gun. Dahlgren breeoh-strap. section. 167. 177. -j'j in. 162. Elevation. The "Peacemaker" 12-inch wrought-iron gun. Longitudinal. 152. 169. Armstrong's lO^inch gun (the first). 149. Cast-iron Elevation. 171. 155. strengthened section. Rents from cooling. Diagram illustrating the strain on a homogeneous gun. Captain Blakely's breech-loading gim with internal strengthening tube. Lancaster's hooping to give longitudinal strength. Armstrong hooped cast-iron naval gun. Cyliuder burst by internal pressure. 161. to 165. Dahlgren breech-strap. in forged masses. 153. Elevation. 68-pounder. Elevation. Fio. 68-pounder. shrunk over wrought-iron tube. . Longitudinal section. 164. 144. Plan. in Mallet's mortar-chamber. Plan of muzzle. 148. xxxix 136. Armstrong trunnion -hoop. to 1 ft. Pile for Mallet's 36-inch mortar-chamber. 1860. tudinal section." fragment after bursting. Commander Scott. Cross section. Diagram illustrating strain due to waut of continuity of hoops. Cross section. hooped as proposed by section.

185. 225. 209. Austrian 3-inch field-gun and rifling. 203. Gun-cotton. 224. Austrian fuze for shell. 191. shell in British competitive trials of 1861. Oavalli rifled hreeeh-loader. French French French French rifling of 1860. 186. 228. Hitchcock's machinery for forging cannon. Present French groove and stud. . Whitworth's long flat-fronted projectile. Longitudinal section. 194. Cross section. Prom a photograph vertical section. Krupp's method of making solid rings. Longitudinal section. 202. Front elevation. "Whitworth's long round-fronted projectile. Cross section. Russian Spanish Spanish rifle-groove. Section. 196. Cross section. 219. Full size. competitive trials of 1861. . Illustrations of the effect of shape of surfaces in welding. Longitudinal section. competitive trials of 1861. Elevation. Sawyer's projectile. 195. Haddan's rifling. Timmerhaus's expanding shot. Cross section. Longitudinal section. rifled shell. Gun-cotton. 184. "Wahrendorf's lead coating. mounted. and Projectiles. Longitudinal section. 211. Elevation. Longitudinal Armstrong coil Elevation. Elevation. Cross section. Cross section. 215. 200. Cross section. Cross section. Cross section. 201. Scott's shell. Side elevation. Cross section. Rifling 189. . Cross section. Early French rifling for ordnance. Lancaster's shell. section. Bessemer converting apparatus. Whitworth's rifling. Haddan's shell competitive trials of 1861. Scott's rifling. List of Illustrations. Whitworth's short round-fronted projectile. Russian studded shell. or first French service rifle-shot. 205. Cross section. From a photograph. 192. Scott's rifling projectile leaving the g\ra. Austrian shell for 3-inch field-gun. 222. 178. 2] 6. 212. Pattison's projectile. Elevation. 187. Austrian shell for 3-inoh field-gun. Cross section. 227. Armstrong's lOJ-inch gun (the first). 182. Whitworth's 70-pounder shot and rifling. after bursting. 210. 193. Full size. Longitudinal section. 197. Bessemer converting vessel.xl Via. 204. 218. 206. 183. Longitudinal section. 213. 179-181. Elevation. Longitudinal section. 214. field-gun. Canon de 30. 226. 190. 223. 198. End elevation. Beaulieu's. 199. Cavalli projectile. Lancaster's rifling. Plan. 217. 220. 221. Krupp's method of making solid rings. Elevation. gun. Cross section. 207. Sawyer's projectile. Longitudinal Haddan's projectile for wood sabot. Full size. Half-longitudinal section. Machine for rolling hoops. Elevation. Cross section. Longitudinal section. Cross section. projectile of 1860. Russian studded shell. Scott's groove and rib on the projectile. 188. Pattison's projectile.

Armstrong segmental shell. Armstrong shunt projectile coming out. Armstrong rifling of 1861. Armstrong segmental sheU. Longitudinal section. Half-longitudinal section. Lynall Thomas's early section. 246. Armstrong shunt shell competitive trials of 1861. Cross section. 268. xli 229. four times euiargea. James's projectile without packing. shell. 243. Longitudinal section. gun at Charleston. Longitudinal section. from muzzle. Elevation. 250. Ajmstrong 12-pouuder chamber. 235. 266. James's projectile. Pull size. 262. Longitudinal section. llO-pounder. Longitudinal section. 270. 236.List of Illustrations. Perspective. 239. Blakely's projectile. Cross section at 92 in. Cross section. Jeffery's rifling. From a photograph. Armstrong rifling. 271. Elevation. Perspective. 274. cartridge and Boxer's lubricator for 110-pounder. Perspective. projectile'. Cross section at muzzle. Armstrong shunt projectile going in. Rifling of 4-2-inch U. rear. projectile. Cross section. 254. 253. 234. 247. Cross section. 249. Longitudinal section. 267. James's shell. Longitudi- nal section. 269. Buckle's new projectile. Sehenkl projectile with papier mocAe sabot. Targets showing accuracy of Parrott 100-pounder shell at 200 yards. from muzzle. Armstrong undercut lead-coated projectile. Cross section. 255. Elevation. new shell. Cross section at 36 in. Armstrong 14-lb. Cross section. rifling. Blakely's rifling for 9-inch gun. new projectile. and vent-piece. 232. James's 257. Longitudinal section. 245. 238. Blakely's rifle-groove for 12J-inch Parrott's hollow shot. 242. 240. 230. rifling. Full size. cartridge 12-lb. 251. 241. 231. Cross section at 124 in. Cross section at muzzle. Cross section. 244. Cross section. S. Elevation. cartridge and Boxer's lubricator and Boxer's lubricator for llO-pounder. 231. 247 A. . Longitudinal section. Russian shunt rifling. 256. 272. Bady Adopted Armstrong rifling. Brooke's rifling for 7-inch gun. Parrott's 100-pounder shell. Pull size. siege-gun. Longitudinal 261. Longitudinal section. Russian shunt Russian shunt Russian shunt rifling. Jefffery's shell. 252. Staflbrd's 273. 265. competitive trials of 1861. Cross section at muzzle. Half-longitudinal section. 6 and 12 pounder. 263. Armstrong shunt projectile with rib to hold zinc strip. 264. Hotchkiss's shell. from muzzle. Longitudinal section. Armstrong shunt rifling development of groove. Cross section. for Elevation. Armstrong shunt rifled mortar. one-third size. Prussian lead-coated shot. competitive trials of 1861. Sehenkl Reed's projectile without sabot. Plan. Cross section. 259. Fig. Early Prussian rifling. Longitudinal section. 233. Longitudinal section. Elevations. Original Armstrong rifling. Perspective. 258. Cross section. Armstrong Armstrong 14-lb. Russian shunt steel shells. 260. — — 248. rear. 275.

285. Britten's rifling. French iron-dad two-decker. in different grooves. 287 A. Cone. Cross section. Rifling used with Britten's Longitudinal section.ES AND PLUGS TO TEST THE STRAIN OF EIPLINa. Whitworth's flat-fronted armor-punching projectile. Breecta-Lioading. Stafford's sub-calibre shell for armor-punching. Scott. Cross section. 336. Ogival. EXPERIMENTAL BOP. different systems of Bessemer's elongated projectile for smooth bores. From a photograph. and other expanding Cross section. 3 grooves. 295-304. Cross section. Shunt. 319. Three rounded grooves. and the Diagrams of " " projectiles illustrating the with reference to their resistance by the atmosphere. competitive trials of 1861. 290-294. Longitudinal section. Bates and Macy's sub-calibre ordnance and projectiles. Cross section. 281. 278. 337 A. 339. Cross section. Lancaster. " 312-314. " " " " " " " " " rifling Conoid. 276. 3 grooves. 310. " " " " 308. Cross section. 307. 321. Cross section. 318. 338. 2 grooves. Cross section. Scott's loam-lined shell for molten metal. Cross section. 315. Parrott's chilled flat-headed cast-iron shot for armor-punching. 3 grooves. 283. "Whitworth's round-fronted projectile. 10 grooves. 316. 306. Shunt. Longitudinal section. Elevation. 317. 309. Stevens's steam gunboat Naugatuck. Longitudinal section. Cross section. Cross section. Longitudinal section. Experimental. 326. 305. Diagrams showing the amount of the rifling. 282. Stevens's steam loading and cooling apparatus.xlii Pis. near the muzzle. Scott. Cross section. Square groove and Scott's groove rib. Elevation. Piobert's form. Longitudinal section. 324. Britten's shell. 311. Elevation. 320. Longitudinal section. 284. Cross section. original bore untouched by Elevation. Thomas. Cross section. Elevation. Longitudinal section. to 287 E. Stevens's gun-carriage on the Naugatuck. 3 grooves. Diagrams illustrating the strain due to rifling. Scott. Whitworth. Longitudinal section. and rib. Cross section. 337. 279. 211. Atwater's " near the chamber. 288. Solferino. projectiles. 289. 3 ribs. 280. Scott's steel shell for armor-punching. 323. 339 A. " " Newton's form. Diagrams explaining the causes of the deviation of effects of rifling. Cross section. "Whitworth's flat-fronted armor-punching projectile. 322. 286. . 327. Britten's early projectile. Cross section. shape of projectiles. /287. 325. L. List of Illustrations. 328-335. projectiles Lancaster's loam-lined shell for molten metal. Decagon. Stafford's sub-calihre shot for armor-punching.

Thorneycroft Thorneycroft Thorneycroft 8-in. Stevens's steam gunboat Naugatuck. 376. Armstrong 110-pounder on barbette carriage. 8-in. Elevation. 346. Krupp's breech-loader. Elevation. Hawkshaw's 10-inch target. Horizontal section. Breech of Armstrong 110-pounder.List of Illustrations. "Wedge. Alger's breech-loader. Screw breech-loader. Jones's inclined target. 369. Cavalli breech-loader. Breech. From a photograph. \ Cross section. Castmann's breech-loader. to 1 ft. Oavalli breech-loader. Krupp's breech-loader. to 1 ft. 36'7. Prussian breech-loader of 1861. Scott Russell's target. 379. Front elevation. End Bar. Cross section. Whitworth's breech-loader. Longitudinal section. 340. Elevation. 346 A. 310. Elevation. 355. From a photograph. Storm's breech-loader. Storm's breech-loader. Castmann's breech-loader. Longitudinal section. target. 343. Horizontal section through breech. Scott Russell's target. 371. and limber. 339 C. Adams's loading and cooling from the breech. i in. CavalU breech-loader. • " " " " Plan. Fib. 374. Blakely's breech-loader. 348. "Wedge. Elevation. 372. 373. Horizontal section through breech. Longitudinal section. Cavalli breech-loader. 362. 361. Clay's breech-loader. Han. Horizontal section. Perspective. 377. . 342. Screw breech-loader. Experiments against Armor. target. Cross section. Elevation. 368. From a photograph. " Cross-section beliind vent-piece. with plug out. target. Longitudinal vertical section through breech. Plan of breech. 351. 352. 363. 341. Cross section. 365. Longitudinal section. Horizontal section. Horizontal section. 357. 353. Hyde's method of running in guns. 375. Horizontal section. Armor. Plan of breech. 345. "Wedge "Wedge out. 378. Breech of Armstrong 40-pounder. Longitudinal vertical section. "Wahrendorf breech-loader. Kjupp's breech-loader. 356. 358. Cross section. Krupp's gas-check. — 341. Horizontal section. 364. 382. The floating battery TiiiMy. Side at ports. The Warrior. 366. Brown's method of running in guns. Prussian breech-loader of 1861. Breech-vredge out. Longitudinal section. " " " Rear elevation. Longitudinal section. xliii 339 B. Horizontal section. Breech-wedge in. Armstrong 20-pounder gun mounted. elevation. Bear elevation. in. From a photograph. The Warrior. Kjupp's breech-loader wedge or sliding-block. 8-in. Plan. 339 D. 344. 359. From a photograph. Broadwell's breech-loader. Armstrong 110-pounder. 360. 354. 380. in. with inner strengthening tube. "Wahrendorf breech-loader. 350. 381. From a photograph. Horizontal section through breech. Prussian breech-loader. 349.

turned Plan anij elevation. Parrott's hooped gun. Hodge's wire target after two 11-in. Pourteen-inoh target. Elevation. 416. Longitudinal section. 385. 404. Cross section. 398. \ In. . Frame of ship. 423. Ship and 400-lb. Washington Navy Yard. Washington Navy Yard. cut down by 25 lbs. gun-cotton torpedo. Solid 4i-inoh plate. Austrian Austrian rifled field-gun for gun-cotton. Elevation and cross section. Cross section. Chambers hooped gun. Elevation. Wiard's theory of the bursting of guns by the heat of 451. From After a photograph. by 25 Palisade opened by 25 Palisade opened by 25 Palisade opened of gun-cotton. Elevation. 428. Cross section. 402. 391. 41 9. Solid 8-in. Elevation. Elevation and section. 6. patented 1861. Solid 4i-inch plate. Parrott shot. Lyman's accelerating gun. Elevation. 384. List of Illustrations. 391. 421. Cross section. Bridge destroyed by gun-cotton. cut down by 25 lbs. 430. Petersburg. after a 10-in. 1834. 403. 425. Cross section. after firing 11-in. Before firmg. firing. of lbs. 424. Palisade. Thiery's hooped gun. 401. Blakely's hooped gun. faced with 4 inches of rubber. Solid 8-inch target. From a photograph. target after firing. Cinn-Cottoii. Elevation and plan. Treadwell's hooped gun. 415. of gun-cotton. shot. patented 1849. No. Nashua Iron Works Chalmers target. target after a 10-in. Miscellaneous. 409. 388. 407. St. Laminated inclined target. 392. 383. to 1 ft. 426. 394. Washington Navy Yard. backed by rubber and timber. Cross section. 387. Soott Russell' a armor. Hodge's wire target before firing. Elevation. after 10-inch ball. Bellerophon target. Longitudinal section. Laminated 6J-inch target. 418.417. patented 1855. Cross section. The Bdle/rophon. . Diagrams illustrating Mr. showing local effect. 12-inoh scantling. etc. Elevation. Wm-rior target. faced with 12-inch oak. and after firing. Cross section. fired against at BeUerophon target. 410. 389. 411. 12 and 8-inch. before 413. 390. Ten-inch target. Elevation. Longitudinal section. 429. 396. Cross section. Parrott shot. 408. Ten-inch target. Elevation. and backed with 20-inch oak. Elevations. firing. Confederate iron-clad Atlcmta. Cross section. Rifle-musket cartridge. and backed. Warrior target. 422. 412. Gun-cotton. Elevation. Longitudinal section. Target of bars before and after firing. Cross section. Prom a photograph. 427. Cross section. lbs. patented 18B5. Gun down to measure the pressure of gun-cotton. 405. 399. Longitudinal section. lbs. Cross section and elevation. 393. Cross section. Elevation. 395. Bridge. 420. 386. Dahlgren 4|-inoh target. of gun-cotton. 400. rifled projectile for gun-cotton. 414.xliv Fig. Gun-cotton cartridge. of gun-cotton. 406. Elevation. gun-cotton.24 feet span. shot. 431-450.



SI n o o E-l .


This celebrated Artillery has at the The Armstrong Oun. Hooped Guns." special act of Parliament. 1 .:]: and pressure due * to heavy Their comparative liability to injury. I. February 5th.— f PART FIRST. Newcastle-upon-Tyne. OEDNANOE. t Previous to his resignation. wich. To remedy this alarming defect. CHAPTER I. under the superintendence of Sir William G. 8. and also the Government " Engineer for Mr. have never been These patents are now the property of the British Government. John Anderson. been fabricated only for the British Government. Armstrong. partly because the Army sizes is well supplied not. Woolwich. and had nothing more powerful as a naval gun. Sir 'Williain Armstrong's patents By made public. After the production of nearly 3000 guns. Sir William Armstrong was Superintendent of the Royal Gun Factory. from this fact. or as a gun of position. Anderson was then "Inspector of Machinery" at WoolRifled Ordnance. \ It should not be argued Report of Sekct Committee on Ordnance.* Royal Gun Factory. 1862. that the Armstrong guns on hand do not When the manufacture was started. the Government constitute a formidable armament. have successfully endured the vibration charges. under the superintendence of Mr. the British Government was without a rifled cannon. and partly because the larger ing their cost. than the 68-pounder. STANDARD GUNS AND THEIR FABRICATION DESCRIBED Section 1. The history of the invention is more fully referred to in the Appendix. the manufacture of what may be strictly called the Armstrong Gun is at present entirely discontinued. consider- with them. while Continental Powers were well supplied mth rifled artillery. and at the Elswick Works. I. 1863.

2 Okdnance. 6. In the present time of better preparation and greater security. the 10"5 in. and not to the workmanship. having an inner barrel of steel throughout its length. are as yet experimental guns. not over 27 tons (60480 lbs.) tenacity (ultimate) of about 26 tons (58240 lbs. indicated both by practice and experiment. Some 9'22 in. The service guns up to 7 in. ironf at length. felt * The recent bombardment of Kagosima is said to have demonstrated the weak- ness of the Armstrong gun in this particular. the principal improvements. The specification to the makers of the iron prescribes " a nor under 25 tons (56000 lbs. are the use of a larger amount of steel and of a smaller 4. gun. as iN^aval guns. a 3-pounder. delivered in July. Ample appropriations.* While some of the are retained in the distinctive features of the Armstrong gun heavy ordnance at present construct- ing (41). loaders.J in. . in following sections (432). This was hooped with one thickness of coils from the muzzle to the trunnion-ring.). perhaps. the Government is experimenting. to carry lead-coated projectiles. The Armstrong gun is a series of concentric wroughttubes made from spiral coils. 1SC3.) per square inch. and with three coils over the chamber. generally of larger bore. a maximum diameter there of 9 The bore was 1. with reference to future improvements. at no inconsiderable cost. fects in the Any immediately remediable de- gun would therefore appear to be due to the materials or to the design. is from dampness and rough usage. The defects and improvements referred to vrill be considered more 5. bore are breech-loaders the muzzle.. a further objection urged against the breech-loaders especially. have contributed to bring the marmfacture of the Armstrong gun to a degree of perfection hardly surpassed in any other branch of machine building. excepting. 1855 \ The original Armstrong gun was a breech-loader. giving it — — in. and 10"5 in. These facts are obtained from the Report of the Select Committee on Ordnance. 3. and over eight years' experience in the selection of iron and the improvement of processes and tools. elongation not to become permanent under 13 tons (29120 lbs.) obliged to resort to great and perhaps unnecessary haste and expense. number of parts. and in order. All the service Armstrong rifled guns are with fine grooves. experimental guns are smooth bores.

f Evidence of Mr. is 1. except the breech-piece and the trunnion-ring. Swedish. Taylor Brothers. welded end to at end so as to Fis. to three to four feet for the small rings. 2.— — Hooped Guns.) pressure on like sur- faces.. are formed from bars about 3 by 5 in. placed upon end under a broadfaced six-ton steam-hammer. by Messrs. will section to rectangular. —All parts of the gun proper. of coldblast. of Leeds. Report of Sekct Committee on Ordnance. 1862. The upper or narrower side of the bar placed next a revolving mandrel of the inner diameter of the intended tube. The spiral is heated in a reverberatory furnace. Cammell of Fabrication. charcoal pig. of Yorkshire. 1862. delivered at "Woolwich. tension per square inch. thinner side. 120 feet long. nor compression to become permanent under l-i to 15 tons (31360 to 33600 lbs. be. and the drawing of the other. and of the section shown Fig. and coiled around into a close 2).:!: and " up- Bar coiled to make a hoop set" into a hoop (which. so that when the Section of bar bar its is wound round its the mandrel. 1862.f and is a mixture of about 85 per cent. is limited in length to five feet for and four * "Practical Mechanics' Journal. Messrs. Taylor. the upsetting of for coil. and the Low-Moor Iron Company."* The is greater part of the iron.f 7. and that the i Mr. at the cost in the bar. and about 15 per cent. and that is quite uniform. say. Anderson. and to prevent excessive bulging. and " does not blister at plied all. the Elswick hammer weighs ten tons. drawn hot upon the manit Fig. is change The bar drel. supplied by Messrs." Report of Select Committee on Ordnance. . for convenience of handling. Anderson states that new hammer at "Woolwich weighs twelve tons.* Mr. Record of the Great Exhibition."-j- The forgings are supSheffield. made in 30-feet lengths. 1. especially that for the inner tubes. Anderson states that this is it the best of seven or eight sorts of iron tried. of £20 per ton. spiral of any required diameter (Fig.

l Oapt. welded together lengthways. 3). Blakely. 5) longitudi- The hoops are then slipped over a loose mandrel. the outer courses of hoops are not welded end to end. Hoop recessed to lit others. f During this process. and in all the guns. is oxydized. then slipped over the man- to perfect the weld and the shape of the short tube is thus formed. Civil Engineers. 5.:]: * The same process has heen very successfully applied in France for the manufacture of locomotive tyres." Inst. Furnace for welding hoopB into a tube. to smooth down any large bulges. 1860. the second tube from the bore was formed of two slabs. Fl8.* The hoop is also "patted" on its periphery by a steam-hammer.. applied twelve feet long. . March. only the hoops forming the inner tube are welded together in this manner . 3. and so on the until required length is reached.— Jfr.f drel. reverberatory furnace (Fig. Except for 110- pounder. and placed in a narrow 4). so that Pie. as the scale is jarred off as fast as it Jowrnal Royal United Service Inst. Two hoops are thus bolt set heavy passing through end to end. The nut on the bolt being then tightened by the to a power of say ten men. 8). 8. squeezed together by a them. In the Armstrong gun of 1859 (Fig.— Oednance. Section of weld. semi-cylindrical in section. is wrench ten or upset (Fig. much iron forms. and patted under a steam-hammer. 1861. the sides of the adjacent coils thus being welded together. 4. Another hoop to and added the the tube by the same process. exposing fresh surfaces. the joint nally (460). It is then recessed in a lathe about half an inch on each end (Fig. one hoop will fit into the Fia. Longridge. and to preserve its cylindrical form. end of another. where the joint receives a weld- ing heat. " Constr-uction of ArtiUa-y. the large ones).

8. Armatrong Field-gun of 1859. . 6. 1^ in. ft in. FlQ. FlQ. Armstrong 12-pounder. Armstrong 110-pounder. ally. 9. to 1 ft. 1. very strong radilongitudin- but extremely weak To prevent the breech from being blown off by the explosion of the powder. and the welds are perpendicular to the bore. the breech-piece (in which the breechPia.Hooped Guns. to 1 ft. Inasmiich as the fibre of the iron runs spirally around the gun. the sti'ucture is thus far ally.

and then slipped home. . turned accurately without. and is slipped on when suffioiently expanded by heat. so upon each is other. rings are shrunk together in the following is . is not welded to the adjacent tube-end. but retains it.* The breech-piece of the new 70-pounder. the inner tube. of which it forms then raised by a travelling crane. placed above the other. some cases. and Figure in Indeed. (See 300. in the It is welded to the second tube from the inside. man- —A tube. for the recent class of guns. prevented from blowing out —in other words. The tubes and ner . the longitudinal strength of the piece. its gun pulled apart in its thickest section without fracturing a continuation of welded joint with the tube which formed it. due to the grip of the rings suflBcient. into a tube. 11.— 6 Ordnance. the whole rear of the gun has been. and of other small guns. the trunnion-ring (which is welded up and shrunk on in the usual way) is slightly recessed (Fig. Generally. is also made thicker than the other tubes. so that it may not be slipped forward by the enormous friction of the Armstrong projectile. slightly largest at the breech end. Inst. screw turns. wood fire. its position solely by the friction of the tubes around Since the breech of the 10|^ in. however. 1860. Fig. 6). turned smoothly within set on end a larger and roughly without.) not impaired. is heated to redness by standing on end over a the chimney. C D. 25) to fit a corresponding projection on the ring beneath it. same manner that the rings are welded The breech-piece was formerly made of a slab bent into a cylindrical form. The outer rear ring is also flanged over the breech-piece (Fig. 17) is forged solid and bored out. 304. is The outer tubes and rings thus formed are turned and bored without taper . so that it its iibre is parallel with the bore. would appear to be long as that grip 23. the pressure of the powder gas upon the bottom of the chamber has been transferred to the trunnions —by the friction of the tubes upon each other. Oivil Engineers. Water * Construction of Artillery. This larger tube is tube. 10. and welded at the edges.

Fia. . Fig. to receive other tubes and rings in like Short tubes and rings are heated in a reverberatory furnace. o'^gl w Fl8. S-. is then accurately tnrned without. 12. tube.» Hooped Guns. and end of early Armstrong 12-pounder. 13. B Top. 11. 9 then turned on to shrink the outer & 10. The mass manner. side. jets are FlQS.

or 40-paunder ventOn the 110-pounder. 9 to 11. which is used in all the service guns. 16 shows the 12-pounder vent-piece in section. f Evidence before Select Committee on Ordnance. For the 40-pounders and The 110-pounders. they are iron." hist. Some vent-pieces of sandwiched iron and steel were unsuccessful. and Co Swedish iron was the only material that would stand . 1 3. with steel ends to Thread of Breech- bear against the vent-pieces. employed —the —Two forms of loading at the breechj or side breech-loader. to prevent the escape of gas. of the inner tube. 15) to prevent their wedging. breech-screws for the smaller " a. 15.uns are solid forgings of steel. are Bebech-Loading. is generally illustrated by Figs. which is held in place by the hollow breech-screw behind it.— 8 13. The threads to are thus shaped (Fig. screw. tach Sir Ordnance. the hollow screw forms a conis tinuation of the bore. especially of the larger guns. 70-pounder. The rear of the powderchamber is closed by a movable stopper called the vent-piece. The vent-pieces have usually turned out parts." * and that a little variation in accuracy of shrinkage does not in- volve very bad results. a thin cup of tin is inserted behind pieces. suiBcient difference of diameter to secure effective shrinkage. is * Discussion on " Construction of Artillery. William Armstrong has stated that he did not at- much importance to giving the tubes and rings successively but that "they were simply applied with a higher initial tension. at all in the 110-pounders.. . be the weakest Steel has long been used for the smaller C ( guns but until steel toughened in oil was tried. is The copper ring a jammed by the screw against the bevelled end jS"o copper ring used on the 110-pounder." and their results will he fully described in the chapter on . through which the charge inserted from the rear. When the vent-piece is lifted up. and 17 to 21. 1863..„ . Fie. Civil Engineers 1S60. and the wedge The screw.f This principle of construction will be discussed in a following chapter. Fig. t Both these forms " Breech-loading.

.Hooped Guns.

). to stop the escape of gas past the vent-piece. "148 in. it is at the rear. to a point a few inches in rear of the muzzle. The shot-chamber in. . to give bore. at cast on and faced with zinc. The powder-chamber. at its front. 18). 7'075 than the powder-chamber. and can thus be easily renewed. the bore to say. cup only stands one round. consists of a smaller number first. The rifling of the Armstrong gun is peculiar. rifling Beyond the shot-chamber. The number gnns. and will be discussed farther on. or brass or other studs. so as to prevent their stripping. The shape and to of grooves in is the service from G-pounders gl\e tin) 110- nearly the same. the grooves of the . strips. their width. of larger grooves. 76. is The bore of the Armstrong breech-loader has several different diameters (Fig.) slightly smaller (in the 110it pounder. that is is down a little. let into now 15. the largest part (in the 110-pounder is 7"2 in. rifling Figs. of the The object multigroove system is to a large of the bearing for the soft covering (lead hardened with Armstrong projectiles. The vent is made in the vent-piece. EiFLiNG. all in the 12-pounder. having one turn in 37 calibres for the 110 pounder. and has larger no grooves. 38. The object mould the lead covering of the shot it it at the first instant of motion. The "shunt" rifling tate it. 12 and 13 show standard forms of Armstrong enlarged. and to nip freedom in traversing the remainder of the and centre it at the muzzle. 14. and has. arranged to centre and compress the shot as well as ro- The projections on the shot were. This the cartridge. in the 110pounder). the commencement of the lands of the rifling. . the shot. but is than the adjacent part of the bore forward (7 in. — and about the same pitch for the field pieces. tlie tops of the lands are cut to is slightly enlarged. extend with uniform depth to the mnzzle but from a point a few inches in front of the shot-chamber. four times is The depth is of the grooves in the 12-pounder 045 in. are Zinc used. of grooves in the size 110-pounder pounders.10 Okdnance. The twist of the grooves is a regular screw.

11 .Hooped Guns.

Gux . A grooves at once was in the Great Exhibition. Table Hamr of Pakhcxtlaes of Sbevice Akmsteong Grasrs. but has not I. at present done by a cutter that planes tool for cutting 76 two grooves at once. been put into service.— 12 The shown rifling is Ordnance.

iio-pounders 179 535 9 1 620 106 16 799 641 40-pounders 20-pounders. few were made for service in China. — . An Armstrong 12-pounder weighing "Col. * From the testimony of Col. 25 231 313 178 232 392 178 12-pounders. the Bepori of the Select From Committee on Ordnance. issued. Lefroy. have been introduced into the service. sea service .. 3J cwt. land service. an of 120 lbs. 79 9-pounders 6-pounder8 e6 37 total 66 37 Grand 803 1567 2370 17. an 80-pounder. another Armstrong llO-pounder gun somewhat heavier. The present proof is two rounds with service charge and shot. No. i2-pounders. .. 20-poundcrs. lefore the Select Committee on the latest British Artillery records. Another shorter 40-pounder Armstrong gun two varieties of 20-pounder Armstrong guns. another weighing 8 cwt. 1862. gun. a charge of one-sixth the weight of the service shot. and they are aU breech-loaders. . 8J owt. and three rounds with service shot and a charge of one-sixth the weight of the service shot. 1863. weighing 6 cwt. Will you now mention the experimental guns which have not been introduced into the service? A wrought-iron muzzle-loading Armstrong gun a side breech-loading llO-pounder. I find that in that enumeration I have omitted one 7 in. There are other experimental guns which are not yet introduced. . Ordnance " Chairman. those are all the wrouglit-iron rifled guns which — . Table III.: — Hooped Guns. " Sir John Hay. Aemsteong Gims Issued fob Sektice. land service. Namr op Gun. called the strengthened pattern an Armstrong 40-pounder gun. An Armstrong 9-pounder. — . an Armstrong 6-pounder.* —The tables 1 and 2 are compiled from 2d July. . Total Ordnance Co. sea service . issued Elswick No. only a another weighing 6 cwt. Guns DESOEtBEO. 13 . . Are those all rifled? Yes. or 6 in. No. of the latter. honitzer. Can you inform the Committee what -wrought-iron and steel guns have been introduced into the service since the beginning of 1858 ? An Armstrong 110-pounder gun. Dunne. issued Kojal Gun Factory. Showikg WHEEE Made.

the results being most satisfactory. or unmanageable recoil. the was therefore authorized in July. In October. 1858. "The 25-pounder was adopted into the service in 1859. As in the ease of the 20-pounder. without causing any excessive strain upon the gun. " In the course of subsequent experiments with lOO-pounder guns. at the heavy service gun. gun has been slightly modified. of which about 100 only were made.: — 14 Oebnance. and enduSince 1859. the rifling of this daas of rance. the manufacture has not proceeded to any great extent. a few guns of this nature have been made for the naval service. The ma.ximum diameter of the latter is 27 in. and another. diameter Some llO-ponnders. as originally. that above specified. the gun has been accordingly changed to a 20-pounder. 1860. 13 in. being now one turn in 3t calibres.. Beport of muzzle-loader. " The 12-pounder was recommended for adoption into the service by the Special Committee on Rifled Cannon. . is have been constructed. it was deemed desirable to strengthen the 40-pounder by the addition of another coil at the breech. was 65 cwts. lately tried at Shoeburyness. had been very extensively tried by the Eifled Cannon Committee in 1858. on trials of and changes in the Armstrong gun. Armstrong early in 1859. the designation of the gun has been changed to llO-pounder. penetration. which were produced in the early stage of the inquiry. led to the adoption of a lighter projectile (viz. weighing 9632 lbs. muzzle. and the table. for range. 1859. about 21 lbs.. George. 1861. in their Eeport dated the 16th November. and 32-pounder. 3-25 inches (the 25-pounder being S-IS). however. the Special Committee on Iron Plates and Rifled Cannon (Colonel President) on the 24th September. which. a 32-pounder of 4 in. but the standard weight Armstrong "JO-pounder. C. described in the foregoing . and tried at Shoeburyness. smooth-bored gun. but an extra coil was subsequently added at the breech. the Armstrong 150-pounder. these experiments have. charge. Three hundred lOO-pounders were ordered to be made in the year 1860-G1.. it was foimd that a solid shot of 110 pounds weight could be fired from them with 14 lbs. but its use on land being limited to mountain service.) than that originally used." The following extracts are from a "Memorandum by the Director of Ordnance" (Major-General Tulloh). as recommended by the above committee. 9184 lbs. more as a matter of precaution than from any symptoms of weakness in the guns as originally constructed. the 40- pounder class sprang from a model gun which had been tried with success by the Rifled Cannon Committee in 1858 (viz. and a standard pattern having been subsequently approved. which brought the weight up to 81 cwts.. The original weight of the lOO-pounder. " The 40-pounder gun was recommended navy by B. "The lOO-pounder maybe said to have originated in the 80-pounder of 63 cwt." provisional adoption of this projectile . accuracy. lbs... 24-pounder. if rifled. and the designation of as a calibre for adoption in the St. with a new breech-loading arrangement. a gun of nearly similar calibre. instead of one in * * * The gun itself has undergone no alteration. bore).. further than 33. are 31. Select Committee on Ordnance^ 1862 "The 6-pounder gun was adopted at the same period as the 12-pounder. There weighing 8400 two classes of 110-pounders : the light gun. but not issued. will be a 300-pounder and three guns known as the 18-pounder. a an Armstrong 40-pounder. with new breech-loading arrangement. to supply the very urgent demands of the navy. which was made by Sir Wm.

— Hooped Guns. Official Drawings. . From. Name op Gun. 15 Particulars of ARiiSTRONa Guns op the Latest Elswiok Patterns. Table III A.

solid cast- iron shot. trial. : 16 Ordnance. charge.. 36. rifled with six grooves. lbs. to 1 ft. 9 in. eight grooves . weight 15'2 in. long common shell. 24 lbs.. : extreme : length. Eichards' plans. one turn in : 65 diameters. ^ i Maximum thickness Minimum thickness I3'3S " 4*75 " 19 L Length of chamber Diameter of chamber " 8.. 28 lbs. muzzle-loading shunt 27. 18 in.: . 25. steel A 200-pounder (9-22 in. but not tested. 173 lbs. the Armstrong I^B in. A The 200-pounder side breechparticulars of this loader has also been the subject of gun are as follow Weight Preponderance Calibre 18648 lbs. .58 " 12 J 1 Diameter of bullet-chamber Breech opening 8-51 " " Rifling... A gun. : 130 lbs. 100-pounder smootli-bore gun (31). and will weigh nearly ten tons.. bursting charge. . 12*8 lbs. or 467'5 ^ in. thus having an enormous margin of metal in proportion to its calibre.in. rifled. 10-J. with false conical head. has been This is completed.) gun has been constructed by placing a tube in a gun of the exterior dimensions of the 300-pounder (29). total : or 185'8 charge." Length j " ** Length from breech 49 10 ' 5 ' I Diameter of trunnions " ! 1 I "l Between trunnions 35"^ of walls of walls. : cartridge. gun. 11324 " in. 85 126-5 to trunnions . It is about 18 feet long.

Two : of these only were Their particulars are as follow Weight of gun Preponderance (32 See also Fig. = 300-35 lbs. or 682-5 in. (Prom " photograph. but has been reduced to 35 2 . service charge intended lbs. tested.. 20-ton gun. to ") Length of bore Diameter of trunnions 125 12 Length over cascabel Length from trunnions muzzle. I142. in 65 diameters. shot with false conical head) has ten bearing and ten .. gun (Fig. with a steel barrel. one turn (flat-headed. rifled with ten shunt grooves. 22 and 23). gun after bursting. (20 in. 22). long)..) 29. constructed. 36 38 „„ ^^ i 4 1 Diameter of bore 10-5 ** Thickness of metal a"t breech. driving ribs. so as to throw zincribbed elongated shot. Between trunnions Diameter over chamber Thlcliness of metal at muzzle. Besides the after first smooth bore gun (Figs. a688o lbs. fourteen others were rifled. Tlie The 300 lbs. and holds steel solid bursting charge 13-56 in. The long. which burst 264 rounds. long. 25). 17 is 98. The 300-pounder muzzle-loading shunt gun is the 10^ in. The common is shell weighs 278-6 total.4 " 156 in. completed. and weighs 230 a 21-75 shot. 23. was 45 lbs. lbs. and ten studs at the base is 18'7 in. The first lO-J-in.. lbs. Ten grooves. but not A 9|iD. Fig. lbs.3 Hooped Guns.

Length over all .

Hooped Guns. 19 .

Of the fifteen guns of this size constructed. weight. The 150-pounder. car- The weighs 152 lbs. for constructing these derstood by comparing Figs. the closed inner tube is a complete A^° gun in itself. 5-25 1"7 in. The range and on. (29). in the latter. 10'435 tridge. cast-iron shot in. rifling. and were not difiercnce The between the Arsenal and Elswick guns will be un- plans. have been ordered.. The cast-iron shell weighs 114'3 . Several guns. 33. smooth-bore 22) is the "300-pounder" without rifling. the bore being 7 in. of one of cwt. Whitworth's the comers. 50 lbs.. constructed guns. 33. in. A 9-in. lias been constructed. thickness of wall of shell. to weigh 118 and to have inner steel tubes. of them. the Whitworth 120-pounder shells which threw through the Warrior target. only two were rifled constructed at Two of the four Woolwich had internal tubes rifled. 6'4 across the flats. 30 lbs. long. across and lO-Jin. 22 in. which is disconnected from the inner tube. charge. closed at . 34. and is 10-435 diameter. charge. . The steel spherical shot for these guns weighs 167 lbs. lbs. bursting J charge. Arsenal construction. with closed ends. 25 and 22. 16660 and is rifled on Mr. In the former. One (44). 25. weight. . diameter. upon the but Armstrong plan in most modified chiefly in tlie particulars. plan. Ordnance. test It is them is given farther stated that fifty more of these guns. lbs. 20 Fie.. the breech-plug.. have been J fabricated at Woolwich. gun. with a solid wrought-iron inner tube.. gun of 35840 lbs. forms the bottom of the barrel. (Fig. weighs lbs. .

and rifled respectively on Scott's. Armstrong. of powder. Britten's. The fire. In fact. guaranteed against not an eco- nomical system of production). (Sir f It is stated that the fifty muzzle-loading fire guns of 9-inch bore. weight 118 cwt.f and the French system. 36. 1860). is set within a tank of water. cally. —The substitution of a Armstrong coiled tube* has often been attempted by Mr. lbs. was rifled on Mr. Cost. and two in. have been constructed on and guns. at armor plates. are to have inner tubes hardened in a 100 lb." Inst. iron tank. * Tlie inner tube of the earliest successful gun (18-pounder) was made of steel Wm. or three guns to be used for this principle. the Report of the Select Committee of 1863 indicates that $1200000 might have been saved on an expenditure of about $3000000. In addition manufacture has been carried on in a a rule. This gun has fired bolts as heavy as 330 weight. Steel Tubes Haedened solid-forged steel barrel for the in Oil. They will round ball. the must be very as costly. with 50 lbs. until the process of hardening in oil was adopted. The apparatus filled for this process is very simple. and in a private establishment loss by the Government. thus fabricated. to this. however closely managed. Anderson. had all the ordnance required for the navy been supplied from "Wool- wich instead of Elswick. that. although he did not succeed well with steel. is government establishment (which. 21 the end.. of the oil is raised to effects of hardening in be farther considered under the head of steel. with three projections to fit corresponding grooves in the shot. for trial. are nearly ready the Armstrong 37. to keep the is Within 280° oil the orbit of the crane for lifting the tube a heating furnace with a wood by will a The temperature 110-pouuder inner tube. testing vent-pieces. and made deep enough to take in the tube vertioil cool. Lynall Thomas's plan. Civil Engineers. ordered in the autumn of 1863. four 7 One 110-pounder. . oil. An with oil. 35.Hooped Guns. " Construction of ArtiUery. —The process by which much it gun is con- structed involves so labor and such an extensive plant. Lancaster's. but the particular Isind used was perhaps too brittle for the purpose.

from the Report of the Select Committee on Ordnance.— 22 Table IV. 1862. . in March. and for other purposes. from the commencement of the manufacture. Ebtuen showing the amount of money expended on Plant at Woolwich. 1859. manufacture of Armstrong Guns. for the Oednance. 1862. Date. to the 31st March.

both in the chamber of the gun and in the rings.75 (£439 3s. to 34 cts. (See table of cost of guns.. under high charges. —The strength and endurance of the Arm- strong gun will be considered more in order. (443.) per pound. The Woolwich establishment could such guns per week. 39. of the larger Armstrong guns is from 2i cts. The cost The 200-pounder breech-loader costs about $6000. rifled) is $9000 each. aggravate these The 9"22 least apparatus. The wrought wrought iron permanently changes its figure. it is not likely to burst without warning. 1862. and the shock due to the centering and nipping of the shot in the shunt eflects. gun. not including rent turn out thirty and profits. it 23 was $2000. but including contingent expenses. perhaps up to are likely to prove very formidable. the gun is very strong to it bursting strains acting in the direction of the radii. while for the depreciation of plant and buildings. Endueance. $1575 (£316) per gun. rifling. During 1862-3. gun) and about of the 300-pounder same 10|. after the discussion of cannon metals. the guns want homogeneity and mass to resist the destructive eflects Both the enormous pressure and strain due to forcing the shot through the multigroove rifling. but not propor- tionately strong longitudinally.). * Report of Select Committee on Ordnance. Not one of the 3000 guns built and tested has. $200 more should be added. in.* The cost of the 150-pounder smooth-bores (10^ rifles (the in. 40. certainly. without frequent repair and readjust- ment of tubes and rings that is to say.Hooped Guns. rebuilding. in a following chapter.) resist is In general terms. although they cannot for be relied on long service. trustworthy part of the gun is the breech-loading The muzzle-loaders of moderate bore. been carried too far. the cost would be $2195.in. But although the Armstrong gun is costly in construction and maintenance. the "built-up" principle seems to have of relaxation and vibration. making a total of $2200 per gun. or to seriously injure the — men or things immediately around it when it does give way. . With iron.

including all Incidental Expenses. 1862. with Two Vent-Pieeea.) [But the repairs of any defects developed at proof would be an extra charge.] — . (Prom the Report of the Select Committee on Ordmance. Cost op Labor and Matbeial. ready for Proof. Table T. to produce One 100-pounder Armstrong Gun.24 Ordnance.

1862. Betuen showing the Prices of the Abmsteong Guns manufactured by the Elswick Ordnance Company.Hooped Guns. 1862.) — Nature of Gun. from the commencement of the manufacture up to the 31st March. (From the Report of the Sdect Committee on Ordnance. 25 Table TI. .

CQ .26 Ordnance.

Although Mr. even when placed over a fail. and the excellent endurance of the at guns lately tested II. 42. was fabricated at the Koyal Gun This Factory. his h\ in. cannon of this kind in hand. weighing but six tons. His celebrity now beginning to extend to the manufacture of guns. the opinion gaining ground in England that coiled wrought-iron tubes will be entirely abandoned. Whitworth. proved and adopted. * Evidence of Mr. Whitworth's manufacture (Fig. The recent and most satis- factory development of the steel manufacture in Sheffield (see chapter on steel Cannon Metals). except that the inner tube was a solid wrought-iron forging. and weighs 16660 lbs. of 31 in. The inventions of Mr. Select Committee on Ordnance. The 120-pounder a of Mr. has shown some tendency to on account of its greater duc- and softness. and 9 in. called 130-pounder and 150were pounder) gun (Fig. the distinguished mechanical engineer. while the effects of vibration are much more serious upon separate is layers of metal than upon solid masses. Above thirty pieces of this calibre have been fabricated. Woolwich. The hooping of a steel barrel with wrought iron was patented by Captain Blakely. also favor this conclusion. bored out. . with reference to Artillery. Woolwich.Hooped Guns. maximum diameter. gun is a muzzle-loader. on the Armstrong plan. (See Appendix. Joseph Whitworth. and that a smaller solid steel tubes will number of be employed. (70-pounder) gun is the largest that has been regularly especially to the fabrication of built-up steel guns. from which Whitworth projectiles through the Warrior target. 26) is much lighter gun. and will be considered under that head. 1863. have consisted chiefly in his system of rifling and is projectiles. The Whitwortli «un. steel barrel.* 43. fired The 120-pounder (sometimes 27). Whitworth has 7 in. 27 The principal features of tlie Armstrong system of ordnance would thus appear to be going out of use.) And tility since wrought iron. before Sir William Armstrong's practice commenced.

Whitworth having stated that the gun aa well as the rifling were essentially his. "Whitworth's principle of construction. Third.. 28 Fig. "Whitworth (Fig. are thus set forth by Mr. 26. 1863. as actually built at Woolwich viz. and put together by shrinkage. and the fea- which distinguish it from the simi- system of Sir 'Williara Armstrong.* in his description of the 120-pounder proposed by Mr. 120-pdr. tures lar Peinciples. "Whitworth's plan " The two guns — that which Mr. and without any joint. Whitworth's tinct parts. Fifth. and the 120-pounder referred to above. the parts to be joined were united by open the process of welding. In Mr. Anderson. 27). : and rifled on Mr. 28). had to . Mr. Whitworth's gun consists of twenty-four distinct parts . a considerable portion of tliis committee's labors were devoted to ascertaining the faots= . the parts that be united were connected by in the screws Eoyal Gun Factory's. (Fig. Mr. gun was intended and designed for being put together by hydraulic pressure the Koyal Gun Factory gun was designed for .. of twelve disSecond. Ordnance. and the Armstrong party having denied it. The first gun is without any part tech- * Evidence before the Select Committee on Ordnance. Mr.—Mr. the Eoyal Gun Factory gun. Whit worth 1-in. Whitworth would have preferred. Fourth. Whitworth's gun. 44. and that which was constructed in the Eoyal Gun Factory — differ in the following particulars: First. In the one or barrel is gun the inner tube at the breech end and closed by a screw in the Woolwich gun it is solid and close.

Hooped Guns. 29 ^ .

the breechSixth. and made to take hold not only of the . with the fibre placed longitudinally. piece is one of the leading characteristics. all .30 Okdnance. thus tying * The trunnion hoop. which is a part of the second Winth.rews of different diam- formed on one stem. the fifth tier of the Eoyal Gun Factory gnu consists last of the plain two plain pieces and the trunnion piece —the it. The third pieces. Whitworth's gun consists of eight parts. tier of Mr. The breech-plug of Mr. the third tier of the Eoyal Gun Factory gun a little and only extends space being consists of two pieces. and is Gun Factory gun is of one diameter screwed into the breech-piece only. in nically termed the breech-piece. The fourth . "Whitworth's eters. and screwed upon the breech -plug. which extends from the breech to the muzzle. "Whitworth's gun consists of four pieces not united tier of the the fourth united. inner tube. gun consists and extending of six to the extremity of the breech. pieces being is hooked on the hoop* under and which again three together. tier. but with the last breech-hoop Eoyal Gun Factory gun comprises three pieces not made to hook on to the fifth breech-piece. Whitworth's screwed together into one piece. of screw formed upon the breech-plug the second tier of the Eoyal Gun Factory gun end to consists of one long tube extending at the from end of the gun — that is breech having the iron of re- double thickness. all coil of lesser thickness. the mainder being of Eighth. Whitworth's gun consists of three plain pieces and one trunnion piece all screwed together into one long piece of . and butting hard against the tier of solid end of the inner barrel. gun consists of three st. beyond the trunnion. The second tubes in Mr. which tier the great leading feature of this gun. but also of the second and third layers of tubes the breech screw of the Eoyal throughout. all screwed together into one long tube. Tenth. of Mr. hooked on the breech-piece. with the fibre running circumferentially. the remaining made up by the greater thickness of the breed i-piece. The tier of Mr. Seventh. the other gun. and is screwed npon the second diameter . thus giving to the breech-piece increased security.

it is an- nealed from three to four weeks. 31 ." and made by Messrs. 1863. and will stretch instead of breaking under pressure. of Sheffield. the material. or by rolling them in a machine similar than that used for the barrel. to 2'. and that now his 7 in. bon is found. lbs. and also in the disposition of the materials for resisting both lateral and longitudinal strain." * 4:5. . to a tyre rolling machine (69). 47. as to be in a condition to require extensive repairs. Fabeication. . JEleventh. "Whitworth's gun the sixth tier of the hoop to strengthen the Koyal Gun Factory gun consists of one large gun over the powder-chamber. There is no sixth tier iipon Mr. that the gun finally made 'of wrought iron was so strained and indented by the twenty or thirty high charges (25 lbs. Whitworth states § that he has half for some time made musket-barrels is so ductile that they fired bulge instead of cracking when the charge with the bullet way home. 48. that ho has no faith in annealing that it injures the steel. —The smaller Whitworth guns are forged for the larger and the principal piece or barrel a single guns is forged from ingot of low steel. These hoops are formed by hammering hollow castings of steel over a mandrel. f Homcgeneous metal is said to have been made by Mr. Select Committee on Ordnance. to be deposited between the crystals.) The 70gun has one hoop the 120-pounder proposed by (5-JMr. and cast into round ingots. Whitworth nealing tlie steel. The short lengths thus produced * It was further shown before this committee. In additwo guns differ in the distribution of the tion to the above. chapter on Cannon Metals. f metal is This made chiefly from bars of Swedish iron. in case of the large guns. also. \ Sir William Armstrong stated before the . gun barrels are equally good. the car(See.lj: attaches the greatest importance to anis After the work ronghly finished. David Mushet over fifty years ago. After annealing.Hooped Guns. 46. by the microscope. Firth. solid. Mr. Whitworth was to have four tiers of hooj3s. The pounder breech.) it had fired. 1863. cut into short lengths. also called " homo- geneous metal. Mr. steel is hooped with a harder and higher in.) § Evidence before the Select Committee on Ordnance. melted in crucibles with a very small addition of car- bonaceous material.

page 35. Mr. 1861. is The breech-plug also burst. Journal of the E. Lougridge. so that they will all be equally strained at the instant of explosion. See note 4. of rein- forcing a tube with hoops having successively increasing initial tension. U. Whitworth ta- pers the inner barrel one inch in 100 forces inches (Fig. 29. field-pieces. March. is This cap works in a hoop which hung by a hinge to the side of the breech.^^^-^ of closing the ^f ^^e muzzle-loader (Fig. The principle discussed in a succeeding chapter. Fig. 30) is not now largely though not very rapidly. 2i5). (295). welded (or are screwed together end to end. of a cap screwed on externally.f is The principle of initial tension now well carried out. It is operated successfully. S. and them on cold by hydro- static pressure. The first 80-pounder* cracked from this cause. "Whitworth's earlier practice. 31). 51. screwed not only into the inner tube. have been in ser* The breech hoops of this gun were •j- made from Clay's puddled steel. but into the next tube or ring. Inst. the iron set He put on his hoops with as great initial tension as would bear without injury up to point of permanent — —so that the force of the explosion altered the condition of the gun. (Fig. Mr. on It consists but was unsuccessful on the larger guns. . The method ^^. 28) is undoubtedly superior to any plan except solid forging. _ Fie. The vent is in the centre of the breech-piece. 49. 50. Or the breech-plug may screw into the ends of three or four concentric rings. captured from the Confederates. Several others. The breech-loading apparatus used. with great care and accuracy Section of breech of WMtworth muzzle-loader. which cannot be pulled off without being on account of the taper.— 32 Ordnance. Of the 70-pounders (muzzle-loading. was not fully utilized in Mr. Instead of shrinking on ° the hoops. as the case may be) like the Armstrong hoops. instead of being merely stuck. one was recently the subject of experiment at the "Washington Navy Yard.

31. Whitworth new 70-pdr. warfare has not been remarkable. The bore of the "Whitworth guns is usually hexagonal (Fig.^ The twist is very sharp. vice before Charleston and elsewhere. 30.) o . in order to give a sustaining rotation to long projectiles. Fig. and note in Appendix.Hooped Guns. the projectiles are planed by special machine-tools to fit the rifling. Pig. (See Eifling. 33 Whitworth breech-loader. 32). but their adaptation to The 70-pounder that pierced the Warrior plates at Shoeburyness M-as fabricated at Woolwich.

particulars of the standard The guns are given in Table YIII.34 Ordnance. S .

Their led to the rifling of several cast- iron guns. however. Whitworth's system. Whitworth's early ideas about constructing cannon. As was shown before the Select Committee on Ordnance. did not show guns. on Ordnance (1862) having reported that "the committee the more modern and perrifle. Richards took a license from Mr. Westley Richards was requested. This he made in 1854.f Thirty YO-pounders had been fabricated." As to Mr. dated Knfleld. 35 5S. 1854. Whitworth. by Mr. in states* (May. Whitworth Ordnance Co. gun made of segments. 1863) tliat the Whitworth fruni 1 hand 100 guns of cahbres varying Mr. but the 80-pounder breech-loader cracked. Mr. examine it. that his experi- ments with muskets were from the Government. Whitworth in 1855. 1863. was pronounced different 1 in 30 or 35. Brunei. to the history of it 54. one round. Select Committee on Ordnance." Mr. Whitworth's gun. 32. and had Mr. his patent of December 1st. patented in 1854. and states that "the danger of a gun bursting from an overcharge of gunpowder will be — .* FlQ. Full-sized section of "Whitworth's '?0-pouiider shot and rifling 53. specifies a. Brunei. to an air space X This was attributed by a committee appointed to f The Select Committee possesses an hexagonally bored . Mr. -< between the shot and the charge.:]: * Evidence of Mr. which. It had sharp corners. that trial he would rifle some brass guns on this system. Whitworth. Brunei. sufficient endurance. to make an octagonally bored rifle with an increasing pitch. from this by Mr. calibres Mr. Richards showed pitch of 1 in 90 to it to Mr. Wliitworth stated before the Committee of 1863 that he claims polygonal rifling only in connection with spiral segments forming the gun. " Story of the Guns. The proof charge projectile. held together by hoops. "Whitworth then made some steel The smaller were very satisfactory. 1843 fect development of the system is known to have originated with the late Mr. He also stated that Mr. so satisfactory as to elicit a request in 1856. and Mr. have to 9 inches. is one-quarter more than the service charge.J Hooped Guns. 1863. and then the service charge with a 6-caUber one round. in 1852.

and £4735 for ordnance supplied" the Government.* in guns constructed on the Armstrong plan. A. the inner tube being the most these systems. Captain the reinforcing of guns with hoops placed under initial tension. Blakely appears also to have proposed guns formed of con- centric tubes having different degrees of elasticity (320). for State now for fabricating these guns (64). see Table IX. WhitM^orth have been as yet adopted by the British Grovernment. 55. Whitworth's late adaptation of to the fabrication of cannon is more likely to low steel become standard than his system of rifling. but that his for Select company have charged him £10482. the Armcame with it and while . governments in the United States as and for the Confederate Government. with advantage. to the structed. Mr. which the Government has not returned. Blakely to invent is recfirst ognized in England as one of the to demonstrate mathematically first and the very and reduce is to a working system. and both plied. will cause the joints of the segments to open longitudinally. as well Kussia and other European Powers. The raiakely Gun. the modern Blakely guns are cona certain degree. tho Armstrong Ordnance. and by forcing the hoops or bolts to give way. (For remainder / . Captain T. experiments of a similar nature. Captain Blakely lie distributed throughout the length of the segments. 36. of Liverpool. Fawcett. bring the entire metal of the gun ap- into equal tension at the instant of firing. of Note. Both when perfected. Whitworth states that he has received £15885 for " experiments connected rifle barrels. Upon the combined systems. gun nor the rifling of Mr.. Most makers are in of the earlier Blakely guns were constructed by Messrs.— 36 Meanwliile. strong rifling and projectiles naturally neither the gun having been adopted. elastic because it has to stretch most. in London. The principles involved will be further considered in another chapter. allowing the gases generated by the explosion to escape through the joints so opened. Preston & Co." obviated. thus acting as safety valves. HI. because the strain will with * Mr.) » Committee on Ordnance. his rifling has been experimented with at considerable cost. 1863. so that each hoop compresses what first within it (287). in may be same gun. and the Blakely Ordnance Co. These and other England.

on account of Experiments connected with Mr. 9" 3 g"S 3 2.' 5* "^ 5' O p a r* BO o 3 "? -S a"S . Ss <" 2 "w 3 C 5:* o B 3 o S 3 -a . r? . rt Is-. ^ - < % p o S -fl ° 5 & S^ sri. on E a O3 o a a 3 srB E._ o o o o o 2> O •T3 ^. 37 Return of all sums paid. n S* « 3 5 ft.i "^ "^ ° o ? cr ft. era oS o " 3 c ?Sr a. o u P- •^ ^3 p_ ^^ p_ qJ o &.*^ Kb 5! r? o 3 =. and distinguishing Ordnance from Small Arms. or Expenses incurred. From Report of Select Committee on Ordnance. 1862.3 OS. stating for what particular Service each Payment has been made. — O „ on . o §'"^ 3-^ P 3 I N I ra p" El " c f a o » e^^ . o o P •< S* Qu o.^ o a. Table IS. WhitwortKs Proposals. -< ^ o o c S 3 jr. = i OO 00 H c 3-3 3 QO M . Hooped Guns. ""» o O 3..

57. STEUCTtiEE. Ordnance.— 38 stated before tlie . ~No wrought iron is used in the fabrication cS 3 fco a * e . in in 1863. that lie had made over 400 guns half the England for foreign governments number were of steel. and half of cast-iron strengthened with steel. Ordnance Select Committee.

. diame- Length of gun. 1862. But if the outer tube is much work in stretching a little as the inner tube does in stretching more stretch * Tlie is — if the capacity of the metal to it proportioned to the amount of elongation which gun made by Captain Blakely iron.. 32 B. 7-^ in. to 1 ft. its liability 39 to become permanently a series of narrow The simplest form of hooping is steel rings (Fig. Preston & and 196) — has an inner low-steel tube of 15 in. is a cast-iron jacket of 38 ft. 58. The engraving shows the captured at Shipping Point. 32 B) shrunk over the chamber of a cast-iron gun. 32 C alow-steel It has a reinforce 17|-in. in.f initial tension and varying The two inner tubes are stretched unIf both tubes are of the is equally by the pressure of the powder. same metal.'s Nos. A larger use of steel is shown in Fig. weight. so that to do equal work. This gun —a rifle engraving. Blakely 7-J- in. 59. in. 131-a-in.Hooped Guns. length of bore. captured at Sliipping Point. Fig. jg in. of these guns. composed of three steel rings. Fig. their resistance to the elastic pressure inversely as the squares of their diameters. lOOf in. maximum . Co. 32 C. 12 length of bore. diameter. rifle Scale. embraced by a higher steel tube of 22f diameter. must first for the Confederates (73) was hooped in with wrought j- This method of construction has recently been patented by Captain Blakely the United States. outside of which 9 in. thick. and If in.* on account of stretched. is a cast(the iron jacket carrying the trunnions. This gun combines the two principles of elasticity. llj tons. rifle. 195 made from drawings of Fawcett. over which there ter. long — barrel hooped by a tube of higher is steel. the outer one must be previously stretched of a metal that does as (287).

warming it over a fire. difficult to Now. 60. 2d. steel having consider- but not quite enough elasticity. by In- ^^ in. put on with only by high steel and cast the shrinkage attainable Scale. 32 a hoops the exact tension quired. deed. hooped of all. . The inner tube of the gun (Fig. The next tube. to 1 ft. cast-iron which is is least elastic Low steel bore.40 actually undergo. But if the layers of a gun are arranged with the best degree of varying elasticity that can be attained. and the of principal disadvantages both systems will be avoided. Ordnance. and they are likely to become relaxed under maintained high tension. the elasticity of metals does not vary exactly as required. it is give metal re- Fie. of a high steel with less elasticity. especially by shrink- ing them. a little initial tension will put the metal into the condition of greatest resistance. 32 C) is made of a low able. Blakely's 9-inoh rifle. first is shrunk upon the with just sufficient ten- sion to compensate for the insufficient difference of elasticity between the two tubes. no initial tension is required (320). 1st. the cast-iron could not be highly heated without perma- nently stretching and warping. the outer And jacket. iron.

the surfaces are hot and they will both yield to each others' irregularities . & with a steel jacket hooking over the breech end of the cast- . 82^ in. a number of the following guns have been 9T fabrias . The hoops and all if possible. 33) has in. construction of the heavier all-steel guns is 41 illustrated Fig. Besides all the guns enu(of merated in Table X. 61. gun The following particulars of the Blakely 8^% in. but chills the surface of it.. Co. re length of bore. and maximum diameter. better surface contact. and of a smaller diameter than the chase. rifle in. (Fig. which gun have been produced entirely of steel).Hooped Guns. hooped by Preston Messrs. length. put ob- together at one heat. ject is The to lessen their liability to fracture. . but a cold mass not only will not yield itself. This was Fawcett. by giving them If both soft. diameter of inner 18 in.9 classes of cated: The all-steel 5'8 in. are the I 63. 32 D. The by tubes are. 10-875 tube. long. having a cylindrical breech I 50^ in.9 the hoop placed over 62. (Fig. 32 A) in the Exhibi- tion of 1862. except the 12 in. The barrel of the gun was an Armstrong castiron block (91).

Over this steel jacket were seven steel lioops. i^^f inches. do. and four 11 guns. tons. 33. j'^ in. * A 7 in. at the breech Diameter do. 3 in. is of the following dimensions Length of bore Length of gun Diameter of cylindrical caft-iron part ii ft. The end of the breech. gun substantially on this plan has been constructed for the United States Navy Department. i6^ '. hooped with steel rings. cast-iron gun.: 42 iron. in one The vent enters the chamber from behind Massachusetts* are the rings. The Blakely guns made eight 9 in. Scale. to 1 ft. ^ \ Blakely 5-8 inch steel rifle. Ordnance.o|- muzzle fwell i6f- Length of jacket over the caft-iron Outer diameter do 50^ 23! inches each) ' Length of 7 hoops behind trunnions Outer diameter do Length of 3 (4I- 23i 29-! hoops in front of trunnions 18 Thicknefs do if Ym. constructed of Naylor. in front of trunnions do. and extending forward under and beyond tie trunnion-ring. In front of the trunnion-ring three steel hoops were shrunk over the cast-iron. 64. 12 " under the rings 6J " ** 26 36 ay-J- Diameter over rings Diameter in front of trunnion ring Diameter of muzzle *' " '* 19 Weight n rings extend from the trunnion-hoop to the tier. guns for the State of in. A 9 in. at rear of fteel 2. . Length of Diameter Diameter without cafcabel caft-iron barrel.

I . long the rifling is that The charge for these guns is 30 lbs. hoops In front of this jacket there is a course of rolled Behind the trunnion-ring.. guns (Fig. of powder. The hooped with steel. 16 " 15 " " " " *' Length of bore Length of fteel hooping 6*' 9 Maximum diameter of caft-iron barrel 33 47-^ Diameter of hooping. is reinforced by a steel jacket of 33 in. Total length of gun Lei}gth of caft-iron barrel The trunnion-rings are of 'wrought 17 ft. in. through 45 feet of earth. breaking joints. as those of the 9 in. which of cast-iron. Of the 9 in.. gun has a solid forged steel barrel of 22 in. gun (67). rifles. of 27 diameter. This gun has fired 525-lb. and rifled on the shunt plan with eighteen grooves. • 65. of powder and a 2'18-lb. over chamber Diameter of trunnion hoop 53 11 1 " " " Diameter of bore Diameter of muzzle 19 " 66. but not hammered. in. the maximum diameter being The service charge is 37^ lbs. forged solid. iron.Hooped Guns.5 lb. cast hollow. called 900-pounders Co.lbs. shot.'s steel. and over the jacket. made by Messrs.. in. 43 tlie & Co. Liverpool. The proof was 45 lbs. cast-iron barrels The guns have hooped with cast-iron. This The 11 in. and extending forward under the trunnion-ring. and sent to Charleston. Yickers 18 in. 34).. put on with slight ten- . are two courses of rolled hoops. 35) furnished by Captain Blakely to the Russian Government. The following guns are of cast-iron. in. gnus. is inner barrel is diameter. diameter. gun. diameter. . This reinforced by a jacket forged hollow.. shots. . George Forrester & Yauxhall Foundry. bolt. of powder and diameter of 38 of the 9 in. The other hooping and the rifling are the same 48 in. hooking over the barrel at the is breech. are particulars of the 11 in. bolt. The bore is 11 ft. a 375-lb. The largest guns at present fabricated under Captain Blakely's specifications are the 12f (Fig. of powder and a 37. and making a total (68). with 52|.

5^ in. Ordnance.— Blakely 900-pdr. 34. Fig. j\ in. . 34. —Blakely (12J in. to 1 ft. riaed gun for Russia. Fig.) rifle. Scale. 35. Fig. 11-in. 35.44 Fl9. sent to Charleston. to 1 ft.

37. full size. Sheifield. This is done in a machine similar to the ordinary railway-tire rolling-machine. The rifling of the 9 in. grooves by the explosion of the powder. 67.. that of Messrs. The * Steel railway-tires are made in the same machine. thus leaving an between the charge and full size is the projectile. 36. The rolled without a weld from circular ingots by Messrs. (See chapter on Rifling and Projectiles. sion. Weight The guns were intended be 50 lbs. as intended. Naylor. at Charleston lbs. . air-chamber. instead of behind the charge. A circular ingot is squeezed between a pair of short reduced. and its rolls until its section is diameter increased. A copper disc at the rear of the projectile Fig. for shell iiring shell. 45 There is an outer steel hoop over the powder-chamber. is A bronze shown. Besshort rings are and Firth's steels are also used. Krupp's. forced into the Rifling of 9-inch Blakely gun. Vickers semer's. of 6^ in. but this is attributed by Captain Blakely to filling the air-chamber with powder.. gun is shown by Fig. Naylor.Hooped Guns. —The steel employed is usually & Co.) 68. the charge is stated to with a 700 with 40 lbs. as Total length of gun i6 ft. . Total length of bore to bronze chamber Total length of bore to bottom of chamber ' la " '5 " y^ 4 • ' Maximum diameter of caft-iron Diameter of caft-iron muzzle Diameter over fteel 44 24 51 < * hoop * Diameter of bore I2|-* Diameter of air chamber 17 6^* tons. 2 in. placed in the breech. The first of these guns of powder and a 700 lbs. Vickers & Co. shell air space burst . 36.* The process is simply illustrated by Fig. bore. Teeatment of the Steel.

* * Government has made no experiments with the late The fact that Sir William Armstrong was Blakely gun has recently heen the subject of experiments at Woolwich officially reported.) The results of the Blakely gun for several reasons. deused like a solid ingot. bells. of no weld. except the Bochum Company all of casting large masses of &c.. the Blakely ordnance. known. Third. such as tubes. by hammering will always warrant the expense of the hammering in gun W&rk. Second. in the art makers. Much difficulty was at first expe- rienced in preventing the sticking of the mandrels. the result of which is less absolute tenacity. All the steel parts are annealed. the greater part of those in actual use are in the Confederate service. are perhaps come from the mould. from hoops f 1 ^A solid the tubes can be drawn and conu^. A 11 in.. 7©. „• nr Maohine for rolling . under a steam hammer. however. and turned as they Naylor. Messrs. and an endless grain is developed in the direction of tlie circumference. It is considered. more skilled than any other in Prussia. 69. but the manufacture has been so far developed. they are elongated 130 per cent. although repeatedly urged. that <. Cannon Metals. bored. but far greater ductility. so that detailed facts will only be made public after the war. the Continental artillery governments that have bought these guns. also condensed. and increases the specific gravity. -pj^ During 3.46 metal is Ordnance. the mandrel is withdrawn when the solid end of such a jacket ham- mered. This process makes the that the increase of strength crystallization finer. are not very generally First.^^^ cast-steel rings. Vickers steel & Co. wheels. and hammered this process over steel mandrels. keep their practice very British secret. (See chapter on 71. (at the maker's expense). In some cases the jackets are not hammered. but are simply annealed. The steel tubes or jackets are cast hollow. sound shapes. The is steel jackets sometimes extend over the breech of the inner barrel. and uniform throughout. with the great advantage over piled or coiled iron. but the results have not been .

. 1860. gun being 5f in. with charges varying from one shot and 4 of powder to one shot. .. The author saw at Woolwich. to only ^ in.. The in. in. ' 47 Engineer for Eifled Ordnance. 1862. thick. K. truly thick. on one side." f * Captain Blakely stated before the Select Committee on Ordnance (186. . In this state it sustained.Hooped Guns.-TT^. 1 0-ton gun. but not being bored. that he ofl'ered to lend the Government a 200-pouuder (8 in. in. several hours' lbs. the cast-iron was reduced. of powder. 38). and If in. for trial. and 8 lbs. several bursted cast-iron hooped guns. and It was then bored oiit as a 24-pounder. free of charge.L>l . that the Upon questioning Captain Blakely in the matter. I-^^SWI l l."—/(wt C. f " Construction of Artillery. Captain Blakely's Eaelt Experiments wtth Hooped Guns. of 6 thickness. was elicited Government never had any of Captain Blakely now attributes this singular proceeding to a mistake on the part of some under-official. in September. resembling the Armstrong cast-iron gun (91). At the third round. shrunk on a cast- iron cylinder. a 1 2 in. it burst. consisting of one series of wrought-iron rings. .-fl . and that Captain Blakely's patent covered Sir William Armstrong's first gun and circumscribed is his manufacture. 38. that of the ordinary 18-pounder stood well. to but as a condition was that fire 700 lb.. but that they refused to test it. but distinctly marked "Blakely" had .* stated to have The fired first gun sent to the Confederates (73) above 3000 rounds. round the charges. two wads. gun he should submit the plans to a committee embracing Sir William Armstrong. and a 9 in.. — ll FlQ. rT-. L.^ -^SWP^ I \\\\\\^K\\\\\\\vx ^vmN\xS^\\\^!i\^S\\\^'-'fV^^^^^^ Blakely experimental IS-ponnder. he refused. This gun was fired frequently. without injury. the fact his guns. The total wrought-iron rings were from 2 thickness of the breech was 3f service thick downwards. This gun had a thickness of in. l lll. also. 5^ in.>>. in as compared with a service 24- pounder.) that would pierce iron-plated ships. firing. inside diameter. 72. shot and 10 lbs. " Captain Blakely's first gun "was an 18-pounder (Fig.9) that he ofifered to lend the Government. I . with this only 2^ latter charge. . may have had some influence in this direction. . with paint.. . of powder.

of All-Steel BLAKBLf Okdnance and AjMMtmiTioif. Paetiotjlaes Okdnance. .— 48 Table X. Furnished by the Blakblt Oednance Company. Name of Gun.

Tablk XI.* gives the together. 49 Table XI. result and with a brass service gun. No. of shot .: — Hooped Guns. with Service Cast-Irok AND Brass Q-Poundebs. Teul of Blakelt Hooped 9-Poundee.

Length of bore Diameter of bore Diameter of caft-iron 73*5" 3*5" under hoop g • i 1 *' Maximum diameter of hoop 12- " Length of do Diameter of muzzle aa-z** 6-0 " ^4. Scale. was of cast-iron. . a private lishment* of great A cast- * Captain Parrott. and although has acquired a gun capable of higher charges for a few hundred rounds.) 73. 1860. Fabeioation.150 Okdnance. Cold Spring. (See. ob- tained from a drawing dated 15. estabcelebrity. May The gun. 41. T. X. table 41. started the guns in ISeff. or gun of position. it is stiU without a trustworthy naval gun. West Point Foundry. made by Faw& Co. (See table The British Government has spent on Ordnance and Plant since 1859 of guns. P. the experience which will enable it to fabricate the best steel cannon Blakely's 132-pounder of 1857. who had long made manufacture of of cost rifled iron ordnance for the Government. to 1 ft. Pis. IV. artillery is fabri- cated exclusively Parrott. and what is more valuable. cett. without further risk.) it over twelve miffions of dollars. reinforced by a solid wrought-iron hoop made thin at the edges. also.\ in. Preston Total length of gun 84 in. The following are particulars of the first gun sent by Captain Blakely to the Confederates.. The class of guns fabricated by Captain Blakely after these experi- ments is illustrated by Fig. —This The Parrott Onn.. K Y. at the by Captain E.

it is slipped over the breech. 76. 8-in..) The bar is of iron from which the coil is made but rectangular in section when straight. A stream of cold water then run into the bore. becomes wedge-shaped into a coil. the gun being is slightly depressed. . gituoinai shrinkmg when nrst put on. the Armstrong plan. Armstrong and the coil in proportion and manufacture. The length the 100-pounder is of the reinforce. is gun of the ordinary shape. 42). When and a hoop is to be adjusted.. This feature to. Tlie 100-pdr. short reinforce ' not loosened.. (373. 42. the diiference in diameters being j\ in.. and have heated never been loosened during test or in action. except a reinforced over the chamber with a lighter at the wrought-iron hoop tially like the made from a coil substan- Fig.Hooped Guns.. (Fig. and 10-in. is directly contrary and an evident im- provement upon. 43. They are fastened only by the adhesion due to their tension. pounder" to 1 ft. is believed by Captain Parrott to be first sufficient to take the in is Parrott 6-4 inch "100- and severest pressure of the powder starting the projectile. which in but 27 in. not for the purpose of cooling the hoop from the interior. The hoops are shrunk on without to the cast-iron taper. 75.. as a long tube would be. cast-iron 51 little breech. in 1 ft. guns are now cast hollow on Captain Rodman's plan. A . . rifle. the advantages of which will be further considered. be squeezed out when the upset. when bent thus leaving a space for cinder to coil is Fig.. by Ion- .. but to prevent the expansion of the cast-iron.

.522 Ordnance.

thick.* The sole object of the to enable a cast-iron gun to stand a rifled projectile with the service charge that would be employed for a spherical shot . not to exhaust the capabilities of the initial tension. Great care is 53 taken in the selection of the material. 2 Saliftury Iron 4480 3360 ^35^ 336 lbs. in section. x Iron. with 10 lbs. although not as formidable as much of the experimental artillery that promises to become standard.Hooped Guns. 78. and weighed 1725 lbs. of powder. The gun cheap. No. shot. long and reinforce 3-2 in. The cast-iron part of a 100-pounder that was fired 1000 consecutive rounds without injury even to the rifle-grooves. is instead of a 32 shot. gun to carry a 100 lb. Denfity Tenfile ftrength 7 *375o lbs. and has proved very serviceable. The metal was 2^ hours in fusion. It is intended. All Parrott guns is are rifles. that the proper the vibration and stretching of the metal (335)- f In attempting to exhaust the capabilities of tMat system. Denfity Tenfile ftrength 7 2848 36975 lbs."!- system of sible but to utilize that system as far as pos- without greatly increasing the cost of the standard ordnance. 77. Sir William Armstrong initial tension is soon impaired by . 27 in. was composed of Greenwood Greenwood Scotch Iron Iron. is described in the following chapter on that and others have carried it so far. No. finished. serious risk of and without damage by exposure and maltreat- ment in the hands of green artillerists. The reinforce was made from a bar 76 ft. to enable a lb. 6'4: in. " " ** Gun Heads 2140 12768 " '< Bae. long and 4 x 4 in. * The system of rifling and projectiles subject. for instance. It measured. ^9897 Head.

Since the commencement of the war. and is new English steel-lined 7 and 9 in. and the U.* fair for The gun the Sanitary New York Commiaaion. already used called a in turrets alongside the 11 in. -^ the feet. guns. before mentioned. S.. to 70 lb. and no less safety.). and to be further referred to under the head of "Eifling. Y grain powder. several sizes of small guns are in extensive (See table XII. With a charge of 25 the gun fires a 68 lb. " 200-pounder. with earth to weigh 52^ with papier-mach6 sabots. 44.. of course chiefly due to Capability of throwing spherical shot the form of rifling. —A 100-pounder. there- be pronounced the most formidable service gun extant. Endueancfs. smooth-bores. The 100-pounder is The 8 in. One of them is understood to have done most of the work in breaching Fort Sumter... same charge that fires the 1521b. are Ordnance.) canS. spherical smooth shell. the initial velocity of 1809 feet per second charge. the Armstrong 110-pounder (7 in. viz. cast-iron Bin. called " 300is a favorite gun in the JS'avy.: 54 For land use. at ." a gun of more recent date.. and 45." stood 1000 consecutive rounds. 13 in. up to April 1st. The filled 8 in.) The larger guns. pounders. 43. in. and 15 in." are in service. rifled gun has thrown lbs. nor the U. fore. guns are not yet service guns. lo-pounders 336 507 zoo-pounders 444 112 20 30 do do do 200 300 do 572 10 do 4 60 79. with service charge of 10 lbs. about two thousand Parrott guns had been fabricated at this establishment. 9 in. in. service. elongated shot at 1200 lbs. 80. and will be further considered. Neither the English 68-pounder (8 nor the French Naval gun not (6'5in.). fare. . 16 lbs.. Navy 10 in. largely employed in both the Army and the Navy.. and projectiles averaging 100 * This gun was the 100-pounder exhibited at the lbs. . Several 10 in. with about the same strain. of Dupont's No. and 10 in. cast- iron or steel spherical shot at above 1800 feet per second.. This gun may. suited to naval war- shown by Figs. guns the can endure such charges fire spherical shot. 1864.

M 55 .Hooped Guns.

In fact. : On the 2d of January. but that the hooped when properly fitted. V. having previously ultimately burst guns. f Journal Royal U. All these guns are still in service. tain Blakely before the Select Spanish officers to their Minister of by itself. and at the very high elevation of forty degrees the second 300-pounder sent to Charleston has fired 600 service rounds.:]: 81. perfect condition. which was arrived at by careful ex- periment. broke off the muzzle but gun was repaired and in action within forty-eight hours. wards remedying through the this difficulty.'*' reinforce. at the siege of Charleston. Cast-iron guns hooped with steel are extensively fabricated and highly approved by the Spanish Government. unless the charge of powder be much reduced.56 Ordnance. and at less than 200 rounds. also Appendix. The following extracts from " a series of reports from War" were read by CapCommittee on Ordnance. reinforce. 1863. the principal source of injury to the Parrott guns has been the premature explosion of loaded shells within the bore. See note in Appendix. miscellaneous Hooped Spanish Onns. they say " Cast-iron is clearly proved to us * See :( 1 121. thus blowing off the muzzles." 83. . is not strong enough to resolve the question of rifled cannon of large calibre. charges. as by the bursting of the guns we fired. remained in good condition. Commander Scott says on this subject :f " Spain has also followed the example of France in hooping her heavy ordnance. Service Inst. near the seat of the brass ring on the base of the projectile. ascer- tained that the unhooped cast-iron guns rapidly deteriorated. 1862. and apparently in 300. 1860. the greatest enlargement by the star-gauge being '023 in. some other Much has recently been done toYery few of the guns have burst Onns. always stood more than 1000 successive discharges.. The the bursting of a shell within the chase of the first pounder. April. and opposite the forward end of the Another 100-pounder has endured 1400 rounds in a 30-pounder has been fired 4606 times with service . action .. or destroying the cast-iron in part forward of the reinforce.

with the same charge. 9 oz. a most simple manufacture. GtUns. then. except a few observed in the end of the bore close to the vent. The Spanish is 6-4 in. is clearly indicated: cast-iron guns hooped. is as fol" The proof of the rifled cannon of bore. been continued with a charge of 6 It has of powder. Scale. once estab- lished. March." 83. 57 must remain subject to tlien it the distrust of tlie gunners. and weighing 62 cwt. besides the difficulty of obtaining sovmd large masses of forged iron. a steel of the now completed 1000 rounds At the 967th round vent-plug was inserted.. with an average charge of 7 Spanish steel lbs. signed Gabriel Pellicer. 46. 5^^ in. difference The between the diameters of the hoops and of the cast-iron part must be determined by calculation aided by experiment. 46) stated by Captain Blakelyt have stood projectile. 1366 rounds. which.* has lbs. to 1 foot. The state scratches gun is perfect. a wad. . steel.Hooped and even Pia. that metal has not the necessary hardness for the bore of the gun. 1862. gun to (Fig." Another First report. and caused without any doubt by the premature destruction of the ventplug. The path we must follow. hooped gun. hooped with t Journal of the IT. before The Ordnance Select * This gun was cast-iron. lb. 6^ ia. only requires great care in bringing the hoops to the exact diameter. and an elongated projectile. lows : Commandant and Director.. of powder and a 61 bursting. Service Inst.

. but are mostly of cast-iron without hoops.. 090 560 170 180 Length of trunnions Diameter of trunnions. 375 I Length of fteel reinforce fteel reinforce to Length. . intervals of only from one to one minute and a it This the gun so hot that could not be touched with the hand... . forward of rear of chamber. its exceUenee. 975 105 « Diftance of trunnion below axis of|>ore Diftance between rimbafles :..39s reinforce . 84. .. The rifled siege guns and guns of position are of the same calibre. is represented by Fig..... k. The following are the dimensions :* '. made The tjie following days 50 rounds were fired in the morning and 50 in evening. 506 " Diameter of bore Diameter of caft-iron under hoop Diameter of fteel reinforce.38. are sufficient proof ofjtlje satisfactory resistance of the gun. * Offioial drawings. 100 rounds were fired with half.. 85.' 108-295 " 10-239 " 14-767 " .. ..j. Diftance of vent (vertical).'. ard French rifled navy gun.. and consequently that of the hooping sysfirst During the days of proof.. 6 Diameter of caft-iron in front of fteel reinforce Diameter of muzzle .840 « 12..'.. steel rings hooped with seven separate 44 thick.544 « 22-053 " 6-695 " 7-088 " 2-560 " 6-489 " 19-217 " 23. and the muzzle swell is omitted.. the rear of the breech is a Kttle ." . front of centre of trunnions. :. French Onos.. .208 " 8239 lbs.58 Ordnanc^. 4-135 " 3. The " Canon de 30. forming a reinforce from the rear of the breech nearly to the trunnions.. with the same rapidity.. regort: Committee of Spain say in j "Although the 1366 rounds fired with the abore ehargei of powder and an elongated shot of 61 lbs. 47._.. longer than shown in the engraving thfe rear of the reinforce is rounded.. 065 1647. Total length of gun 25 127 -985 in. 75 260 ...628 " 22. . dated 1863.^.'. Length of bore Length of cafcabeL Length. the following observations will render still more ap- parent tem. '. In the later naval guns.. rear of cafcabel to rear of fteel .. 3737 230 k.) their." which is the standIt is of in. cast-iron.' 580 310 Weight Preponderance.

to . the British guns (Table XIII. The results of this method of rotating the shot are very satisfactory. and trustworthy if it is small — . France feels safe with a gun that is simple. plate with 18 in. commencing east-iron and ending at 1 turn in 30 The conical-headed shot. 90. wood backing and 1 in. of two calibers Projectiles of 100 lbs. at 1089 yards range. steel flat-fronted shot were fired with of powder. and flat-headed steel bolts are fired at armor. skin. diameters. to that 27 lbs.* employed. must account for the very satisfactory strength and endurance of these guns. Captain Blakely states* firing 92 lbs. weighs about 60 lbs. So long as England has nothing better than wrought-iron coils and complex breech-loading. consists of three grooves (Fig. to 8 lbs. efficient breech-loading apparatus has been applied to It will many in- of the French guns. and be considered in but a following chapter. The rifling be described in another chapter. 1861. 99 lbs. The question is naturally asked gun. G'5 inch naval endurance? The probable reason that the Emperor. The French guns of large calibre are 10-inch bronze smooth-bores.— Hooped Guns. weight are length.* An 87. whatever its —Why is France content with a is. by developing her own manufactures. cheap. of the rifled 1. 89. Captain Blakely also states that some of these guns have endured 2000 rounds. 86. knowing that England would then adopt steel. 88. 59 "be navy guns are said to the old 30- weighing about 56 cwt. faced with zinc. 1862. powder are used in and that 100 shot at armor-plates. and the very careful adjustment of the hoops. will not import it. place the production of an indefinitely large steel armament under her own control. dinally It will be observed that the gun cast-iron is not weakened longituas in by cutting away the under the hoops. but their •!• charges are small.f * Evidence before the Sekct Committee on Ordnance. itself in by which -will it centres the grooves of the gun. through a 4iin. higher charges are known be used. to 28 lbs.) The use of steel hoops instead of iron. 9th. Many pounders No. being uuable to produce suitable steel in France. in the experiments of August 274^ lbs. The projectile has three studs. The usual charge is stated to be from Tibs. 48) with at creasing pitch. of lbs. and.

Full size. The hoops were shrunk on without reference and the thickness of the castiron under them was suddenly reduced by five to their tension. inches.* Armstrong Hooped Cast-Iron Waval Fig. shaped at the breech as shown by were hooped on a plan proposed by Sir William Armstrong. Gun. see Appendix. Another plan of hooping tried at Wool- wich (Fig. of wrought-iron. England has begun to adopt steel and muzzlefrom England.60 Fia. non de 30. S. 92. is developed at some one else's expense. 49. was so thin and ductile. that the French had made a long series of similar experiments. it. and France has begun to order SOO-prs. . The ring. 50) is mentioned in Table XIII. with reference to these English until some better system steel. that in one instance the cast-iron burst without fracturing French hooped 65 100-pounder. say. had similarly BiSe groove and stud of Canon de 30. Several 68-pounder blocks. Captain Blakely said before the Select Committee on Ordnance. The result of their test is detailed in Table XIII. in the re- (Ca- port on the competitive trials of rifled guns in 1861. The Ordnance Select Committee. which failed. produce loading.. il Ordnance. * For recent orders to hoop old guns in the U. 91. in 1863. and was so unsatisfactory that the plan was abandoned. It is understood that great efforts are Since the above note was making to this end. or until France can written.) in..

o.1 HooPEB Guns. 61 of round GO la 00 e o S I s I I—— .

.62 Ordnance.

fuia. 49. cast- Scale. Armstrong hooped iron naval feun.Hooped Guns. V--' i i 1 i 1 1 c i Z/. iui Fie. tr.j 63 Fie. tolft . 50.

51) were prepared exactly of the same dimensions. Wo external envelope Its will prevent the action. explosions and at- must be generally tributed to that caiise. Longridge. to 1 ft. IfL in. by a wedge. gave the following description of his experiments. 3^ in.. viz. internal diameter. entry of gas at an enormous pressure tends to rend the metal as if Fig. in 1860. in a paper on the " Construction of Artillery. 64 Ordnance. ™- j external diameter.. The method of conducting the experiments was as follows : "A num- ber of brass cylinders (Fig." 93. and Cylinders. make The ex- ternal envelope adds to the strength of a cast-iron gun when there are no fissures is and no rending action not the ordinary cause but this of guns bursting. only advantage here seems to be to its effect less destructive." before the Institution of Civil Engineers. Barlow's investigation. Guns condemned almost invafor the state of as unserviceable are riably condemned the metal around the vent. 50a. liOngridge's Elxperi- inents tritli 'Wire-wound Onns Mr. . thickness of brass. The cyl- inders used were prepared according to the formula ^ =: T V-^ -. Mr. 1 Scale 1% in. whose deductions on the subject of hooped guns will be further referred to (286 & 292). v-^ based upon Mr. Armstrong oast-iron lO-pounder of 1 860..

per square inch. And as the internal diameter ultimate force was exactly 1 in.— Hooped Guns. with the places. -pjjg lotal content of each cyhnder. the whole was bound together by a very strong wrought-iron strap. flange Fig. Brass 3136 lbs. balls in their was 300 grains of best sporting powder. The results are given in Table XIV. and the were placed at each end. 51.. lbs. by trial. effect of the powder on the cylinders. in depth and ^ in. The powder then Now the strength of the cylinder. which was alone used in this series of experiments. and liad a J in. " " lbs. lbs. and increasing After this. it shows that the of the material in Experiment 23. with a jib and cotter. could not exceed the following per lineal inch of cylinder "Wire lY9201bs. did not exceed . supposing all the material to be equally strained. . the cylinder burst. " If now the expansive force of powder be taken to be its inversely as the volume. so as to afford seating to two gun-metal halls. 70 = = 120000 92000 lbs. The experiments were to ascertain the out any wire. " eV wire 3V wire . with- They were commenced with charges of powder. tightly The fired cotter was driven home. . The strength of the wire used in these experiments was ascertained. left in the side of the seating. in thickness at each end. experiment. cylinders with different thicknesses of iron wire were tried in a similar manner. till beginning at 50 grains. When the powder was put balls into the cylinder. to be as resisting a dead tension 94. Each end was widened out. . 23 lbs. ultimate strength last may be approxi- mately arrived at from the could not burst the cylinder. similar to the strap of a connecting rod. which were accurately ground to fit them. and the powder was then through a small first touch-hole. — : 65 " These cylinders were accurately turned and bored. 21056 or 94 tons.. 95.

do. do. No effect. do. of Experi- No. Ditto Ditto do. No. with Ditto. Ditto. Ditto . I Without wire Ditto Ditto 50 60 Slightly bulged. ij^. Ditto. Grains. do. the end of the wire being 100 badly faftened. 3 Without wire Six coils Tg^ wire 70 100 4 do. Bulged to i^^. ditto i^. Bulged a little more. Table XIY. Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto 20 do. ^3 do. do. Charge of Kffect ment Powder. of -^ wire 3^^ J Wire not injured. One end of wire came loofe. Ditto Ditto no 120 cylinder. of Cylinder. do. 13 S do.66 Ordnance. one end loofe Bulged at loofe end. 70 go 90 of wire Ditto external diameter Ditto Bnrft. 2 coils ^ inch 90 100 No effect. —^Expbeiments ok Longiodgb's Bkass Ctlindees. 4 coils '^£ wire Ditto Ditto ig 19 do. z do. 2 coils of Ditto Ditto wire 100 14 'S do. do. Same coil one -t {Burft. do. iS 6 do.

mate " is pressure. 1855. J " -J in. of nearly the same internal dimensions as a 3 lb. with which may be compared. 52. inch. which these cylinders were subjected upon the gun-metal balls. tons per square inch. it The thickness of the 3-pounder gun. in. and were gradually reduced two coils only. being At At the breech. say 3 inches diameter and about 36 inches long. The enormous less evidenced by the more or cylinders. the muzzle. were so scale. square in section. f in. brass + f in. and the object . and of to 16 wire gauge. made on the 17th May. " = = f in. " It will be seen that this cylinder was not mounted as a gun. At the breech end was covered with 'No. 52. 9-4: : 67 as above. six coils of steel wire. towards the muzzle. that the author proceeded to one on a larger This consisted of a brass cylinder. It was cleaded with wood . or T^t^ o{ an These coils extended about 15 inches along the cylinder. Longridge's experimental wire-wound 3-pounder. " These experiments. mountain gun. where they touched the strain to effects 96. Consequently the thickness of the cylinder was as follows At At " the breech. the ultifiill. It had no trunnions. -f- iron the muzzle. Mr. ^ in. 2-37 in. tunately been lost.— Hooped Guns. satisfactory. FlO. which were cut away by the gases. Assuming the law. from which it will be seen that the thickness of the brass was it i inch. 0-75 in. supposing the cylinder to have been could not exceed 9'4 X ff^ or 13 tons per square inch. The drawing it is of this cylinder has unfor- but approximately represented in Fig.

sawn . clamps. and burst the separation took place about . its journey through the circumloabsence of Mr. were to feet "The gun was clamped on the first a block of oak with iron platform. and 1 wad. of powder and one round shot to 1^ lb. describing the experiments and the results.. " The ordinary proof charge for a gun of this diameter would be 1 J lb. It also turning its ends upwards and outwards. 1 shot. was simply to cover the ends of the cleading. 1865. Longridge then describes cution ridge. 1 shot. The cleading had nothing to do with the principle involved. powder. The cylinder was simply laid on the ground with a slight elevation. but the wire did not give way at that point. and 1 wad. the brass cylinder burst in a peculiar manner. and one wad over the shot the recoil was Y its the gun was found . and oifering the invention to the country. whieh was screwed on the muzzle. was proved with repeated charges. It stood the proof without injury. Long- It was finally tested in the is and the following the report of the Ordnance Select Committee 97. office. " At the second round the gun was : fired with 2 lbs. bottom). varying from i lb. author. so as " This cylinder and the Lord Panmure. addressed a letter to Mr. on the 19th June. " In order to try more particularly the giving strength to the cylinder. after bursting. screen the construction from general observation. this efiect of the wire in gun was. then Secretary of War. two inches in front of the base ring directly to the rear. and was only used to of the deep steel ring. to have slightly shifted position on the block a trifling expansion of the wire had also taken place at the breech. opened slightly at the centre of the gun . the breech was completely separated from the rest of the gun. of powder. and was blown 90 yards The wire was unravelled to the length of three or four feet . its breech abutting against a massive stone wall." to prevent recoil. wooden Two rounds with a charge of 1 lb. of powder and two shots.: 68 Ordnance. and allowed to recoil on a fired. : 1 shot (fixed wood .

which was secured in place by iron bands and of several coils of wire : these guns were then secured to sHdes . however. making together J inch of brass. Hooped Guns. wood as in the former instance they were placed opposite the proof butt. the breech being completely separated from the it gun. was then a brass tube 2 long and i in. exception of two coils. It burst. but was The muzzle portion was then loaded with a similar charge much shaken by the discharge. The second " burstings" were merely the blowing out of the plugs. and the following experiments upon them. thick. about two feet long. and Mr. with two coils of square steel wire." had been was rent into sev- Upon examination around the muzzle . and the ends were filled up with close-fitting wood plugs. recoil Mr. and that made from the breech end was loaded with i lb. trials. "In the middle of this he put 1-Jlb. of Government cannon powder. could get no further He then obtained possession of the fragments of his cylinder. that the by the ring gun was hung up by all. . " made A piece of the cylinder. did not burst. each j\ in. and the trench was then filled in with clay.Longridge. powder and " it shot. with the ft.. in 69 two at the centre. was then loaded with a which on discharge burst fired two places. after repeated endeavors. It was stripped of the wire. of the method of mounting the cyhnder. well pounded with a heavy beater. the breech being blown out and the wire uncoiling to a considerable extent. fixed tightly with iron wedges. tions of the iron charge of 1 in of powder and 1 shot. and that the cylinder had not burst at but was torn asunder endwise by the recoil. and | inch of wire. and the slide on which eral pieces. . and porbands gave way. and the cylinder was laid at the bottom. This was enough for the Department. thick. It lb. 98. A trench 3 feet deep was then dug in stiff clay. The powder was then fired by means of a patent The wood plugs and sleepers were thrown out with great fiize. At each end a railway sleeper was driven firmly into the clay. and one end of each portion was plugged its with a brass plug. the muzzle-ring. Longridge found that the was resisted in other words.

would vidre. which. that It was would be impossible to use the wire in combination with cast-iron. it. been 39 sides. or copper. the force of the powder must have been above brass and | inch of steel wire. The powder was then cylinder fired. Two 1st sets of cylinders were prepared. was of the finest quality. divided over the two J inch. up the ends with an iron strap of a sectional and bound the whole together with araa of 5 square inches. and the cylinder was torn If the tensile force of the iron strap be taken at 18 tons per square inch. or and taking the brass at 10 tons per square inch. . and a large mass of clay at each end was blown out. filled elose-iitting iron plugs. Ordnance. but the at the ends. he was not afraid of subjecting it to a . for the ultimate resisting strength of the wire so employed. were yet of opinion that ticable to apply the wire. "Many of those to whom he had described the experiments above recorded. except it and the iron strap was torn asunder. at the outside. and the guns be ren" He looked on the inner shell simply dered useless. owing to the assumed brittleness of that it material. strain in a normal direction. which.: 70 Tiolence. it leaves 34 tons for the steel wire. open. and yet this was resisted by i inch of The diametral strain must have tons. would soon be worn out by the action of the shot." His views were as a different : means of confining the gases. being imperfectly fastened. whilst admitting the great increase of strength obtained. the author next put in two pounds of powder." Mr. could not ex- . if possible. maintained. 1856. 13 tons per square inch. the following reasons 99. and it was objected that the soft brass. Longridge then describes his second series of experiments for made in March. from the wire uncoiled. not less than 136 tons j)er square inch of section. such as yellow brass. where. was uninjured. with a metal of a yielding nature. it give. and of transmitting the internal pressure to the wire and knowing that cast iron would resist a crushing force of 40 tons. This should be observed. to burst but the cylinder was uninjured. in combination it would be only pracsoft. Determined. or pure copper.

however perfect ori- ginally. 53. to sepa- gun itself from the mass of material intended it the recoil. for practical reasons. and C. — as produced in a thin casting. Mr. through a thin diaphragm. or 17 tons per square inch. and loaded. and which always shake loose any system of bolting. 53." " The of cylinders was intended to try the possibility of transmitting pressure. cast-iron plugs which were bound . in which Fie. "As rate the it might be desirable. terially. But he was quite aware that no reasoning would suffice. total contents of the cylinders being Table 15 gives the results. the 310 grains. Longridge wished to ascertain how far ticable to transmit the force was practhrough a thin breech or diaphragm to the absorbing of a hard brittle substance. the space filled up with a soft material. as just stated. together by a heavy strap and key . like cast iron. which are so destructive between two hard metals in contact. and through it mass behind the breech. to a soft yielding material. with charges 250 grains of Government cannon powder.Hooped Guns. varying from 50 to and fired. 71 ceed the strength of powder. The object was to ascertain whether the diaphragm Six cylat E would be shattered by the force of the explosion. He did not expect to diminish the amount of recoil ma- but to avoid those vibrations. in his second series of experiments. between the bottom of the powder-chamber and the plug B." to absorb lOO. or first set riveting. The cylinders were of the dimensions shown in Fig. in its hardest form. he resolved to use cast iron alone. inders were thus prepared. Therefore. . - '^W iaa<gi?E:->i::-gs A is the powder-chamber B B. like lead.

Cylinder. Table XT. Results of Bxpeeiments with "Wiee-wound Cylinders. .— 72 Ordnance.

Hooped Guns. shown These cylinders are full in Fig. Longridge states that he "needed no others to satisfy himself of the suitability FlS. 21 wire gauge. of even very hard cast iron to transmit the force of gunpowder to wire. The results are given in Table 16. They each contained 305 grains. Its breaking strain was 60 lbs. ." however. or touch-hole. to the plug. consequently the actual strength of the material in the cylinder per lineal inch was: No. and " the powder was fired through a small vent. 54.. 'No. " In these experiments iron wire. material. or any other absorbing As. when The plugs were made to fit accurately. other cyhnders had been prepared. 73 periments. was used. not larger than a small pin. Mr. 54. or ^j inch diameter. he proceeded to try their strength. 101.

Table XVI. of Cylinder. .— 74 Ordnance. Eesults of Expebiments with Wire-wound CTLiuDERa No.

steel gun Longridge's 2-96-in. total of 5 lbs. the gun and wrought-iron trunnion strap was 3 15 15 lbs. and along the side rods to the trunnions. although uncoiled. Table 17 gives the results with 1° elevation. it. the whole force of the recoil was transmitted through the heavy mass at the breech.. then through the india- rubber. making a cwt. q.Hooped Guns. but consisted of a strap passing r c round the breech. and the conical shot from 6 to T^lbs. the powder used being Government cannon powder. about 8 inches diameter. experimental wire-wound gun. cwt. in which an india-rubber washer. the thick part of the breech. These to trials were only intended be preliminary. so as to but with very cal shot little move windage. But No farther experi- ments have been made with wire-wound guns.lbs.. with two side rods ex- tending about one-third of the length of the gun. Thus. spheri- weighed 3|. The shot were cast as nearly the size of the bore as possible. The trunnions formed no part of the gun. and a recess left in Fig. and terminating in the trunnions themselves. was not broken. The weight of q. f inch thick. on a wood on four roller wheels. throwing the muzzle 15 yards forward. The gun 55. The whole was then mounted carriage. ing to four coils at 75 the muzzle. The was thickness of cast iron was W of an inch at the breech and \ inch at the muzzle. The freely. but an accident similar in nature to that which destroyed Krupp's —the breaking and wedging of the shot—tore the gun asunder endwise. with the shot in the wire. and the carriage 2 cwt. was cast hoUow. . 103. was placed..

Experiments with Longeidge's -2-96-in. June 4. Ordnance. Gun. firing on Cambois Sands. .— 76 Table 2YII. 1856. No.

and It is is Co. This gun has lb. 51. slightly o rounded at tlie comers. charges. Fig. «§ B Hifling of Brooke's 7-m. 58. 77 ¥m.. per square inch. gun.000 lbs. exact material of the hoop is The not made public. with 1 turn in 40 the chamber. feet. a. shown by an old cast-iron 42-pounder with a " composition" hoop forced on by hydrostatic pressure. The grooTes vanish as they approach 106. The inventors have since made a bronze said to have a tensile strength of 80. M M td W Pia.Hooped Guns. Fig. . projectiles been tried with 100 (James's) * The Naugatiick is illuatrated in and 16 lb. 56. The another chapter. —The present rifled of the Stevens gunboat tuck* was fabricated by the Ames Manufacturing Mass. 69. Chicopee.. Attick'g Bronze Reingun Nauga- force.

gun. and the vessel has not been in action since receiving it. with a tier of 6 wroughtiron hoops 6 'on. length of bore and chamber. shrunk breech. . The 12-Inc1i Bumford Gnn. service charge is / 14 lbs. It is in. 116-2 in. illustrated 12-in. Length 11. remarkable in its ri- which in. the greatest enlargement of the chamber with 20. but its endurance can hardly be from the results of similar experiments in Eng(See Table 13.)* land. will It is be farther a cast-iron mentioned. x and a second tier of 5 simifirst . powder and * Since the above was written.625 weight. 60. is rather fling. each. a smooth-bore of 134 total length. Atwater's Gun.. and 28 lbs. this gun burst after a short service. diameter over the chamber. A somewhat celebrated gun cast at South Boston in 1846. A (80-pounder) hooped gun.510 lbs. ft. and thus designated from the name of is its designer. Before it was hooped. weight. 12 lbs. experimented with at the Washington Navy Yard. 21 diameter at the 2 iu. lar hoops over the of bore. and 25. 38'2 in. 5-85-in. 108. 78 Okdnance. by Fig. No test of the gun has been made. 25. assured 107. tier.

Hooped Guns. 79 P .

and the greatest lbs. en- largement at the lodgment of the shell. and 46 in. . * Mr.. The total weight of the piece is 113533 Its is or about 52 tons. consists Fia. It was completed in 1857. Mallet has stated that thia could be repaired for £30. thick. long. The gun has not been put into service. in total diameter. making a reinforce 31f in. 36-Iiicli Mortar. is The chamber and barrel are in good condition. The chase 2^ base of 11 tons lbs. Ordnance. shell. with 181 and 28 5800 yards. Fig. with rabis beted joints. The maximum powder. and now mounted at the Woolwich Arsenal. 109. shell in. ster Mallet's Wrought-Iron 61. together with definite initial tension. after 93 fires. (so as to It is made in 6 sections be transportable). set in a cast-iron weight. calibres long. The chamber is a solid forging.* the mortar is broken. This gun was hooped in 1862 with wronght-iron rings. of wrought-iron 6L hoops Mallet's 36-inoh wrought-iron mortar. was -005 lb.80 a 150 lb. about 1 inch wide each. -074: in. and bound together by 6 staves. cost is stated at £14000. which are fitted gas-tight. although one of the bolts connecting the muzzle with the base limited practice. was range in ricochet fire.. after generally considered a failure. 4 in. The monshrunk mortar.

Inst. 1859. bored out. •j- 5. The extreme diameter of by welding slabs over these again. The weight* is 53846 The gun is not rifled. Solid Weotjght-Ieon Gtens. March. and above 3 feet at the other. " Puddled rough bars were made from the best selected Scotch as little as possible and North Wales pig-iron. about 17 feet in length. 3 feet 7 diameter of bore. and welded in succession might finally be supposed to have a section 64. Feb. and were worked 1 before being sent to the forging department. This gun is a solid forging of wrought iron. I. fabricated in 1856. rather more than 4 feet in diameter at the breech end. Wrought Iron Guns. 1857. the breech end was produced * Report of Ot-dnance Select Committee. was bar iron. : —Length. The puddle balls were hammered. length of bore. 2 bars. The dimensions of the gun are in.* 13-014 in. 81 The practice with 36-iii. with 80 lbs. * * * core."f The forging was done under a " 15-ton" hammer. The trunnions are forged upon a separate ring. of forged iron in the rough. bursting charge. in. where the mass exceeded 32 inches in diameter. Section II. holding a 480 lb. Fabeication. of a fagot of square bars. weight. was a rude conic frustum. Mallet. piled. The mortar has fixed shells of 2481 lbs.'s Ouns. above 2 miles. 62. as shown in the engraving. shells will be given in another chapter. 2-21 oz. diameter over chamber. Civil 6 . 16 feet 10 in. of powder." Engineers. 111. 110. The HoESFALL Gun. three several coats or piles of Y-shaped or voussoir bars were so that the fagots laid on. Upon this. The 112. and made famous in target practice at Shoeburyness. and that was cut up.— The most remarkable piece of this manufacture Gun" (Figs. and again rolled into No. "On the coeflSoients of elasticity and rupture in massive forgings. which is the "Horsfall recently — is held in place by a key. diameter. 63). The mass usual windage is '2 in. formed A first welded up and rounded to about 15 in. .. then rolled into No. The Itlersey Steel and Iron Co. . and the heating in a rever- something like that shown in Fig. 13 feet 4 lbs.

82 Okdnance Pig. 62. .

deep. . gun. were stated as follows. long. this fiaw. '5 in. — Above at 8000 lbs. at the end of the bore '5 in. "25 in. wide. this gun various Via. and in. 2 rounds with 80 at Liverpool. of powder. "Left. and 6 rounds with 50 lbs. 1'5 in. The unequal shrinkage solid breech of this its of the Section of pile of Horsfall gun. before the experiments of 1862. '5 in. -3 in. •15 in. Endurance. 13 rounds with 20- to 45 lbs. 1862. from the edge -55 in. buryness. another. in. another. which was afterwards covered with a breech-plug or false bottom in the chamber. after the experiment of the IGth of Septem- "Right. from the edge of the plug. long. 1"8 is in. in the report of the Inspector of Artillery :* " A plug (84 in. . -65 in.Wrought Iron Guns. —A hole in. 113. * British Artillery Reoorda. and 5'Y5 deep. 64. lbs. deep. wide. —One hole deep.. long. 21 rounds with 40 lbs. long. -8 from the edge of the (Dimensions of in. solid shot have been fired from . beratory furnace. •35 in. at Shoelbs. after the experiments of 16th of September. "1 in. deep. powder. and 60000 of 282 lb. — A hole. wide. 83 Fifty tons of iron were used. rounds among others. there have of been 90 rounds with 50 lbs. a number of shell were fired loaded with lead to weigh 310 and 318 lbs. 1-5 wide. in. and 3-75 plug. '65 long..) "Left of Down. deep.. The defects of the gun. of powder. long. diameter) is inserted in the bottom of the bore (driven back "05 ber. in. 1862). extends from the edge of the plug of the plug. and 13'75 in. '2 in. during fabrication. and the process occupied seven weeks. and 40 rounds with 30 With 45 lbs. lbs. and and 6*5 in. wide. caused a crack. wide. to prevent the lodg- ment of any burning material..

(this flaw has slightly increased in " In addition to these flaws. wide and -2 in. on a plan patented by Lt. and then as a smoothlb. Its dimensions are in. 65. 14i in.. 24094 lbs. with 3 grooves \ in. would be rotated by the inclined instead of the radial surIt will therefore have to be bored out to 10|and will then carry a 156 lb. Gun has recently been purchased by Captain Blakely. of powder. of powder. with terrific effect at short range. spherical shot. in. small longitudinal fissures. * The Prince Alfred . were laid staves. of powder.* Fig. would be about $12500. bent to the proper curve. test proposed by the makers of this is 1 round with is 1 shot and 100 of powder. of the Mersey Iron Works. are visible all round the bore at 35 inches from the breech. at last obtained permission to at the was found nearly buried with shingle and Having been taken to Shoeburyness. such as are usually found in wrought-iron ordnance. with the same shot and 30 lbs. This gun bore . was it left un- By renewed exertions. in. . wrong way. and intended principally initial strain to overcome the defect of tmequal shrinkage and and rupture (429). and 2d. protected on the beach at Portsmouth. . the fire Mersey Company Warrior target. 1st. weight. 137 ter at muzzle. Broad plates. and extends 25 inches along the bore size). with a 140 shot and 20 lbs. . and welded upon a barrel made of rolled 116. in England. Clay. shot with 74 lbs. 151 . The lbs. The price gun $5000 in England.. The gun jectile is rifled on a plan intended to be Commander deep.-Col. 84 Ordnance. was forged hollow. (Tables 28 and 31. The Prince Alfred Oun. it fired several rounds of 282 lb." 114. about -2 in. diameter over chamber. The cost of such guns. 31f in. 117. length of bore. but cut the Scott's. diamediameter of bore. deep at the largest part. has been fired but twice. and had been preit sented to the British Government by the makers. 10 in. "In the bottom of the bore a flaw commences at the edge of the plug. : length (without cascable). 115. so that the pro- face of the grooves. After the gun had endured these tests. shown in the Great Exhibition of 1862.) It much injured by rust.

to 1 Navy Yard. 66. wrought-iron ft. 65. Fjo. 85 The "Prinoo Alfred" hoUow-forged gun. Scale. The Mersey 12-ineh gun in the -j^g Brooklyn ft. -^g in. lO-in. to 1 . in. FiO.Weought Iron Guns. Scale.

of powder. The 12-iii. Its Horsfall gun. and cylinders increas. but no other damage was done. "f A 40-pounder block. weighing 9282 lbs. lb. inch... in shape. dimensions are in. like the Alfred gun. The British Government has ordered several guns of 6^ inches bore. The metal of the chamber was also constructed several erperi- compressed. lb. was fired 10 rounds with a 68 lb. 10 oz. and 10 with a 476 At per the 70th round the gun burst into eight pieces. f Beport of Select Committee on Ordnance. 1863. 12 in. It has once with two 224 lb. 400 lbs also 17 rounds with the * Col. made at these works for the Russian Government. in 1845. shot 10 with a 204 lb. 1860. 131. Inat. diameter over the chamber.. 14 feet 1 in. 86 •118. to Armstrong 40-pounder.ce in an Armstrong gun. if taking pl9. gun. lb. and has never been mounted for service. projectile A 6-Inch "WEoroHT-lEON Smooth-Boee Gun. 130. shot 10 rounds with a 136 lb. 10 with 410 shot . forged to the shape of the 133. E. Construction of Artillery. 119. 28 eter of bore. was fired with 22 balls and a cylinder projecting . 8 oz.. 66. gave a tensile strength of 45359 sq. wa8 forged like the by the Mersey Iron Works. 2^ inches bore. forged from the same iron. and finished like the 100 rounds with the service charge of 5 ing in weight from 40 lbs. of powder. 1^ lbs. was " fired lbs. . The Mersey Works have mental wrought-iron guns by the rolling process. 8 oz. Armstrong 1212-pounder.* One of these. shot and 45 lbs. Subsequent experiments on the metal lbs. Another pounder. but exhibited in the chamber " holes and dents to an extent which. wronght-iron the Brooklyn Navy Yard. . shot. . of which it is a copy. C. would not block. . stood a 300 elongated and 16 lbs. to replace the Stockton gun. . Fig. diam- weight. : total length. Clay. was subjected to the usual proof. 16700 It was received beto fired after the bursting of the Stockton gun. 10 with a 273 lb. and rifled and fitted as a be passed for service. in Ordnance. One of these. 12 inches from the muzzle charge. Brooklyn BTavy Yard Gun. length of bore. 12 feet lbs. shot. shot . 10 with 340 lb. shot. to be forged hollow.

double service charge. The first. in the and rounded into a shaft 20 to 21 in. Of these. since. called the " Oregon" gun. bars. was welded on. The hammer used weighed 15000 lbs. during which the iron was kept more or highly heated. This gun is now Navy Yard at Philadelphia. The that the bore deeply fissured all round.' The time occupied less in the forging. 80 were laid up in a fagot. from 75 from the muzzle to the shot chamin. total. however.. and usually large enough to reach ^ round the gun. that by the emcoil. The committee. was forged in Englbs. 66. breech end of the powder-chamber.Wrought Iron Guns. viz. Ward & Co. The "Peacemaker" was forged in the United States. accompanied by the power of resisting a very great number . Iron ia the form of segments. and "374 maximum at the shot-chamber. —Three 12-inch wrought-iron They are all illustra- guns were made some years dore Stockton. 1 35. welded. have shown an endurance. bers are also expanded. 136. ployment of the Mersey blocks instead of the Armstrong saving in the cost of manufacture will be efi"ected to "a the extent of about £74 ($370) per 40-pounder gun. The Stockton Ouns. 117 rounds. This expansion was '068 maxi- mum. but was hooped and fired afterwards without injury. varying in weight from 200 to 800 lbs. long. The greater part of the iron was in 4-in.. land. ted by Fig. vice sbot. under the direction of Commo- Government. it cracked through the reinforce. and £15 ($75) per 12- pounder gun. in diameter. that "both these guns not fully equal to guns for the made on the ample requirements of the service. 133. in diameter." of service charges and in a subsequent report. II. . by Messrs. 1863.. is. there being two strata of segments over the breech. After considerable use with charges of 20 to 30 of powder and 216-lb. for the U."* The powder and in. at the powder-chamber. S."* 134. yet at least if it is if say. 87 seris 10 lbs. 8^ ft. coil system. and with tbe 40-pounder result in. balls. was * Report of Select Committee on Ordnance.

—Two 13-inch iron barrel. Fig. wide each. as illustrated by Fig. S. . 13 inches long by 3 inches ft. excepting Mr. armament of the iron-clads Puritom The gun is a solid wroughtnearly cornpleted. 1-| in. no heavy ordnance than that described above—has been — fabricated. III. This gun was rolled. 26 in. 6 in.'' of manufacture will be further (430. Length of gun. of powder. vrith a 27i-lb. from a plate of inch iron. the diameters of the bore Lynall Thomas's l-inoh gun fabrication. Lynall Thomas's 7-inch gun. There were 14 or 15 layers of plate forged into a mass over an internal cast steel tube. Ericsson "is to receive I Capt. Ericsson:^ as a part of the and Diotator.) described under the head of "Wrought lbs.* steamer Princeton. 29. 137. designed by Mr. charge and a 138-lb. are guns. The third Stockton wrought-iron (ii8. 1863. 1862. Miscellaneous Solid Wrought-Iron Guns. the breech were two hoops.) gun is the Mersey Iron Works' gun. This gun burst on board tbe after a few discbarges. . —mode of in. into a tube. on Dec. shot.f The New Eeicsson Gun. * * * He is confident of being able to nothing for these guns. unless they burn over 50 burn 100 lbs. LxcTAiL Thomas's 7-inch Guif.) f This process Iron. 45i days. 67. 26. by Messrs. which recently burst at Shoeburyness. Over thick. at the second round. TJ. Newcastle.. The gun burst in firing at the IngHs target. forged from a very superior iron (specially tested for * An abstract of the report of the Committee of the Franklin Institute on the con- dition of this gun will be found in a following chapter. already described. Sept. — —^Although there are many iield- pieces composed of wrought iron piled and treated in various ways. 11 diameter. total rifled It was with 3 projecting being 7 and 6'6 ribs." Army and Navy Journal. Morrison and Co. (426.— 88 Ordnance. 67.

forged welded to a mass of on the end of the zontal steam-hammer equivalent to The disk thus made is staff by a horian ordinary 6-ton hammer. first. and extend forward middle of the chase. receives a 3-in. tiU the requisite length is Other disks are thus welded to the attained. Length. and into close contact with each them other. and reinforced with a series of thin washers. —Mr. is A pin is driven through the hole in each disk. presses against the solid flange. The following are the particulars of this gun: Ft. into the corresponding hole in the next line of the bore. The gun is also hammered by an upright 6-ton steamit hammer. of SaHsin.. has forged several experimental cannon of 6 bore. hole in the middle. and a welded ring. and increased in diameter two The shape The 68). (305)- of the guc is that of the Dahlgren 50-pounder (Fig. 89 the purpose). Weight 47000 188. total 12 8 3 3 - 8 Length of Diameter. where a nut. piled and hammered x6 in the usual way.Wrought-Iron Guns. Ames's WEOUGHT-lKOisr Gun. in shrunk upon the outside. is inches thick. 6 in. Mass. thirds of its original length. after disk. Horatio Ames. A slab 10 in. trunnions are put on with Dahlgren's breech-strap . and rounded and turned to form a short cyhnder. boiler plate. out of the celebrated Salisbury iron. iron. by a new process of his own. bury. open and preserve the The forging is upset to twoinches. to welded on. Ins. The washers to the of f-in. Conn.. flange. against Upon the end of the breech is forged a solid are cut out which the washers abut. forced on with accurately determined tension by hydrostatic pressure. reinforce of wafliers Length of maximum diameter 6 11 maximum Diameter of muzzle Diameter of bore Diameter of barrel 1 i 10 i under reinforce wafliers i 4i Thicknefs of hoops or f 7f i Thicknefs of walls of barrel Total thicknefs of wall of gun 5 lbs. embracing and screwed upon the chase. at Bridgewater. square and six section.

and 438 times with the 80-pounder service charge —a 67-lb. chiefly on account of the size of the solid immense masses produced. Krnpp's guns was the one in the Great Exhibition of 1851. but tain that there are serious flaws. to 1 ft. indeed. Solid Steel Gxnsrs. 1861. tests at the Other guns have been subjected to very severe works. 17. Krupp patented this application of steel to ordnance in England. of powder —without bursting." . gun of the same dimensions was bored out fired to 8-in. is probably more remarkable than any other product of this nature. shot and 3^ of powder —the Another Fi&. One rifle of these guns lbs. —The mild steel made by Mr. calibre. 131. The first of Mr. rifle shot and 5 lbs. Mr. Scale. and will soon produce ingots of size.* Seotioit III. Mr. Manueactuee. of course. at Essen. 129.—The * It is stated that Mr. although it is probable that some of the Sheffield manufacturers make an equal equally good material. 68. Prussia.f 130. 37-lb. not cer- The manufacture is. not fully developed. was fired 1630 times with a service charge. Krupp. the only solid steel guns that have acquired a special celebrity. on Dec. Ames United States Government. Krnpp's Guns. Ames's wrought-iron 50-pouiider.— 90 Ordnance. Krupp's cannon are. -f-g in. is great feature of the manufacture is now forging fifteen guns of 15-inoh calibre for the f Tlie nature and manufacture of steel by different processes will be considered under the head of " Cannon Metals. Fried. The chambers it is of these guns show some stretching at the welds.

91 ! 1 .Steel Gtuns.

. and other governments. for the Prus- been made sian. without seams or welds. length of bore.in. was An ingot of 21 tons weight. 69 at this establishment. in the exhibition were an 7-in. Mr. and rifled. Dutch. etc. to produce steel guns in Russia.' bor^ " " " " " 3-50 or 12 " " " " " 4-50 or 8 " " " " " 6-75 or i or 2 " " " " 8-00 " or half these numbers of finished guns. weighing 7709 Artillery of smaller calibres. length of bore. but is out welds. 134. shown at the Great Exhibition of 1862. guns (Fig. diameter. and by far the largest gun ever forged withbreech-loader. 15|. $10125. 2 in. \ In addition to these. It is a smooth-bore. and has ordered a large number of steel and other hooped guns from Captain Blakely. all Bavarian. of 16800 6-in. Krupp says that the capabilities of the works admit of a daily production of 18 blocks (not bored).t among them fifty 9-in. Eussian. suitable for guns of 3'00-in. French. Norwegian. and a larger number of 8-in. lbs. the forging of large masses from single homogeneous ingots.92 Ordnance. Mr. . 133. lbs. 71). diameter of weight. Austrian. Its dimensions are in. has at this establishment. 13 ft. Similar castings are forged every day into shafts. the Eussian at . bored. government has made extensive preparations. 9 in. length of bore. gun. especially for field-service. Belgian. 18000 other large price. and was intended for a 200-pounder to 250-pounder rifle.. : total length. . 27y bore. in great quantities. of 18480 lbs. ft. 1861. diameter over chamber. weighing 8365 and a gun. The head hammer is said to weigh 40 tons. The 8"12-in. 8^ in. Figs. Swiss. and of guns of 8900 weight and 10 8 in. It was at that time the largest cannon forged of Krupp's heaviest 133. turned. .* and 70 represent the 9-inch gun shown in the Exhibition of 1862. * In a circular dated January. cannon. Krupp is now making a large number of solid-steel guns for Russia . Krupp guns lbs. weight and 15 ft. enormous cost. diameter at muzzle. Egyptian. guns. lbs. of which has given entire satisfaction. . It was intended for a Krupp adapted to other plans of breech-loading or to conversion into a muzzle-loader by the simple insertion of a breech-plug. . and 44 in. ft. weight and 13 lbs.

and 76 and fired respectively. 71. expense. at St. in 1862-3. Peters- burg. guns. with upon the Armstrong multi44. Krupp is also makap-' ing for Russia several 11-in.. 56. guns. will be illustrated in another chapter. 20. following circular has been issued by Mr.Steel Guns. Krupp. with Krupp's guns of various (3- The most severe test to which the metal has been subjected. be described in anit is stated.* Mr. occurred at Woolwich. * The rifling of tlie 9-inch guns. k Endueaitce. at a cost of 87 cents per pound. f The Krupp: (See next four pages. guns. several 15-in. a number of which were delivered in the autumn of 1863. CO O a 20-pounder. will be referred to under that head. of 3"75. and rifled on slmnt plan. with Armstrong compressing projectiles. all rifled They were groove grooves system. fitted witli his own plan of breech-loading will paratuB.f The experiments with the 9-in. respectively. though not officially.) . a 40-pound- S. 93 They are all muzzle-loaders. system of breech-loading. upon his own and at his own 4-75. JO and a 110-pounder. which . The proof is recorded in Tables 19. Three guns were furnished by Mr. and 5' 7 inches bore. viz. which is a rather severe test in itself. and 21. of tlie form tlie sliown by Fig. er. steel on armor-plates. other chapter and. . — The British Government has also experimented calibres. 135.

equal to the absolute resistance of the m^lal. where the exterior atmospheric pressure. January. I following extract from a pamphlet by beg to furnish the Dr. — 94 Ordnance. near Essen. however great may be its thick. and to have even fired several shots through 5^-in. Fkiedk. entitled " Elastic Proportions of Barrels." (Kreidel and Niedner. The author Stating (Dr. viz. Krupp'a agent. f n — 1 = B. Tubes. which will not be sensibly felt on guns. gun had by Mr. which cannot be exceeded and this highest amount of pressure. Keupp. ness of metal. etc. " " " " " 120000 " burst. directing. guns supplied to the Eussian gov- reported to have fired 70 rounds of 300-lb. hydraulic cylinders. also. . the coefficient of safety. at which the gun will hurst. 1859). Hhbnisii Prussia. shells with of powder. Scheffler) confirms the rule of Lame as being correct for calculating the thickness of metals for cylindrical tubes by b r the thickness of metal the interior radius of the tube the interior pressure of the gun per square inch. Wiesbaden. Supposing. up to the close of the armor-plate experiments of October 17. compared with that in the interior. H. This formula contains this most important result for practice. plates without exhibiting any deterioration. per square inch.. etc.. to my works for reply to questions relative thereto. 136. then. is contradicted * The statement in the Enghsh journals of November. 18C3. that there exists for every material a highest amount of interior pressure. 1861. The ernment* 50 lbs. the greatest tension to which the material can be strained at the most dangerous part. particularly referring to guns. Meanwhile. Cast-Steel Wokks. . the interior surface of the gun. thus Lame's Formula furnishes a corresponding proportion of the thickness of metal and interior radius of the tube the value: „f + p -== V s-p V ^ -fp. that is. p The tube will therefore burst from the pressure as soon as s = f (and of course n = l).. On distributing the enclosed Price List for Cast-Steel Guns. Scheffler. is p = f. is so slight. is first of the 9-m. 1863. and the rules laid down therein. in the Tiroes of November 30. that the first 9-in. and neglecting the pressure acting upon the gun from the exterior. the absolute resistance of f to be of cast iron " bronze metal " oast steel 19000 34000 lbs. p f the absolute resistance of the metal.

s = s = s p —p 15 = = = = 15000 17000 lbs.+ a 1)^ + 1 =— f = n p . the gun shall be subjected to an interior pressure of 1000 atmospheres. that is. and three and a half times as that of bronze metal. s -p 3 25000 " " b b = J-. u. it results: for b b b " = = = = (/) (infinite) 3r. and three and a half times greater than a bronze metul gun. V / from which. requires repairs. from the indentation of the bore. it results. = = = = ?p 4 18750 " " b r. per square certainly burst when the interior pressure becomes greater than inch. which the metal has to sustain under the interior pressure. and rifled on the Whitworth plan. the absolute resistance of cast steel being about six times as great as that of cast iron. wrought-iron gun. also thrown shells through armor. ' " 2r. or the results for the greatest tension per square inch. per square inch. 3 = — 17 p = 128000 . s —p = 5 390C5 " 2 " = 7' 8 ir.: Steel Guns. a gun will with cast iron 15 " = !15^ 15 ^^°°°'' 1266 atmospheres bronze cast steel = = 2266 8000 " 15 PoUowing Lamp's proportion _. supposing the thickness of metal to be given as s. If. castSTEEL GUN warrants a safety against bursting of six times greater than a cast-iron gun. s —V = 15*^ 113000 " b =-r. and with the same interior pressure. b. r it rule. built on the Armstrong plan. 95 the 7-m. that with the same diameter and thickness of metal. after less and calculating the pressure of one atmosphere = 15 lbs. the expression . p = 15000 pounds per square inch. which has than 30 rounds. for instance.

incased in a cylinder of copper. 12-poimder smootli-bore muzzle-loaders were put to extreme or to injure test in Paris . had been previously fired tested with the following results It " was 1400 times with the service charge (about 2\ or 4-4 lbs. 600 times with the charge of l'.). in his pamphlet. with an and even with b infinitely great thickness of metal a safety =8 times. dated Paris. In 1867. 137. even of most superior is quality. . (See also Table XVIII. A verification. = 2r 6-4 times. with an warrants a safety infinitely great thickness of metal. 400 (3 lbs. A similar 12-pounder. Dr. 500 (3-3 lbs. while this accident not to be apprehended with good cast-steel guns. 8 As or surpass 1000 atmospheres. which at first consisted of a simple hole pierced in the metal of the piece: after 500 discharges the hole was considerably enlarged it was strongly crooked. greater natural resistance cannot be equalled by any increase of the thickness of the less resistible metals. cast iron of the lbs. SohefBer observes. therefore. the cylinders for hydraulic presses). 1857. for instance. screwed to the piece but this vent did not endure better than the first. and 1000 times with tlie charge of 1'. July 12. 8 -'^°°°° cast-steel gun warrants. and with about b = -^ r would be burst. two 4-88-in. its slits. thickness of metal b = 3r would already be burst. with longitudinal est diameter of (-/a in.). the interior pressure which a gun has to stand during the firing may often reach it cannot of course surprise that cast-iron guns. a cast-iron gun. which it resisted perfectly. For other apparatus which have to sustain as high pressures as guns (such that cast steel is invaluable. Krupp. demonstrated that the piece had not suffered the least injury no alteration was found It has not been the same with the vent. which were enlarged more and more at each fire.* it was impossible to burst them them by this mental 12-pounder of firing.). and furrowed .).) 96 Ordnance. and while such a gun of Jronze metal. made by the star-gauge. with b = 2r a 1-82 times. A new it vent was substituted. was unserviceable (See page 98. as its as. even with an infinitely great thickness of metal. ^^^ = 15000 a 2-26 times. In a former trial. in aU. and would not be burst with the small thickness of metal b =— r to b =— 1 r. The great- its exterior orifice was 15 to 16 milhmetres (. even of very small thickness of metal.) after 600 fires. * The following account of the experiment is extracted from the Report of the Sec- retary of the Committee of Artillery. instead of 5 mil. but with a.). and that also bronze metal guns are not so often burst. 6. pierced in a cylinder of . 3000 discharges. and replaced by a . cast steel. warrants only a safety = 15000 1-26 times. : made by Mr. either in the bore or in the external form. with b = r 4-8 15000 times and even with b = —r 2 still a safety three-fold.\ in. an experimanufacture had endured 1400 rounds While. the resistance of which is greater than 19000 per square inch. very often burst. strained by an interior pressure of 1000 atmo- spheres. original diameter.

assumino that the General Contour op the Guns is Cylindrical. *#* In giving orders for finished guns. and without Mouldings. the special proportions. Plain. or Relieps.) Table XVIII. . "Weights. must be expressly prescribed. 97 {Mr.Steel Gtuns. particularly the number an-l form rifle gi-ooves. Appeoximate Peopoktions op Dimensions. as the proprietor of the worlcs is not authorized to communicate independently to other governments the various forms and constructions of which he — of ha^ obtained'the knowledge through supplying his cast-steel guns. Conical. and Prices OP Kbopp's Solid Cast-Steel Blocks and op Guns Finished and Ripled. TO BE Loaded peom the Breech or Mdzzle. Krupp'a Circular — continued.

of rounds.. and 6 rounds with 132 lbs. Table XIX. One of them was then fired at and indented. 1863. Ordnance. and 3 balls. Eoee 7 in. of powder. remained whole. the 4th round. The other was fired 20 rounds with 6-6 lbs. lbs. Pboof or Kbupp's IIO-Poundek Rifle. with 2 referred to were fired and 6-6 lbs. The two guns 3000 times each with 3 of powder and one ball.. of powder and 2 balls. . 600 with 3-3 lbs.— 98 with 4-4 lbs. Feb. of powder.. 10 rounds with 6-6 lbs. No. and finally broken to pieces. balls It afterwards burst at and 1000 with 3 lbs. Woolwich. and it was determined not to burst the one that all these rounds . and 6 Neither of the guns was altered in the slightest degree by balls. without alteration.

— Steel Guns. 1862. and Nov. ^Proof op Erupp's 20-Pounder Eiple. of rounds. Sept. 99 Table XX. Bore 3-75 m. No.. . "Woolwich.

100 Table Ordnance.—Pkoof of Keotp's 40-PonNDER Rifle. Feb. Bore 4-75 m. XXI. No. . 'Woolwich.. of rounds. 1863.

and produced indentations of about a third of the diameter of the ball in depth (Fig. and. some of which were so great as to put these carriages out of service. exresist the " Second Series. in addition. with its muzzle turned towards the gun which was to fire at it. * * * In the following trials there were no injuries except to the carriages. * * * The first shot struck on the muzzle. quite homogeneous. 72). and received five balls in its broadside. seen that the fracture presented everywhere a fine grain. and ragged projections inside the * * * On examining closely the fragments. and each examination showed an absolute resistance of the steel for it was impossible to discover the least alteration. * * » * Jq t^is way 1400 rounds were fired with the same powder without producing the least alteration in the pieces. and resumed its brightness when sufBoiently cleaned. knocking off a piece about a quarter of the circumference. showed but an inappreciable differ. ^lO. producing deep irregular fissures all around the muzzle. .. — tending to the neck. strates its absolute resistance to the diverse causes of degradation of the bore in ordi- nary firing. and demonthe bore . " This first series of tests is therefore altogether favorable to cast steel.''2. were examined by the star-gauge. 2 was fired at by a 12pounder field-gun with the ordinary service charge. the fissures having nearly detached it. and it was necessary to replace them. The carriages did not begin to fail until after 500 discharges. That of No. and of a regular brilliant and saccliaroid crysIn the open air the fractured surfaces oxydized. After 200 discharges of each piece they were examined anew by means of the star-gauge. it was removed. and replaced by one nearly new. A comparison of the interior diameters found by this test with the measures taken before the trials. without error. taUization. The state of the vents was also perfect. which would prevent the insertion of a ball The effect would have been the same on a bronze gun. The shot having struck fairly. The firing was continued during the following trials without any result requirBach piece was examined after each series of 200 discharges ing particular notice. 1 having had its trail brolcen. 101 upon the sighting-screw and to this may be ascribed the breakage of several screws. It would have been the same with a bronze trunnion. and battering inward a burr to the extent of nearly an inch. which had to be replaced during the trials. the axes of the two pieces being in the same vertical plane. It was placed horizontally upon blocks at a distance of about 100 metres (328 feet). it was bore. This pounding was due to the too slight preponderance of the breech relatiye to the 12-lb. and each examination showed that the bore had not suffered any injury. balls which were fired. ence. . Steel Guns. These balls all struck fairly. "The gun was then placed across the line of fire. the calibre remained 121 millimetres (4'84 inches) through the whole length of so small that snd the difierence detected by the instrument. The piece was then placed so that the trunnions were vertical one of them was struck fairly and knocked off by the ball. increasing the efiect of the first. they terior or exterior of the two pieces. The second ball liit exactly in the same place. . but much more slowly than the surfaces of wrought or cast (See page 103. * * * The firing was continued to the end without producing the least alteration in the inWhen they had been fired 3000 times each. that after the firing the bores of the two pieces were identically the same as they were before its commencement.) . either with the naked eye or with the aid of the star-gauge the bore remained always polished. This series was for the purpose of ascertaining if cast steel would enemy's shot as well as bronze does. 2 of a milHmetre at most. the shock caused the muzzle to fall off. is it may be said. The gun No.

The gun was burst lbs. 14. this was broken. walls were from 4 to thick. The pieces of the shot thus cut . 4r|- The in. Fig. shot. The upon shot had end. at "Woolwich. fitted its "When the explosion of the ring powder took place. 73 represents an gun designed for a 68in pounder. Fig. 74 explains the cause of the disaster. Krapp'a gun (FiG. did not touch the chamber nor impart anj strength to but was added >4 for weight. and mounted cast-iron jacket. a wrought-iron ring. and was forced along the body of the shot. Y-shaped in section. 138. s ^ I \ I S-in. with 25 of pow- der and a 259-lb. 73) after fracture.102 Ordnance. a The jacket it. cutting up the cast iron to the extent of from 6 to 8 inches. Fia. n / \^ ' / .

103 wedged the shot together with the broken ring. (103. it was intended to continue the firing until bursted. and replace it on the timbers The gun was again examined after the five shots. f "Construction of Artillery. 10 6-6 " " ) ) "3 " e " " 12'' 6 " " 6k (13-2 " it and der. to the proof-butt.) : severe tests.) of the bore. 1860. now no mechanical difficulties in is * * * Thia second series tlierefore proves that cast steel is neither better nor worse than bronze. A 12-pounder.). —To find the extreme No. and was returned with the cascable knocked gun having been thrown high in the air by the force of the explosion. in the following progression: 20 rounds with St 3t " " ( ( 6-6 lbs. the gun resisted perfectly. so that the bore der and balls." Inst. off. using (26'4 lbs. Krupp expresses his readiness to fabricate 13 or 15- inch guns. could not be burst. . "Preparations were possible. the bore not having safiered the least deterioration. and the gun was buried in the ground so deeply that great labor was required to get it out. but was carried. made to fire with 12'' when an fact. The shot was not forced out of the gun. espe- * A similar accident occurred to one of Mr. and found to have after each fire. f 140. but off.* The steel was afterwards found to have a tensUe strength of 72000 lbs. known to be excessively strong.) pow- and as many balls as the barrel would admit. much better than cast iron to withstand the effect of shot. Mr. only a slight enlargement of the vent was observed. would. was the filled to the muzzle with powder.. 5 rounds with G balls were fired the powder occupying 80 centimetres (32 in. limit of resistance of cast-steel cannon. 1 was tested with extra charges.Steel Guns. sent by Mr. . and states that there are iron. In the next trial. timetres (28 in. to Woolwich for test. and the balls occupying 70 cenj was filled within 30 centimetres (12 in. Longridge's wire-bound guns. . substitution of cast steel for bronze. and was here jerked out of the broken end and thrown some distance forward.) with powThe explosion produced by these fires was enormous the balls broke against each other in a thousand pieces and the recoil of the gun was arrested only by the gabionade constructed in the rear. E.) C. in have been a misfortune to powder and as many balls as and not to burst the gun it destroy a piece that had so well borne these (26-4 lbs. but " Thio'd Series. with the muzzle. 1C>9. resisted perfectly. order was received to stop the test. completely into the gun at the point shown. 10 rounds with 3 balls. "After each fire the state of the bore and of the exterior surface were examined: the test with the star-gauge after the 20 fires showed that the bore was uninjured. Krupp shot. per square inch.) powder and " 2 balls." The report concludes by recommending a cially for rifled cannon. Finally. and broken shells.

has introduced also it. 2-37 in. "Whitworth have and expressed their faith John Brown & Co. —a Tery diameter. the maker. to burn out the carthen cast into an ingot. it. The bon and pig-iron is run into a converting vessel. that the weight of forged masses of a given quality has been increased nearly 10 times within a decade. which is heated at Fig. and 2 rounds cal shot. 3 rounds with 4 shot.. and a capacity to pour 30.* 143. 3 rounds with 6 shot.44000 lbs. will afford the best possible this process. Mr.104 the way. the powder being 2'2 lbs. from solid ingots of this steel. facilities for the development of 143. 9'5 in. where it receives a blast of air silicium. Bessemer's practice.ton ingots. Krupp sent a 5000-lb.. thickness of walls. diameter of bore. have made over 100 gun-forgings. The sions were: piece shown in was made for the Belgian Its Government. Krupp. SheflSeld. maximum 1070 lbs. wlien the gun * See chapter on "Cannon Metals — Steel. 141. 3 rounds with 5 shot. steel Captain Blakely and Mr. solid ingots of 20 tons weight can be fabricated. With the two new converting vessels then in operation. Bc$§emer steel direct tlie Steel Gnns. 7 feet. in its ultimate adoption. to the Exhibition of 1862. and one of above. both as to quality and cost. some of them weighing above During the present year. experimented with Messrs. 3 with 8 shot.. in each case. 3 tons. Ordnance. then. may be remarked. or —The Bessemer process of making This product has not yet from the from pig-iron. The breech of muzzle-loaders of any size would be left gun would be forged in the shape of a cylinder. A large establishment about to be started in London.production of Bessemer steel will exceed 400 tons per week. although Mr. promises to ameliorate whole subject of Ordnance and engineering construction in for genera]. 3 rounds with 7 shot.. been used leading guns to any great extent. and It solid." . as the bored out.^ ore. 75 and forged into a gun. for. block to the Exhibition of 1851. with a 50-ton hammer. The test was 3 rounds Mith 2 spheri- rounds with 3 shot. dimen- length of bore. 4-75 in. It is 15 or 20 minutes. weight light gun. quite early Mr.

Naylor. with trunnions forged on. Forgings. or only 14" 125 inches less than the length of the bore."* also.. 11 cents for a 3 to 5-ton ingot. rifled with 44 grooves.. . . forged into a cylinder. present English for Bessemer gun-steel are. but not duly converted into a 20- delivered July. The last 10 cylinders of 200 lbs. 1862. to 200 lbs. Preston. Among Exhibition of 1862. ^ chase. & Co. Henry Bessemer & Co. till December. following is from the official account of the trial of a 20-pounder (3-75 in.5 inches long. a dozen of the & Co. has been pounder Armstrong gun in the Koyal resisted Gun Factory. The lbs. to be in operation in 1864. and has lbs. Sheffield.) gun of 1832 a forging Bessemer steel gun. 143. was " a 24-pounder steel gun in the rough.. 1862. 140. 9 cents per for the same. Naylor & Vickers. quality IVaylor. There was no alteration in r rthe Bessemer forgings in the Great it. & Co. " a 24-pounder steel gun. Steel Guns. May 2. Tickers. low steel of a very superior is in ingots as heavy as 5 tons weight. . the chamber. The lb. Tickers. 11 to 13 cents. : of this steel —" The made from Committee have the honor to of Sheffield. broke in tlie 105 Fig. were 71. in report that the cast-steel block ordered from Messrs. bored and finished pool."* 144. ingots and forgings weighing 10 tons will be produced. 145. with the trunnions formed upon This gun is the 92d made by Messrs. In new works. Fawcett. 1859. for by Messrs.. weight. 39 inches from the muzzle. The block * London Engineer. from the wedging of the shot.'s Steel Giin- —At made the establishment of Messrs. of Liver- whom same prices size are in the course of being forged. for a plain 1-ton forging. 100 rounds fired with the service charge of 2^ and cylinders increasing in weight every 10th round from 20 lbs.

and cylinders increasing every third round from the weight of 2 shot or. Dec.). This gun. 137 rounds. having been delivered -without trunnions. \ Report of the Ordnance Select Committee. corresponding to the it B " coil of an ordinary gun. 37 rounds. for few rounds. and not perceptibly affected by the firing. MusHET AND Claee's 20-Poundee. gun of 7 tons weight was forged at the Mersey Works. This series consisted of 10 rounds with double and is still entire. steel. Cast-Ieon Guns. States Rodman and Dulilgren Guns. arising proof a very considerable escape of from the wear of the copper rings on the gun and on the vent-pieces. and confined by a wrought-iron 3 coil 14. Government has made progress in the adaptation of 10. in other respects.* The Committee have to report gun (exptl. to. (357)- A 12-inch gim. 1863. a trunnion-coil was shrunk on in the Eoyal Gun Factories. charge. with 25 lbs. * Report of tte Ordnance Select Committee. including the trial previously reported. (about The bore is free from flaws. little —Althoiigh the United 1862.which. & Vickers. It burst after a —An 8-in. constructed and rifled like the above. was subjected to extreme proof.106 Ordnance. Section IV. up to 10 shot — total. 148. made in a block of Naylor " that the 20-pounder cast steel supplied Armstrong by Messrs. May 13. that little the powder and shot chambers have expanded a O'OOS inch). Mr. from puddled shot and a 25-lb. It required rebouching at the 40th round. burst a few fires. J Some facts about the endurance of cast-iron guns are given in a note under the head of cast iron powder. corre- sponded in dimensions. and 27 rounds with double charge. "f 147. cast for Commodore Stockton after after the failure of the Princeton's wrought-iron gun (416). — but did not endure the 100 rounds. charge and service shot.:]: 149. Mebsey Pfddled-Steel Gun. of . Lynall Thomas. with a 145-lb. The gun is still serviceable.5 inches long in front. the only effect upon the gun itself is. has completed the second series of proof rounds. and there was at different periods of the gas.

Equal rial. Fig. S. 107 F'g.Cast-Iron Guns. (68.. to 1 ft. for the purpose of modifying the initial strains. i^B Columbiad. attainable with simple cast But the tension of this material at its elastic limit is so low (352). that it will not alone endure the pressure necessary to give the * See foot note under Tf 236. is well illustrated of weight with a given strength at the point of maximum i=--'- by placing a section of the British 8-in.* The consequent saving strain. 151. While constructors Europe have carefully preserved the traditional shapes and ornamentation of early times shapes that once had a significance. Major Rodman's process of cast- ing guns hollow and cooling them from within (373). Scale. produces nearly or quite the best result U. it has certainly attained to a remark- able degree of perfection in the material. 76. figure. 15©. gun (68-pounder) over that of the United States army 8-inch columbiad.) laid over section of material. Section or British 8-in. pdr. in. . when added to the ad- vantages of good proportion and strong iron. attention has been paid to the selection and treatment of the mate- The best American iron is admitted by English authorities to be superior to the best English: a good quality of iron for cannon is certainly the more abundant in America (355). and fabrication of in its. and to proportion the parts with this reference. to the entire abandonment of whatever is merely fanciful and traditional. 8-in. 76. wrought iron and steel to cannon-mak- ing. but are now only sources of weakness — — the aim in America has been to ascertain Iho exact amount and locality of strain. cast-iron guns.

153. mortars. than in the 15-inch columbiad. The gun burst at the 178th round. strengthened by hoops. two 8-inch columbiads were cast at ]S"o. 426. built-up steel Considering. the failure of such a large propor- tion of the and heavy wrought iron guns (425. The powder employed was much finer than is used in the service. 154. . Recently. for test applied was 30 lbs. 1 was east solid. Hollow-Cast Onns. The 4'2-ineh rifled in. guns fired 700 rounds. France. demanded by iron-clad 13S." 1856. One all burst at proof. the advantages of the process can be better realized in the 8 or 10-inch barrel cast for hooping. many of the chief officers of this department have strongly recommended hollow casting for navy guns." The weight of the shot was 280 lbs. and the present scarcity and enormous cost of it is masses of the proper quality. the 4th of August. The Scientific American gives the following account of the test of one of the hollowcast 1. the Fort Pitt Works. United States siege-gun is cast hollow and cooled from with- Indeed. by no means certain that the cast-iron barrel lined with fully is or as so largely and success- used in America. and. not the best temporary resort. while one cast solid burst at the 533d round. highest velocities to the heavy projectiles warfare. of the hollow-cast 13-in. and the suc- cessful 13-inch navy guns have been all cast hollow. of improvement. and have begun the construction of 10 and 11-inch guns. the most obvious means is not deemed important for heavy ordnance alone. from the same iron. in * " Reports of Experimenta on Metals for Cannon. the second 10 rounds. to practise it in The following possible abstract of official reports* will explain the con- duct and results of the hollow-casting process. of course its explosive power was proportionately greater. —All United States army guns down The 20inch. On Its merits and improvements are discussed in a succeeding chapterf (373). of powder for the first 10 rounds. f It is officially stated that the experimental solid-cast 13-in. to 4:'2 in. Hollow casting. 15-inch. and 50 lbs. both solid. steel. for the remaining 158 rounds. Of two British 13-in. however. 1849. guns:— "The 40 lbs.3-in. and Spain. 444 to 446). one cast hollow stood 2000 rounds without bursting. bore are hollow-cast. guns for the navy have The test prescribed was 500 rounds with service charges.108 Ordnance.

CasT-Iron GrUNS. 109 .

The air iron for both castings was melted at the same time in two furnaces. Ordnance. cast on a hollow core. No. 8° during the 40th hour and 3° during the 60th and last hour. 2 was FiS. Colum. 79. by passing a stream of water through the core. in- to the whole period was 1'66 cubic feet per minute. cooled as usual. -^ in. The " was pit. 80. which. biad.^^g^ of water passed through during A g^^^_ i ft. for a period of 40 hours. 13° during the 20th hour . making in all 6000 cubic feet. is The weight of the water . each containing 14000 After melting. lbs. in the interior. IdS. S. for one hour . exposed to a high heat. 20 4-2 in. in an open The hollow casting was cooled. cavity for formed by the U. weighing 187 tons. to 1 ft.no Pre. passed through 30 times the weight of the casting and the hoat imparted by the casting to the water. separated two branches. or 100 feet per hour. and carried off by the . A. through which a stream of water passed while the metal was cooling.hours. the liquid iron remained in the fur naces. one leading solid casting to each mould. The average quantity ^j^g^. . the usual manner. when after the core was withdrawn which the water passed the interior core. lu-ia. through Army Scale. The first . common after reser- whence it issued in a sinpro- gle stream. S. ceeding a few into feet. temperature of the water was increased 20° during the hour . it was then dis- charged into a voir.

The mould for this casting was placed in a covered pit. Pie. S. Ill tr. which had . is equal to 10° on the whole quantity of Vater used. 82. Navy 15-in. S. ^ tr. ft. Scale.Cast-Iron Guns. Fio. -fJ in. 81. to 1 latter. Scale. to 1 ft. Navy 11 -in. in. gun. Dahlgren gun.

up to the 85th fire. 1st fire. 157. exposed to a high heat." in their dimensions and 136. Seevice Chaeges. cast solid. The guns were 251st as fire. I i ball. -At in. as follows Peoof Chabges. was kept up Both columbiads were completed and inspected September 6th. 12 15 lbs. i sabot. and I sabot. powder. the one other hollow. two more 8-inch columbiads were cast at the same foundry. wood) remained in fusion 2^ hours. proof range of powder used. I ball. having endured nearly 3 times much service as the other. and under similar circumstances . shell. 1851. The to the core for the hollow tight cast-iron tube closed at the lower end. to 1 ft. and were found to be accurate and uniform weights. 83. lbs. and ascended through the annular space between the tubes. powder. was cast solid. On the 30th of July. rifle. gun was formed upon a waterThe water descended bottom of this tube by a central tube open at the lower end. been previously heated to about 400° as long as the Fig. 158. 2. and this heat stream of water was supplied. The guns were charges used in testing the . powder. " The . and and I wad. 2d fire. . Mean Mean Mean weight of balls used. burst. Dahlgren l^-'m. 298 yards. lbs. 63^ weight of shells used. at which columbiad No. Then the proof proceeded with No. and the The iron for both (Green- Scale. 10 lbs.— 112 Ordnance. which burst at the fired alternately. 1. 49 lbs.

Dahlgren breech strap for li-'m. The pit was covered. time. at the same rate making 65 hours in all. parted by the casting to the water. aU the " A ing. rifle. The heat imCrosa-aection 7-i-in. by the latter. or about 60 times the weight of the casting. Fm 85. and the iron case containing the gun-mould was kept at as high a temperature as it would safely bear. water passed through the core minute. at the rate of 113 2^ cubic feet per At 25 hours after casting. Scale. whole quantity of water passed through the casting was nearly 10000 cubic weighing about 300 tons. the core Fia. thereafter circulated through the interior cavity formcore. was withdrawn. 84. to 1 whole quantity of water used." 8 . fire was kindled in the bottom of the pit directly after castand was continued 60 hours. ft. 86. and carried off Dalilgren Scale.Cast-Iron Guns. and the water ed by the hours. is equal to 6° on the fj in. Fig. rifle. for 40 The feet. -f-g in. to 1 ft. being nearly to a red heat. or 150 feet per hour.

114 Ordnance. was filled with moulding-sand and rammed. * * * The two guns making the pair and with 9 men. when the firing of The powder of the . in regular succession. from the 8-inch gun were made in th^same time from the * * * Fifteen fires were sometimes made from the 10-inch gun. were of the same iron. for 94 hours. 8-inch gun in 30 minutes. sand. about 3J°. mass of iron within. October 7th. were not large enough to admit the usual thickness of clay in the was apprehended that the heat of the great. and the other hollow. 160. Shortly afterwards (August 2lBt) two 10-incli columbiads 159. and all the space in the pit. in about 1 hour and 20 minutes. amounting in perature of all to 22560 feet. weighing about 700 tons. "Eighty fires that of the 10-inch guns. The mean elevation of the tem- the water passed through the core in 94 hours. per day made with 7 men. Both moulds were placed in the same pit." 161. it The contraction of the iron around it held it so firmly. in weight. It the 10-inch hollow gun. The proof were easily of the 8-inch guns commenced August 28th. and heat the iron cases so much as to cause them to yield and let the iron run out of the mould. or 240 feet per hour." The external cooling of walls of the mould. to the weight of each casting. outside of the moulds. until one of them the survivor was continued by itself alone. which continued to circulate through the core for 48 hours. was the end of this period an attempt was casting. At made to withdraw the core from the which proved unsuccessful. that the upper part of casting. leaving the remainder imbedded in the feet The stream of water was then diminished to about 3 The supply of water allotted to per minute. fires in 5 hours. would penetrate through the thin mould. 60 to be compared were fired alternately. broke oif. burst.. or 70 times the weight of the casting. 4 cubic Water was passed through the all core at the rate of about feet per minute. one discharge from each. by the contact of the flask with green was therefore much more rapid than that of the 8-inch hol" low gun. " This was done because the iron cases of the moulds cast. the one solid. and circulated through both the 8-inch and 10-inch guns was equal.

4. cast hollow. 5. cast solid. i i ball ball with sabot. 20 fires. and apparently capable of much farther service. lo-inch 18 with sabot. r 1st fire. f 1st fire. . No. I shell . both pairs of guns. No. No. This supposition was its found to be erroneous on digging out the sand. „ . cartridges of each pair 115 was of tlie same proof range. cast hollow. of shells. accounted for by the fact that the 10flask while cooling. powder. the enlargement * * * is 163. it inch gun had no fire on the exterior of the pit. in least in those cast hollow. "On low. No. powder. 124 lbs. excepting the 8-inch burst at the last fire . lbs. and taken from the same cask. gun No. I 2d fire. and with sabot. lbs. cast solid. of shells." . the heat of the gun would have been retained by the sand until the interior should have been cooled by the circulation of water through the core-barrel. 73 fires. fires. 3. powder. Weight of 8-inch balls. fires. cast hollow. 63^ lbs. as temperature was found to be much lower than had been expected. ig-inch gun. 91 " The number of was fires made from each gun. powder. . i ball i and sabot. and with sabot. 6. lbs. 249 " Each of them. i wad. 2d fire. 1500 10-inch gun. . 4. at the time of casting. including proof charges. and that remains unbroken. 24 lbs. / 8-inch 10 lbs. shell Seevice Chaeges. .: Cast-Iron Guns. having been rammed up in the where it was supposed." Peoof Chaeges. it comparing the enlargements of the bores (made by an will equal number of fires) of the guns cast solid with those cast hol- be seen that. i wad. powder. i ball and sabot. as follows 8-inch gun. 15 lbs. "The less endurance of the 10-inch hollow gun than that is of the 8-inch hollow one. powder. 20 lbs. 8-inch gun. 48^ Weight of lo-inch balls. I 12 lbs.

For guns of 13-in. — " The columbiads are a species of sea- coast cannon. so as to fit the port designed for the gun. U. from 27500 7-23.. In the Navy Department the test is as foUows :— The 30000 lbs.. Navy Department.* One of the 15-inch navy guns was fired vations from It The charge commenced at 35 lbs. pieces. all the guns of a contract must coincide in their composite elements. is of 2500 allowed. eases (Fig. after having endured. per square inch. CoLTjMEiADs. 500 900 times at ele- rounds are required. Test of New Ordnance. in other words.— 116 Ordnance. 200 rounds to be with solid shot. proposals for 163. somewhat more than the tests prescribed by the army regulations. is tested. the chamber was 440 lbs. and the is The strength ol is that which nearest the average of the five specimens prescribed as the standard of strength. Oct." From the 'Report of the Chief of Ordnance. each way. specify that the iron is army guns. 1863. S. which has not been subjected to the ordeal of 1000 rounds of service charges. bore and upwards. 32500 A similar rule is observed with regard to the specific gravity. Time did not admit of this proof being applied. 81) was bored out to a nearly parabolic form. . and the guns were necessarily accepted and put into service. that is.. Five guns are east. 220 rounds were The gun at length burst with 70 lbs. which combine certain qualities of the gun. and are therefore * " No gun has been accepted as a standard. at high angles of elevation. gun out of the whole order shall endure 1000 rounds with service charges. chambered and shells. 20. After the first 300 rounds. and 800 rounds with shells. The only exception been ~in the case of the 15-inch guns cast upon the plan of Major Eodman. 1 64. and mortar. for the smaller which should be about that one The proof guns is. With 60 lbs. of the United States Army. however. to 5°. howitzer. lbs. 3 inches. to the rule has With this standard thus established. to A variation lbs. and the chase was turned down 13-in. and that a trial-gun to maker iron is required to provide suiScient iron of uniform make and quality to execute the entire order. The shot in all fired. This should be about 30000 lbs. to have a tenacity of not less than is endure 1000 rounds with service charges. lbs. capable of projecting solid shot with heavy % charges of powder.— The 1863. they are long. was then increased to 50 lbs.

bore itself. which was done by diminishing the length of the in substituting a hemispherical bottom to the bore and . comer of the was proposed by to the Captain Eodman. of the navy 13 and 15-in. 166. of It is believed about the exterior dimensions of the 15-inch gun. —In addition heavy ordnance illustrated in the accompanying engravings. parabolic. * "Ordnance and Gunnery." Benton. 117 equally suited to the defence of narrow channels and distant roadsteads. Its dimensions are given in Table 23. in 1860. was discovered that the pieces thus altered did not always possess the requisite strength. guns. H'ew Guns— 2©-IucU «uns. consisted in giving greater thickness of metal in the prolongation of the axis of the bore. 125 lbs. and in rounding The present model.Cast-Ikon Guns. by lengthening the bore and increasing the weight of metal. . The chambers engravings. calibre. removing the cylindrical chamber breech. In 1858 they were degraded to the rank of shell guns. except that the reinforce is maximum diameter of the The first of these guns was cast solid. balls for some hundred rounds. charge. called The exterior dimensions are nearly the same those of the 11-inch gun. to be fired with diminished charges of powder. shot. The columbiad was invented by the late Colonel Bumford. 40 lbs. rifles."* in removing the swell of the off the muzzle and base ring. cast hollow. cast hollow . " The changes made in forming the new model. to enable it " to endure the increased charge of powder. of powder and 125-lb. the Navy as Department has introduced a superior gun of 10-inch a 125-pounder. and used in the war of 1812 for firing solid shot. 1862. it or 1 of the weight of the solid shot. 1 ©5. as shown in the have recently been changed to a shape nearly The Navy Department has four 12-in. and endured 47 lbs. Six years after this. The new 10-ineh gun is continued farther forward (3 calibres). . In 1844 the model was changed. as illustrated. and their places supplied with pieces of improved model.

1864. during 36° to 93° . Foundry."' From Report of tlie Chief of Navy Department. Air circulated through the the 24th. cast on the 11th of February. From the 15th to the 20th hour after casting. . which were of iron three air- furnaces. 3. Pa. the foundries of Messrs. The gun was was 100° bore till . that they will have satisfactory endurance with 50-lb. The mould. was forced into the bore at the rate of 2000 cubic feet per minute. 20. the air direct contact of water. which were prepared for the work of founding heavy cannon when the rebellion took place. the bureau has — R. On the 23d the upper part of the . 7^ hours. Hinkley. The density of the metal taken from the casting was 7-3028. into pigs. of Portland. the time of casting. Fort Pitt. and the Portland Co. Ordnance. and at Reading. Maine. .. Wilof Boston.. Pennsylvania. were at the South Boston. have . among them 108 been cast since the outbreak of the rebellion (Sept. 1864) fifteen-inch guns. as sources of supply. The tenacity was 28737 lbs. from Blair county. Twenty-inch guns for the army and navy have recently been The following are the particulars of the metal cast at Pittsburg. iron iiask. 5 to 6 inches in thickness. cast The smelted pigs were remelted again melted in lbs. Seyfert. water emerged at 61°. Note. McManus & 1863. run through the core the first 30 gallons per minute. was made in a two-part mould was removed on the 24th the lower part was removed on the 25th the gun was removed from the pit. Oct. over 2000 cannon.. the difference in the temperature of the entering and emerging air on the 20th it was 33°. thick. during the second hour was heated from hour. charges and 600-lb. S.— — 118 Ordnance. "The only establisliments in the country. and the fabrication of the first 20-inch (army) gun : The and iron was high ITo. warm blast (200°) hematite. U. and West Point foundries. as the Builders' Iron the Scott Foundry of Messrs. I. the establishment at Providence. at the rate of Water. known & Co. At the Port Htt foundry. On the lYth. bolts.After the 26th hour the core-barrel was removed. 1^ in. Co. The metal was considered too high to be cooled by the At the 50th hour after casting. * * * in addition to the above-named foundries. the water was heated 21-5°. per square inch. The weight was 172000 the time of melting. liams now. 23 minutes. and air emerging from the gun was 130 seconds in rising 60° to 212°. at the rate of 60 gallons per minute.

119 D a O |2i ^ "^ a! ^ S ^ H H .Cast-Ikon Guns.

2 I- 1^ o o o o O CZ2 S> E ° .120 Ordnance.2 U o . O 03 1^ a n O M a • « « « E 5= I li s^ M H . CO i .

The other ordnance used sisted of 24-poundei'S con- and 32-pounders. "TerriWe" fired as many as 4000 rounds. and very rapidly. in. both at high elevations. Length of gun " bore " trunnions Diameter. and one after having fired over 2000 rounds. which had and little effect on masonry— 8-in. about $500. (about) 4 looooo 167. the 68-pounders were. . 911 pieces in of powder. Distance over rimbases 5 Weight . the siege of Sebastopol. fact. Only two of them burst.*—(See Table 25. gun in the partic- ulars are as follows Length of gun lo ft. Some of them were rebouched twice. * It is 10-in. (See Table 24. 1860. and 8-in. the standard Eaval Gun Its the 95 cwt.) Some of those landed from the lbs. length 15 The particulars of the 20-inch navy gun are as follows 17 13 ft. Weight Chamber 115200 ellipsoidal. The gun closely resembles tlie 15-in. Major Mordecai. " " Diameter. stated that 100 new 68-pounders have been recently ordered. At whole.. very satisfactory in their results and endurance.: : Cast-Iron Guns. 13-in. 121 figure . is Briti§h Cait-lron Guns.. 87). and 26-2 cost is diameter over the chamber (Fig. on the 168. stan- dard cast-iron gun in England — —in in. shell-guns. f Military Commission to Europe.) The in. and mortars. 68-pounder of 8 in. bore 17 " ** trunnions 6^ 5 " " ** maximum muzzle bore 4 10 8 " " " 1 " I i " trunnions " " Distance over rimbases 5 " " " 6 4-2*' lbs. 10-in. " " ** 7 6 in ** maximum muzzle bore 5 4 10 8 " '* " 2 1 i " ** " " " trunnions 4 " " " lbs. 3^ 6 in. diameter and 113-9 length of bore.f all. usually with 16 in this siege. on account of the failure of the Armstrong gun as a naval weapon.

. to 1 ft. shell gun. U in. British 8-in. 88.122 Ordnance. Fig.

123 I c B ...Cast-Iron Guns.XQA a .

unstrengthened. . Ordnance.124 Table SXIV. These guns were of east iron. No. — Guns Burst all at Sebastopol and Sweaboes.

* The faulty form of the Britisli mortar is thus referred to : a lecture before the Royal United Service Institution produced by this faulty form was seen in the bombardment of Sweaborg. few rounds. weight. a severe shock is thrown upon that part which is in the line of least metaL and has been further weakened by expanFig. — " The by Commander Scott. It has lbs. of the iron at the places where they unite with the piece hence. tars. as tlie iron warms. and the mortar being supported upon its trunnions. the 1832. 92. of the remains of the mortars will afford convincing proof / that some cause was at work to produce such very similar results. 220 The 10-in. standing 355 rounds only. until at 1 length the mortar opens and generally pieces. The mor- charge tars is 20 lbs. "By a it reference to Kg. ." The cast-iron mortar of 24-inch bore. expands at the bottom. and 17904 lbs. 2'7 diameters. that of the effect . made of at Liege for siege burst after Antwerp. cast in 1813. and 8-in. no preponderance. it will be seen that the trunnions prevent the expansion . sion the result is.. in u. or were rendered unserviceable the best. 92.* 125 The particulars in Table 26. splits in if two much as chopped down by some instrument. a gradual I disturbance of particles and rapid deterioration. Cast-Iron Guns. . length of bore. in Growler. projectile. when nearly the whole of the mortars employed either burst. however. measured from the bottom of the projectile. and charges of British mortars are given The United States 13-in. An inspection. have bores 1^ diameters long. mortar weighs 17120 lbs. little and will show how bom- our mortars are to be relied on for continuous bardment. and their weight is about 20 times that of the shell.

o Diameter over rear of chamber. o Diameter of bore. Length of bore. Preponderance. "Weight. i 1 X X m . o Length of trunnions. Diameter of chamber at rear.126 Ordnance. Diameter of trunnions. Service chaise. "Windage. M d M M Proof charge.

Cast-Ikon Guns. 127 ^O O OO U100 ON .

128 Ordnance. Z ^ ooooooooooo . Diameter of chamber at rear. Weight. M Windage. M 'O Service charge. Diameter of trunnions. Length of trun- nions. Preponderance. X M Diameter over rear of chamber. O o Length of bore. § Diameter of bore.

129 .Cast-Iron Guns.

130 Okdnance. O o o W 1^ o Ph M H .

. Total cost lbs. Cast iron cast hollow.5 coils 26880 9184 53846 33..— Cost of Gdns..5 Alfred gun Wrought hollow 10. gun. gun ..2 9-75 9-75 4500-00 6500-00 1468-00 Rodman Rodman Rodman 15-in. Cast steel hooped with steel 27500-00 17500-00 6000 00 • Cast steel hooped with steel lO- Blakely 120-pdr.. 56-2 13-0 Bessemer forging Blakely 12-in. gun.3 62-5 35000-00 Blakely 11 -in.6 ^9000*00 2195. gun*. Blakely lo-in. gun Wrought-iron hoops coils in 10.. Cast Krupp's 9-in. Name of Gun. Material. Cast steel hooped with steel 77' 9600 13440 Whitworth lao-pdr. cts..5 78. gun 6.1 Cast-Iron Guns.4 8. 15- 49100 15059 8465 825-00 * This far la the weight and price unofficially reported. 131 Table XXYII. Bore. Cast iron cast hollow. lo-in... probably. or 37 cents per pound... 8-in. gun Wrought-iron hoops Horsfall in 7iron iron 23.. Cast iron hooped with wrought iron Parrott lo-in. gun.00 Armstrong! lo-pdr.. Cast iron cast hollow. 29400-00 IOI25'00 1466-00 Cast steel forged Cast steel forged solid. (13-3-in.) cost $19000. 600-pr.. gun steel forged solid. gun..... gun 2300-00 Cast iron hooped with wrought iron 10- 26500 I7-0 13. 7 to 8 200 Cast steel hooped with steel 12IX • 40000 35000 30000 87.2 5000. . gun. . 9700 16300 12-4 14.gun solid. The Armstrong .00 1200-00 Parrott loo-pdr. not wrong.9 gun Wrought solid forged 13forged 23-2 20-7 87.75 12500-00 5000. Armstrong lO-^-in..5 58. gun. Weight Cost per pound. The price is. Cast iron hooped with wrought iron Parrott 8-in. 159- 24094 33600 18000 1 1 Krupp's 15-in. Cast steel hooped with steel 37.

shell-guns had not ren- dered wooden walls. and the subsequent commencement * One 15-in. but one 15-inch projectile. (iSi and another shattered the side of the iron. a new and additional feature of defence be- indispensable.. projectiles at long range. and the promise of larger calibres. Section I. was neglected by the profession at large. The "Wokk to be Done. it was expanded over whole frigates and fortifications resist their shells armament. of iron-clad vessels in France and destroyed the iron-clad Teimnesset. more than high A moving object was indeed an uncertain mark. impracti- American experiments with 15-in. but instead of defending the breasts of single warriors from hostile spears.clad . From came these causes. So rapidly have these changes occurred.* More recently. long range. The cuirass of ancient times was restored. The experimental fight of the armored batteries at Kinburn. was likely to destroy or seriously cripple any vessel. England was B. 171. and so much absorbed are engineers in the improvement of the rival systems sive and defensive —that — offen- the fundamental is and comprehensive character of this revolution in warfare hardly appreciated. the ern shells would add to the power of ordnance. men.vessels. the penetration and shattering of masonry by rifle speed by steam would add to the power of ships. so late as 1855. If the introduction of 11-in. demonstrated the fatal weakness of the present forts. and machinery —and thickened to and even solid shot of ordinary power. projectile Atlanta. and even iron hulls without armor. rightly planted.— — 132 Ordnance.). guns. CHAPTER II. plainly indicated that the great accuracy. and enormous bursting charges of modcable for war. THE REQUIREMENTS OP GUNS—ARMOR.

and the armor that and to likely to be fabricated be supported by worthy vessels. and the contempo- rary and comprehensive experiments of the British Government upon the real and fabrication of armor. to clad. ing that the results of experiments. perfect. 11-in. and weakness every day that these results are still somewhat unand that time enough has not elapsed to enable the profesand digest what facts there are. is ships can always carry armor enough to not an essential feature of the present discussion. 173. 133 authors to be a revolutionary proceed- Nor was it the actual beginning of the The three years of the great rebellion ia America. its —Armor new system.Requirements op Guns hardly acknowledged by ing.carrying power of practicable ships. certain. any conceivable projectile. of carrying some purely shell-guns of large destroy transports or vessels that may not be iron- and to operate against towns. so that fortresses which. sion at large to collect few if any Jw-si principles are imiversally recognized. Such guns are comparatively At the means of improving horizontal shell-firing are well understood. is to penetrate or enemy within it. guns against wooden Alabama by the Kearsarge. have witnessed its inauguration. least. as gunpowder overcame that of men. its Indeed. in such a way as to cripple the demanded of guns. Whether new weapons of offence wiU again overcome the armor. The great problem remains unsolved. being fixed. . * Since the above was written.* not to be questioned. and pointed out the direction and settled many resistance of the fundamental principles of its further improvement. in testing guns against armor are developing new features of strength . the power of the U. and troops on shore. will be relied on for ultimate defence or whether the embarrassments that beset the gunmaker will so rapidly increase and multiply that practicable resist projectiles. is temporary works. can carry armor enough to resist . and especially of warfare. the in the present state sea- armor now used on of the art is ships. walls has been illustrated in the destruction of the This is still more the S. The importance calibre. The present duty remove. engineers are See- looking for solution in diverse or opposite directions.

that the entire in straining. Two Systems of Dbsteoting : Ieon-Clads. but to devote the power exclusively to punching the armor with shells if possible. 1st. Both the theory and the practice appear to indicate. the strength of the gun in civil being the common starting-point 173. many ments persons have taken advantage of the limited knowledge on the subject to establish their to own schemes. may perhaps be narrowed down to two general theories. when very well known that governments find of acquainting themselves with each other's practice. for instsbnce. withholds from its own people—-from the great mass of ingenious and skilful men life who would turn it to good account. from motives of gain. -will observe the number and general fairness of these complaints. or show their favorable side and by publishing one class of facts and ignoring those of a conflicting character.i%—punching. fastenings. bj arranging experito conceal the other. which is limited by the respective strains imposed upon the gun-metal. and what we wiU call raching—c&xi be respectively produced by excessive velocities and excessive weights of projectiles—the power. . — First. case since. being the * The readers of British soientiflc journals. its blow shall be and dislocating the armor. or official conservatism. ostensibly to withhold information from foreign gov- ernments. in concealing the truth.— 134 Ordnance. thus tearing shells after be easily destroyed by ribs -and at the vessel. Second. pride. that these two distinct resa\. It is contended that the most feasible method of attack is to waste no power in racking the whole side of the ship. which the vessel same time racking and breaking the her unseaworthy. It is contended that the better method is to waste no power in pimching mere holes. The somewhat chaotic state of professional opinion on the question of the best gun to destroy armored ships. loosening. but to so increase the weight of the shot (a given strain being imposed upon the gun by means expended breaking will of reducing the velocity). is means The real loser it the government that. and it off. — 174. 1 and side of the and thus rendering 75.* Or sometimes it is reticence and a show of mystery are maintained.

lows: local. across The board or break sheet-iron or it will double up the away from its supports. or the iron. effects These ball iron.* In both cases. and many other . supported at the comers. the work done might have been the same. stated to be as weight of the and at Y its velocity at the lbs. or loosening either the board. to overcome the inertia of the surrounding mass. that in case of a given projec- whatever power employed in racking the side of the ves- sel. and the 68-pounder smooth-bore gun. —Armor. does nothing towards penetration. the cohesion of the material was not sufiicient. A. without showing any signs of penetration: The bullet will make a clean hole. and it firing a bullet at a light board or piece of thin sheetball will split the . bulging. 1 76. In other words. in the time allowed. was due to the low velocity. so that a pistol-ball thrown by the hand wUl over- A turn it. A simple way of explaining these —In the case of the high velocity. contains important facts and " illiistrations upon this subject The work done may be shot. lbs. when a lighter and slower stroke would by a rapid stroke. 177.. in the other case. board set on its edge unstably. "W being the moment of impact. various other — experiments will show the correctness and distinctness of the two principles involved. may be riddled with pistol-balls fired at abort range with high charges. and 2d. 135 -both. E. may be jerked from under the dishes hardly necessary to state what would be the The card snapped from under a coin balanced smash the whole mass fact. instances is .: Requirements op Guns same in tile. gun. on the finger . may be roughly illustrated by throwing a 32-lb. The following extract from a paper by Captain Noble. "The work done Armstrong rifled 200 yards distance by the 110-pounder charge. It result of pulling the cloth off slowly. A small table-cloth is without perceptibly stirring them. or both it and tear out splitting. and vice versa. Y=1178 ft. with- out being overturned. the effect phenomena is as folwas wholly because the surrounding material had no time to propagate the vibrations throughout the mass. WY". with 14 when "W=lll and lbs. with- the grain. the punching of clean. small holes in roofing-slate. every-day experiments and processes illustrate the tially modifies the effects of moving forces. with 16 * As these phenomena of local and distributed effect of punching and racking armor by different sorts of cannon-shot. are represented to be somewhat mysterious and uncertain by unprofessional people (all men are critics of warfare).. The distribution of the effect. that the element of time essen- .

a heavy blow on The 200-lb. to be comprised of an indefinite number of atoms or particles united together by a certain force. as each particle its is enabled to contribute the force of attraction towards uniting The 68-pounder. A. Again. so as to support the is. same distance. although the work done by each shot varies so the penetrations show such a marked difference? I think that the following explanations will throw a light on the subject : lyy A. nearly.. the 110-pounder forcing a bolt of lbs. seen. nearly but we find that the penetration in favor of the smooth-bore 68-pounder. " Lest this language should appear too figurative. particles have not time to sustain greater one another before the work point struck . the force of the blow thus spread over a large surface of the target. as before. Ordnance. although the actual amount of work done may be it the same. and so on. that of the 200 lbs. so that. 200 lbs. accomplished. I will express in other words. 136 charge. thus: is —Let us suppose the matter of which any body composed. " Call one of these atoms these last have also contiguous atoms. will be as 10 to 11. and Y=780 . is and V=1422 ft. " The actual . on the contrary. strikes than the other. ft. particles is and the cohesion of the the whole. then. when W=66 lbs. the 68-pounder thus having a slight advantage yet the penetration of the 68-pounder bolt being almost nothing. during this interval. " How comes it. a spot in the target plish that but it takes a certain length of time to accom- blow .. " This explains the whole matter.— . all the surrounding particles of iron have ample time to sustain the point struck is . mer gun at the in the proportion of 11"5 to 10.. nearly the same but one does work done by each shot is. is in favor of the for. is far greater. as we have its work in much less time a loiu velocity. strikes the and the surrounding is target with a high velocity. that little-. with a charge of 10 when ^=200 lbs. Sup- . the consequence that the penetration is at the point struck. " undisturbed. with . bolt. in comparison with the 68-pounder. and the contiguous atoms B and C D and E.

these results have not taken place refuse to be shaken the plates in the most obstinate manner off. and 20 of powder? Not much more than the 68-pounder. although the work done was nearly as 17 to 10. Horsfall repairs after some 30 heavy charges."* is. and the gun now requires And the 13-in. rior target) was 2. is able to resist. gun. a shot of 111 lbs. In fact. be relieved but if there is A will have a greater force to contend with than . But the time of doing this work was longer in one case than the other. tration of the ' What was the penelbs. which again . i-epresents the utmost power of the present experimental ordnance. However. with a shot of 140 lbs. . in a corresponding degree. consequently it must yield to that force.46 that of the 110-pounder Armstrong. . and each not sufficient time. and 14 charge. and alter its position with regard to the contiguous particles. even when fired at directly. It must smash a hole in the enemy's Whitworth shot made only a clean. If there is sufficient time to enable B. B 137 A receives a blow. while the penetration of the 200-lb. popular notion : that the future gun must accomplish two things 1st. E. . small hole through the Warrior target. at the same time. D. The ship. date. by no means rep- But even the 7-in. "The champions of the 'heavyweights' say that the heavy shot the bolts . " The mean penetration of the 68-pounder (in the Warm. up to the present . The target. at low velocities will shake the plate results off and break effective all and no doubt such would be most if they took place. 177 D.— Requirements of Guns pose the atom —Armor. 1'6 in. to take up some of the effect. few had been fired at plates at that time. it A will. it instantly endeavors to transto mit some of the o o o o o effects of this blow and C. * It is obvious tliat the author liad not studied the racMng effect of very heavy projectiles. shunt' gun. in their turn transmit to E and D thus a sort of war of ECABD bears some of the effect of the blow." * * * 177 B. bolt was a. with lbs." * * * 177 C. motion takes place between the particles. which made a ragged hole through the same target and others wise injured it. atom But a certain time must have transpired before the wave communicates its effect to E and D.lmost inappreciable. C.

but between high and low velocities.paring results. But a 13-inch ball fired ft. Punching. fired at targets. at 1760 feet velocity (181 D). resents the maxiiniiin resistance of the present armor. Heavt Shot at Low Yelocities.— 138 Ordnance. or a ball fired with 74-4 lbs. must be remembered that all that the best ordnance can is do. with reference to obvious improve- ments in armor. at 1631 * A complete official account of the more important experiments here mentioned. of powder. the smaller projectile can receive the higher velocity with a given strain upon the gun. as far as experiments are concerned. in one direction. . Much may compari- be learned. with 90 lbs. Obviously. involves the two extreme systems. of guns for iron-clad warfare.* It should also be borne in mind that this is not strictly a son between large and small projectiles. and the Considering the facilities known results of iron- for improving armor as compared with those course is for improving ordnance. or a 13-inch velocity (183). the racking system requires farther demonstration. Supposing that the same shot could perfect both these results. The future gun is popularly expected to shatter and dislocate the whole side of the it enemy's ship. So that. SEcnoir II. from what has been done. power —^without known by devotiug inflict its whole attempting to two kinds of punishment at a blow.. clad warfare. ships. for the purpose of getting at least an approximate idea of which will inflict the greater damage upon an enemy's and how far the two may be successfully combined. 178. viz. and the com- bined operations (174) which we have grouped under the head of Racking. however. of powder. win be given in a following chapter. —Only a few very heavy shots have been In no cases have the target and the circum- stances been of such a character as to afibrd complete data for com. 2d. The consideration therefore. the obviously safe at- to perfect one tempting to method of attack or the other before combine both in the same weapon. It is proposed to compare the results and the probable efficiency of these systems. to disable the best average armor. Experiments.

They devoted much of their power work to local effect. A disk was broken (a. "i^^ Front of 10-in. all) plates (10 in. Fig. at a target (Figs. gun. high. and the thin plates were indented.' to 1 foot. Scale. 15-Inch Ball. target. —Shortly afterwards. weighing 400 lbs. in. with 40 lbs. And may be attributed chiefly to 179. of oak. at the Washington Navy Yard. 94. 93. 20-Inch Oak BackIn the spring of 1863. 5J in. Section of 10-in. of iron in and Fig. ing. out of the 4^in.. a 15-in. The wood was a little crushed but the shock was so great that nearly all the bolts were jerked out or broken. of ordinary cannon-powder. that they reserved little for distributed — for the general smashing and dislocation of the ship's sides. at A)— velocities which rather penetrated than racked the fired which they were —are not proper so illustrations of the system under consideration. 11 -Inch Bail. FlO. plate. 3|ft.at. spherical cast-iron . . target and backing. but not broken. — spherical shot. 93. backed with 20 in. plate 94). to 1 foot.. 10- Inch Target. of powder. therefore their destructive results their high velocities. 180. Side of 10-in. by a slight additional vibration. was fired at 200 yards range. 94. 1480 139 feet velocity tar- ball fired witli 60 lbs. and the plate was ready to be dislodged and thrown off c-^aiijj'i/. and 95) composed of a 4^in. wide and 15 ft. 10-Inch Takget. i in.Requirements of Guns 15-mch (i8i gets at —^Armor. Scale. target for ]5in. of 1'1-in. an ll-in.

Fig. of powder. plates. FiQ. and the earth and sea-wall behind it. target. and about half the out. 97) 14 in. shot on 10-in. with 30 lbs. Nearly all the through-bolts. and the back plates were bulged 2 or 3 in. plate. make public the details of these experiments results are as follows The general . —About the same time. 96. at the same range. A disk was broken out Si in. 11-in. 11-Inch Ball an . The target was planted against a heavy timber framework which abutted against the cap-stones of a sea-wall. at a target (Fig. spherical east-iron shot about 50 yards range. were shoved bodily backwards several inches. leaving an indentation bolts deep (Fig. in. 181 A.Inch were broken and some of them were thrown 181. <^8" x*"X4°-» Ericsson 14-in. 96). Bolt. Taegbt. where the shot struck it. The blow of the shot produced a small local effect.: 140 169-lb. with 30 lbs. thick and about 7 ft. 14. Fie. . 15-Inch and 11-Inch Balls and Pabeott 150-lb. one 4-in. of the 4^-in. Yarious Plates. target. But the whole target and framework. shot Ordnance. and many of them were broken off in the thread of the screw at the rear. plate. plates. niade at the Washington — Some important experiments with the above projectiles have very recently been Navy Yard. 94) in the same target. and four 1-in. without wood backing. some 40 in number. plate was cracked across. of powder. 169-lb. was fired at another similar plate (C. 97. The in- dentation was about 5 the outer 1-in. square. The Department has determined not to at present. Late Expeeiments. was fired at 11-in. were loosened. of six 1-in. composed.

Gaudet was cracked. have been ruptured and shattered through and through. of oak. displaced. and therefore not exactly repre- senting the mass and continuity of a ship's side. did not 97 A). ofiers very much greater resistance punching and racking than the flat target.* * In the late action off Mobile. ball from the . as shown. 8-in. (215). rifle. the (Fig.Requirements of Guns —Armor. up to 13 inches aggregate thickness. Petin. and was composed of laminated armor of the aggregate thickness of 4J inches. with 60 of 1480 feet per second. 15-Inch Ball Ieon-Clad Atlajstta. & Co. ball. 15-iii. lbs. of powplates. No other shot injured it. cast-iron about 50 yards range. backed by 'i\ feet of yellow pine. and shattered various targets of considerable thickness but not of large size. smashed. 30-lb. backed by 10 x 10-in. — " Monitor" Weehawken smashed in. In 1863. target. at an initial velocity A target composed of six 1-in. solid plates of ordinary quality. this gun has recently been fired at various targets with and 169-lb. a 15-in. of iron bars and 2 ft. breaks through but does not punch the best 4^inch and does not seriously injure the backing. These late experiments have also shown that the convex to both target. oak backing and a Frencli plate. iron beams. but does not make a clean breach through the best plates The ' Parrott with 150-lb. 141 solid 6-in. The casemate Atlanta was inclined 35° from the horizon. An 11-in. plates. The 15-in. gun has not been fired at the Warrior target or at any 4J-in. 1 S 1 B. made by Messrs. . bolts and 16 lbs. armor of the Confederate iron-clad Atlanta pletely disabled her. though not completely penetrated. cast-iron balls. At 50 to 100 yards gun penetrates 4^-in. and completely penetrated by a ball. and backed by 24 to 30 inches of oak. A target composed of 30-in. 169-lb. composed of 1-in. ball shattered and splintered the armor of 5 in. with 20 of powof the break through the same armor. der. was torn in two and thrown down by similar projectiles. by the same shot and charges. 4J-Inch Aemoe AND 2f-FEET Pine Backing. at about 300 yards range. charges range. representing the Monitor turret. Laminated targets. plates. The 15-in.. the Tennessee — a 15-in. The 11-in. der. of powder. fired at 400-lb. composed of the same materials. and comlbs. ball has also knocked down.

a 610-lb. 11. 98) range. breaking the bolts. it x The ball struck the centre of the plate. —On December . 'a The be shell contained 24-lb. 181 D. spherical steel ball fired from the same gun with 90 feet lbs. 2 ft. at the Warrior target (Fig. however. with TO lbs. plate 3 5 in.. steel sbell was from the Armstrong 13-incli gun. 11-Inch of the target. oak posts. and exploded at the in- stant of its passage through the plate. the lOth of March. breaking it in two. Fig. . splinter- smashed a 20 by 24-ineh hole entirely through the ing the backing and supports. and dislodging and splintering the supports. supported at the rear by two 12-in. 142 Ordnance. of powder at — initial velocity. of powder. range.* Plate.—On was ft. Steel Shot. so great was the disparity between the power of the projectile and the resistance 13-Inch 344^-lb. a 344J-lb. indenting 4'9 in. 200 yards — an 11-in.. 181 fired C* 13-Inch 610-lb. Steel Shell. 4^-Inch Plate. 1760 per second face. and slewing round the entire structure. Cross section of the Confederate iron-dad Atlanta. 97 A. bursting charge. 18- Inch Backing. . But the * The accounts of these two experiments were not obtained from official sources. 1864. This. 1863. 1000 yards. starting nearly all all the plates. should considered a punching rather than a racking shot. This projectile target.

teak. and 1631 ft. and ricocheted. * Mr. 800 yards range. Clay.target i in. rifleshell was on the same occasion fired with 25 lbs. skin with 71"1 lbs. So that the two shots afibrd Tbe Scale."* 183. The 13-in. shot did not penetrate. and a f in. of powder. The timbers were driven into the sand. Warrioi. spherical shot of 279"5 weight was fired with 25 lbs. teak backing. 98 a 4^-in. and the ripped open the inner ribs . in. and fragments of about 1 cwt. but smashed the iron skin. in 1856. but at Fig. of powder. —At Liverpool. "Wakeiok Taeget. and abutting in a large bank of sand. shot at starting was much greater than in the rifle-shot. A Whitworth 131-lb. 1 83. each 6 feet long and li in. maximiim and 10 minimum diameter. wide. at a plate 4:f in. and had 200 yds. farther to go." 1862. "Whitwoeth Bifle-Shot. 13-lNon Ball. an approximate basis for comparing the two systems. 143 was flattened to 15"2 in. each were thrown in all directions. plate. and thrown back towards the gun. In addition to — — this. . 1862) from the same (13-in. lbs. " Report of the Defence Commissioners. But it burst hole. and broke 1 through-bolts and 2 its effect was more distributed. thick. About a third of the plate was broken to pieces. 13-Inch Ball . Although the total power stored up in the 13 in. local effect The rifle-sheU made a clean upon the target. it struck the ground in front of the target. laid together with planks. A spherical shot was fired (September 25. lbs. Fig. and 131-lb. 3 feet 9 in. weighing about 2000 and and supported hy 9 balks of timber. of powder. The range was 120 yards. to 1 ft. at 600 yards range. 2 feet 9 in. 1 8-in. square. the Horsfall 13-in. 98.) gun at the Warrior target. at the same target. producing only a inside the target. and one of them "sent to a distance of 300 yards straight on end in the shore. 4|-Inch Plate.— Requirements of Guns shot —Armor. it lost more velocity in a given range (since it had a greater crosssectional area in proportion to its weight).. initial Telocity. long.

with 40 lbs. The vertical slabs in another part were 7 in. 10|-Inch Ball in. thick. striking velocity. and bending a frame-piece. Washers of lead. shots — On the 3d of March. against Captain Inglis's pro- posed armor for vibration. AND 307-LB.—An Armstrong 10^ ft. 8 ft. with conical heads and nuts. and backed by ribs 9 in. Eifle and 113-lb. cal slabs of forts. shaking the whole target rib. 12 and 13-Inch Taegkt. 1 84. long. crushed the iron over a surface of ribs. 20 in. 1862. row of high. broke 2 the skin. thick. Waeeioh Taeget. deep. ft. rubber. spherical . slightly bulging and it. some a front heavy from verti- were fired. therefore shook the whole target. The 1st shot from the Whitworth 7-in. sufi'er A part of the target consisted of wrought slabs 11 ft. steel shot . fired with 40 lbs. part of the target. charge. and lodged in the backing. broke oif a comer starting 2 bolts. 200 yards. bolts. . wide. —a target peculiarly adapted to iron. it powder. and 8 in. shot was fired in April. Eound-Shot . which it of solid could not penetrate. 150-lb. and plaited wire were respectively placed under some of the nuts. on the same occasion. ft. tore 3 or 4 square feet. powder and made a clean breach. ing shot was fired with 50 lbs.144 Another violently. smashing cracking two 8-in. 13-incli ball. and the solid masonry behind the abutting beams. smashing follow- another rib and covering the ground with splinters. 148-lb. The second The first. made 18 to 36 in. down the target. slabs. at the Warrior striking velocity . the same horizontal 5-in. and did similar but greater local damage. struck where the target was supported by 2 timber. but only crack . 1240 it struck the 13-in. 150. Behind the slabs The whole was fastened together by 3-in. rifle was a solid flatwide and 5 in. shot hit broke two near the bolts. of powder and 1586 range. target. 20 in. long. cracks in it The first shot bulged the plate considerably. of the plate 2 x li and doubling up a The damage extended 5 ft. nor seriously straining the fastenings. . iron. Ordnance.. 1863. 230. The fourth shot. 1 85. with less distributed eflfect. thick. smashed the teak. wide. headed ft. plates but not breaking any bolts. 25 lbs. backed by horizontal and 5 were in. of of sq. . at 200 yards range.

but not very serishot first. It indented 145 Armstrong stri- A 113-lb. projectiles at in. The 3d fired. Requirements of Guns 2d. 'No. with 25 lbs. muzzle-loading. the 10|-in. at the 13-in. The indent fired was only 1-| in. shunt-rifled Armstrong gun.lbs. cracked the slabs and bulged and shook the and frame-pieces considerably. shot.. was from Lynall Thomas's 7-inch feet striking velocity. —^Armok. in. rolled by Mr. was tested with heavy thick. similar to the It struck a 24 x 21 x 8-in. shot.. 7-in. and both planks were cracked effect mostly local. of powder and 1218 was indented ously shaken. lbs. 1"8 in. John Brown & Co. with 45 of powder and 1400 feet striking velocity. striking velocity. gun was then laid. dislocated. lbs. a 230-lb. weighing 150 rifle (i 27). plates. shot. with 25 lbs. a It consisted of a in. bent the 9x5 frame- bar 2 in). but did not throw off any of the slabs. It struck 8-in. broke 2 bolts and threw out one. another target of solid plates.. 19 in. 1228 ft. 8-in. The 4th shot of wrought iron. 2^ in. gun was spherical wrouglit-iron shot from the fired. Eifle-Shot. broke off one bolt-head (a new bolt was afterward put was It and strained the target perceptibly. thick. lower horizontal plate 6^ middle plate 1^ and an upper plate 5^ 10 . on a point a few inches above shot broke one bolt. 7i-lNCH Taeget. plate. cracked both the 7 and the 5-in. in.. of Messrs. curyed. and drove in the slabs and frame-bars. The 6th was an Armstrong 307-lb. bent out the X 5 in. Lynall Thomas's 27|. The plank struck was driven in an inch. 300 AND 330-LB. 186.. 1. and the target and sprung and cracked.— On the 17th of March. conical cast-iron bolt. part of the target. The lead washers of other bolts were flattened. long. The The 9 5th was a Whitworth 150-lb. fired from gun with 45 lbs. 1863. frame-bar previously started. from the new lO^in. cracked both the and the S-ia. 9"22-in. but burst with: powder and a 133-lb... plates. broke several bolts. plate under the embrasure. range. shot. of powder. was greatly upset. of powder and 1462 feet king velocity. 200 yds. struck the 12-inch part.

The head. These will be referred to under another The 10th the target. by 10 in. ma5-J. of teak. One rib making an indent 7i was broken and 2 were bent. rifle (110-pounder) . conical 301-lb. long. steel shot. viously started was thrown out of place. . in a length and bending and vibrating the plates so much as to break and angle-irons and a vertical rib. and burst in the backing. and loosening and breaking one bolt and 20 rivets . of powder. plate. plate. The 13th shot was a spherical 163-lb. several rivets The 12th with 50 lbs. a steel 330-lb. in each case. each about iiush.. struck the centre of the rib. It where there was no wood backing. shot was from Lynall Thomas's 9-in. 8th and 9th rounds were fired through the 5J-in. 16 observed —a indentation. Armstrong gun. and struck the junc- and 6f-in. through-bolts were 2f steel shot diameter. was at fired from the same gun T-J-in. and 2 bolts were broken. 7-in. with 50 tion of the T-J- of powder. — charge. plate and A heavy horizontal girder extended across the back of the vertical ribs. After 3 rounds with 68-pounder spherical shot and 3 with from the Armstrong lbs. in. The girder preout of the plate. from the 10-|-in. 4 ft. in. The f)5^-lb. made an wide by 6'2 deep . shot. broke and jarred the horizontal and shook the structure violently. bolt. 2 J to 3 in. with a velocity of 1293 feet. cracked and bent the inner skin and ribs girder. The shot rebounded 25 yards and was much upset. deep. 1220 feet velocity. a 302-lb. target bers extending between it was held npright by heavy timand a bank of earth behind. high and 12 ft. smashed a piece 21 x 12 in. was fired from the same gun. bent the plate. long. the other vertical ribs. Ordnance. no perceptible racking fired by 46 lbs. throwing the ends out nearly an inch. backed plate over a indentation 13 in. and missed The 11th. wrought-iron bolt. plates king several cracks and an indentation of of 1^ ft. The in. 18^ in. a 1-in. a li-in. of powder T^-in. their faces being vertical iron One side of the target was backed only by ribs. lbs. .and 6 in.146 thick. and struck the edge of the plate. rifle. ball fired at the unbacked . where they were not backed.

100. one above . Scale. feet. lining of half-inch iron was placed on the upper part of the target the remainder was in. witla 45. to 1 ft.)— On the 26th a 1862. 1-in. wrought-iron tired ball lbs. Ball sell's . The . lOI'-in. at a striking velocity of 1627 course Fig. with 2 ports or embrasures. The local. 9 in. of iron in II I all. water-ways representing the upper and main decks. Scott Russell's target. deep.. I. making a wall 29 L ft. was of with 50 powder—range 200 yards — at Mr. The backing was com- posed of three in. ver- FlQ. the rear were wide. plates and two fwhich represented the skin of the ship. This was composed of "i Russell's Section. 99. Between the armor- . of June. A open to allow the skin to be examined. 99 and 100. Target. Scott target. apart. X9 ft. ^ in. plates. lbs of powder. to 1 ft. indented horizontally and tically. thick. Front. making 8^ in. lOi-lNCH Scott Rus(Figs. 187. The cracks at 2 in. vertical ribs were 10^ left deep and 21f in. and about 2 feet wide. 10 in.Requirements of Guns —^Armob. Armstrong gun. in. 147 7i-inch plate from the 10^-in. The construction of the target at the rear consisted of 2 longitudinal I 1 1 stringers 5^ in. effect was of chieily The plate was deeply and torn. 4 rows of plates 4f in. and the other below the port also 2 iron Scott Russell's target.

Rifle-Shot and 150-lb. 189. instead of bolts. 50 in. in. 1. Target. and the horizontal girder were bent the . . and remained plate The in. —On April 27th. and the whole mass was moved hack \ inch. and upset over the edges of the plates to hold them in place. of teak and f -in. struts. This target was composed of 8f-in. At the back. x 3 ft. 101). a 162-lb. 2 ribs the horizontal girder was carried away and the was generally strained and bent. wrought-iron ball —charge. broke through the outer plate. was thrown 5 yards forward towards the gun. and in the other plates were broken target . armor-plates backed by alternate layers . There rivets were i through one plate. cast-iron ball —charge. 10 J-Tnch Ball . disk out of the middle plate and 13 into the backing. ft. were started in the plate struck. skin. on which it leaned through intervening 2 ribs . supported on Range. x backed by 9 ships' frames. spherical) struck with about 1600 velocity. at 301-LB. Balls. the following heavy shot were Chalmkks fired 200 yards range. 200 yards. The shot (162-lb. The shot. . The local effect was much less than No. but the effect was mostly local. The 1st shot. —knocked rivets a 12-in. the 10^-in. much flattened. 6 thick. was much buckled and the backing The whole target was tremendously . The whole plate was driven in about 1 in. ft. 6 in. 9 bolts and 11 . but the shock was distributed over a block of masonry in the rear. Minotaije Target. starting more bolts and somewhat strain- — — ing the target . smashed to shaken . but no bolt nor other rivets. each 12 51 in. thick.skin was bulged but not torn 1 bolts were broken. The 4:th shot. were T-irons riveted to the iron backing. 4 in.— 148 plates Ordnance. Armstrong smooth-bore was fired at the Mino- taur target. breaking a hole through one armor-plate and cracking another. 50 lbs. a vertical rib and the skin were broken through. 1st. 1868. a 150-lb. Two feet of the continuous riveting was sheared off. struck near the in the indent. 188. at the Chalmers target (Fig. composed of 3 plates. The 2d and 3d shots same weight and charge smashed clean holes through the target. lbs. — On the Yth of July. 1863.

elastic After 26 rounds from the 68-pounder smooth- bore and 110-pounder rifle. between the and 2d armor-plates stood edgewise. rib. Fig. . bulged out 2 ribs and the skin. thick. —^Armor. skin. thick. then a 2d armor-plate IJ with a cushion of iron plates timber 3|-in. and were f in. The 149 in. a 301-lb. apart. and affected the backing over feet. The next shot was a 150-lb. diameter. bolts The were 2^ in. with washers. a space of 3 X 2 . through bulging it the considerably. placed horizontally and bolted ia. smashing one and riv- breaking bolts and ets. thick and 5 in. gun It lbs. The Chalmers target. rifle. 101. between 1st it and the f-in. 50 depth of 11 in. smashed an indent 2 bolts and 5 to a broke rivets. cast-iron sphere —from the same —charge. was fired with 45 powder from the lO^-in.Requirements of Guns of timber and iron lOf together . solid steel shot lbs. Armstrong It struck at the junc- tion of two a plates and made clean breach target.

for a given weight. and l^-in. 101 A. dented it only 2-8 in. \ in.. . at the top. Bolt . the same . and inThe plate was driven in 2-1 in. 1863. bolt from the same gun. 3 rivets. which in the backing. through . 150-lb. and 1 rib were broken the corner of the plate struck was detached and forced into the backing. 101 A). to 1 ft.150 The 12 in. and the considered as the side of a ship. various projectiles were fired at a target (Fig. . Scale. breaking a rib punched. in a length of 5 feet at the bottom. Belleeophon Tae- —On the 8th of December. A iron ball from the FiS. slightly cracking castThe effect was wholly local. broken. and cracked for a length of 18 in. and broke up 2 bolts. steel ball—charge. 150-LB. 89 A. that has been tried in England. but no The Belleroplum target. range. as the above. Ball and 300-lb. This considered the strongest plan of armor. * See chapter on Experimenta against Armor. with the same charge. 200 A lOi-in. in a length of 2 ft. The is skin was slightly cracked. skin held by heavy ribs yards. and bulging it 2 in. . and two bolts. 1 GBT. .* 10 inches of oak. smashed to the depth of . 35 lbs. imbedding itself the skin. consisting of 6 inches of solid iron. slightly bulged the A 300-lb. and skin.was almost uninjured. broke through the plate. same gun with the same charge. started out 'i in.bolts were target. struck near the centre of a plate. last shot. Ordnance. —struck the tarit get on the joint of two plates.

on the contrary. those of May 16. Nearly the following shots up to the 27th hit upon previously damaged parts. 2^-in. was with 6 of iron.. upper. 6-^ x 2ift. and started the brought down some more masonry. it still had the 6 in. instead of the Warrior's 18 in. the American 4^-in. besides 20 in. result of the punching system. it. 4:|-in. outer plate. shot it and broke through the in. of oak before skin. first and 3-J-in. 1861. clearly indicates the merely bolted to the ship —the upon weak point of solid plates Warrior system. plates laid upon masonry. plate. a deal of miasonry shaken down from the top. plate not damaged at all all . Detaching Armor by Heavy Shot Considered. of teak and f-in. ITie 7th shot hit the centre of in. iron On the other hand. rifle 151 190. and produced wholly local effects. . of iron and 20 in. broke away the lower half. tem of destroying iron-clads. backed as . Requirements op Guns —Armor. the Ameri- . plate.. A x few of the Englisli experiments witli smaller guns. plate — ^not as iron. but as armor. the highest shatter or to strip the target. After breaking through the 4r^in. and 15-in. and 101. the lower 3|-in. The shot cracked effect of the 15-in. — The penetration of plates up to 6 inches thickness by 13-in. For instancCj the the 10-inch target. started 1 bolt 1 plate very slightly bent depth of indent very small indeed (jreat . for instance. . To the powder must propel more weight at a lower velocity. The 27th hit the 3d plate. Like the early British plates. near the centre. plate was undoubt- edly inferior to the British 4^in. can thick plates are nearlj all too hard. balls. throw some light on this question. of oak and experiments have clearly demonstrated that iron backing saves the plate struck. The 6 shots struck bolts or former fractures or the corners or junctions of plates. does not establish the advantages of this particular sysIt is. or the target must offer so much local resistance that the effect of the blow will be distributed over the structure and fastenings. leaving the piece supported by 1 bolt broke away plates and shattered the masonry around.. Only a few of the foregoing experiments illustrate the system under consideration.* * This subject will be further discussed. with the 110-pounder Armstrong against 2-in.

target diminished the local effect of the blow. the more it reserves for racking the whole The 110-pounder did not shake down the masonry until But the less struck a plate that it could neither penetrate nor greatly indent. and several American pleted. shells. as compared with laminated armor. 193. Again.152 Oednance. 5-in. . The former cracked without bending much the Warrior plates are greatly indented. was ex- cessively rigid. to punching. devotes to structure. before serious fracture occurs (212). 193. has been demonstrated at great cost (197). while the latter backing was both elastic and ductile. the iron backing of the 10-in. which should reduce the punching 6 flexible 1-in. elasticity of the structure. the greater the strain And it one plate is thrown off. target. of oak behind the outer plate of the 10-in. shot goes through the Warrior. with light shot. bent. about the fastenings if not. Hence the 10-in. so as to yield . and upset by shot. with the Warrior system of armor. there safety between penetration on the one hand and displacing the armor on the other. while the ductility and the elasticity of the Warrior's side are better calculated to resist it. plates effect of a shot as compared with the and the 20 in. tainly prove to be a serious embarrassment. target was peculiarly adapted to suffer racking. "While the superior resistance of solid. have been comhardly turn out to be a fatal defect it will cer. After all. it were so thick be easily cracked. had a backing of and 7 x 9rin. As compared with 15-in. It is thus clear that is the ship is at the upon the mercy of 15- in. it is not so much a question of plates as of If the 15-in. and the Although slabs it was perforated with many large and narrow as to bolt-holes. and the bolts. target (179) struck by the 12 and 13-in. bolts. it power a shot local effect. And. a very unsatisfactory margin of up to 6 inches thickness. has only been appreciated after whole British and French iron-clad vessels fleets. the greater the bending of the plates. beams. target (185) was better calculated suffer distributed racking to resist local effect and to and vibration. the Inglis the 10-in. no matter . slabs The outer slabs. It may on the same plan. the difficulty of properly fastening it. shot. although encountered to some extent. already thick.

the Inglis target than effect and the distributed 15-in. although the velocity of distributed effort. to 1300 ft. but than the . which had elastic washers. still And hence it is fair to rifle-bolt at 1100 presume that the 20- inch ball. 153 backing of the Inglis target could not yield all but had to shiver over when it StUl. bolts Even of produced this effect in all a greater or less degree. effects 193 A. are likely to be the principal 2d. the 15-in. more easily than they would 7|-in. the bolts of the yielding were more likely armor. target. 1st. ball at 900 ft. may be remedied (204). effect —Armor. 10-in. out of the Inglis and the gets. target (i86) to be thrown out than those of the rigid Inglis The 7-|-in. balls for this particular On the whole. rifle-bolts. cast-iron was less. target them was too high to exert much On the other hand. target. at a lower velocity. target that it did strike. tar- have been.Requirements of Guns locally. which only shows that the simple is ball. will be the most formidable for this weapon at present known kind of attack. and of the comparatively elastic T|^-in. tion of resistance to shot due to effects of vibration. This latter defect. It did suffer rather less more from vibration than the Inglis target. by a similar blow. however. was hit. so that. considering that the latter received but one shot which farther proves the superiority of heavy work. velocity is more formidable in this regard than the 200 to 300-lb. better for racking pur- poses than the costly which require enormous charges the heavy and the light rifle- and excessively strong guns. target was perhaps more likely to be thrown apart by vibration than the 10-ia. target. although the bolts were perhaps thrown out of the 10-in. the solid iron locally. A fine illustration of the and advantages of . the local — the evidence of power locally expended— was greater upon upon the 10-in. ball appears to have been capable of tar- doing the greatest damage by vibration to either of the three gets (see Table 28). the plates being both thick and large. and weaken- ing of a ship's and the leakage and the more gradual reducit. at the moderate velocity of 900 feet. the 15-in. respectively. 10-in. the general straining side. because it was best of all the three to resist punching. velocity.


compared with heavy shot

light shot at high velocities, as


was given in the experiments against the Belleroplion
150-lb. steel ball



punched the 6-inch

solid iron at the

junction of two plates, embedding

itself in the backing, hreaking

and cracking open and bulging the skin. A cast-iron ball gun and charge the same also went through into But a 300-lb. bolt, from the the backing and bulged the skin.
a rib and two

same charge, indented the plate 2'8 in. started the corners of it out less than half an inch and made a crack but broke no through-bolts. The target, considered as a ship, was

gun with






150-lb. ball struck at the junction of

doubtedly increased





two plates, which immust also be considlocally in striking

ered, 1st, that the 300-lb. bolt



the centre of a plate than

had also struck a joint and 2d, that it strained the gun very much more than the 150-lb. ball strained With a 50 or 60-lb. charge, and the same strain upon the gun, it. the 150-lb. ball would obviously have broken through the target. 194. Solid and Laminated Aemoe. "Whatever may be the relations of the present guns and the present armor, both are to be The fabrication of great guns that will stand vastly improved.
if it

proportionate charges


beset with formidable difficulties, while

the particular weakness of ships that great guns discover



remedied by simply improving the fastenings of armor.
ted armor


—layers of thin plates breaking joints—takes hold of a

large area of the ship's side, and has great continuity and tenacity

compared with single rigid detached
fastenings without aid from the rest.

held each by



In addition to


ted armor forms a practically continuous girder to resist the other

brought upon the


while detached solid plates are

loosened by the working of the hull in a sea-way.

195. Americans, having

great guns and


their effects,

once selected laminated armor for the purpose of resisting these effects ; Europeans, having the guns necessary for high velocities,

adopted solid armor to



But laminated armor

can be most easily punched

—the American



Requirements of
must be made



by being reduced in area in short, the ILmitor piinciple of low Fig. 102. decks and turrets or short casemates must be substituted for the Warrior, or more especially M iiniimiirP"i"TO the Minotaur system, of thin armor over all.
thicker, for a given weight,








196. The

inferior resistance of


compared with

solid armor, to can-

non-shot, has been demonstrated

of experiments, which will be
scribed in a following chapter.

by a number more fully de-

197. In 1861, a target proposed by Mr. Hawkshaw, composed of a front l-J^-in. plate
and seven
|-in. plates (total thickness, 6 in.),







screw-bolts 8^ in. apart all over the target,

and without wood backing, was completely

punched by both the 110-pounder charge, 14 lbs., and the 68-pounder charge, 16 lbs. at

200 yards.

198. Another


constructed on the

principle, of a l|-in. plate

and thirteen
The Hawksliaw

f-in. plates (Fig. 102), the

measured thickness




and similarly screwed together, without wood

backing, was broken through at the back and



by the 110-pounder and the 68-pounder charges and range as before. The material in both these targets was the best boilerplate, and, being thin,

was of course sound and well worked.

199. There have been no experiments in England with the heiter class of 4^in. solid plates without wood backing so that

the merits of solid and laminated armor cannot be absolutely

determined from these experiments.
that 18 in. of teak backing*


it is

absurd to suppose

equivalent in any particular to the

* Baddvg.



generally considered in Englan

In a paper read before the British Association in 1863, Professor Pole 1 to be the true office and value of wood

lat, It

It does not

add any appreciable strength or resistance

to the armor-plate, but,

distributes the




of iron behind the front 4^

of the

Hawkshaw target



it is well known that a good 4^-in. plate backed with 18

of teak,

neither punched nor by the 110-pounder or the 68-pounder



200 yards (177


300. But




American exmore conclusive on At the Washington


Yard, in the spring of 1863, a
with 43

10-in. 130-lb. cast-iron spherical shot





range, 200 yards
(Fig. 103)

through a target

composed of

making an aggregate thickness of 6^ The in., backed by 18 in. of oak. target was about 15 ft. square, and was the same as that used in the experiment with the
15-in. shot (179),

except that the outer 4J-in. plate was


(Fig. 104).




a clean breach, as

shown by Fig. 103,

and passed some 100 yards

201. One
Ib. balls fired
Section of 6 J in. laminated target.

only of two lO^-in. 150-

Math 50


of powder,

and therefore more powerful than the
130-lb. ball last

mentioned, was able

to penetrate the Warrior target at Shoeburyness


4J-in. plate

backed with 18
balls fired


of teak and a f-in. skin.

And two


with 40


of powder did not get through the back-

ing of the Warrior .target.

303. The
2d, It is a sofD


why laminated armor



easily pierced

cushion to deaden the vibration and save the fastenings

3d, It catches the splinters ;


4th, It still holds the large dislcs that

may be

brolceu out of a plate, firmly


to resist shells (203).

Requirements of Gtuns
than solid armor,



tlms explained


—In a punching machine, the
directly as the fractured area,

resistance of a plate to



Fig. 104.

Side and front of 6|-in. laminated target.



to say, directly as the thickness of the plate, for a given

diameter of hole.

But the

resistance of a plate to punching-sAo<

found to be about as the square of



in a

machine there

a die under the plate, which prevents the metal

around the punch from breaking down.

no such



the metal under the
at the

Under an armor-plate punch carries the adjais

cent metal with

and the hole So





than the hole at the front.*

that, while in a

machine the

tured area (Fig. 106) would be a

under the blow of a ball

would be a


or at least so


larger than the united fractured

areas of the thin plates forming the laminated


(Fig. 105) as

to account for the superior resistance of solid plates.

Fig. 104

represents a 10-in. shot-hole

through a laminated target.
stance, the plates received

made at the Washington JSTavy Yard As there was no continuity of subother.

no aid from each


It should

be remarked, however, in favor of the solid
not powerful enough to

armor, that so long as the shot



clean breach through backing and

the large disk broken out
is still

of the solid plate remains fixed in the backing, and
protection against

a good

common shells and light missiles, while the disks
plates, are not large

broken out of laminated
* It

enough to remain


possible to imagine Teloeitiea so great that tlie metal around the shot

not have



be carried away.

See also 261



upright and solid in the backiiig, nor massive enough to stop the
smallest cannon missiles.

904. The




to give con-

tinuity to the side of a ship,

need not constitute the entire











illustrates the princi-

ple of the Dictator's armor.

The outer thin

plates, break-

ing joints,


be compared

to a continuous elastic skin

which holds the thick
ing plates


their places.

The inner

thin plates are an

backing, which gives
for the thick plate to

Section of shot-hole


without breaking the

Section of


through laminated


and prevents


through sohd armor,


Mr. Scott



(Fig. lOY)

(Fig. 108) in this regard.

into small pieces
tions of the ship's

improvement on the Warrior's would have to be broken before they could be thrown out by the vibraThe elastic bolt (Fig. 109) will obviously side.
a vast



relieve the effects of



205. Smashing


by Heavy Shot Considered.

—The more remediless but difBcult work expected of heavy shot of the ship —to cripple the armor, tear open the to smash the

break the


and shake the whole structure

so violently as

to cause either serious leaks or

an impaired resistance to farther


306. The

resistance of a ship's side to this kind of assault can-

not be truly ascertained


firing at small targets.



Requirements of Guns
mass has the greater



and presents the greater resistance


the blow

slow enough to allow the surrounding
It is possible that


and tenacity

to be called into service.

the 10-in.

target (179) was

so well braced

and had




was about 15

feet square,

but only half



plated), that

greater size would not have added to




neither overturned by the 15-in. shot, nor violently shattered except in the fastenings of the plates.


Inglis target (185)

the T^-in. target (186) were assaulted with excessive violence, and
FKJ. 108.

Section of the Warrior's armor.

were certainly racked and crippled and the plates were not thrown


but they held their ground,
Fio. 109.

Although the straining and

breaking of the ribs would probably have caused leakage,


follows that

by no the buoyancy of

Wire-rope bolt for armor,

a ship with



ments would have been seriously impaired.


(i8i)was so rigid that the 11-in. shot produced The whole mass, with its local and more distributed effect.
14-in. target

framing and the sea-wall behind

was moved bodily.



was a small
greater size



fact that it



evidence that

—the continuity and elasticity of a ship's


have modified the result.

Mr. Scott Kussell's target

(Figs. 99

and 100) was a heavy structure, but not heavier in proportion to the power of the shot than the 14-in. target and it was shoved bodily to the rear a quarter of an inch, because, 1st, the shot could
not penetrate

and 2d,


targets at

it had not the continuity of a ship's side. which the 15-inch shot were lately fired (i8i A)

were too small to
the ship.

illustrate the dislocating effects of

such pro-

on a casemate incorporated with the whole structure of The 13-inch Armstrong ball, with 90 lbs. of powder

(i8i D), did not overturn nor

remove a plate of only 41x24

inches face.

(See note on page 187.)

But while experimenters may deceive themselves with small The targets, they may also deceive themselves with flat targets.
curved sides of the Monitor turrets have been found to


smashing and punching better than a


target of the


207. PopuLAE Theoet of Dbsteotin& Aemok by Shot of Medium Weights and VELocrnES Its Eeeoe. ^Before proceeding

farther in this consideration, it


important to notice a popular error
Indeed, some of the practice

regarding the work demanded of guns.
in the adaptation of naval
tion of

guns appears to contemplate the destrucshot, at

armor by heavy, although not the heaviest



The aim

power out of one gun, but, with the same power the same charge of powder to barely punch the armor, and to devote the residue of the power to shattering and straining the surrounding structure. If the projectile is too heavy to receive quite a punching velocity, it is cerIf tainly heavy enough to do some pretty formidable racking.
ing and punching


not to perfect both means of attack
trying to get double the


* This fact


proved by several recent Amerioaa experiments, the details of which

the Government declines to



Requirements op Guns


makes a large would make
power, the This

the range happens to be short, and the armor thin,

hole, while a small shot, at say double the velocity,
its little

hole not only so suddenly that the surrounding parts
shattered, but with a small portion of

would not be

remainder being

or at least not expended on the armor.

to be carried out, not

by the small

projectiles at


but by a happy " waste no power" in intermediate system of ordnance, that will

nor heavy projectiles at low







maximum damage upon

the enemy,


the circumstances are favorable.

208, LocAi Effect Peevents
Yeesa.this calculation.

Distributed Effect, and Vice
that indents a plate cannot dis-

—A very important element has obviously been omitted in
The same power
effort is




added to the one kind of destructive

effect, is

subtracted from the other.


probability of penetra-

tion has

been reduced by making the shot large, and hence slow.
fruitless local



does not actually penetrate, a large part of its power has been

employed in the

work of

partial penetration,


only the residue of

can be utilized in racking the structure

Or, in other words, the probability of racking



ing the whole structure


serious distributed effect

—has been

reduced by making the shot light and


to devote


power to a local effort that is useless, because it is incomHad, for instance, the 150-lb. Armstrong spherical shot, in

the cases in Table 28, been either much lighter or much heavier, would have employed the whole force of the powder in one way
Its local effect

or the other.


certainly tremendous, but


neither shook off the plates nor went through any strong target.

The same may be
the whole table

said of all the shots

from similar guns.


full of instruction


this point.

Notwithin. tar-

standing the tremendous assault upon the 13-in. and the 7^

they were neither punched nor shaken down.

were just heavy enough to prevent the light enough to avoid the other.

The projeceffect, and just
go entirely


it is

seriously argued that if a shot does not

through a plate,



so reduced while passing into the






o o QD M





Requirements of Guns




2 ^

fe"^' 5 M




a T









Requirements of G-uns




u H




5 J

u — J3



















X £ d


o 2

B C "



> '^

00 JS 00




s «

C J^













« 2






c <



metal will have time to distribute

plate, that the surrounding

the shock.




the shot were


slower and

heavier, so that

would indent the plate

there would be

more shock

to distribute.


drive a shot half

way through an

iron target, or even to considerably indent

which any conceiva-

ble cannon-shot

however slow must

do, certainly absorbs, neutral-

uses up a certain and no inconsiderable amount of power. That power does nothing else, and it is only the fraction of power remaining in the shot that inflicts other damage upon the target. If all the shot could be expected to strike in the same place, or if an iron-clad battle could be expected to last long enough to wear out armor by perpetual hammering, this system would be less

309. The

less a target resists local effect,

the more

it resists

distributed effect.


13-in. shot at

800 yards neither punched

nor overturned the Warrior 4^-in. target nor shook off


because the target was simply smashed through within a small




shattered, but


saved the enemy behind


The 150-lb. ball did not shake the Warrior target and
ing masonry, until


struck in front of solid timber backing 2



could not penetrate.


salvo from three 110-

pounders, two 68-pounders, and one 140-pounder, smashed a hole
entirely through the "


target," but did not loosen a sinlocal.

gle bolt.



was wholly

The 300-pounder


racked the

7i-in. target


until the 301-lb. steel bolt

struck over a rib, so that

indentation was only 6 inches.


a bolt, 20 rivets, and the horizontal girder were broken, the

thrown out

at the ends,


the- whole target

was violently



150-lb. ball could not get

through Mr. Scott Rus-

target; so

shoved the target bodily to the rear.


wrought-iron 162-lb. ball was too soft to penetrate the Minotaur

and therefore shook



violently than the east-iron

shots of the




The 13-in.

which retained their figure until they got Horsfall shot, at 200 yards range and 1631 ft.

initial velocity,

smashed a

hole through a

new Warrior

target without hucTcUng the plate struolc.

All the American

Requirements of G-uns



experiments with heavy shot and very thick targets lead to the

same conclusion. 310. The plan of intermediate weights

g,nd velocities is found:

ed, to a certain extent, in another error, viz.
to destroy armor.

—that the object of


the contrary, armor



the active


the guns and the propelling

machinery behind

If onlj^ the shield

shattered, iron-clad

defences have accomplished their object.

Undoubtedly armor

could be most completely destroyed by knocking off the corners
of the plates, and dislocating and upsetting



over with

cracks and indentations.

But, to

disable the enemy, swift prohis shield, or the
his shield



him through
must tear


away from him. 211. The DtrcTiLiir of the Aemoe Saves the Yessbl ttndee ExcESsrvELT Low Yelocities t>r Shot. The opposite extreme is
vibrations of heavy balls

to increase the

weight of the projectile to the utmost extent, and

therefore to decrease
limit) in proportion.

velocity (the strength of the
it is

gun being



impossible to avoid expending

in the

l>ower in simply local distortion of the armor. of throwing a hundred-ton ball


gun capable

would not be attempted,

present state of the


and yet a 7000-ton ram,

at the velocity of

16 miles an hour, or
ter the


than 24 feet per second, would not shat-

whole side of a ship.


principal effect of collisions





ductility of the vessel's side

and of the armor
slow enough.


neiitralize the effect of the projectile, if it is


very swift shot completes

work before
by a

these qualities can be

called into action.


a plate of copper or of gold will break

short instead of being bulged


ductility of

wrought iron peculiarly
of elasticity
as the case

fits it

for this service.




will continue to stretch or compress,

it is

be, instead of going instantly to pieces.



same time

hard enough to oppose great resistance to change

of figure. Mr. Mallett, in illustrating the safety of soft wrought iron

cannon (because



" work done"


required to stretch


great range of tenacity), (352),

much more


its fitness for

armor, because a part of an armor-plate once
limit of its elasticity


beyond the


not be hit again,

while the strains of each

fire are repeated upon the

same parts of a

If a shot moves slowly enough to allow the iron to stretch

even beyond the limit of

the armor on the side of the





power without even

So that



equally unfavorable to the racking of the ship.


to jarring

and shaking

off the armor, the


if it

at 24: feet

per second would be the wrong instrument, even

were blunt pointed.

Such a




so excessively

powerful, as compared with the resistance of a vessel's side, that

no cannon-ball can be likened



Estimating the work done

to be as the weight multiplied into the square of the velocity, the

ram would do nearly 28 times
per second.



as a 15-in. shot at





as the

weight multiplied into the vecorrect, the

which the advocates of heavy shot believe to be ram would do above 1000 times the work of the shot.

313. That

the ductility of very soft metal


brought into



even when

the velocities of shot are exces-

sively high,

proved by the bulging of the
plate (Figs. 110


Thames Stron Works by the blow of a

to 113),


shot with 22 lbs. of

powder and a


velocity of above 1800 feet per second, at


yards range, and a cast-iron 68-lb. shot with 16


of powder

and a velocity of 1579



flattening of the wrought-iron shot

from 8

Thames Iron Works ^^ 9

diameter across'the front of the indentaevidence in the same direction.

tion, is

313. Inasmuch

as a shot

cannot be instantly arrested, the

grand aim in the construction of armor
enough, because

to increase this ductility.

the earlier practice, " steel-clad" ships

were talked



was superior

to iron for all engineering pur-

But, upon experiment, steel was not indeed punched init


cracked, and crumbled, and thus failed as armor.


iron of high tenacity,


in other construction as

Requirements of Guns


its reis

the best, also failed in a similar manner, in proportion to

semblance to



the other hand, excessive ductility

accompanied by too much softness
Fio. 111.


too easily pimched.

Fig. 112.


Ifashua Iron Works forged plate (Figs. 115 and 116)
in. thick,

315. The
was 40

wide, 4^

and 16




was backed

by 20


of oak and a 1-in. iron skin.


the range of 30

yards, three ll-m. 169-lb. cast-iron balls,

iron balls were fired in the order



of powder.



and three 186-lb. wroughtmarked on the engraving, with was considerably bulged, and
one end by the 5th shot.

cracked, and

was broken

to pieces at


breach was

made through

the entire target.

31i6. The

.better class of

modern English



shown by

Requirements of Guns
Figs. 117



and 118.

The former


lite the Wai'rior

with 18

of teak and a f-in. skin, received six 68-pounder of powder, at 200 yards range, in a space 27


with 16


square, without breaking through.





by no


his best,






Era. 115.

broken through by 4
about 17 X 27

balls (charge, backing,

and range the same), striking within a space


Difficulty of Adapting the


Shot System. In order to waste no power by the heavy shot system in order to produce the

most destructive racking with the

least local





and an

excesSection of


low velocity with the weights of shot



that the respective guns will endure,

must be



—which does not leave much margin.
in fruitless local effort

The former wastes

much power

the latter enables the


ductility of the metal to prevent the destruction

of the vessel


if it

could be


so excessive as to

be com-

pared to a ram,

would not Jar the


and joints


218. Now,

supposing the weight and velocity of the projectile

be adapted to any particular range and armor

—a longer or a
little velocity.

shorter range

and a thicker or a thinner armor would obviously

be equivalent to giving the shot too much or too

The contemplated circumstances of greatest
once in a whole

might not occur



the proper weight and velocity,

considering the wide diversities of range and resistance?


one gun, or, if it were practicable to multiply varieties, what system
of guns can be expected to hit this narrow and ever-changing






Do we

not discover in these inquiries

the serious incompleteness of the system

on the contrary, the highest attainable velocity (modified in some degree by other considerations which will be further mentioned) were given to the projectile, it would waste the least power on the armor, and reserve the most to devote to the active enemy within it ^the men, guns, and machinery.


Pm. 116


319. Othee Defects of the Heavy Shot System. Supposing

the heavy shot to accomplish the
first result




the armor

—a reasonable

tion only in the case of the


rior class of armor.

then torn

The enemy's away irom him,

and, as

we have


at the

mercy of heavy shells mous bursting charges. But the shells mast be thrown, and must be well aimed. There is no queswith enortion about their result if they can

be properly placed, and the accuracy of 15-inch spherical projectiles,

not to mention that of mod-

especially from the Armstrong 600-pdr. (see Chapter on Projectiles), is remarkable still the work is not done at a stroke, and the enemy has time to



turn away his wounded
better his position

side, or to

by some other

Or, supposing the heavy shot to

accomplish the second result aimed

—the racking of the vessel's —


or the shattering of a portion of

her side

the active




His ship




his shield


be crumbling,

but his guns and machinery are
yet in action.
Front of Nashua target after six ll-in. shot with 30 lbs. powder at 30 yards.




walls were riddled and torn for

hours before fighting and manoeuv-

's plate. Requirements op Guns —^Armor. sink. 2. 118. The . Thames Iron Co.'s plate. shells 173 ring liad to be suspended. both vertical and horizontal. 111. until they are shattered from end to end." But the bursting within it. was not nntil them to sinking that their power of It Pig. blew great or to burning. ^m^ " A. o ^m. cbasms in their sides. or set slaughtered their crews. Good A. below water. armor —nor the enemy bum if they do not go through PlO. of shells will not destroy it ." nor will ships with many bulkheads. or offence was gone. 3. iron ships will not John Brown & Co. " T..

armor at still it occurred when the 169-lb. might decide is. and various means of abling the locomotive power of ships. 331. confined in a length of the bore but 8 inches long. given work As from to the greater strain upon large calibres. torpedoes. not by smashing or racking. moreover. although detached. class of is a disk out of a plate and driving into the a frequent result of firing heavy shot at the Warrior . although her leaking believed have been principally due vessel. (11-in. remains between the opposing projectiles and the within the ship . would give a pressure 1858. Galena (262) was put hxyrs de combat. and cost. are serious arguments against the heavy-shot system. by punching. and the Atlanta was disabled. imposed upon large guns. * " A Cheap and Simple Method of Manufacturing Strong Cannon. and the enormous weight (or else limited supply) of heavy projectiles to be handled or transported as cargo. Breaking backing. hastily to the strains she inflicted upon herself in trying to run over the Monitor. at given velocities Of course. target (180). the increased risk of defective material in large masses. and the Keohuh was sunk. —The greater strains size. their greater weight.) spherical shot was fired the 10-in. the combustion being complete when the shot has if moved about 24 inches. a weak covered with the ill-adapted materials at hand." . so as never to press more than about 5 tons per inch. that the enemy might it set within shellino.174 Ordnance. This method of attack "would probably prolong a battle to such an extent that rams. At this period a gas which. for a done. men and machinery keep out ordinary and it is amply sufficient to shells (203). it after But the real danger of a prolonged battle cities.distance of 330. shot at to very low velocities. The Merrimao is supposed to have been discomfited by is 11-in. less spherical shot can be thrown with power. the shot to enable the gas of the position just fast it enough moves gunpow- der to expand as burns. Captain Blakely says:* its " In the 32-pounder. mortars. as they present a larger area projectiles of the to the powder than elongated same weight. Geeatee Steains is Laege Guns. disall. She was. But this disk.

In an 8 or lO-inch gun. while the powder burns more rapidly in proportion. . "Weight op Shot that mat be Fieed from yakious WboughtIron Smooth-Bored Gbns without Straining the Metal more than that OF Service Guns is Strained." Mr. Michael Scott. 175 of 3000 atmosplieres or 20 tons per inch.— Requirements of Guns —Akmor. so that for an would exceed would move 5 tons per inch. By Mr. the shot moves more slowly from instant the pressure rest.) Table XXIX. Michael Scott gives the table tigations note. His explanations are appended in a (See also 258 notes and 259. having four times so mucli room can only press ^50 atmosplieres or 5 tons per inch. In much larger cannon the shot so leisurely that the pressure might reach 18 or 19 tons per inch. (29) as the result of his inves- on this subject.

it appears that one 150-pounder more efifective than ten 68-pound- one 330-pounder is equal to seven 150-pounders. but to shatter it in the highest degree. each a 1-pounder." * Jour. great — — : G8-pouuder effect. being taken as one. gun is of vast importance. is fired and smashes the velocity in both cases being equal is — in both cases the same amount of metal used. for instance. in the first place. difficulties. very much greater than the con- that of the same shots fired consecutively. blow. or the effect produced by the shot from these varieties of gim. is Arguing from this. and assuming that wrought-iron is three times as strong as castiron. one heavy shot is more effective than a very much greater weight of light says* on this subject : — —" The . j- The principle upon which this table is calculated is very simple but It involves a number of figures. and on this principle an oiBcial record of experiments at Portsmouth states that one 68-pounder produced more ers. Advantage SmoLE Heavy Shot ovee Salvos of Light Shot. shot at 1600 feet per second. that of the 68-pounder " taken at 10 pounds in round numbers. as we have. And while and convenient moxmting of 300-poiinders.— 1 76 Ordnance. of 333. the weight multiplied by the square of the velocity. namely that the power of the shot is the vis viva of the shot. elfect one gun. If that be so. I have stated publicly on previous occasioDS. moving at 1600 feet per second. that without straining the metal of the gun more than the metal of an ordinary . however. Commander 333. not to punch armor. The struction efi'ect of a salvo. and I do not know that it has ever been disputed— I do not know that it can be disputed. this is the These numbers represent the force of the blow. present some serious the effects of their shot may be approximately realized by taking more pains to concentrate a simultaneous fire from such guns ball. is On this principle. The question has nothing to do with the quantity of powder It is a relative question not an absolute. and produce no it. then the only other element The force of the blow (column 8) and it is somewhat is the diameter of the gun. because there does not seem to be any dispute whatever with respect to the theory. are fired at a target of iron 1^-in. June. Commander Scott this reason size of the it. The argument is this assuming wrought-iron. important varies very considerably. In so far as it is intended. shot. a 20-pounder. and for more than is generally assigned to —20 guns. Eoyal United Service Inst. and a broadis side of three 330-pounders more destructive than lOJ Warriors^'' Scott constructs Table 30. * * * It is quite irrespective of charge. destruction than five 32-pounders. is strained liy firing a 10-lb. . the living energy. 1863. thick.

Requirements of Guns —Armor. 177 .

through into the cupola of Captain Coles that on one occasion that several shot together. the effect . 1863. that "Now. broke not together. but con. we value of armor. • fastenings on the plan of the Dictator armor and by other tested means. advantage of that grand element in resistance to projectiles * Jour. little is reserved to rack the struc- plates The first result expected from heavy shot dislocating the by breaking their fastenings may be modified or prevented — — by improving the (204).— 178 Ordnance. I find that four 100-pounder shot fired. . all the experiments which iron-plate committees they have never. June. of inflicting much more of the kind of damage under consideration. that ture. tried this (the effect of salvos). injured the plates very much . when six guns were fired was enormously greater. the simple 15-in." and really till we can say know nothing it has of the true 334. fired at an armor-plate. vette's broadside was concentrated and very first . Royal United Service Inst. than the more powerful and costly rifle-bolts. than when the same guns were fired consecutively but on no occasion can I find that any thing like even a heavy coras a salvo. Captain Selwyn says* on this subject: —"Strange it is. as regards the place of striking. cast-iron ball at a moderate velocity appears to be much less strain upon the gun. so far as I can learn. so that we have still to theorize on the subject. secutively. that even now. with have tried. as might have been expected. with — ^As far as results can be compared. because tears the shield it neither hits the : enemy behind the spends so shield nor away from him it much power in smashing the place struck. damaging. KECApmrLATiON. because it wastes less power in local The system of intermediate weights and velocities is least effect. capable. and presupposes shot of such excessively low velocities that it the ductility and elasticity of ordinary armor will enable to take time. for instance. this is the expedient or experiment which would probably be tried in war been fairly examined into. ship's side to a The other result is — shattering the whole dangerous degree — not fairly represented by the displacing of small targets by heavy shot.

Requirements op Guns



33«>. The disadvantages of the system* are therefore as


Every change

in the quality

and distance of the shield to

be disabled, disturbs the designed relation of shot to armor, thus

much power in fruitless local effect, or preventing damage by allowing the ductility and elasticity of the shield to come to the rescue in fact, both these results must follow any moderately heavy and slow cannon-shot. But a fast, punching shot, wastes the least possible power in getting through the armor and what it has left when it gets through, is available upon the naked enemy. 2d. Even supposing the enemy's side to be finally made vulnerable or to be dangerously strained and shattered this operation wastes valuable tims, during which the enemy's fleet may manoeuvre to his own advantage.
either wasting serious
; ;


the same time, the destructive effect of heavy projectiles at

velocities, particularly

upon the Warrior

class of armor,


been seriously underrated, especially in Europe.

(177 C.)

Section III.

Shot at High TELOcrriEs.f

and the


—British and American experiments have
kinds of armor.
It has already

well tested the punching capacities of various systems of ordnance
resistance of



shown that the

resistance of plates to


as the squares

of their thickness


example, that two 2-inch plates laid toIt

gether, are but half as strong as one 4-inch plate (202).


be remembered that the hard iron of which the early English

* This

of course, no

argument against large

shot, provided

they certainly pvmch,

the armor instead of merely mutilating
distribute their effects over

intended to f Armor-punching projectiles must obviously go faster than projectiles a ship's side they must therefore be smaller for a given




upon the gun. So long as a punching velocity is obtained, the larger the hole The punching theory does not contemplate shell which enters it the better.
is essential to

small shot, except in so far as reduction of weight

high velocity.


more complete account of these experiments, derived from

records, will

be given in a following chapter.

and nearly

the American thick plates have been made,

quickly disabled by cracking and crumbling, while soft and ductile

greatly bulged, mashed,

to 216)


plate itself

and upset before breaking (212 which do not harm the enemy behind it, nor the in a very great degree. Until this kind of armor was

powder and about 1422 feet striking velocity, was more than a match for the 4|^-in. plate at 200 yards. The Thames Iron "Works plates (212), although not the best now manufactured, show the quality of the better class of armor-iron. During the last year the rolling process, especially at the Atlas "Works, Messrs. John Brown & Co., Sheffield, and at the Mersey Iron and Steel "Works, Liverpool, has
adopted, the 8-in. 68-lb. shot, with 16 of

produced very superior


Ball; "Waeeioe Target. The first memorable advance in the power of ordnance was de10-|-Inch
Fig. 119.


monstrated (April, 1862) in the

effect of the


10|-in. 150-lb.

spherical cast-iron

with 50

of powder and about 1600

feet striking velocity per second,

rior target at 200 yards (Fig. 119).

upon the WarThe tarper square

get weighed above 32 tons (341




and was composed of 3 plates, each 2>\ x and 4^ in. thick, bolted one above the

other against 18-in. teak backing composed of





the inner tier being laid
tier vertically.


and the outer

BeThe Warrior
target. Scale, i-in. to 1 ft.



were the

f-in. iron skin and the 18-in.

iron ribs of the ship.

The whole was


ported by diagonal braces.
of the target.

There was an embrasure in the centre
at this target



and second shots

were made with 40


of powder, and lodged in the backing.

—was aimed

The third shot


at a plate that

punched an

11-in. hole

shot struck where
target violently.

had not been struck before and The fourth could not penetrate, and therefore shook the
through the whole structure.

Requirements of Guns

5|^ in.



10^-Inch Baxl

same gun

—^range 200 yards—
plates, eacli


Mznotaue Taeget.

—In July following,

^was fired at the


composed of 3
in. of





backed by 9

teak and

j-in. skin.

The upper




by Messrs. John Brown & Co. the second was forged at the Thames Iron Works the lower one was forged by Messrs. Beale & Co. Each plate was fastened by 3 rows of 1^ and If-in. bolts.



and one

16-in. strip,


in. thick,

were attached to the
of powder,

back by the same

bolts at the junction of the plates.



shot, a 150-lb. cast-iron ball,

with 50


struck the middle plate, but did not go through {he target.

second— weight and charge the same —
the lower plate and punched a


the top plate,

The and made

a 12^ X 13-in. hole through the structure.


third shot struck

hole through the target.


hole and rent at the back were together 16 x 30 in.


fourth shot has been referred to (i88).


13-Inch Ball


"Waeeioe Taeget.

^The next formidable

demonstration was

made by

the the 13-in. Horsfall




yards, September 16th, 1862, against a

new Warrior

target, conplates,

structed (without an embrasure) of 3 tongued

and grooved
in. thick.



3 in.









5 in.

wide and 4^


were backed by a layer of 9 x
another lying horizontally, a

teak timber standing vertically,


skin and 15-in.vertical ribs 15-in.
1 foot in


target "

tumbled home" or inclined inward

8 feet height,

and was

up against the old Warrior



was of cast iron not turned weight 279-5 lbs. charge, 74"4 initial velocity, 1631 feet. lbs. of powder It struck the centre of the target, smashed a 2 ft. l^-in. x 2 ft. 4 in. ragged hole entirely through it, making several cracks, breaking ofi" 2 ribs, and crackshot
; ;

ing another


driving in 3 feet square of the skin, breaking over

and dislocating the parts of the 20 struck was not buckled (209).

But the




26, the

same gun was

fired at this target


similar circumstances, except that the range
result has

was 800 yards.


already been specified (183); the structure was not



301-LB. Eifle-Shot;


Chalmers Target.

—On April 27th,
striking velocity,

1863, after 26 rounds with 68 and 110-pounders, a 301-lb. steel
shot was fired with 45 lbs. of

powder and 1293

from the Armstrong mers target

lO^-in. rifle


200 yards

at the Chal-

(189), which was composed of a 3f in. plate backed by plates on edge, 5 in. apart, with wood between (this entire
in. thick),

backing was 10 J

the whole resting on a 1^-in. plate
|-in. skin.

backed by


wood and



shot struck the junction of the centre and upper plates, and

smashed a 13 x 14j-in. hole through the front, and a IJ x 2-ft. hole through the back of the target, driving to the rear fragments of

was smashed and driven back 18 in. Shell Waeeiob Taeget. The results of the "Whitworth and Armstrong experiments with rifle-shot and shell are specially important. On September 25th, 1862, the Warrior target last described (229) was completely punched at 600 yards by a Whitworth 130-lb. flat-headed shell. The gun (43, 44) was fabricated at Woolwich, of wrought iron, upon the Armstrong plan, except that it had a solid-forged internal tube.

and backing.

A rib


130-LB. Steel





on Mr.

Whitworth's plan, the
bore measuring 6 '4 in.
across the flats,
in. across

and 7

the corners.

The projectile*




was 17

in. long,


solid for

about \



ed with a
WMtworth's armor-punching
steel sheila.

3-lb. 8-oz.

bursting charge, fired

with 25


of pow-

and had a velocity of 1268


the distance of 580

yards from the gun.


shell struck the centre plate,


* See description in chapter on Rifling and Projectiles.

Requirements of Guns
a 7i X
8^111. hole,



and burst in passing
in the plate,

tlirougli the backing.


cracks were


and 2



back of the target the hole was 13
were picked up inside the
the ship

in. in


Portions of

the shell and the piece of iron punched out of the armor-plate
target, in

what represented the

hull of

some old oakum on the ground was
14 pieces.



was broken, and the wood backing was much


One The

shell burst into about
Tliis plate

(from the Parkhead forge) was afterwards proved by

the 68-pounder to be of an inferior quality.


indentation of

the 68-pounder shot in good 4|-in. plates with Warrio?- backing




the indentation in this case was 4"05
in the vicinity of the blow.

with considerable



151 AND 130-LB. Steel Shells;

4-| ajstd



"WjSlbeior Backing.

—On the 13th of November, 1862, further
of a similar character.

periments were




was conall,

structed for this experiment, of 3 stories of plates, 9^

high in

and 12


long, secured


2-in. bolts at

the edges, so as to weaken

the plates as

little as possible.



backing was composed

of 12 and 6-in. teak.

Behind the


inner skin, a box 10 x 6

was formed,

to represent the 'tween-decks of a ship.
in. thickness,

The two

lower plates, of 5

were rolled
at a

at the Atlas "Works.

The upper 4^in.


was forged

Government dock- yard.
5-lbs., fired

A 151-lb.

steel shell,

with a bursting charge of


of powder, from the

same gun (120-pounder), with a

ing velocity of 1170 feet at 800 yards, penetrated the middle of
the centre
(5-in.) plate,

and burst

large and 9 small pieces.

in the wooden backing into 14 The base and some pieces of the shell

were blown out in front of the target

other pieces, and fragments

of the skin and debris, were blown into the ship, but did no serious

The 2d



and weight the same

—struck 7^



the bottom of the top (4^in.) plate, nearly in line with one of the

penetrating the target and driving out the



burst while passing through the inner skin, and blackened the


as well as shattering the skin

and the wooden backing.

; ;

184 The butt
skin were

of the shell stuck in the hole, but 46 pieces of shell
scattered about the 'tween-decks in every direction.


The 3d


cast iron,

and broke up, not without consider-

able distributed effect.

The 4th, of steel

—weight, 130




feet—penetrated the centre (5-in.) 8 in. hole at the back, 14 in. diameter plate hole in front, 7i X skin forced out 9 inches. The shell burst as it broke the skin, and
striking velocity, 1227

bla,ckened the chamber



broke into 19 pieces, which, together
the I7th of


many of their fragments, passed into the ship. 333. 288-LB. Steel Shell 5i-lN0H Plate.— On

March, 1863, after 6 rounds with the 110-pounder and 68-pounder,

Armstrong rifle was fired at Messrs. John Brown & Co.'s target, which consisted of a lower horizontal plate 6 in. thick, a middle plate 7^ inches thick, and an upper plate 5i in. thick, each 4 ft. high and 12 ft. long, their faces being flush. One side of the target was backed by vertical iron ribs the other by 10-in. of teak, a 1-in. plate, a l-J-in. plate, and vertiand a
301-lb. bolt, the lOi-in. cal ribs.

A heavy horizontal girder

extended across the back of

the vertical



was held upright by heavy timbers

extending between

and a bank of earth behind.

A 288-lb.

flat-ended steel shell, 20 in. long, with a thin cast-iron

hemispherical head

^bursting charge, 11 lbs.


fired with

45 lbs.

of powder at 1318


striking velocity.

It penetrated the 5i^in.

plate and the backing to a depth of 14
ing, the hole being filled

and burst in the back-

shell. The plate The backing at the point of the explosion was completely splintered and set on fire. At the back a rib was broken, and the skin was rent and bulged. 334. 148-LB. Steel Shell; S^-Inch Plate. On the same occasion, a 148-lb. steel shell was fired at the same target from the Whitworth 7-in. rifle with 25 lbs. of powder bursting charge,

with portions of the

was somewhat cracked and

5*12 lbs.


a velocity, at 524


distance from the gun, of 1268


punched the

plate, 5f-in. (outside to outside)


the last hole, and burst in the backing, which was completely

blown out

at the top.


skin at the back

was more opened,

and wooden


were driven through.

Requirements op Guns




300-LB. Steel Shells


4^-Inch Plate.*

at St. Peters-

October, 1862, the following experiments were

burg, witb 9-in. cast-iron and steel sbells against 4^-in. plates


for the

Russian Government by Messrs. John Brown




" First, a series of cast-iron shells, 300 lbs. each, were fired at
different ranges,

and then


made by Krupp were
of hard cast

fired at the

4:J-inch armor-plates.


first shell,


was 22^

inches long (two and a half diameters), with a
in diameter.

end four inches

Fired with 50






distance, it

passed through the plate, oak and teak backing, and broke


pieces, although filled

with sand only.

mto The second and

third shells were

of Krupp's steel, the same length, but
shells pierced plates,

with 6i" ends.


wood, &c., and also


to pieces, although only filled with sand.


fourth shell

was made by M. Poteleff^, of puddled steel, on Aboukoff s system, the same dimensions as the second and third, and went through
iron, teak, &c.,

but was only bulged up from 9" to 12", and the
not a single crack being visible in the





fifth shell,

the same as the fourth, passed through iron, teak, and

the second target, and went at least a mile beyond.


and seventh


were from Krupp, and were charged with pow-

they were quite flat-ended, 9" diameter.

the plate, the other in the wood.

One exploded in The eighth and ninth shells
through the plates,

were of cast
will yet be

iron, and, although they passed

were of course destroyed. Evening prevented further


made on

the same plate."

335 A.

610-LB. 13-Inch

Bolt; "Waeeior Tajeget.*— On De-

cember 11th, 1863, a
Range, 1000 yards;
charge of

600-lb. steel shell



from the


Armstrong gun, with 70

of powder, at the Warrior target.

initial velocity,

about 1200 feet, bursting


shell burst

on entering the target,

and smashed a 20 x

24-in. hole entirely


(i8i C).

* The account of these experiments, unlike the others mentioned,


not ofBcial, but

understood to be trustworthy.



235 B.



6-Inch Plate


30-Inch Backing.—

recently, a 400-lb. cast-iron ball


from the


United States navy gun, with
solid plate

60-lbs. of

powder, through a


its 30-in.


Eange, about 50 yards; initial




was otherwise smashed and

tered (i8i A).

235 C*

11-Inch Ball; 4J-Inch Solid Platb


12-Inch Wood

Facing and 20-Inch Backing.


the 28th of May, 1863, this

was punched

at the

Washington Navy Yard
Fis. 122 A.

122 A,


in. plate,

with wood backing and


and 122
with 30




was a

168-lb. cast-iron 11-in. ball, fired

of powder

range, 90*2



was a 4^in.

solid plate, only

feet square, forged

from scrap, and having

upon upon

its its

outer surface 12 inches of oak fastened with 6 bolts, and

inner surface 20


of oak backing, resting against a solid

bank of clay. The shot struck 16 in. from the top of the target, and 16^ in. from its right edge, shattering the top and middle course of facing, and tearing ofi" the upper part, throwing two
* These facts and engravings were published officially in the " Scientiflo American."

Requirements of Guns
timbers 30



forward and one piece of plate 102
Pia. 122 B.

Two bolts were

The indentation aronnd
tbe sbot-hole was f to
i incb.




fractured and flattened,

but did not break up.
It should be


with reference to

as well as other experi-

ments with English and


targets, that

a target of this size cannot represent the conti-

nuity and strength of a ship's


of a

complete turret or case-


It is also well

settled in England, that

large area of plate, iron


(see Chal4i-m. plate, with

mers and BelUropJum
targets) in addition to

wood backing and


wood backing, ana
good armor.

great ductility of armor,

are all essential features of

* Figs. 122 C, and 122 D, represent horizontal sections of the Warrior's side at the
junction of the armor-plated athwart-sliip bulkhead with the side armor, and between
Fie. 122 C.

Horizontal section of the Warrior's armor.



S36. American Armor-Pnncliing Guns.*
guns that are capable of giving very high
large diameters, have not been fired at a
their eifects

— The American

velocities to shot of




be approximately


from their charges.
with 25

The Parrott

10-in. rifle (78) fires a 300-lb. projectilef


therefore be considered capable of carrying a

spherical 130-lb. ball with nearly as


efiect as the


Armstrong gun, which made a clean breach through the Warrior target. The new 10-in. Dahlgren cast-iron gun fires a 130-lb.

with 40 to 43


of powder, at about 1600 feet velocity.



same range.

would be nearly \ that of the lO^in. Armstrong, at the The first gun of this class was cast soHd, and burst less than a hundred rounds; but the gun has now been

remodelled and strengthened, and

cast hollow.




Armstrong gun burst after 264 rounds. The 11-in. ball, with 80 lbs. of powder and 1400 feet velocity, would give about 80 per
These illustrations show, at a glance, the prohaWe resistance of a ship aa compared with a small detached plate of iron resting on short sticks of hacking withthe ports.
FlG. 122 D.

Horizontal section of the



out lateral or vertical support, and without a convex and continuous structure of ribs,

bulkheads, and decks, in the rear.



writer in the


Reoieio (April,




obviously not prejudiced

in favor of English Ordnance, expresses

what is certainly the common although not the universal sentiment of England with regard to American Ordnance. After the Dahlgren and Rodman 11 and 15-inch guns and the Parrott 100-pounder have endured the thousand test rounds, and in view of the unprecedented scientific accuracy with which the figure, material, and fabrication (hollow casting, and cooling from within), of the Rodman and Dahlgren guns have been perfected, the writer referred to remarks as follows: "The Americans appear to have a natural predilection for what is big, and they have applied themselves to the production of huge guns, made on every variety of pattern, with very little scientific uniformity and direction. If we are correctly informed, none of these guns have shown that durability which is essential to permanent service, nor have their effects corresponded to the cost and labor bestowed on


The ordinary

projectile of the Parrott 10-in.

gun weighs 250


Requirements of Gtuns



cent, of tlie penetrating effect of tlie lO^in.

Armstrong ball witli 50
all autborities, as

of powder, tbis effect being, according to


weigbt multiplied into tbe square of tbe velocity.
a spberical sbot always breaks a hole larger tban


own diamearea.

tbe resistance to


tbese sbots

would not very materially


on account of tbeir small differences ia sectional


greater part of tbe



undoubtedly done before tbe ball gets


way tbrougb tbe plate. Tbe 11-in. sbot bas been fired through a number
like those of the

of 4i-in. plates


Warrior ; but tbe quality of tbe iron was


cases very inferior for plates.


target (200),


with the English plates (212 to 216),
of this fact.

a sufficient illustration


steel is certainly

an invaluable material for




makes the worst

possible armor.

high tensile strength resembles

stSel in this particular.

Hard iron of Tbe plates

by tbe 11-in. shot exhibited tbeir unfitness by cracking all and they sometimes actually crumbled into small pieces
plates, of better quality,

where they were struck.* Other American 4^-in.
Quite recently, the

have not been

completely punched by tbe 11-in. shot and 30

lbs. of powder (214). gua has been found capable of en-


60-lb. charges,

which give a velocity of nearly 1600


spherical projectiles, enabling


to completely




thicker than tbe sides of tbe Warrior.


ing are extracts from the United States
tions for 15-in.

Navy Ordnance




" Solid shot should always be used against iron-clads, and with
50-lb. charges,

but never fired on any other occasion.

" At close quarters

—say 60 to 150 yards—60



be used

for 20 rounds of solid slwt.

" Ca7inon-powder only should be used, as 35


of this kind

* This defect in American thick plates is admitted, and can be remedied. The prolonged and costly experiments by which hard iron was proved Inadequate in England, ought not to be repeated in America. At the suggestion of the author, Admiral Dahlgren some time since sent for a number of English sample-plates, for target practice, that he might more accurately compare his own with foreign guns.





.a -a

3 S

02 <|


a 5

a a


Requirements of Guns





gives a greater range than 50 lbs.

mammotli powder




charge of the latter cannot be burnt in the gun."

337. Conditions of Oreatest
penetrating force


measure of the






be the

weight of the shot multiplied by the square of the velocity at the moment of impact.* Eeferring to table (31), it will be observed that the 288-lb. Armstrong shell fired with 45




striking velocity, went through a 5^in. plate; while

the 150-lb. spherical ball, fired with 50

of powder from a simi-


with, say, 1600 feet striking velocity, only plate and


4rJ in.




went through must be remembered that
latter shot.

the gun was very


less strained

by the



produce a strain

equal to that of a 288-lb. shot with

45 lbs of powder, the


Armstrong gun


made was


with a 150-lb. shot and 90

of powder, giving a velocity of
150-lb. ball at



The work done by the
While the

pared with that of the 288-lb. shot
6 to



2010 ft., as comwould be about as

288-lb. shot, at


velocity, only penetra-

ted a 5^-in. plate, the 275-lb. Horsfall shot, at only about 200 feet


velocity per second,

smashed a


hole through a 4^in.




288. CoNDrnoNS


OF Spheeical and Rifle Shot.

High YELocrrv. MsErrs and Defects To insure a high velocity, the

According to Professor Treadwell, the strain produced by heavy and light projectiles, with a given charge, is

must be


as the cube roots of their respective weights,t

and their


are inversely as the cube roots of their weights.
* Commander Scott states (Journal Royal United Service Institution, April, 1862), •' a very high velocity seems to produce an effect far beyond what the formula



x weight gives."

Scott says, on this suhject, in his pamphlet " On Projectiles and f Mr. Michael "Without at present attempting any investigation as to the pressure Guns," 1862

of the gas formed

by the explosion of gunpowder,

or the rate at

which that pressure

diminishes as the gas expands,

may be

affirmed that the pressure required to pro-

duce, in a given length of gun, a certain velocity, will vary as the square of the
velocity, as is the case

when a

constant force acts; and,


the pressure be given, the

weight to be thrown will be inversely as the square of the velocity.

(P being the pres-

M the mass,

S the space, then

^ = r~S







"V* if

1 M be given, M a =j if


Requirements of Guns



239. The

Bpherical shot presents the greatest area of any prac-

ticable solid shot to the powder, for a given weight,

and hence

receives the higher velocity.

P be

of 1100

be fired from a 1-ia. gun, with a velocity can be fired with the same strain upon the 1100^ ^„,, p=°° ^°^gun with a velocity of 1600 feet per second, is only 140 x



a shot of 140


per second, the weight


Sir 'William


said, in

a discussion before the Royal United Service Inst.

{Jmr. B.

V. S. Inst, June,


" I will now endeavor to explain why it is that a rifled gun must be heavier than a smooth-bore, and, for this purpose, I will direct your attention to the longitudinal diagram which I have drawn (Fig. 123), showing the bore of a gun of 9i in. in diameter,

with a cartridge containing 35


of powder, and measuring in length 11 inches, and
Fig. 123.







-^ 5^-


having a round shot placed before it weighing 100 lbs. Now, if I were to rifle that same gun, and substitute for the round shot a rifled shot of twice the weight, then it must be clear that, the powder having a greater mass to move, the gas will meet with a greater resistance, and will get up a greater pressure behind the shot, and it will be
necessary to add additional strength to resist that extra strain upon the gun.
" But,

* * *

may be



not keep the weight of the shot the same, and reduce

the bore, so as to enable the same proportions to be retained ?

Xow, we

will try that

have in this case taken the bore at 1^ in., which, I believe, is approximately correct for a round shot of 50 lbs. (See Fig. In this case, by making the projectile of the same proportion as in the other 124.) case, we make its weight 100 lbs., or the same as the sphere in the other case. Now, to apply the same cartridge the same quantity of powder because that is the conit

and here we have




— — the area of the bore being only one-half what
H to
and, consequently,




it is

necessary to


Hence, therefore, although the circumferential area exposed to the pressure of the powder is diminished in the
the cartridge twice the length, as represented here.

proportion of

Sii yet the longitudinal surface is increased in the proportion of


to one


we have

a far greater surface exposed to the pressure

of the gas at the

instant of ignition in the one case than

we have

in the other.

The strength of the gun must

therefore be continued farther forward.

But not only

that, after the shot of the smaller

bore has travelled through once the length of
FlO. 124.

cartridge, the length of bore filled

by the gas

will be twice

34 inches, or 68 inches



the other has travelled through once the length of the cartridge, so as




340. The

on the Parrott


gun, as measured by-

Captain Hodman's instrument, at West Point, was about 86400 lbs.
Table XXXII.
Velocities of Paeeott (6-4-Inoh) 100-PonNDEE by Bentok's

Electeo-Ballistio Penddlum,





Requirements of Guns
for tlie 100-lb. bolt, witli the



same quantity and kind of powder
So that

that gave 28000 lbs. pressure for the 32-lb. spherical shot.

the pressures were nearly as the weights.


Telocities, as

measured, were nearly with equal charges,

inversely as the cube roots of the weights of the shots.

341. Captain Fishboume,

in discussing the merits of rifled

and smooth-bore guns,* mentions the low velocity of the rifle-shot and its greater strain upon the gun as serious defects, and then
refers to the merits

and possible improvements in the smooth-

bore, as follows



Now I

only propose that the causes of the errors in round

shot shall be directly removed.

These are


an undue amount of

windage, imperfect sphericity, and absence of homogeneity. Table
33 shows the

of the reduction of windage




of Reduoins Windaoe.




Requirements of Guns



with those of the service 68-pounders and Armstrong 110-pounder.

The 68-pounder appears
a height of only 8

to a disadvantage


range was taken at

the other two, Sir William Armstrong's at




Horsfall's at 20

This would


a considerable

difference in their range against that of the 68-pounder.


time of flight of Horsfall's smooth-bore


about half that of the

and shows, abundantly, to what perfection smooth-bore guns may be brought. The windage in the 68-pounder is -198,
that in Horsfall's




" In the field

it is

admitted that the

difficulty of



and other disturbing circumstances, are such

as to con-

fine the ranges of projectiles for military purposes to

2000 yards

the disturbing causes, which are constant, are greater, from

which the various movements in

become causes of error
above point-blank, and

therefore the most useful ranges cannot be greater than those

obtained 'by Mr. Horsfall's gun at


with powder only one-sixth the weight of shot, while the elevation
of rifle-guns

considerable for the same distances.

Then, as the

angles of descent are great, the chances of striking an object are

powder used. The smashing would be three times that of the 150-pounder.>
scarcely worth the

effect of this



since, for

The former conclusion Sir H. Douglas arrived at some time he says The main principle which should govern our


choice of naval guns


to prefer those which, with equal calibre,

possess the greatest point-blank range.'

This was the correct view

have taken before


introduction of iron-coated ships



we have no choice,


no other guns

will be completely effec-

tive against iron plates, if against other ships either

343. "Imperfect sphericity, another cause of error in round may be removed in working scrap-iron into wrought-iron shot, made requisite by the introduction of iron-plated ships a

nearer approach to homogeneity will at the same time be made,

while the expense of such will
the elongated shot.


be far below the cost of any of

" Since this paper was written, I have seen a pamphlet on this
subject, in

which the value of smooth-bore guns and improved

" But rifle-guns and elongated shells. to the exclusion of smooth-bores. "When it Strikes a plate. often breaks away. we must revert to the smooth-bore in principle. strong. 346. C. Such is that proposed by Captain Scott. for neither ships nor fleets can take factories to sea with them. It should be a muzzle-loader. but even for the simplicity which would bring with So it. no sacrifice of initial velocity is admissible. for breaching purposes we should therefore endeavor. no less than for economy. and having its impart momentum c.198 shot are set forth. Fig. have decided advantages. combine the advantages of the round-shot with those this of the elongated. Fraotnre^fTspherical shot upon striking armor. strikes a large area of the plate. in one description of gun. 344. to is also sometimes very important for the support of . must be the ruling qualification in the selection.. as compared with the flat-fronted shot. E. but the overhanging mass a failed to a. It is Ordnance. and long range troops and if possible. 345. in mode of rifling can be undue windage. Fig. and invest talent force. for the navy." ^ ^ _ _. in a salvo of small pieces. the mass c is directly "^ arrested and supported to . smashing and economy. stantial advantages of we have given up the sub- low trajectories. and money to develop its merits. and as little liable to get out of order as possible. especially of small and medium calibre. that. Scott. is ^^^^ likely to waste power in self-destruction. simplicity. having no support. such is that used by the French in their rifle-gun that admits of the use of round balls. 125. Therefore. : little . 126. by Mr. for efficiency. straight ricochet. and shows the turn which the public mind is taking. The spherical shot. we must have both portance of each numbers proportionate to the relative imwindage. unless a found that will not involve descriptions of gun. because of the greater quantity of powder these shells are capable of containing. with greatly diminished velocity . then. M. " To the extent that we have adopted rifle-guns. E. for the very occasional advantages of long range. N. simple of construction.

and those used (231). is chiefly as the sheared area. . resistance in these cases was compared with the A it 5-in.. The ring generally breaks into pyramidal pieces. also preto sents the greater area to the armor. bolts were fired from the 110-pounder 7-in. until the ring breaks . lead shot any form (212). which fly off from the reflecting surface. The spherical shot.. was mashed to 11 in. Ordnance and Gunnery. move on. 5 composing a cone. by Mr. diameter. and that a was through a target made slight of four 1-in. pact. have been fired fired boards. •' experimental shot recently ^ steel. fired at a (See Table 35. is f This subject more fully considered in the chapter on Rifling and Projectiles. The power required is punch cross- plates in a machine. or perhaps reme- by making the both the ball of steel. Even cast-iron balls do more through damage in to plates than wrought iron of given weight and velocity It is true that candles 40-lb. 247. separated by as many meridian planes these pieces are thrown .— Requirements of Guns and effect. in case does not break up. But the velocity.* —Armor. 1862. Hardness even to brittleness is and ductility. . 248.f In fact. after impact. . depending on the velocity of the projectile and the surface of un.) stronger target. 65|^-lb. This has already been approxinaately accomplished by Sir William Armstrong. the base of which is the surface of contact. The made „ Flat-fronted Whitworth projectile.t- .) To obviate these defects. power in 199 dianging its A wrought-iron may rifle shot wastes figure (209). and the spherical shot should be of a harder and tougher material than has yet been employed in of Bessemer service. Whitworth better than softness have almost doubled the power upon armor of the present guns. Benton. „ . an effective elongated projectile must be made as light as a spherical projectile. This defect be greatly diminished.v • . gun. Parrott bolt. composing a ring cone. died. In the experiments of March 17th (186). by their inertia. and produced rather more effect than the * The particles arrested by the impact surrounding this into pieces. plates. (236. are the remaining particles of the projectile.. at various distances. spherical shot about double that of the 100-lb. . t. The sectional area of a 100-lb. lead shot.

plate was bent. Range. with india-rubber sabot 6 in. bolts ft.. range. in. 6^ in. lead shot. plate was overturned and thrown 10 long to the rear. was fired at a vertical target 18 (total x 20 in. with an india-rubber sabot in. —was 22 fired at a vertical target 5 feet square. 9 lbs. ball. weight. mortar plate powder. 21. 40 lbs. i\ deep x 6^ diameter. were found beyond the target. india-rubber sabot charge. 92 The plate was strongly supported by timbers. shot 50 lbs. deep x 8^ in. in. The broke square Indentation. with an india-rubber sabot 4 — 5J in. which is hardly necessary at very short range their dis. possess their large cross-sectional area i. 14. II. long. The rear. fired at 4i-in. propped by heavy logs. besides short radial cracks. of oak by 16 backed by timbers and a stone of target considerably.. and bolted on 20 3 or in. charge 10 lbs. fired at a solid wrought-iron plate in. and dished. 249. j —A ft. results. 8 lbs. cut off by the shot. ft. lead shot. {From I. The lead shot struck the plate in the centre.) July 29. fired at 109 ft- range. Pieces preserving to a great degree cylindrical form.200 " Ordnanck. solid in. weight. V. .. in. solid plate.. and situated 108 ft. wide x steel deep. eter. target had been made immovable. 9 lbs. e. is A very short rifle-bolt is unfit for long range . The back ft. made of 4 wrought-iron all each an inch thick (total 4 in. india-rubber sabot. of the plates. —Experutents at West Point with Lead Shot against Aemob UNEEK THE SUPERINTENDEKCE OF CAPTAIN BENET. of 3} in. and was found in the earth 10 ft. dished the in the centre. The shot Target and backing knocked out of place. diam- charge. The initial velocity lbs. in its The shot was reduced by its its passage from 40 lbs. of 40-^ lbs. —Lead to the diameter of 9 and 1 1 in. shot. Cylindrical — Indentation. 46 long X 23 in. charge. 6 in. No. inclined 4^° from a vertical.) A valid objection against short bolts in proportion to their weight. long x 5 in. 8-in. cracked the second slightly. I. Distance from the muzzle of the gun. wide. Table XXXT. mortar powder. attained is by 68-lb. charge. 68-lb. III. a right cylinder in form.. broke one plate.) this not required in iron-clad warfare. except greater accuracy. made of 12 half-inch bolts. —A cylindrical lead shot. but (254. —A 40-lb. diameter. loss of velocity. I. and 3-in. 1433 that of the 1307 ft. In fact. .. broke 10 and made a total indentation was flattened IV. at 109 ft. 4j- thicli. Aug. mortar powder plates. with about the same I-J- The . to lbs. Official Reports. wide. thick. penetrating l^ the indentation being 8 in. across. bolt being of powder.).. 8 lbs.. in. 103 The whole was The shot struck bolts. shot went through the target and backing. The orifice was 5^ diameter. the muzzle. in form a right cylinder weighing 32 lbs. across. at 4j-in. they no advantage over the round steel ball. is (See Eifling. with 16 Ill-lb. 4 tons' weight. plates wrought iron). and cracked in the rear clear and nearly through its entire thickness.. 4-in. from bolted to oak timbers 6 in. plate. from tbe 110-ponnder. l86a. No. The 3 in.. to The Aug. of the plate was bulged 2 in.

An fired be of rifling. Stafford's Bub-calibre shot. And if the balls are thin enough to reduce the weight much. and this modification of it does air. Fig. thick. especially with the Armstrong system S30. and modified by others. * See chapter on Rifling and Projectiles. they are liable to be sprung open friction by the powder. appears to be the proper system of firing the best punches at the highest velocities for while the area pressed by the powder may be as large as that of the spherical shot. thus increasing the Hollowing out a 7-in. which has been adopted by Mr. bolt and strain on the gun. full-calibre rifle-bolt. would leave the walls only about f in. in the present state of the art.* Rotating the shot takes power. Rifling and Projectiles). greater friction in is —^Armor. through I of its length. upon the gun. the method usually proposed to striking. .. but need not greatly reduce the velocity. 127. 127. must from a rifle. Stafford (see chapter on Fig. shot is only torn off when the shot enters elongated shot. upon 201 Hol- and strain lowing out the rear of the shot lighten if it is it. This renders it more liable to fracture not made of some extremely dense and tough material. in order to go end on and accurately. Requirements of Guns advantages are. as not reduce the area of the shot to the well as to the target. The wooden covering of the the armor. the area that strikes the plate maybe smaller than that of a each case. The sub-calibre system. so as to reduce its weight one-half. 100-lb. the weights being the same in But the sub-calibre system will not allow the use of the most effective shells.

1862. refer to short ranges. at .. therefore. Shells must. By experiment. must be revolved about their major axes. yards. would be fired with 100 of powder .202 Ordnance. before the Defence Com- the weight [of the lO^inch]. at 1000 1000 (See yards. "With such a gun in the smooth-bore staie. The proceedings of the . at 30 yards' distance from the ft. because pre- sents but about half the area (as ordinarily proportioned) to the resistance of the atmosphere for a given weight.. and the discussions on this subject in Eng- land generally. gun. considered above. the round-shot for that gun would weigh 300 lbs. ball. is As . the rifle. Whitworth and others. was obtained against the Warrior target. that the spinning is motion of an elongated bolt passing through armor. viz. in order to be kept end on. Ill-lb. say 3000 yards. in * Report of the Defence Commissioners. the initial velocity being 1579 7-in. at feet. rifled for The Armstrong and WLitworth guns were sons: First. bolt. for long-range fighting. 157 at 200 yards.) 3S3. at 1300 yards. least at long range. ft. Defence Commissions. It is also Hence the necessity of rifled guns.bolt will have the advantage its velocity deit creases much less rapidly than that of the sphere. 25 1 Second. two rea- To carry punching-shells. the 68-lb. The Armstrong ft. . at 100 yards. 91 ft. and 581 ft. the thin walls of a shell and its greater overhanging weight would insure its being smashed. necessary to keep it end on while The Armstrong and Whitworth guns were rifled The advantages of the spherical shot. with an initial velocity of only 1125 has. indicate a belief that iron-clad warfare will be conducted chiefly at long ranges. the same velocity as the 68-lb. Since a solid sphere will break upon striking armor (246). 981 Table of Velocities. be elongated and being elongated. ball loses 25-7 ft. held by Mr. as great an efiect as we may expect to produce. far as this the case. 8-in. it we (30) adapted for a shot twice used that gun with the same lbs. mission Sir "William :* —" I am now making a gun If Armstrong said. relative charge.

round-shot. target. is is an example But by what right it assumed that naval actions are to be Is it fought at short distances for the future ? because it suits the smooth-bore guns ? No if doubt it would have suited the Macedobut the American nian much better she had fought her action with the United . at 1300 yards. late the velocity of impact to be 1200 feet per second 300-lb. SuflScient accuracy of aim* to hit small sides of Monitors.: — Requirements of Guns the late experiment. But evident.'' The Dock-yards. especially ties. Ship-yards. can hardly be expected. tainly. and curved upon the object aimed at (242). and Marine of France. would have been very formidable at short ranges. at 200 yards (227). he gained the day. by the best guns. of which the following. Only the comparatively thin Warrior and Minotaur targets have as yet been punched." 3a3. at short range. the 32-pounder carronades. And yet the guns were laid by the most experienced Shoeburyness gunners. and would produce.-gun. same thing occurred in the action between the Essex and the Phoebe. when these objects are rapidly changing position and direction iy steam. but they were almost useless at the distance at it is which the action was fought. and the target was moored in smooth water. or turrets. enemy to surrender. or missing altogether. There many arguments to the contrary. and taking Exactly the advantage of his long-range guns. and in a very short time compelled his action." "with the 13-3-iu. First. Barry. the same effect as the round-shot at 1300 yards.. —Armor.-gun and the 10-5 — firing at in. even punch armor cannot be obtained from rifles. rifle-shot. and by keeping at a distance. and 850 feet per second for the 3000 yards. A. — Effective iron-clad are. yards. that suflScient velocity to at long range. at 600-lb.A2fGE m Ieon-Clad Waefabe. E. l^oble. only 1 shot struck the 1000 yards at the Warrinr target 14 ft. high elevations. chose the distance that suited his guns. the others grazing the target. except that in this case the British captain took advantage of his long-range 18-pounders. Second. States at short distance rather than at long would not follow suit. cer- fighting will undoubtedly be done at short range. when with low veloci- trajectories. shot can only d/rop * "Out of the entire programme.. 1864. at 203 The rifle-shot for the same 3000 I calcufor the gun will weigh not less than 600 lbs. In this which formed the armament of the ^ssfa?. the low even the high sides of casemated frigates." 3tS4. by Captain " E. — .

their missiles will not have far to go . One or the other vessel whichever attempts it. can do this . still 5 and mamore work at 300 to 1000 yards. Besides. of rifle-guns are not required mere iron-clad warfare. irrespective of the calculations of artillerists.204 Ordnance. it is important to guns for all purposes. This would be accomplished by a systhat would neither tem of rifling and gun nor impair its rifle projectiles weaken the efiiciency for spherical-ball firing. that the victory and vulnerable by sluggish locomowas simply a question : of the longest arms.) For mere punching. sufficient accuracy. for light punching-bolts. for armor-punching shells. such ranges would give the spherical shot nearly every advantage. At with very short ranges. The Monitor and in contact. But to it is hardly to be expected that steam- rams. clad in modem armor. the MerrirnacTc were hardly a dozen yards apart fight. as it must be in utilize small turrets and casemates (room for guns must be limited in well-protected ships of practicable all size). 333. while they have the power and appliances for other manoeuvres . 336. makes the battle hand to hand. 3d. they will not waste time which their shots will make no impres. they will not stand still by firing at a distance at be shot at 2d. Where the number of guns is limited. (See chapter on Kifling. and they is will not be likely to go far after striking. earthworks. So that some rifle-guns for ordinary shells. for "' Hence a large number Still. So that. it is probable that well-balanced elongated shells and light elongated shot would go end-foremost. they will not lose the opportunity of smash- ing the enemy's side in with their prows. if much power wasted on projecting heavy masses and spinning them at high velocities. there may always be some work to be done —camps. opposing vessels will be trying to ram one another. such as Stafford's sub-calibre shot (249). will do either one of three thin^ — 1st. during the greater portion of their and were several times The tion old sailing-vessels were so embarrassed sides. . 3 to miles' range — and at shelled. sion on the enemy. should form a part of every ship's and armament. and towns to be sonry to be penetrated.

—"Work done by Different Guns. So that the sub-calibre system (249) would seem to be indispensable to the perfect utilization of one very largebore gun for both spherical and elongated projectiles. . Its diameter would also be too great to punch thick armor.Requirements of Guns If tlie —^Aemor. in of large diameter. 205 bore for smashing and racking purposes were of considerit would involve the use of a full-calibre rifle-shot This shot would have to be very short. Nature of Gun. the 68-Poijndeb beins taken at unity. order to bring a safe strain upon the gun. and would then be unfit able diameter. Table XXXTI. for very long ranges.

the 13-in. and for the monster gun. At 1° elevation. 3° elevation. At point-blank. of shot to the shot in the 13-in. 1990 yards. the 68-pounder (smooth-bore) ranged about 310 yards. the Armstrong (110-pounder rifle) about 350 yards. says. 1330 elevation. and the 13-in. I abovit i gun was 50 . is xV second. 1800 yards. . and accuracy.206 Ordnance. of powder to 282 lbs. the monster gun has the most decided advantage. At 5° the 68-pounder ranges 2000 yards the Armstrong gun. 1 minute and 1 second at 10° elevation. of powder to 66 lbs. * * * . and the Horsfall gun reaches 1030. the Armstrong takes 12j\ seconds. and ranges 4040 yards and the 13-in. the 68-pounder ranges 3200 yards. the monster gun ranging slightly farther in . the Armstrong. . at point-blank. 3470 and the 13-in. At 7° elevation. the 68-pounder ranges 1470 the and the 300-pounder gun. Horsfall gun:* to 12° of elevation.862. At Armstrong. proportionate weight of powder and shot). and the monster gun about 600 yards. the 68dis- pomider ranges 2440 yards. * * * The 13-in. Hodman gun shows the following * Report of Defence Commission. 2930 yards. the Armstrong to 670. — and the proportion of powder lbs." The practice with the 15-in. gun ranges 2980 yards. therefore the average velocity of that must have been slightly superior to the Armstrong. while the resistance opposed by air increases as the square of the diameter. gun. and that opposed by iron as the diameter. . At 10° elevation. * . |-. more especially in shorter ranges after 12° the rifled gun takes the lead. of shot —about 1. See also Table 34. 2430.* The time of flight for the Armstrong 100-pounder. the 68-pounder ranges 730 yards. gun ranges 3870 or 3880. Ranges range of the of Laege Baxls. 8530. gun shows great superiority in this comparison (the In the 68-pounder. y\ of a second less time shot . the Armstrong then reaches a tance beyond the 68-pounder. think the charge was 16 lbs. —Mr. the 68-pounder ranges . and ranges 2570 yards . At The Armstrong gun then takes the lead by a considerable distance. So8. penetration. gun. So that the as large shot has the greater range. "Up Clay to the 13-in. and the monster gun 12tV seconds. . 12° elevation. .

1937. 1873 yards. The were 5 yards to the right 1. 1892. or perhaps to some difference in the weight of the shot been intercepted at the target the shells fired. yds. spherical shell. gun up to 10° elevation. according to late experias follows 8" 4° 5- ments with the navy gun. 1° 2' yds yds. probable a range considerably beyond 4 miles might be obtained. With 39° it is elevation. they were 2700.^ and 5 yards to the left. and may be estimated 85'. to test which the firings were made. 3. and a charge of 40 of large-grained powder. 5062. 2760 yards. |. are Charge. the shot (328 lbs. 5730 yards. . 1. (cannon) do. large-grained powder. not much over the height of a three- decker. Beyond that elevation the gain is considerable. These ranges do not exhibit any decided advantage of those obtained from the 10-in. at about 600 yards for the elevation of 28° lbs. Had by a vertical plane. Armstrong smooth37). showing at this range of miles a very great accuracy as regards horizontal deviations. at (5 lateral deviations trials) 2017. and the time of flight about 37 seconds. "The lbs. 1902. large-grained powder they were 5435. is attributed partly to the greater proportionate weight of the shot to the resistance. ( The great range and accuracy of the 9'22-in. minimum 207 charges men- " In firing for accuracy. The vertical deviations were probably due to varying initial velocities. with 6° elevation."* The ranges of the 15-in. With 10° elevation and 40 lbs. 1861. tioned (35 at a target 2000 yards distant. maximum elevation of 28° 35' and 50 : of Rodman's perforated cake-powder —shells of 334 —were as fol- lows 5298. yds. 5375 yards. as bore (Table compared with the smaller smooth-bore to the reduction of windage. and partly * "Notes on Sea-Coast Defence. 35 lbs. they would have been found included in a vertical extent of about 6 yards.). ranges with lbs. with the lbs." — Gen. Barnard.) struck the ground about 8 feet below the level of the gun.: Requirements of Guns results : —Armor. With 40 lbs. ) 620 920 1200 1300 1470 50 lbs. 2900. 2754. 4950.

Charge. Raktges. 10 feet. Muzzle. 13614 LBS... 0-065. Windage. 17-5 peei above Plane — No of . Table XXXVII.208 Okdnance. Weight. 33 lbs. Length.. &c. Armstrong Muzzle-Loaddto Smooth-Bore 9-22Inch lOO-PouNBEB.

being one 2 and the other 10 inches in . This is so universally received as true by ordnance officers. respectively . as in the hydrostatic press. in his excellent . the weight required in the pistons will he as the squares of the diameters. per inch. diameter. one should be 25 times as great as the other. velociroots of the shot. the inertia of the balls should he as the squares of the diameters of the calibres. or the stress upon the walls of the 10-inch gun would be 71 per cent. of an increased charge. however. each inch of 5 times as powder in the large gun will he opposed by much in- ertia as is found in the small gun. and although the strain thrown upon the gun by 5 hy no means 5 times as great as that by 1 hall. * " Hutton inferred that the velocities of balla of different weights with the same were inversely as the square roots of the weights and Captain Mor. and the stress upon the gun. and computing the forces developed by the same charges of powder with shot of different weights. greater than upon those of the 2-inch gun. Every one. that it is a common practice to use two or more balls.. But the balls.. or 4 to 100. to develop the same force. and 21 lb. and 1520.* This would give.Requirements of Guns their diameters . velocities 2696. Hence. that is. that the forces are almost exactly as the cube Thus Button's experiments with balls of 1-2 lb. book of experiments. all furnish. do not cliarges of powder. an increase of from 1 to I'Tl. ties 973 and 749.. I think. and that the sides of each gun equal in thickness the diameter of its Then. Suppose the calibre of one to he 2 inches in calibre. in the example before us. This would give no increase to the force of the powder. 9-28 lb. from comr paring their experiments. 2150. in proving guns." 14 . — Armor. instead decai. will weigh 1 pound and 125 pounds respectively the weights being as the cubes of the calibres. by computation. Captain Mordecai's experiments with balls of 442 lb. and must be impossible and I find. and take an extreme case. give forces almost exactly proportiofaal to the cube roots of 1-2 and 2-9. there can he.knows that a small increase in the weight of the shot in a fowling-piece increases in a sensible degree the recoU. and 2-9 lb. forces very nearly proportional to the cube roots of the respective weights of the balls. -"The foregoing statement and comparison. from the powder of each gun. " Now carry this to two cannon of different calihres. as 209 of and if the pressure he produced hy the weight plungers or pistons. This produces a state of things precisely similar to that of loading the small gun with 5 balls inballs stead of 1 is .. diameter and the other 10 inches. no doubt that the strain produced by different weights of ball is in a ratio as high as that of the cube roots of the respective weights. makes the same inference.

However. we double its length and make tridge 5 times as long. Why. of the same it. the motion of the commences while is tlie pressure before the charge fully burned. is the same in both cases. and to 1600 feet a second. then. as the square of the diameter of the shot. —we may obtain the full But this. how an increase in the charge should increase the tension of the fluid produced from if the cavity enclosing it be proportionably enlarged. be attained. the : pressure is as in a closed cavity . a pipe two feet long. the tension Now.210 present the whole ease . Thus. if we take the charge of the gun at -^ of a pound. having an advantage from the comparative diminution of windage and the better preservation of the heat. the force remaining the same. crease the force through the whole length of we must either inthe gun to 5 times Neither that required for the small gun. or yV of the weight of the shot. or that the cartridges of the 2 and the 10-inch guns are of the same length. thickness and diameter. velocity of 1600 feet a second. —or perhaps. but with the large charge the fluid is formed faster . The velocity obtained from this effect. and and with the same velocity in both cases . first " It does not appear obvious. that is. with a charge of from 30 to 35 pounds. the charge be large or small. in the limits if under consideration. in each instance. would give but 8^ pounds for the large. will sustain the pressure produced by a double weight of steam from the same boiler. increasing the weight from 8^ to 41| pounds. we must by an result provide for its acting through 5 times the space. the car- increase of both the cliarge and the length of the bore. of these conditions can be practically accomplished. If a steam-pipe a foot long will sustain the pressure of a given quantity of steam. increases enor- mously the strain upon the gun. of a given temperature. whether shot depends upon the movement of the shot while the fluid is forming. for they are made upon is the supposition that the charge of powder. at a view. charge would produce neither range nor practical obtain these results. with the powder. Ordnance. small This. again. or. the may. taking the large bore. should the pressure upon a cannon be increased by a double length of cartridge ? The difference seems to be this with the steam.

to 1-71. vary essentially from the square roots of those charges. stated. that this result pressure multiplied by the space. I think. and the experiments of Captain Mordecai. and become greater. destroys the proportion between the sizes of the and the tension must increase faster. from a charge of 8^ pounds to one of 32 pounds. of 12 pounds of powder. Now there must be a great increase of the tension in the fluid during the first part of the and an equal increase of the that the hypothesis stated above. It appears to me ratio of force there assigned to diiferent charges. * " Hutton gt'^s the velocities of the balls as the square roots of the charges. we load a upon each sqviare inch of the bores will . the stress upon the gun. shot.Requirements of Guns tlian witli the small. while the —Akmor. and the ball's motion. strain upon the gun. from the increased velocity shot. This assigns to the is or power. do not wholly contradict it. say. that the stress thrown upon different charges of gun by then. powder. if the walls of both have a thickness proportional to the diameters of the calibres in each. two cavities. but as the charge. in the example under consideration. ratio. if we multiply these we have a under the conditions here calibre with 1 inches calibre That is to gun of 2 inches shot and ^ of a pound of powder. or from "1 to 1-96. be 3'35 times greater with at the the large than with the small gun when same time. conclude. but of the the we may. although a large portion of it may be derived from that source. by the together. and a gun of 10 with 1 shot and 32 pounds of powder. is raised from 2'88 to 6'66. The law of this increase cannot. within ordinary limits. with the larger charges. is. be stated with any ness .* we increase. wholly by the continuance of the pressure during the last part of the passage of the ball through the bore. the stress total increase of from 1 to 3'35. if." . which directly cannot be produced. will not If. although giving the velocities of the larger charges somewhat below this charges an effect. 211 enlargement of the cavity by the This movement of the shot is nearly the same in both cases. being as the square roots of these numbers. are in perfect accordance with these and other experiments. Having already increased the from 1 stress upon the gun. from the larger charge. the stress upon the large more than double that Even with a charge gun must be upon the small gun when charged with one-third the weight of its ball. the large gun will be incapable of sustaining a greater pressure per inch than the small one. from the complireliable exact- cate nature of the problem. and many other effects.

the Parrott 8-in. Merits and Defects of the System. 361. drawn from the most reliable experiments that have been made. The preceding examination does not. than they really are at are and although the cases. are loss of power and loss of time. and racked bodily the of a sheet of iron laid on a . or to so smash and rack his side as to cause dan- gerous weakness and leakage : time —perhaps hours —may elapse fleet before the fatal shell can be planted in the one case. by means of heavy projectiles low velocities.. that little power wasted in distributed it effect. and the dis- Armstrong. The hole is punched before there is time to bring the and ductility of the target into service. been stated that projectiles much diameter than the thickness of the iron target. is . present the dif- ficulties to be overcome in increasing the size of cannon as greater ." (See also 221 and 238. inertia of the surrounding ship's side. with a given strain upon the gun.212 " Oednance. I think. results that I have arrived yet they are deductions legitimately to be mere deductions. prevent the plate struck by a projectile from being acted upon bodily. in sub- same manner that a hand-punch shears a disk out wooden block. and therefore meets with the smallest passible resistelasticity ance. are so high. stantially the shears out a piece of the plate. or the fatal battering be inflicted in the other. is concentrated upon the smallest possible area. Dahlgren. likely to with the highest velocities at present attained . Supposing heavy shot at low shake off a portion of the enemy's armor. One less in other consideration It has is involved in determining the diameter of projectiles.. The block prevents the sheet of iron from being bulged. guns. the enemy's . leaving his skin bare. at —The obvious The advantages of the "racking" system. When such a shot goes through a plate.) from extreme and may be said 360. instead of being distributed to the crippling of a large surface and the vibration of the whole velocities to ship's side. veloci- ties of light shot. are not penetrate it. Meanwhile. and Parrott 9 to 10^-in. "Whatever power the gun is able to stand. distorted. so that the size of guns and projectiles can hardly be call decreased below the present class of what we may armor- punching guns —the Whitworth 7-in. as well as the backing.

were not considered formidable in comparison with shells. intended to eff'ect. that happened to be in the line of a shot. is true of a vessel covered with plates and the case of a whole its men and machinery ' distributed throughout length. it would simply push the ship bodily. A distin- guished British naval officer. truly enough. small holes are easily plugged. that the strongest gun will not penetrate it. if it were infinitely slow. that the range is so great or the armor so Racking resisting. essentially different from that of a small turret or casemate. said. . But the peneif at all and whole work is concentrated upon the smallest area. is obvious (267). it would waste no power and the shot infinitely heavy. Suppose. and the backing and skin is are torn into splinters. would utilize none it is then the only resort . when firing solid shot. In such a case. '' from 18's to 68's. the importance of a heavier and slower battering shot.Requirements of Guns has at least a chance to manoeuvre to fight its —Armor. that blow represents the maximum destroying power of the gun. What may be true! of a vessel with without armor. but that did not put the ship Besides. were killed out of action. that mere shot. 213 its final advantage. every one of which a missile of sufficient . Effect mistake to attach of Punching-Shot little m Turrets. at all . If the velocity of a shot were infinitely fast. 363. or to way to within shelling distance of a city. and since the small its shot. is only punched by a swift shot . added. . its trating shot accomplishes since its whole work at a blow. in expressing Jack's contempt for all sorts of pounders. Of course. keep out the shells !" This is the text of many discourses on the subject. but. however. passing in at one side of a vessel without armor. it punch. —It eff'ect is a common importance to the of small solid shot. the few men . The armor. is not necessarily ship. and out at the other. wastes little left for much of power in fruitless local has distributed effect. but the part punched out is is generally broken to pieces. It is even if they do punch the armor of a ship. . true. into crowded. in connection with the others. it is which the vitality of the ship is It is the thin line in- stead of the close column. and the shot broken to pieces. for God's sake.

the shot that penetrates merely the wooden or iron skin of a ship without armor. or any solid substance. have tirae to be communicated' to the surrounding and thus to drive in Sir Howard Douglass says. in so doing. through one of the earlier plates. This was actually the case in the thinly-clad Galena (Fig. Again. loses. if passes through the backing and skin did in several cases mentioned in Table 31). to put men. * * * In firing into masses of timber. if not machinery. ball in. tear off fewer splinters than balls fired from the same nature of guns with reduced charges. shot full discharged from large guns with the quantity of powder. by the fire of Fort Darling." 1860. that the inertia of the parts surrounding that immediately struck holds them together. But after passing through armor. . J size. of the line of the shot.* is This increased diameter of the part driven out of it the plate (as it equivalent. the back.214 power Ordnance. in the front of the plate. when pierced Section of the armor of the Galena (built of wood). all the much reduced that its remaining power and the new projectiles that it makes out of the pieces of an expanding column of splinters. the rear (202). 128. in the form Although the shot-hole may be larger than the projectile. so little of its velocity. hors de combat. the velo- city of a shot is so power of parts. to a projectile of this diameter fired into the ship. A 68-lb. little The debris of the armor spread on of a cone. the armor." f which can but "Naval Gunnery. on the subject :f " In close action. at drove a hole that measured 8^ diameter in front and 20 4:J-in. 128). Fia. that velocity * London " Engineer. on the all sides James Eiver. it is invariably much larger in in.

turret has also laminated it offers But the Dictator armor on the outside of the main armor-plate. casemated from by opposing artillerists. but not separated into fragments like a solid plate. turret. and tear off the greatest number and largest splinters. (194. for several hours. of say 7 one to just penetrate this fail to narrow all case- mate or it. The same objection cannot be urged against punching-guns. the splinters can hardly be driven over A backing behind the main armor-plate. that could be desired end to end. to make many splinters. —are thus crowded into a small can be made —the vital Now if fighting parts shot. the effect of solid shot within the armor of existing European iron-clads. earthwork. diameter. all which are. A laminated target may be torn and bulged. of course. The Galena. would. as in the turret of the Dictator. there would have been an opportunity for one or the other to have settled the matter force. by manoeuvring instead of brute It is not desirable to give an enemy. for working the guns space. would be ineffective If their shot go too fast through the under different circumstances. thicker." 363< The necessity of reducing the for the exposed length of the it armored portion of a vessel with a given buoyancy. * * * This particularly the case with respect to the impact of shot on plates of iron. is purpose of making generally admitted. carriages. of several elastic and modify the it is ductile inch plates. is 215 just penetrate will occasion the greatest shake. was not driven out of action by being punched some 30 times in the action Without employing her locomotive powers in at Fort Darling. that a 3G4. and other vital parts within the Still. result. she fought an bluff.) no advantage to the heavy (218). is not such a way as to render herself an uncertain mark. a United States vessel of the same class. within gunshot of a . so that shot at low velocities.Requirements of Guns —Armor. situated upon a high Had her antagonist been an iron-clad vessel of equal offensive and defensive power. armor armor. for the most part. now very The men and the machinery to 10 in. class of It has been objected to the racking system guns adapted to certain conditions. they have all the more power left to break the guns.

but likely to cause great destruction of life. the locomotive power of the vessel. or Parrott guns. thinner below than above the water-line. a chance to manoeuvre. tion of the boilers may generally be inferred The posiby the enemy from the position of the chimney. or breaking the engines of the present iron-clads. town or navy yard. 36o. Precautions have been taken against both these American scale. as is usual in England. Then. designs. by Mr. with 2^ lbs. if there can be any means devised to silence or cripple him at once. several light-draught Western iron-clads with boilers necessarily above water. if or it might penetrate the side-armor of a made. * "Report of the Defence Commissioners. through 30 feet of water and 8 inches of oak situated 3 feet below the surface. of course. for instance. Whitworth that he stated.* 24-lb. penetrate the skin of a vessel. from the present Whitworth. since the holes a shot in a holier is The admission of water may. a similarly shaped projectile. if tected by heavy side armor or it was not pro. a flat-pointed 32-lb. from a howitzer that was rifled. brass had fired. would be comparatively easy work. would. and that flat-pointed projectiles will go straight through water. shot. .216 Ordnance. But will be necessarily small. leaving her without the means of manoeuvring. and one or two gunboats of which the draught could not be made to accommodate the height of a certain patented boiler. The most formidable work of bolts. is the punching of a vessel below the — water-line. It not only destroys a most serious calamity. or escaping from rams. before the Defence Commissioners. of powder. some of the new Should the accelerating gun (See Appendix) results in it give as good results on a larger scale as has given on a small tapping the boilers." 1862. by a very sharply rising floor vessel. Armstrong. at high velocities. indeed. or below her armor. at least. fired with 25 to of powder. 50 lbs. have been thus pierced shot during the present war. be stopped. at a range short enough to give the necessary depression. it is Several converted vessels and transports with exposed boilers. or stranding. PuNCHEsra below Water.

1.Requirements of Guns —Armor. Armstrong steel shell. but the lOJ-in. . shell was 11 lbs. that bursting charge has less resistance. of powder. 13th. it appears from the experiments (231 to 235). 1862.) Comparing the 150-lb. shell The plate went through a it is 5|^-in. plate that had one-third greater resistance (as the square of the thickness) than the Wai-rior 4^-m. bursting charge. penetrated the plate and inside the ship. and must be displaced instead of compressed. because area is so great in proportion to its weight. with 23 lbs. Armob-Pttkching nearly as well as shot.. made a ragged hole in the skin and backing at the same range. that of the columbiad shell is but 17 and that of the 13-in. will 217 do very The little spherical shot and the slow shot. The bursting charge of 15-in. shot obviously made a wider breach and drove a greater volume of splinters through the Wai-rior target than if it had been iired with 90 lbs. while a 130-lb. In the experiments of Nov. with an equal charge.). that shells can be thrown through armor In the Whitworth experiments of Sept. But the its shell that has been fired through armor so shattered. of powder and 3 lbs. so as to fully utilize the strength of the gun. damage backing. Shells. spherical shot and the 288-lb. 8 oz. the shot punched a clean hole through the target siderable . In the experiments of March 17. did not penetrate the inner skin of the Warrior target. and obvious that if its subsequent explosion had not skin. 288-lb. of powder and 2010 feet of velocity. solid steel shot. (See Table 31. The defect of the size. —-Finally. any form. the 28S-lb. 306. 1863. been resisted by an unusually thick rior skin. no solid shot were fired at the 5i-in. and conse- quently does less damage. . with 25 lbs. 25. plate. of mischief under water. Whitworth armor- piercing shells was their inadequate The cavity in the . the 150 lb. its The former loses velocity rapidly. the War- damage inside of a small turret or casemate would have been excessive. did con- by bursting in the backing. steel shell. a 129-lb. shell from the same gun (10|^-in. but the shell. lbs. as well as the Whitworth steel shell. while water is practically non-elastic. tnortar is shell 7 lbs. instead of the |-in.

cavity was large enough to The weaken the walls of the shell. The Two Systems Combined. heavy shot is cannot smash in. remedied the defect in a great degree. velocities. At the same time. But it will appear that two way for each other. but if it not previously weakened. at a may be circumstances under which the be the more formidable missile. utilization of 367. and showed what might be expected from higher Appendix. with a 11-lb. and projecting small columns of splinters into her of the fighting and manoeuvring powers by means of small shot and weak time and involve too much risk. it Light. and of the heavy-shot system Avhen the may range is even very short. of power in terials. there shot. they may have low high velocity with a given strength of gun. so as to produce a more formidable result than when they are independently exercised.— 218 Oednance. "What more obvious than the combina- . heavy velocity. (See Gun Cotton SEcnoN TV. so that the bursting charge was fired as much backward as forward into the ship. the waste it is of power in producing local effect that because incomplete. is fruitless. bursting charge. vitals shells. shell. appear to so that power and time. and the armor little is laminated or so conis structed as to suffer from racking and shaking. or the seaworthiness of her. Another defect of the heavy-shot system is its waste overcoming only the elasticity and ductility of mait without straining all to the point of rupture. 2. rear was too small to hold an adequate bursting charge. when the range is very long prepare the or the armor very thick. But the Armstrong 10|-in. The defect of the light-shot system. will What forces has been said in the preceding pages refers to the exclu- sive use of one system or the other. take too much 368. Wearing out the resistance of a ship's armor. fast shot it may is riddle armor without dislocating as a whole. and the enemy's consequent infliction of the maximum damage upon an projectiles of demand moderate weight. The maximum iron-elad fleet.frame. its Nor is the punching system that could be desired in destructiveness of an enemy's ship.

the light shots that do penetrate are doing to the good work upon the enemy within. that the result can be pretty confidently predicted. that it produces no essential damage at any one spot. or both. As a part of this system. so widely dis- tributed and absorbed by the elasticity and ductility of the fabric. and affords no aid to the next small shot that may it strike quite near it. tenacity. the Meanwhile. and the backing splintered. 219 —weakening bodily? the armor by the loss of substance. not lighten fired at labor any. because they had so much continuity of substance and support. or otherwise weakened point of the intended fracture. is nicked.Requirements of Guns tion —Armor. Nearly punching a small hole does no damage to the enemy. The thick targets (Table 28) were not torn down. contribute most iisefully to the general result. and the ribs different places around the part intended to be carried away. or punched. city. without reference ening of his shield. its five or six feet away from slow shot it. of it heavy shot can carry in a large section At the same time the general straining and crackuntil the all ing of plates produced by the heavy shot makes punching easier. for the local strength of the particular spot strikes is what the does swift shot has to overcome. is When a bar at the to be broken. the tenacity and elasticity of so much of the structure would have been overcome. or partially punched. and fractures would have been already started in the rest. . the very shots which do least damage by themselves. either by the loss of material or the reduction of its cohesion. bored. or Any amount of elasticity and tena- weakness and fracture. But the case is so simple. weak- There have been no experiments made with any direct reference to this method of it fighting iron-clads. A very heavy and The may be laminated armor without materially reducing the work to strain is be done by those that are to follow. and the bolts broken. But even nearly punching a small hole almost entirely destroys the strength of some part of the square yard or square rod of a ship's side that resists the racking blow of the heavy shot. and continuity. If the plates could have been cracked in previously fractured.

is insufficient After a time. shake down his with light his During a brief action they cannot batter and side with heavy shot. and and buildings. The usefulness of some heavy guns in fighting the present class of European iron-clads them — —peeling of guns is obvious from the experiments already detailed. No class of projectiles can do this. grape. . but the disait.220 Ordnance. 269. wastes the greater part of the power actually is fruitless. guns. and they cannot punch it The only thing that they can do is to weaken in detail that they can at last armor one so much smash it in. or at fortifications. enemy —men. because it is incomplete (207). first. will stand. There must be two classes. and a section of the iron wall is driven in. and machinery—within him "With a given strength of gun-metal. It will be objected that this process is wasteful of time. Besides. and the enormous shells of these very battering guns. to shake off the enemy's armor. gives the elasticity and ductility of the material time to absorb much of the power of the shot. if guns are all of small calibre. Attempting to render an enemy's vessel untenable and unseaworthy by smashing slow to in local effect that his sides with shot too heavy and too punch them. attempting by means of very heavy shot. at velocities necessarily very low. and the obvious means of increasing place artillerists in resistance to all kinds of strains. Second. the remaining continuity of strength to resist the smashing blow. or the enemy will manoeuvre himself into city or navy yard. on shore. shot. founded. 370. throw the most formi- dable shells at vessels without armor. and that each great gun occupies the room and buoyancy of two This objection would not be well lighter or punching guns. : may yet the following position a tight must indeed be shelling range of a brief. The present improvements its in armor. for the purpose of shelling afterwards. Ociieral Conclusions. they cannot no matter how much powder they troops. bling of the active —The work demanded for iron-clad warfare. is not the mutilation of armor. and opening the enemy's side to the sea and to every projectile which can be thrown with tolerable accuracy — ^bullets. crushing men and machinery.

relative charges. 12-in. after passing through armor. and long. The combination of the two systems heavy racking and smashing shot. 221 Third. The Tenth.Requirements of Guns —Armor. at high velocities. without losing its independent usefulness. to fire steel and cast-iron balls at short range. during whicli the enemy may fight or man(Eu%Te himself into shelling range of towns and navy yards. and light sub-calibre punching- bolts and shells at high velocities. Sixth. would appear (339)- to be the greatest concentration of offensive power would to be used— and —a smaller gun would stand higher puncliing-shot. Both these processes involve dangerous delays. especially when men and machinery are (as they must be) crowded together in small turrets or casemates. Eleventh. — — latter. The destructive effects of shot. 371. most effectively. Punching-shot of moderate diameter. are very serious. Some guns of large calibre are also necessary to shell towns. they strike the enemy at once. a system of rifling is required that will not impair the efficiency of the bore. without injury. renders the hea^-y shot effective. and for other purposes. and thus give higher gun —perhaps a greater calibre than 20 inches—^would and a larger But if two kinds of naval guns are this appear to be the better system velocities to . utilize space and buoyancy. Fifth. and smaller punching-shot utilizes both. can be fired through vessels below water. a 10 to rifled so as to carry spheres gun. Shells can be thrown through armor with nearly as miich facility as solid shot. Seventh. Some To riiled guns are required to throw shells tlirough armor. and vessels without armor. earthworks. heavy shells. and light enough to receive a high velocity. mth large bursting charges and small propelling charges. In the present state of the art of gun-making. Flat-fronted bolts. at long range. gun as a smooth- Eighth. Ninth. Fourth. at long range. meet with the least resistance and waste the least power in uselessly mutilating and vibrating the armor .

ErPLED Guns against Tower No. high. Charge. 80-pdr. of 95 cwt. The following facts render an extended discussion of the subject quite unnecessary 373. 3 in. 49. In addition to destroying iron-clads. 68-pounders. 6-in. 16 Charge. 1861. 8 Burster. and 32 ft. effect of The object of the experiments was compare the spherical with that of rifled projectiles. in both cases. on Breaching Experiments against IWartcIlo Towers The towers were of brick. for this purpose. 10 lbs. " Shell. Charge. 46 the foot. Armstrong howitzer. (Tower No. Burster. Charge. Shell. Abstract of the Report of the Ordnance Select Committee. Charge. when her armor was riddled. BESACHmG Masonet. 9 " 5 " 100" 1 41 lbs. Armstrong gun. of which took effect as follows.- 8 oz. modern cannon will 37S. Shot. ja-pounders. With Spherical rounds . 77 Shell. of 58 cwt. ft. Smooth-Boees against Tower No. " j » " " The range was. Table XXXTIII. 5 Burster. So-pdr. 9 " 7-in. Armstrong gun. January 25. the top. throw off her armor. 82 lbs Shell. Least thickness at ft. . —Guns and Charges used in BEEAomNa Maetello Towers. effectually smash in a ship's side. 40 ft. 10 lbs.: 222 most promptly and especially Ordnance. diameter at — . as well as by actual warfare in America. 103a yards. Armstrong gun. be expected to destroy masonry. have been well settled by careful experiments in England. The relative merits of rifles and smooth-bores. " 8 40-pdr. 5 to 6 in. Shot. 2ii " aj I lbs. 11. and impair her sea-going as well as her defensive qualities. —"Expenditure of ammunition. 7 ft. Section Y. lbs. at the bottom. 271 49). Burster. 6-in. lb. by smaller and swifter projectiles. or shattered and weakened at different points. Burster. gj^°j^j' Charge. 49} lbs. at the springing on the vault.

.Requirements of Guns Table XXXIX. —Armor. 223 Natuee of Gun.

the foregoing data give the following as the order and relative value of the several projectiles under comparison. of which 134 lbs. was 2593 der. which " These numbers. for the present purvelocity of the same projectile range of 2 x 1032=2064 yards. a strict comparison can be made. approximately. of iron. As larger Armstrong projectiles has not yet been ascertained. by Y192 lbs. of lbs. 49] tower) had fallen away. as measured by the product of their weight into the square of the velocity of the shot or shell at the moment of impact. the above effect was produced by the ex- penditure of 968i lbs. will represent. or. and are " By which it appears centration of the fire as follows that. of powit Before. and the there are neither practical nor theoretical data for calculating the remaining velocity at given ranges. this mode of proceeding only one open. gunpowder. is In Table 42 are data given by observation of times of flight " Taking the effect of the 68-pounder solid shot as unity. although in a slightly different trajectory. in shot. lbs. is necessary to take account of the comparative breaching power of the several projectiles. of iron. of broken surface was found to be 1-91 * and the cubic quantity of masonry removed. * * " Taking no account. because such mean velocity represents very nearly the actual velocity of the projectile at the middle point of its trajectory. With Arm§trong Rifled Guns the 41st round.: : : 224 " Ordnance. and shell. to up when the entire side from course 60 (answering 54 on this [Wo. and will be sensibly the same for the initial velocity of the the same projectile in striking any object at that distance. multiplied we will call "W by the number of projectiles of each nature fired. of which 245 2500 in bursters . and to of gunpowder. making an open breach of 20 feet wide. rounds in which the tower was struck. at present. pose. to for a This velocity be the same as may be the mean assumed. irrespectively of the superior conits of the rifled guns. feet. and 3720 lbs. of iron and 511 lbs." the expenditure 374. however. 2168-8 feet. counting only those lbs. of the shells which burst near The average depth the muzzle of the gun. and consequently greater . in bursters. the worh done upon each tower.

Requirements of Guns—Armor. Natueb of Guif. . 225 Table XLII.

Table XLIT.226 Ordnance. . Tower 11. — Armsteoug Guns.

columbiads. sea-coast mortars. Breaching or Fort Pulaski. official 227 April. 1§61. Name of Battkky. 373. sides. five 10-in. rifle. with one tier of guns in embrasures and one en barbette. and two 12-in. At the time of the siege. . 20 of which bore on the attacking batteries.. and RAuaE of Shots piebd in the Breaching of Fort Pulaski. and surrendered on the second day. —Number. days.: Requirements of Guns —Armor. Character. and four 32-pounders. viz. — The sides . it contained 48 guns. Table XLTI. one 24-pounder Blakely three 10-in. all and five 8-in. a brick work of five thick and 25 tier ft. casemated on all high. and The work was breached in 3 half- smooth-bores. Ocorgia. following is compiled from the report of General Gillmore Eort Pulaski walls 7^ is ft.

with broad flat grooves. Kind of Gttn.228 and 2i-poimders. There were 5 Parrott 30-pounders. —Penetbations in Beick-woek. . Table XLTII. rifled Ordnance.

— Requirements op Gxjns —Armor. his report. should be scru- pulously excluded from breaching batteries. ''performed their part admirably in the demolition of the masonry and that it was after the rifles had perforated the walls. and . light smooth-bores will breach with certainty. throwing solid- shot at 1740 yards. rifles of the same weight are much much and " Third. are superior for breaching purposes to any combination of rifles heavy or light smooth-bores. either alone or in combination with rifles. of the facts in the case that strictly belong to the subject under consideration. A few struck A. requires that smooth-bores. " that the columbiads performed their true office in crushing out the immense masses of masonry. in advance of its publication. except that it had another tier — * General GiUmore has kindly allowed the author to copy the following statements They form a complete summary official report. before described. in the face of the enemy. Their fire was inaccurate. Against stone walls shell would be ineffective. a due regard to economy in the of manual labor and ammunition. columbiads. Within the same distance. results. rifled guns. will be found singularly important and . General GiUmore's narrative of the conduct of the siege and the transportation of 100 to 300-pounder rifles over swamps from his and open sands. South Carolina. ^^ General GiUmore concludes that First. "Fifth. Beyond 700 yards. "Second. 229 states." 376. although in a military and an engineering point of view. the terreplein over the casemate arches. but better. Within 700 yards.* This was a brick work. that the 8-in. expenditure Beyond 1000 yards. In all cases rifled guns are used exclusively them should fire percussion shells. heavy smooth-bores may be advan- tageously used for breaching. 1863. at least one-half of the fort. shells dropped inside against brick walls. exclusively. Not one-tenth of the 13-in. Chief of Ordnance and Artillery. similar in construction to Fort Pulaski. in Lieutenant Porter. no matter how heavy when they may be." 10-in. interesting." The mortars did very little damage to the work. " Fourth. August. but without producing any serious S70 Breacbing: of Fort Sumter.

Parrott Rifle 4278 Battery Strong 4290 Number of guns. A. 289986 lbs. Battery Brown Rosecrans Two 8-in. as the Federal forces are not yet in possession of the ruins.. the Breaching Fort "J^agner. Ranges xsd Natuee of Battekies employed in BsEACHiNa Poet Stmxee. closed August 23. Range in yds. Parrott Rifles J Battery Stevens Two One lOO-pdr. Rifles Rifles. lo-in. The capacity it is was 135 guns. were not armed. Table XLYII.. The whole number of projectiles thrown was 5009. precise effect of these projectiles cannot. and from 10 to 13 feet deep. 552683 lbs. 1668. of the fort Okdnance. Whitwortli Two Naval Battery 3938 (Two Two f 8-in. 17. Weight of projectiles thrown. mostly outward. for about one-third of its depth. be but it is certain that about one-third of the face of the gorge wall. Nature of Guns. Rifles 8-in. During bomb-proof of a rebel work occupying the entire — . 3881. Name of Battery. ("Two 8o-pdr. fell down. 1863...— 230 of casemates. The stated . Sand Armor. of course. 17. Parrott Rifles. forming a practicable Ireach from 70 to 80 yards long. Parrott Rifle j \ One Battery Hays 4272 j_Two loo-pdr. 2479. Parrott Rifles 3516 3447 3428 "j Battery Battery Three loo-pdr. Parrott Rifles. Number Number of projectiles that struck the masonry. 276 B. of projectiles that struck the gorge wall and helped to form the breach. "Weight of metal that formed the breach. Firing opened Aug. this siege. however. Parrott Rifles. Parrott Rifles. These.. Meade Two lOO-pdr.3 yards. Average range. 1863. how many guns were mounted impossible to state.

of sand. ascertained Upon the capture of this work. The four it breaching batteries were located at 1330. 1460. and 1920 yards range respectively. which is equal to 1 lb.Requirements of Guns —Armor. and mostly constructed of sand. 1830. of metal for the removal of every 3. . 231 breadtli of Morris Island. breached by similar rifled projectiles. The slope was quite fell flat. was. and the greater part of the sand knocked away back in place again. was by careful measurement that 165 cubic yards of sand had been removed by 54^ tons of projectiles. with great difficulty.27 lbs.

.232 Weought Iron.

: Resistance to Elastic Pressure. A strain of compression." 1862. |^. is the pressure greater than twice the tensUe strength. |^. * "Ordnance and Gunnery. by bending outward the of which the piece may be supposed to consist. or. divided by the resistance which the sides are capable of offering to rupture. for a piece of one calibre thickness of metal. will be as follows Tangential. can be shown by analysis that the tendency to rupture. staves which acts to break transversely. The longitudinal strain. Transverse. * 4. ^. A transverse strain. The strains 3. * * * to pull the piece apart in the direction of its length. when rupture will take place in the direction of the length. and it s the tensile strength of the metal. * * * " If p be the pressure on a unit of surface of the bore. The tangential strain. or. or the pressure on a unit of length of bore. Resistance to Elastic Peessttee. 233 CHAPTER III. to wliicli cannon are subjected by the pressure of the powder are thus stated by Captain Benton:* " 1. . which acts to split the piece open * * * 2. which acts longitudinally.. which * acts from the axis outward. to * crush the truncated wedges of which a unit of length of the piece may be supposed to consist. Section I. Longitudinal. rupture will take place when three times the pressure is greater than twice the tensile strength. THE STRAINS AND STRUCTURE OP GUNS. S77.

as the aid derived from the transverse resistance will be but trifling for greater lengths of bore or stave. to throw projectiles of 13 to 15 inches' diameter at the rate of feet 1500 to 1800 per second. This rule founded upon the practical facts of every-day engineering. But when is." 378. an India-rubber cylin- "A Cheap and Simple Method of Manufacturing Cannon. This law thus clearly explained by Cap- tain Blakely :* 379. thus increasing the area of substance to be is torn asunder. and the gun ultimately of a bursts. another law. the not being communicated to it by the intervening metal. . in large guns.234 or. and the gun proportionally thickened to stand the excessive strain due to both the increased pressure per square inch and the increased number is of square inches pressed upon." 1858. for instance. little or other metal) the outside helps but very explosive force of the in restraining the strain powder tending to burst the gun. " This will be more easily understood by considering the case much more * elastic tube. Ordnance. rupture will take place when twice the pressure is greater than three times the tensile strength. unobserved in ordinary practice. while the mitside is scarcely strained. assumes a very serious importance. for lengths above two. The that. "To heavier is obtain much greater strength by casting guns impossible. it walls. I. tJie inside is split. is thicken its sides. which usually deal with comparatively low pressures and thin calibre. these conditions are greatly changed —when the problem is for instance. —The most to simply obvious means of enabling any vessel to sustain a greater elastic pressure. Even in case of guns of small has proved tolerably safe. consequence is. the tangen- tial resistance may be said to act alone. brass. or perhaps three calibres. "From and the above it appears that the tendency to rupture is greater from the action of the tangential force than from any other. such as the gas of exploded gunpowder. because in cast guns (whether of iron. Increa§ing Hie thickness of the walls. This split rapidly increases.

Such a cylinFig. in- be doubled. der might be strained by pressure from within till the inside stretched to double its original circumference. the difference between the squares of 30 and "Yet. quadrupling the mass of material. whereas originally it only contained 800 inches. that the bulk of the material is con- siderably enlarged. the increase of yV of an inch in the outer circumference of a 10-inch gun being possible without fracturing that part. A moment's reflection shows that the thickness must diminish as the circumference is increased by pressure from within for. which would give a thickness of 20 inches. because The same elongation. l:!0. and the elongation which would but moderately strain the one would break the other. when the internal diameter has become 20. "!Now it is evident that the outside circum- ference and diameter cannot be doubled at the same time. This could not be. strain much as the inside one. as each inch in length of the cylinder would now contain 1200 cylindrical inches (the difference between the squares of 40 and 20. also The diameter would. Fio. the external diameter must be 20 plus twice 10. therefore 30 inches in external diameter. if the thickness remain 10 inches . of course. the thickness could remain the same. the external and internal diameters). 129. which is impossible.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. the outside layer could only be strained one-third as three times as long. or else the latter must become twice 30 or 60 inches. 235 der 10 inclies in internal diameter and 10 laches thick. which would cause a of one ounce or one pound in the longer circumference. notwith- standing the increase of circumference. . viz. even if 10. " This reasoning is equally applicable to the minute extension of iron .. unless we imagine what seems impossible. or 40 inches. and would be 20 inches stead of 10. would cause a strain of three ounces or three pounds in the shorter one.

" Even on this showing. in all 34-64 inches. the inner. is about one in seven. 132. the thickness must diminish from 10 to 7'32 inches. showing a strain or proportion is still an exertion of power 8^ times g-reater. or 1 in 314. the internal diameter. When the inner diameter of the 10-inch cylinder becomes 20 inches. difference This cross-section was originally 800 circular inches. Now a thickness of 7-32 inches gives us an external diameter of twice 7-32 or 14-64 added to 20. as no iron could stand an elongation of yV ^ 31i. must conis vince us that this an over-estimate of it. must be diminished from 10 to 9-674 inches. 131. or 1 in 86. Here the outer layer elon- gated -348 in 30.236 Ordnance. and 10 inches. 100. the outside of a thick tube cannot do its share of work. the square of 20. the cross-section remaining 800 inches. Thus in cast-iron the 10-inch lOyi^. the outer diameter becoming 30-348 inches. or 900 minus When stretched. "In the minute extension of metals the dismore striking. 800 being the between the squares of 30 inches. the difference between the squares is 30-348 and 11. however. the square of which is 1200. then. leaves 800 round inches as before. for the thickness of material must diminish as the ctrcumference is increased. Subtract- ing 400. a closer examination. original size. the cross-section of the cylinder Fig. and the thickness diminishing from 10 inches to %\%%. Here may become . remaining the same. whereas the inner is extended 1 in 10. the outer diameter. being an elongation of but 1 in 940 whereas the same extension must crack the inside. the thickness Fig. as before. the cross-section remaining 800 round inches. . which inner diameter would extend the outer diameter only from 30 to 30 3 J^. the area of the cross-section must continue to be 800 round inches. this case the outside of the cylinder is In stretched but 4-64 in 30. when the inside stretched to double its If the inner diameter be only stretched to 11 inches.

3 the inferior stretch of the exterior. or but a quarter of that exerted by the inside. exerting. F. 281.' Thus.. in a 10-inch gun. Law "In the there is of steength of ctlindees. the metal 2 inches from the inside. The law he deduces is. therefore. The spaces between the marks will become than Fig. showing that when the inside are doing is strained almost to breaking.S. a paper by Professor Peter Barlow. . which 5 inches from the axis. with equidistant concentric marks. "If we make equidistant circular marks on the end of an India-rubber cylinder (Fig. is fully strained. each space becoming less thin that inside of it. the force exerted diminishes to yVo. first volume of the 'Transactions' India-rubber cylinder. or 7 inches from the axis. inches further. is the inside. Pig. little while the outside could help hut straining the disruptive force. nine times as much power as the outside. and if the gun be 12 inches thick. can only exert a force If. but the inner space much thinner than the others (see Fig.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. or 1 in 9000. of the Institute of Civil Engineers. the inside being stretcbed jl^ in 10. stretched by internal pressure the concentric marlts show . thinner.R. p. 133. 133. and stretch it. in re- S80. more than half as much. 135. the outside. that '^?l cylinders of metal the power exerted by different parts varies inversely as the squares of the distances of t/ie parts from when the amis. 134). Pig. or 1 in 1000. or little The same cylinder. It is emdent that a slight increase of pressure from within would Ireah the inside. 135). 10 inches from the axis. 134. the intermediate parts much less work. 237 the outside would only be stretclied 3^^ in 30. on the Strength of Cylinders. and those far removed almost none. we can see plainly how much more the inside is strained than the outside or even the intermediate parts.

o^ about tV «« casting the much power as astonished that the inside. bear a pressure who have also studied the question. Barlow s hypothesis. who " Suppose such a cylinder to be made up of a great number of thin rings or hoops. than those tigated the problem. The Government Pia. of Trinity College. etc. 136) made by at the Mr. Both these gentlemen. that is the tensile strength of cast iron be 6 tons per inch. Hart." 383. be has been found in practice that cylinders for hydraulic presses. however thick. The Cylinder burst cracks were "much more open inside. in bursting hollow cylinders states that "the general range of the . E. but stiU less to the outer. suits appears to sustain T. The law of diminution in the power of states it resistance is also illustrated as follows :f by Professor Treadwell." pressure." 1856. we cannot. Dr. Mallet's work on the Construction of Artillery) give greater strength to the inner parts. of iron wound with wire. can exert lut ^Ys. In further proof of the foregoing / l ^'^^^ facts. and some not extending to the by internal OUtside. gun still thicker would add but very it little to its strength. Of course. report of experiments made by by the United States internal pressure re. 383.^^B *^^® *^^ some cylinders (Fig. * Reports of Experiments on Metals \ for Cannon. inves- His calculations (see note "W".2. 259 of Mr. Longridge. -r. of Professor Barlow. as well as General Morin. 385." * 384. therefore. placed one within another. 136. p.38 Okdnance. is wBich 17 inches from tlie axis. "In 1855. Calibre. Capt. Blakely cites the actual frac- . 1856.. Eobinson the astronomer.r Mr. if of a square inch bar of the material. a cylinder of that metal. agree that no possible thickness can enable a cylinder to from within greater on each square inch than the tensile strength to say. with a thickness equal to about ^ the diameter of the piston. Dublin. cannot bear a pressure from within of 6 tons per inch. are very nearly as strong as if ten times as thick. and Dr. "The Praotloability of Constructing Cannon of Great .

The weakness of a homogeneous cylinder. followed by an important discussion before the Institution of Civil Engineers. C. of which inner. the diameter of the largest being 5 times that of the smallest. in Fig. and exactly so that the particles of each hoop shall be in equilibrium with each other. those above GF representing tension and those below compression.. 1860. H. Dublin. If be inversely as the squares of their we make a cylinder of 41 concentric hoops of fitting. E. BC portion of a section of an 8-inch gun. the state of tension of any particle between G and F may be denoted by ordinates drawn " If at the points in question." 38®. . will looo 826 be represented by the following numbers 250 225 207 '89 Ill 62 104 98 694 591 59 56 92 87 82 77 73 54 51 5'° 444 391 '74 160 148 137 128 119 49 47 45 43 41 . mathematically investigated. James Atkinson Longridge. 239 to Then the resistance of these rings. I think. to resist distension. by Dr. Longridge says :* " If. and the remedy. force. now the gun be of any homogeneous material. and Mr. beginning with the innermost. Brooks. A D represent a A G B the is and D F C the outer circumference. of Trinity College. any distending diameters. Hart. from whose calculations it has been illustrated and made the subject of a paper by Mr. will compared one with another. disposed one within another. equal thickness. such as cast * "Construction of ArtiUery.40 346 309 69 65 277 "An inspection of these it numbers must. with great care. then the force of each. Mr. impress any impossible to increase essentially the one with the fact that is strength of cannon by a simple increase of thickness. have been (which will be considered in the following article). 137." Inet. C.: Resistance to Elastic Pressitee.

II. and the latter according to Professor Barlow's formula. or H *. and the thickness of the gun 6^ inches. instead of 78 tons. is or F = If tons. which it would have been initial if uniformly strained at 12 tons per square inch. the former calculated according to Professor Hart._ The . supposing the be 12 tons per square inch. time of explosion. and are found to be 36"72 tons and 30-871 tons respectively.240 Ordnance. will be denoted by a curve Fig. The areas of these curves give the total strengths of the gun at the bursting point. F it is F I = 3 tons. successive layer. at when * the strain at G is G H. Hoops with sure. 137. the state of tension at the gun is about to burst. proceeding outward from the it. or 12 tons. tensile force of the material to Then." 387. tension to resist elastic prestubes. —This system with an consists in making a gun of concentric by putting' on each centre. Illustration of strain on a homogeneous gun. H I. according as the one or other formula adopted. and when the iron. initial tension exceeding that of those below or so that each hoop or tube shall compress what is within it.

This would be true if the * The claims of Professor Treadwell. in one. and afterwards upon each layer that is wrought iron. They by heat. in compression. and thus a portion of the strain up to take bearing capacity. Then. 388. and. "There may. I place rings or hoops of Upon this more body Every hoop is formed with a screw or thread upon its layers. being in compression. the body of when the gun is subjected the gun and the several layers its of rings will be disall tended to the fracturing point at the same time. in its normal state. first. Mr. to fit to a corresponding screw or thread formed upon the body of the gun first. in short." Dec.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. inside. each it successive layer all that encloses. as to priority in this invention. is and greatest stretch. able to sustain the first although stretched less all the layers contribute equally of their tensile strength to resist the strain of the explosion. who was one of the first to propose this method of constructing cannon. 1856. and thus has to do an equal amount of work. This compression must be to the greatest force. afterwards. made such.^ " I propose to form a body for the gun. These hoops are made a are then expanded cool. than the parts that they enclose. the body of the gun.* thus specifies his proposed gun and its strength. Blakely. Capt. Peofesboe Teeadwell's Plan. has already been stretched into high tension. hy the law illustrated in the foregoing paragraph. Longridge. so that. but with walls of only about half the thickness of the diameter of the bore. inner layer outer layer is is 241 thus. containing the calibre and breech as now formed of cast iron. 16 . seem to be a great practical! difiiculty in making the hoops of the exact size required to produce the necessary compression. while the in the highest tension. that. the inner layer. and the outer layer. say y^oth part of their diameters. by the explosion of the powder. The intermediate layers bear the same relations to the initial strain and the strain of the powder. will be stated in the Appendix. at the first view. less "upon their insides. two. little. and being turned on to their places. f " On the Practicability of Constructing Cannon of Great Calibre. suffered to when they shrink and compress. Professor Treadwell. and others. or embraced by another layer.

and 15000 x 14 = 210000 its pounds for the strength of the casting. be welded I know. the body against absolutely necessary. or whole strength of the iron. calibre. It will. be advantageous to make the threads of the female screws sensibly finer rings together endwise. and this hoop must its be splined. thus stated. should likewise be inserted under every hoop. layer of cast iron will. . and laws. 3^ inches each. or any body whicli fracturea wlien extended in the least degree beyond the limit of its elasticity. a diameter. Take a cannon of 14 solid ball of inches' which will carry a spherical 374 pounds. therefore. to make the difference between the diameters of the hoops and the parts which they surround.5000 pounds to the inch. as before explained. and two hoops or rings. Small splines moreover. or some equivalent. made up its of 7 inches of cast iron. The first hoop has its strength reduced from 1 to a mean of "8. the screw-thread will of course. as compared with one made in the usual manner. I 289. be greatly elongated without being weak- much beyond their be found best in practice. to prevent turning by the recoil. of wrought iron. Hence we have only to form the hoops small in excess^ and they will accommodate themselves under the strain without It will power of elasticity. They may. and the mean strength of the whole will be reduced one-half area.242 hoops were made of east Ordnance. pos- but one-fourth of the strength of the inner layer. but to prevent them from start- ing with every shock of the recoil. by experiment. ""With proceed to give some calculations to show the strength of a cannon constructed in the way that I have pointed out. principles. iron. upon one of the hoops. not merely to reinforce cross fracture. to length. ened. considerably more than toV oth part of the least injury. Take cast iron at -J 30000 pounds to the inch and we have 30000 x is =1. therefore. The fixing the hoops in their places is by the screw. than those of the male. to draw. by the shrink. But wrought iron and aU malleable bodies are capable of being extended. without fracture. the inner * * * these facts. fix them effectually. from sess The external position. that Tlie trunnions must. each inch of The thickness of both sides 14 inches. with sides 14 inches thick.

and 30000x460=13800000 pounds. or 1333 atmospheres. at it Taking the normal strength of 30000 pounds per inch. 243 Take tlie strength of wrought iron at 60000 pounds to the inch. We have then. sides being we have 10000x28 = 280000 pounds jJi-o- for the whole fluid first and ^Af = 20000 pounds to each inch of the i of the pressure. however. unreduced. and the outer layer breaking joint over the inner. we have -^s-if aa = 63960 pounds. a pressure "The resistance to cross fracture at the part nearest to the breech will be. and we have 60000 x -8=48000 pounds to the inch. need not single casting. and 48000 x 7 = 336000 pounds. then. The outside ring must be reduced in strength by the same rule. of the add to the resistance to a great be computed. The gun will bear. is provided to further rein- resist longitudinal fracture and this excess wiU be by the wrought-iron rings. for its mean. " 336000 " 349440 895440 " " The diameter of the bore being 14 inches. from the cast iron. to or a mean of 10000 pounds per inch. 30000 pounds. which. which. before explained (see the preceding article). Caft-iron body of the gun Inner wrought-iron hoop Outer wrought-iron hoop 210000 pounds. will amount. equal to 460 square inches. as the resistance to oppose to each square inch of the fluid from the powder. the whole strength. 28'— 14"= 784 inches. of 4264 atmospheres. for each inch in length. which gives it 49920 pounds per inch. "Let us now examine a gun made of a dimensions given above thick. The bore contains 153 square inches. and the thickness of both 28 inches. we must reduce according to the laws -J. or f|^|S> or less than . from 1 to "832. of 14 inches bore and 14 inches cast iron. strength. — 196 circular Cohesive force. and -Lajj_n_!LiLiL= 90196 pounds to forced resist each square inch more than . as before. being screwed upon the casting.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. The thickness of both sides is 7 inches. —that is. and for the 7 inches 349440 pounds.

will bear i333) " " ** *'33 = 32-pounder cannon. E. by calculation. required 1133 100 '°° '°° : zoo ** '4^ 100 Caft-iron gun. represent the utmost force ever exerted by a 'S. and the pressure required to give the velocity of 1600 feet a second. were the same in all the pieces tried. At page 218 of the work on 'The Useful Metals. April. . 244 example. 6^ inches thick. as also the increased strength resulting from long rest and. " how it can be show the of any essential practical * * * stress that The following columns the several kinds of guns. Against a cross fracture.* "Many cast-iron experiments have shown the destructive effects on ordnance from continuous . 14-inch (hot. in the second column. havis ing but 42 per cent. (hot bear Hooped cannon.66. method of casting and cooling. weight. more strength than required.' The tensile properties of the metal did not explain the difference and the form. Hooped cannon Caft-iron for 14-inch fliot will bear 42. The third column shows the proportion between the required and the actual strength Atmospheres. Ordnance. is less reliable than a hooped gun of 14 inches. as mentioned.. mentions another service rendered by hoops. firing. 30 in. the cast gun will possess a great excess of strength. charge intended to produce a velocity of 1600 feet a second. Another use of Hoops. it is stated that pieces cast some years before testing stood several times the ' quantity of firing of other pieces cast but a few months previously. and the manner of proving. * Journal Royal United Service Inst. although I do not perceive advantage. 1862. showing the required strength. will bear.: . 3670 lb. Atmospheres.. which I do not like to call useless.' published in 1857. a very much greater number of rounds may be safely attained than in case of almost daily practice with the same gun. It will be recollected that the as numbers given above. will diameter. Commander Scott. I333i 42665 9^° 4166 = 100 : " By this it appears that a common cast-iron 32-pounder. by allowing two or three months or more to intervene between the series of discharges. dimensions." S90.

shall. "Want of CoNnNurrr. such as K (Fig. and the practicability of construction. hoop or is Hooping System—Remedies." 391. the particles. to prevent the disturbance . . do not outweigh advantages. Mr. Some years since. cylinders. therefore. what the hooping Defects of the tube. This subject has also been mathematically illustrated by Mr. 1860. to The of and be arrived at is. the thinner the layers. I. itself. and then would not rearrange or resettle themselves. object. with the proper tension. — the actual ness of metal. the particles of * * iron would be disturbed. a few rounds of heavy charges but by using them. in Chap. Civil Engineers. previously given. there is an objection to the use of hoops from the want of continuity." (Here follows an explanation of the weakness of a homogeneous cylinder. the successive layers of wire having an increased initial tension. in the paper before referred structed a pressure. Longridge.) "Now the object sought to be is at- tained in the method of construction under consideration. 138). Longridge's experiments have been given \ "Construction of Artillery. in by Captain Blakely and strength for a given thick- two particulars. urdess a period of long rest were given." Inst. Absolute perfection would necessitate infinitely thin hoops and . and corresponding in number of very thin hoops similarly applied He compares the wire reinforce with the thick hoops used others. this is and the consequent deterioration of the piece does effect. a great number of tlieir thin strata. that each particle. then. Each taken by has the element of weakness considered in a foregoing paragraph — its inner circumference more stretched and strained than its outer circumference.* SOS. and more especially in applying. when explosion takes * The results of Mr. number of guns and other cylinders to be subjected to by winding square steel wire upon homogeneous metallic their functions to a great (93). Longridge conto. the greater the strength (313) provided the mechanical diflaculties in constructing.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. when the gun is fired with the charges which the hoops are calculated to withstand. practically. * * 245 resist * All guns properly cast are suflSciently strong to .t "In the first place.

and N being in * those between N and M are in tension. it is a homogeneous its cylinder. as is represented by the curve H I. by the area L 11 O K^ L. 140. Figs. The total strength was represented equal to the rectangle retically. inasmuch as each hoop by means of hoops. the curve whilst N M. and follows the same law throughout thickness. theo* * * this M " If now will it be attempted to accomplish be found impossible. . those between G. they shall all when the be equally strained at their inner circumferences. the strongest GHO gun. and every point from its G to F was raised up the tension denoted by projection on the line H O. 139. * * What to took place where the explosion occurred might be thus described L was H. That was the way to get. the initial state of the tension must be such as is represented by Fig. Ordnance. put on so that explosion takes place. Strain due to want of continuity of hoops. L raised to compression. and 141 represent the successive state of stress of four rings. 1. In order tliat this may be so.: 246 place.S8. which was F. be equally strained with G.

Resistance to Elastic Pressure. FlO. instead of the curve L If M of Fig. " From this it will be seen that when the four rings are put on. "WTien the explosion takes place. FlO. 139. Shows two rings on. and the two Shows four rings on. Fig. the two inner rings being in compression. outer in tension. changes. 138. 142. 140. the state of is maximum by the next diagram. m Shows 141. The area between the dotted and full lines shows the work done strain represented . three rings on. 247 " The figures denote the strains in tons per square inch. there are a series of abrupt Fm.

or of small wire.248 by the explosion. the hoops is is perfect. whereas. an extra weight of — material is required to secure the requisite strength — can hardly ironto. it would have been represented by the area between the dotted line (Fig." The objection. Ordnance. the radii of the several rings. "To afford some idea of the accuracy required. and taking the total thickness of the gun. 138). struction been of very thin rings. forts and The subject of weight will be further referred 393. be considered a serious defect in the armament of clad vessels. cent. shown in the above diagram. in favor of the wire over showing a superiority of about 20 per the hoops. . upon the supposition that the workmanship of which in practice cannot be attained. Mr. which amounts to this that when the number of hoops is small enough to make a cheap gun. it amounts to 10*1 tons per inch of thickness. had the con- Fie. 142. L I^ M O BE and would have been This = 12 tons per inch of thickness. are given in Table XLVIII. Theoeetioal Accueact of Tension. Longridge then discusses the practicability of consti'ucting hooped guns with the accuracy necessary to impart proper strength.

Resistance to Elastic Pressure. . 249 Table XLVIII. No. of Eing. —Radh of Rings foe Hoopinq Guns.

The adjustment of Mr. Mr.ON Hoops. or capacity of receiving a permanent change of figure under practitians. and who acknowledges the greatest care and the most accurate processes in the application of the hoops. to give the coil of wire. Longridge says: "Here again occurs the practical difficulty of the attainment of extreme accuracy of workmanship. and may be removed from the interference workman. known ductility. Supposing this nicety in the ten- sion of the layers of a gun to be important. but static press. it FoECTNG. obviates the necessity of great accuracy in the diameter of either piece. Whitworth forces on the rings by hydrostatic pressure. like the safety-valve of a hydro- * "Construction of Artillery. the want of regard mathe- matical nicety is the great cause of failure in mechanical experiment and construction. . The truth of the cone depends upon the correctness of the lathe. involving the highest class of skilled labor. Longridge faUs to more difficult of accomplishment with hoops than with Mr. prove wire. such as a upon Government tools." On the contrary. the most inexpert workman could hardly fail to make a good job (300).250 to its Ordnance. The truth of the surfaces is also a question of good tools. 295. C." Inst. The tension of the ring depends on the distance to which it is forced upon the conical tube. or even with the common machine modified and set permanently for a given duty. Captain Blakely also advocates the same method. The hooped guns of Mr. gun-factory. this nicety is pronounced absurd by for On the other hand. strain. the forcing of a slightly conical ring over a correspondingly conical tube. is certainly proper tension to each quate. With special tools. who is noted for the "truth" of his workmanship. E. and this may be regulated to a pound..* As to which Mr. which are economical in any extensive establishment. it is simple and ade- not automatic. 1860. Longridge's Prony brake. Whitworth. and the greatest vigilance of supervision. are stronger to resist statical pressure than some others of similar construction and material. hy the weight of the the safety-valve of tJie hydrostatic press.

and. in proportion to the carbon they contain." Inat. Hoops. Shrinking on If hoops 1. * Lt.. Clay. Second. First. necessary. and scale between some and not between others. so until all parts of that they scale freely heat. even when accuracy the unequal eflFect of heat. is chief embarrassment. of the Mersey Iron Works. it would not be done. This subject may be con- sidered under three heads fire to expand them. The process of shrinking Not only is there a difficulty in " insuring the exact temperature required. far higher. workmanship and the hoops be turned on the outside. and not only Great accuracy is the amount of labor much greater. a when exposed to the air. water is —under pressure. says: "Hoops must be accurately bored. 251 396. . there is less But the sought. ^vhen subjected to heat. two. thus sensibly deranging the accu- racy prescribed by theory (293). embarrassments arise. E. but scarcely any two pieces of iron will shrink identically." .: Resistance to Elastic Pressure.-Col. 1860) to this defect. if a greater expansion than 212° will give at a required or in oil they may be boiled temperature of 600°. The Armstrong hoops are often heated to redness. more heat than another part the temperatures of the surface and the interior are unequal. hoop is increased. Longridge after by shrinking. but it must be of a class. Even left at a black di- considerable oxidation thft occurs. specially refers ("Construction of Artillery. Unequal Shrinkage of Metal. Cast iron and steel sensibly and permanently enlarge. in their "He knew that iron and steel diflered it much expansion and contraction. Third. This may be remedied by boiling the hoops in 3J>7."* The fitting of hoops. of a more expensive on is not to be depended upon. aU the hoops are uniformly heated. thus causing irregular strains. C. the gun must be placed in the lathe. are put on As Mr. The oil would toughen as well as expand the hoops. is and of each layer put on. with the nicety of adjustment theoretically . and he thought would be the case with iron generally." 2. according as the crystallized or fibrous structure predominated. is indispensable. conse- quently. would be difficult practically. Thus the is internal ameter of parts. Heating the hoops over a subjects one part to .

H.-Col. It in. . till These alternate heatings and coolings were repeated the metal showed signs of cracking or giving way. S. in some degree. which were carefully noted they were then heated to a red heat in a heating the tires of wheels. some to one-half of the depth. R. which time the portion in the air had lost and that in the water had become sufficiently cool to handle. they were taken out and immersed in water to one-half or two-thirds their depth. A. used for As soon as they had acquired the proper heat. 252 Ordnance. both hollow and solid. in. The same cause would contribute to the minute inaccuracy deprecated by Mr. steel. immersed. 398. Clerk. wrought-iron cylinder. "Proceedings of the Royal Society. many is of the failures of guns hooped at to this cause." . tin.-Col. others to two thirds also metal. * Lt.. and gun The specimens experimented on were all accurately turned in a lathe to the required dimensions. alter . F. be traced An abstract of the experi- ments certainly appropriate in this connection. wood furnace. especially as the hoops of the Armstrong and other guns are cooled so as to produce. water ranged from 60° to 70° Fahr. The upper edge of the cylinder (in the air) did not the lower edge (in the water) contracted '6 in.. even in case of the low steel employed for guns. to The temperature of the The specimens were allowed at remain in the water about two minutes. the effects described. on similar cylinders of cast iron. high temperature may. remarkable in its results. R. of different dimensions. 143 is one of the illustrations given by Lt."* " The experiments were made on cylinders of wrought iron. zinc. Longridge. Clerk. that A recent series of experiments on the change of figure is so of metals by heating and cooling. its represents a 12-in. i thick and 9 deep. perhaps. all redness. after being heated to redness. "On the Change or Form assumed by "Wbought Ieon and OTHER Metals when Heated and then Cooled by Paettal Immersion in Water. and cooled by immersing lower half in cold water — these operations having been repeated in the 20 times." Fig.

above the water-line. appears. wrought or 3 in. 253 above the water-line the circum- was reduced 5-5 in. therefore. fifth Wrought-irori cylinder. and the hollow cylinder separated line after the second heating. During the last two years the grand defect of many hoops many parts in a gun has been developed in the fracturing and shaking loose of the — — — Armstrong hoops. all but with cast iron. 143. rently no intermediate state between the melting point and absolute solidity. round just below the water- Cast steel stood 20 heatings. deep.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. Tin showed no change of form. the signs of separation. nor was there any appreciable difference in the specific gravity of the metal taken from different parts of the speciIt men. but not nearly so large in amount. the heatings coolings could be repeated from 15 to 20 times before the metal showed any testing." 399. but instead of a contraction just above the water-line. to be simply a is movement of the particles whilst the metal in a soft or semifluid state. and he me that he found nothing noteworthj^ in the composition of the metal. this. there being appaBrass. and is the same whether the depth. Want of CoNTmurrT of Substance. gun metal. there was an expansion or bulging. and zinc showed the effect slightly. but its surface. With and iron. mentioned in the paper are ''a maximum contraction of the metal about Fig. after twenty heatings and coolings. Abel (chemist to the "War Department) to chemical analysis. the was wrought iron. or whether metal be immersed one-half or two it thirds 6. "The specimens informs of wrought iron were submitted by Mr. under the tremendous vibration due to firing . after the metal was cracked. its be 9. was very much cracked all over "As result respects the change of form of cast iron similar to that in and steel. and at about 1 ference in. effects The general 1 in. circumference.

and strengthened throughout its whole length by wrought-iron rings. so pieces of iron from as to take oflf the jar. considers that this objection would " destroy welding. order." 1862. substance. Ordnance. by screwing the hoops together." Sir Charles Fox. gun was made of homogeneous metal. However perfect the workmanship at in large guns. at Southport. The only remedy is. in and some Iron. would appear to be the to some — report of the expenmeuts. it all the advantages of so expensive a mode of con- struction. working together for any length of time without shaking subject loose. at the close of the practice. know well how impossible it is to keep iron and iron.. however well fitted. and therefore the use of hoops for large guns cannot prove satisfactory.— 254 large charges (335). The defect "want of strength and solidity in the union of the different parts " is also mentioned by Captain Benton. in the same discussion. and that "we observed.f 300. This subject will be further referred to. Permanent Enlargement of Hoops under Strain. to separate the each'other by a packing of elastic material. such as in rolling mills Those who have had to do with heavy machinery and forge hammers. . and also at the face of the piece where the outer and inner cylinofficial * The says that the ders meet. Longridge says: sion on artillery (1860) already quoted. an oily substance oozing out at the junctions of the rmgs which strengthen the gun ou the chase. stretching of a metal like wrought iron. " Hoops must always possess the defect of want of continuity of first." if the separate parts were not united by soldering or Professor Treadwell anticipated and provided against extent. with the Whitworth 80-pdr. The experience with hooped guns having initial tension is too limited to warrant the conclusion that vibration would not loosen hoops of a very elastic metal not strained beyond the limit of its Still. ere long shake them to violent jars. the concussion of repeated firing would loose. the loosening of the hoops by the permanent elasticity." f "Ordnance and Gunnery. Now the concussions in such machinery are insignificant as compared with those in a large piece of ordnance.^'' of the facts will be stated under the head of Wroiight It is but just to say that the result was predicted in the discusMr.

Sir Charles Fox. 255 The permanent enlargement of hoops under strain not only destroys the original accuracy of tension by reason of its inequality. Hence the Mr. expresses the Dr. dismounting the gun. presented this view of the case in the discussion referred to before the Institution of Civil Engineers. is likely to burst without warning will. practice changing from iron to steel. after the strain of a 90-lb. gun was fired several times after the bursting of an outer hoop. and the disabling of adjacent machinery by * Letter to the author. will indicate fact. in this particular. the outer rings of the Armstrong guns have broken without dangerously reducing the resistance of the gun to bursting (445). perfect elasticity is fort.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. The is wrought iron used by Capsteel. in while soft wrought iron. by a comparatively light hydrostatic press that can be transported from fort to Practically. charge. which set can be tested and up if required. tain Parrott for hoops so that nearly as elastic and strong as low the embarrassment under consideration has not been experienced with his guns. one manufacturer of guns compares iron hoops.* This defect may be remedied in the case of conical rings. In various instances. or at least modify. would prevent. would remedy the steel. The first lO^in. flying fragments. however. beginning of this kind of failure. elastic steel. and without doing serious damage. and then it by the blowing out of the breech. among others. Hart (286) also same opinion. from time to time. A strong vn:ought-iron tube. especially in the form of concen- tric tubes. to leather. 301. and this undoubtedly attainable by the use of is steel rings. placed loosely outside the steel hooping. A high. . the disastrous character of an explosion —the killing and demoralization of men. but actually prevents their hugging the inner barrel after long use. defect. without or aboard ship. if at all . Captain Blakely use and consider wrought iron excellent Indeed. Whitworth and imiit. 8. Sept 1862. before the failed gun failed. fail altogether coming failure by stretching.

The would be of farther use in checking the vibration of the barrel. can only stretch least. permanent strain on the outer tube obviously tends to relax On the other hand. The range of elasticity in the respective tubes. construction will be further considered (320). required to stretch least. this change of wrought iron or figure will strengthen rather than weaken the gun. 303. with reference to their distance from the centre of the gun. iron —the new Armstrong guns— if a Cast-steel inner tubes. on Sir "William Armstrong's assertion. failures . Longitudinal Strength. and the outer tube can only stretch a little. The longitudinal strain that . a great range of elasticity. 303. can elongate far beyond the demand without injury. and the outer tube a high range of elasticity. in cast-iron casing. in order that fire. hooped with wrought iron. that "burst explosively^'' elasticity of the none of the 3000 guns manufactured had The low is important in this connection. But city. hooped with wrought ^have the same defect. It may be practicable to realize the advantages of both these qualities by loosely hooping additional mass of the hoops a steel gun with iron. steel tube be placed within a and then strained beyond the limit of its elastiother words. permanently stretched. tial Cast iron. and the outer tube. the initial it and permanent stress upon all parts of the gun. as it will plac'e the outer casing in a state of initial tension. The inner metal. or with a low steel having is therefore likely to lose its correct ini- tension (gi). The result is that the outer tube must be put and kept under an working gation initial tension nearly up to its load. This principle of 304. before the Select Committee Ordnance (1863). if the inner tube can stretch very much with- out injury. or. This severe and it. (59.256 Ordnance. which is required by the pressure of the powder to stretch most (280). may be uniformly strained under will be very slight. wrought iron caused many but its high ductility prevented many disasters. has an im- portant bearing on the durability of the gun. in order that the " work done " by its minute elon- may be equal to that of the inner tube. Supposing the inner tube to have a low range.) and the tendency to relaxation very limited.

It is Navy cast-iron rifled made of bronze. C. not aided 303. as the internal pressure would tend to carry the shot forward and the chamber backward. If the trunnions were behind the chamber. at the expense of some complexity in the carriage or machinery for elevating the gun. siderable strain. Mr.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. resem- bling Professor Treadwell's (288) in principle. Siemens proposes the following construction. the chamber would be prevented from going to the rear only by the tension of that part of the tube which connects it with the trunnions. 2. its is to cross fracture. this inertia of course imposes a con- The theoretical resistance of a cylinder is under internal pressure. this kind is applied by Admiral Dahlgren guns. the same in is all direc- and if the resistance of the cylinder to bursting by the strength of the ends or heads of the cylinder. one piece ing the breech with a separate trunnion-ring. the longitudinal strain would be due only: 1. W. half the trunnion-ring and the greater part of the trunnions the other constituting the opposite half of the trunnion-ring and the remainder of the trunnions.strap of to all the U. Under the sudden pressure of powder. To the inertia of the part of the gun in front of the shot. or if the recoil was resisted at the cascable. two constituting the strap. the part of the gun in contact with it. four times as great as resistance to splitting longitudinally. Longitudinal weakness may obviously be modified by placing the trunnions at the rear. shown by 144 and 145. cheap breech. as The two Figs. if the tenacity of the metal tions. by friction. To the tendency of the shot to carry forward. But the disturb- same result is attained without this complexity —without ing the usual and convenient preponderance —by a strap connectA very strong and pieces. since. to meet this defect. and cast . This breech-strap was designed to remedy another and greater defect of cast-iron guns than longitudinal weakness —the unsound- ness of the casting around the trunnions (390). 257 would be imposed upon a gun by statical pressure would occur between the trunnions and the chamber. except the Parrott in guns. parts are riveted together at the trunnions. S. 17 .

in '' order to unite the D Breecn-aorew several layers. / V I. 1860.1. of wuv gun. breeeh-atrap the whole tensile strength of these bands would thus be available for longitudinal strength. winding wire upon it. . ^ T. spiral grooves. He Dahlgren's — elevation. DaMgren's breech-strap —plan. Whitworth's hooped The (Fig. ward beyond the fitting *»(W.258 " Ordnance. it was bound with corrugated put on spirally. bands of steel. c Wnitworth . longitudinal strength of the The if. strength of Mr. instead of gun might be much increased. while the gun rotated in a bath of solder. He estimated that two-thirds of Fig. Civil Engineering. Fig. longitudinal gun 146) is made * "Construction of Artillery." Inst."* 306. extending backbore. 14'). made proposed that the core of the gun should be turned with Fig. The strips should be put on under varying tension. 144. 146.n and ribs the longitudinal or corrugation -f ^vwvvyr v-™ iVV^-N* of the strips.

307. This would cast." also be a convenient way of strengthening mortars already 308. 1858. Pareons says: "In guns on the compound system. east iron being admirably suited for the bore of a gun. for instance in breech-loading guns. some circumferential strength may well be sacrificed. to may. by casting one part the length of the entire gun. or at least stretched. way in the proportion of 3' to 2° or 9 to first) is when the inner part (which must yield 2. that each remaining portion could do more work without any part giving 4. larger than as per- at present in the ratio of 3 to The gain of power by thus its mitting the outside to exert more of loss force is greater than the by removing the inner parts. which. ample 259 —much greater than that possible in a -wire-wound tube. Mr. by screwing the breech-plug not only into the central tube. strength The reason of is. cast In his pamphlet on tubes with varying elasticity (324). and of adequate thickness. (strange though may seem) an ordinary cast gun. A brass lining near the to its breech of a gun would evidently add much strength. it In some cases.Resistance to Elastic Pressure." . whereas wrought iron generally has some defect in the welding. which must have cracked before the outer could be moderately strained. taken to have For various reasons it seems better that this single large piece should be the inside. or a tube hooped by plain cylinders. whether of iron or brass. being conical. would be strengthened at the breech by removing one-quarter of the thickness from the inside. Captain Blakely says on this subject:* "Care must be For this purpose sufficient longitudinal strength. with the breech and reinforce turned down and • "A Cheap and Simple Method of Manufacturing Strong Cannon. which would certainly be penetrated by the gas of the powder. must be burst. before they can be drawn backward. made of iron. be preferable have the longitudinal strength advantage of giving it outside. however. The latter construction has the for greater circumferential strength. and replacing the metal with even lead or this apparently paradoxical increase of pewter. but into one or more of the hoops (44).

states some important experiments with reference to the longitudinal weakness of cast-iron guns as hooped at Woolwich. or. the wrought-iron rings that can be put on little to add but is the transverse strength . however. and part of the reinforce remaining original size at the other end. : either the cast iron naust be turned down to an extent which would render the gun too weak longiit tudinally. if enough of the outside will cast iron is retained. embodying this principle in an almost endless variety of form." Lancaster. Commander them :* " Instead. it. . name is well known in connection with the Lancaster gun. and when it is remembered that the is reinforce. Scott says of guns referred were turned dovni very small before the hoops were applied. however. the wrought-iron into play before the interior is overstrained come on the well-known law. inversely as the squares of their respective diameters. was applied. whose 309. of the defect. which was thick in front of the trunnions and very thin at the breech. Mx. the weapons had * Journal Royal United Service Institution. it is easy to understand that the little wrought-iron rings would ing the cast iron. lying for inspection in Woolwich Arsenal. viz. wroTight-iron or steel hoops shrunk or forced on one of two things must be the result. however. and a plan for remedying the at least. in order to allow to be compressed sufficiently to obtain any additional transverse strength from the hoops. to provide the requisite longiall tudinal strength. supported by the solid part its of the breech at one end. 147) did not unite the cast iron to the wrought-iron bands. if left make but impression in compress- of sufficient size to provide the requisite longitudinal strength. that the amount of extenat the interior is to any lamina of metal that of the exterior. the best proof of the fallacy of this system will be found in the number of burst guns. that some. although turned down smaller to receive the rings. 1862. unless the cast iron rings will not or ruptured sion of : compressed very considerably. of hooping the existing ordnance on a plan which had proved successful. April. a new pattern weapon. for. re- marked.260 Ordnance. It must be to. But as the hooping a a (Fig.

141. and a longitudinal truss was fitted over it. . Lancasto time " * * From time many FiS. experiments have taken place at Woolwich. and I believe in the course of the experiments some £10000 of public money was expended to see if it was possible to produce a strengthened cast-iron gun. and merely depend on the tensile strength of so it is many inches of cast iron. 261 i. * * * If you leave the end of the gun in its normal state. j^j in." Mr. Lan- caster therefore proposes the wrought-iron casing (Fig. went up to 81 rounds instead of 51. enveloping the ends an inch and a and completely embracing the gun. wrought-iron hoops being then shrunk on over the longitudinal able result A very remark- was given by this experiment. 148) sup- * Journal Boyal United Service Institution. so little longitudinal strength. increasing every 10 rounds 1 unit. the unit of projectile of a 32-pounder. and so on. the truss. that the guns proved unsafe. guns burst after 51 rounds of destructive proof * * gun was prepared in which the rear end of the gun was turned down over an inch and a half on the posterior quarter. That was the result of these ex- periments. cast- Scale. and were so weak at h wliere tlie thickness of cast iron was suddenly reduced to two or three inches. under the same condition of 10 pounds of powder. to 1 ft. at the proof-butt at Woolwich arsenal. and that gun will burst as near as possible in the same time as if it were wholly of '# in the results y/ cast iron." ter* says : Mr. and so much so. The gun immediately went up in the scale of strength. June. in this "A way half. of course it no use strengthening on the periphery of the gun. 1862.Resistance to Elastic Press'uee. that. it Armstrong hooped iron naval gun.

in some of his later guns. cast tubes with closed ends. also ^ve Capa great longitudinal strength. by Mr. it and put on tight. Steel into is already cast solidly Messrs. Another plan of hoop- ing. if cast it But would be impracticable forging. these Naylor. sound enough mering. 310. solid. is shown by tain Blakely uses jacket. could be If snch a casing strong at a made a a feasible cost. 148. patented ter. These castings can be farther com- pressed by rolling. other advantage to bursting — resistance — of a long hoop. from very like Krupp's.262 OltDNANCE. to be iised for hydro- static presses mthout hamThe Bochum Comhave cast bells pany steel (Prussia) of 20000 lbs. porting the whole rear of the gun. 149. by to turn and bore the parts with accuracy enough to secure the proper . and the same mate- made from rials. Tickers & Co. weight. forms. and by substantially the same process hence the best — materials for guns. 3- would obviously overcome and provide the the dilBculty of longitudinal weakness. Lancas- and designed to Fig. similar to Fig. or.

but this is not (See note in Appendix. (See Fig.) 1. in the carriage . because the full diameter of the The increased diameter of the breech is preserved. or continuity. The gun cast-iron referred to is not weakened longitudinally. But length. But it end of the tube by shrink- was iirst cooled at the trunnion end so as to nip the tube at that point.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. forging with longitudinal grain 2. the contact of the end of the tube with the bottom of the Fio.) 3 IS. casing would prevent any adjustment of the tension. If the chamber was shrunk would be drawn very ing longitudinally. Parrott gun hoop requires certain modifications a serious objection. And 3. to of PIoops. at the on account of the difference of mass tightly over the if it two ends. 25. on. like the by Mr. Lancaster's hooping. 150. Length desirable. to give longitudinal strength. chiefly desi- . 311. Hoops of considerable length is arc add to the frictional surface. tension. if they 263 pres- were tapered and forced on by hydrostatic sure . thus giving longitudinal fitrength to the gun. in shrinking together some of the recent experimental guns. (9). This method has been practised at "Woolwich. By notching the trunnion-ring (Fig. it would be likely to shrink unequally. 150) over the tubes within it. 149. by flanging Armstrong truiinion-riin. the outer ring over the rear of th^ breechpiece. Lancaster. solid gun is secured: FlG. The longitudinal strength of By making the breech-piece a the Armstrong thick.

152). reinforced as 151. Several guns. were burst at shown in Fig. The coil method of its fabrication was "to a quantity of wire on a drum. Fig. for this reason proposed n by Commander Scott. The resistance of the staves of a is gun to pressure like that of beams. principle to Prony's dynamometric brake. 152. Mr. fixed with axis parallel to that of a lathe on which the gun was placed. Longridge's plan of winding square steel wire upon a tube with the proper tension. Woolwich. for reinforcing old guns. similar in posed by Commander Scott.* its own area. 151. to transfer tlie etrain Fie. . upon one point to a large resisting area. large An obvious disadvantage of a of hoops is number that the transis verse strength of the gun (277) reduced. each one of which opposes to a strain at any given point only the strength of sectional rest. and their is as the cubes of their depths. Wire-MTonnd Tubes. long tube (Fig. by unequal * Hooped guns will be further referred to in connection with the strains imposed expansion. instead of the short hoops used upon the early Blakely ordnance. The fracture occurred in the direct line of the joint between the hoops. has already been referred to (93). due to the heat of firing. Gun turst under a seam in the hooping.264 raUe Ordnance. The a coil. hooped as pro- On the axis drum there was another drum. as the stiffiiess squares of their depths. without aid from the Stl3. 314. to which was applied a brake. like the made from hoops of the Parrott and is Arm- strong guns. of this 68-pounder.

Another advantage the superior strength tensile force A piece of iron into small wire." 315. a tube of wrought iron 28 in diameter with walls nearly 6 in. for example — ^recourse must be had to wire. 1860. Longridge proposes * "Construction of ArtUlery. and at the same time with the greatest accuracj' as regards the initial tension.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. . depend on the material that reinforces the barrel. 130 tons per square inch.. When it is considered that the breech of the 10^ inch Armstrong gun (446) was blown out by a strain intended for ordinary practice. as that the process would proceed with the same ease and regularity as winding thread on to a bobbin. Bramwell states that in as 22 steel wire the strength ran high as 142 tons per square inch. The whole apparatus was extremely on with great regularity. C.* " fully 'agreed that greater strength could be obtained by the use of wire than in any other manner. pulling in. music-gauge (318080 lbs. it is and the wire was laid Indeed. . 265 so atdjusted as to give the exact tension required for each successive coil of the wire. is that it may be cheaply put on with the exact strain theoretically required. which will bear a and steel of 20 tons per square inch in the bar. simple. B. A second advantage is that there is less waste material due to want is of continuity (292). if monster cannon were wanted —^mortars to throw doubted if shells of several tons' weight. Although the advantages of wire. it cannot. Mr. and in the discussion referred to. apart in the direction of the fibre. thick. He believed that such guns could be made by is that system but he they could be manufactured in any other way. of the material." 317. as in the ease of hoops. to a distance of several miles." Inst.* advocating hoops. The first advantage of wire. Captain Blakely recognizes 316. want of longitudinal This must be supplied by the inner barrel or by some first great defect of wire additional outer material . Indeed. then. the necessity of avoiding longitudinal weakness becomes evident.) Mr. The strength. will bear 40 tons per square inch when made wire has borne 120 to ISTo. evident the apparatus might be so arranged.

which adds to its weight all that would be saved by the superior strength and more accurate tension of the wire. But as far as a high degree of elasticity can remedy the defect. Hoops with varying accurately. John . of layers If the inability of the is Armstrong gun its to resist the destructive effects of vibration due mainly to great number low want of homogeneity elasticity of the wrought iron of which it is made. hit by an enemy's and dislocated or broken at various places. an exposed gun must be heavily jacketed. all the hoops will be equally strained by the powder. Supposing the inner hoop to be * This objection was specially mentioned by Mr. 330. warrant very positive conclusions on this . 102) The experidid not show any^ but they were very small A method of placing the laminse of a solid gun under the proper initial strains. The second defect of wire is in such a manner as to prevent culty becomes serious if the gun is the uncertainty of fastening its uncoiling. he considers this plan better for built-up guns. but without tension. and none of their strength will be wasted. In the discussion referred to. The practice is thus far too limited to subject. mental wire guns already described (96 remarkable weakness in guns. and the next less elastic. Anderson. and so on throughout the series. T.. steel wire is obviits —to — irrespective of the ously the best material. P. 319. Let us now suppose the hoops or tubes forming a gun to be fitted together If the inner hoop is very clastic. realized to some extent by Captain Rodman ela§tiaity. by material outside of the gun proper.266 to supply this strength Ordnance.* This difBshot. it 318. then the wirewound gun is certain to fail from this cause. all Indeed. Gregory. the outer hoop being least elastic. this direction . and Mr. mental guns by and secured the ends by placing them in a hole drilled into the casting. and the degree of elasticity exactly proportioned to the degree of elongation by internal pressure. in his' hollow-cast guns. To avoid it. Longridge fastened the wire in his experisolder. III. Mr. will be considered under the head of Cast Iron.

the outer hoop is. and the exterior of the gun would be a series of sharp angles and short curves. as the Enghsh gunupon a separate ring.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. by preserving. to a certain extent. Supposing both hoops to be capable of safely stretching ^^ inch. 3S1. and so putting the cast iron into tension. stretched 267 yio inch elasticity t^j by the pressure ^ inch. than the less elastic outer inch. without re-entering angles. and secured at a considerable cost. its and hence is brings but y^ of strength into action when the inner hoop stretched to the limit of safety. In the first case. . the 333. the material of the inner hoop should have such hoop when stretched that it would be no nearer its breaking point when stretched xo inch. the outer hoop the inner hoop is stretched still when at the point of bursting. and uniform elasticity. stretched only too inch. thus realizing. the heat woiild stretch the steel reinforce beyond proper tension (that having already been adjusted). are. and a small weight of steel within the cast iron would be much better employed than a greater weight outside of it. as described. approximately. and the outer tube of cast iron. by expanding the steel. In case of the trunnions could be cast with the reinforce. steel lining. The distinction between regularly increasing elasticity. in actual practice. should be clearly made. no proper materials having the respective ranges of elasticity necessary to perfectly carry out this But if the inner tube of a gun were made of a very elastic steel. the advantages of hoops with initial tension. the relative strain and stretch would be approximately correct. and unequally strain the thick cast-iron barrel by expanding its inner layers. case. There principle. and oppose an equal resistance to it. at present. the heat of the burning powder would. and the outer hoop (280). compensate for any want of elasticity in the steel. the Dahlgren shape. the trunnions (if the reinforce In the other makers prefer it) would have to be forged was long. and the total thickness of the gun could be adjusted to the strain at all points. Both hoops would then be equally strained by the powder. In the other its case. creases less If the elasticity regularly inis from the centre outward.

and at the same time was informed of the great 1863. and thus it happened that my attention was directed. yours faithfuBy. Thai Captain Palliser cast guns over wrought-iron tubes as early as September. Engineers. during the years 1853 and 1854. I had. J. even by Captain . by casting some small cast-iron guns over tubes of wrought iron similarly constructed. gunmakers. K. witnessed the manufacture of wrought-iron twist barrels at the forge of Messrs. — In a. we find that we finished turning a model cannon over an internal tube of you on the 10th of November. as the accompanying letter will show. Sir. and of Mr. or by otherwise tempering a. casting a gun over a wrought-iron tube. by hardening the inner part of a solid steel gun in oil. some time previously. 1854. Sept 23. 1. Oc. it appears: 1. The author deems it just to state tliat the above was written before the publica- tion of Captain "William Palliser's patent for this improvement. that they could not be burst by any fair means. written "Having. dated Nov.' "Now. been engaged iu experimenting with elongated shot designed for smooth-bored cannon. I soon found that it was dangerous to fire such heavy projectiles from cast-iron guns with full service charges. " 'CLARK & CO. " for ' Sir. cast 'We are. but in which he did not specify the principle of varying elasticity. this model was completed before any patent had been taken out for strengthening or constructing guns on any method in the least degree similar.Inn-Fiet-db. steel lining could The their appointments. 11. 1SG2 a patent in which Mr. of New York. 1862. "'Captain Pallibee. solid gun. " '15 Gate Stkeet. or else require new trunnions. at such an early date.* be applied Applying a to old steel reinforce to guns without changing an old gun would increase its preponderance to an inconvenient or impracti- cable degree. and. 1854. — On referring to our books. different layers \ would be proportioned to their required elongation. to strengthening those guns. Fislier. which I have still in my possession. by Mr. in fact. Lincoln's. I constructed a model gun.'. P. Truelock and Harris. I found that guns made in this manner were enormously strong.')' * Such a lining in a gun is likely to prevent explosive bursting —the flying of pieces Captain Palliser states that he has burst the outer cast-iron gun without bursting the inner wrought-iron tube (on account of in case the cast-iron or steel shell fractures. After I had concluded these experiments. 1854. difficulties and objections. the cannon was of cast wrought iron. Parsons's patent.. of Dublin. and whicli was completed on the 10th of November. and it would necessi- tate alterations in the carriage. dated June 5." Still. although it involves tlie principle of varying elasticity. letter to the TiTnes. I commenced my first experiments in September. he says: strength that was acquired by this mode of manufacture. that it has not been practised. " iron. Parsons described a structure by wliich he now proposes to carry out the improvement. M.268 Ordnance. involves also such mechanical Palliser. so that tlie ranges of elasticity in the has been lately proposed. and that the east-iron pieces did not It fly. Upon further investigation. to secure the necessary difference in elastic range. 1854. its greater ductiUty).

The satis- endurance — ^71 rounds with increasing charges cast iron —was very factory. by the heating. — The :* m Table XIII. at Woolwich. Captain Palliser issued.'' 3. gives more gun. explaining. Parsons iron may be extended about '0015 of its length It farther appears that Captain Blakely proposed. as already explained. the principle and the means of carryliis 68-pounder cast-iron gun (332) has since been strengthened on plan. due to Captain Palliser for obtaining an official trial. 1855. out. in an earlier portion of this work. a pamphlet with drawings. Bands of steel should wound spirally. should form about one-half of the thickness of the gun. or very little. a cast-iron 68-pounder gun (Fig. 5. "or. and specifying several ways of doing it. to the required thickness. Babcock. a more elastic material may be put into a less elastic one. In January. C. is the case with a cast-iron gun where the expansive capacity of the wall is constant throughout the entire thickness. for cast iron is doubly more expansive than wrought iron. pamphlet After entitled "A Few Remarks on the Science of Gunnery. in alternate layers. Captain Blakely also specifies the improvement very fully in an addition. founded on the different expansive properties of metals. "Wrought 2. on this shrink a layer of wrought-iron rings. in a. at Woolwich. dated April 4. Me.." * "Guns versus Armor Plates. The three publications last named will be farther referred to and quoted. etc. to strengthen guns by inner tubes of a more elastic material. J. 269 was bored 3S3. these. and for achieving much success in strengthening old cast-iron ordnance. and wrought iron even doubly more expansive tlian steeL All parts of the wall of the gun would thus bear a strain at the same time." published in 1857. 1860. Mr." 1862: "Mr. The details of the experiment are given 334. In 1862. suggests another way of arranging the metal for the spirals. ing it in considerable detail. Captain Blakely says. 4. of Chicago. principle of variable elasticity is thus stated by Mr. and there "The arrangement of the materials work to the exterior of the in the order of their expansive properties could be no bursting by successive layers. The foregoing facts are not intended as an exhaustive history of the Great credit so is invention. with the cylinder. wrapped around the cast-iron core.— Resistance to Elastic Pressure. seeing that the was necessarily warped and strained treated. to his French patent of June 28. Parsons issued an illustrated pamphlet entitled versus Armor Plates. not very fully. 153) out and shrunk over a wrought-iron tube. reversing the now be winding of each layer. for private circulation. Ill 1860. proposing to construct guns upon the theory of definite initial tension. as has been shown. ." 1863. and tested with great success. but quite dis- tinctly. with no initial strain. 1863. so as to break joints." explaining the principle and his plan (patented before it Captain Palliser's) of adapting to service. The following singular arrangement of metals is described in Simpson's "Ordnance and Naval Gunnery. He recommends that the core be of cast iron. A "Guns In the autumn of 1863. a 32-pounder was similarly and stood 74 rounds with increasing charges. Paesons's Method.

illustrated by Fig. 154. and the be arranged in the best position to sustain the strain without injury. to -0005 of its length. 153. that in this position the two metals will.: 270 without injury to Ordnance. He says . inch. at Woolwich. within the limits of ticity. or from 2^ tons to 4 tons per square Therefore. work together. if properly proportioned as to size. 1860. or about f of to effect this. if stretched from about -0004: 68-pounder shrunk over wrought-iron tube. and each sustain its proper tensile without being subjected to any initial tension. the strain on any particular circumference or layer being inversely as the square of ter. and gradually decreases its is towards the exterior where it is least. its ultimate breaking weight " Cast iron is permanently injured FlO. and an investi- gation of the relative extensions of both under strain. its elasticity. will show. they will each inside. diameplaced It is therefore evident that if the wrought iron cast iron out. may be stretched three times as six "much as cast and will offer from three and a half to times the resistance to the force applied. its which is effected by a strain of about ^ of ultimate breaking weight. and conse- quently without the risk and Uncertainty of the correct amount being applied." 325. elas- " ITow the strain on a gun is greatest on the metal at the rein- force immediately surrounding the bore. Parsons of strengthening is a 68-pounder cast-iron gun. This method proposed by Mr. wrought iron iron. and it requires a strain of about 14 tons per square inch. strain.

all that is necessary fit. " 271 A conical recess of the form shown Fio. I recomof an mend the lining tube to be made up inner tube. 33®. It would appear safer. in order to initial strain it produce an and the to cast iron (as will be shown by the but its calculations of is r its strength). make it it it a fair and easy that length is so adjusted. by screwing up the breech-screw may and imis be compressed longitudinally between longitudinal strength of the cast iron the shoulder of the recess by which the entire is parted to it. in to 1 ft. The lining tube has is a breech-plug of its own. which for the pur- pose of preventing the explosive gases getting between the end of the lining tube and the breech-screw. view of the known weakness of breech-loading guns. Unnecessary strength at the muzzle is better'than want . forced. t'k in. shrunk. or screwed on. It is not requisite for the lining tube to be forced into the recess on made in the reinforce of the gun. is bored out of the breecli end of the gun. surrounded by hoops or tubes. and then turned to the proper size. strength- by the powder of the charge. the strain considerably greater at the breech end of the bore than on any other portion of its length. to allow the lining tube to extend the whole length of the gun. however. the pressure of the explosive gases being but about one-fourth when the projectile has reached a distance of about 4 times that occupied 68-pounder." Scale. and by acting on its larger area endangering its security. extend about this distance. so that it will be only necessary for the lining tube to ened hy Parsons's internal tube.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. In guns of this size. and secured in its place by the 154 breech-plug. and a tube of wrought iron is turned and fitted into the recess. * * * Again.

a gun is little exposed. Indeed. diameter of bore . 337. and of the same gun strengthened as shown in Fig.56 2-6l do do do I2» 14= 4th 5th 6th 16" 18= 20=^ 2-00 1.58 1-28 I do do do do i 7th 8th 9th 22> =14' -06 . " Supposed to be divided into 9 rings or layers each 1 inch thick. seat of continuity and homogeneity at the pressure. and 8 in. = 3-26 Tons = Tranfverfe ftrength per each fquare inch of the bore. ift Layer X 2 = 2 X 4 8-O0 Inversely. we have Tons. 8q. i Inch. it smaller embrasures. But in turrets and modern casemates. Parsons makes the following calculation of the strength of an ordinary cast-iron 68-pounder. thus allowing the use of Captain Palliser. in.89 Tranfverfe ftrength of a unit in length of Tons. wiU be observed (329).: : 272 Ordnance. allowed the internal tube to project beyond the old cast-iron muzzle. being bored out to a mere shell. possess little resistance to the enemy's shot. Diameter of bore Outfide diameter 8 inches. Transverse Strength at Reinforce. The first ring being strained to the full amount of its elastic limit. inch Tons 26 lo 26. the greater part of the cast-iron chase might be removed of the entirely without weakening the gun. Mr. 26 inches. taking a unit in length of 1 inch.-" Oalculation of the Steenqth of an Obdinakt Seeviob 68-POUNDER CaST-IrON GUN. 154 Table XIIX. ad Layer 3d as 10- 5-12 3. thus securing the additional advantage of greater length of bore. Tons. Sides. of the maximum An objection to extending the tube to the muzzle gun is. that the cast iron would there.

Tons. Area of 26 inches (outllde diameter) 273 — area of 8 inches (diameter of bore) Bq. we have Lining Tube First ring — Transverse Strength. the outer rings are shrunk on to the inner tube. ^ 530 — 50 := 480 X 4 ^1920 Tons. 8q.94 -49 18 . in. by contraction of the outer rings in cooling. Sides. as 28-00 2d Layer 8^ : 28 : : 10'' : 17-92 Second ring Inch. as before. then. Sides. Tons ^ longitudinal ftrength per each fquare 50 area of bore inch of the area of the bore. Layer 1x2 = 2x14 = Tons. ift Tons. Layer 1x2 = 2x14 = Tons. steenothened by a Weought-Ieon Linins Tube. "Following. there will be an initial tensile strain equal to about half the elastic limit of the naetal. Sq. the same method of calculation. their sizes so adjusted. Longitudinal Strength. and dividing the gun into imaginary layers 1 inch thick. is strained to the fuU extent of the inner surface of the outer ring will be equally strained.in. Sq. "In putting and togetiier the lining tube of the strengthened 68-pounder gun. and 1920 =: 38 -4 fq. Bq.in. Tons.: Resistance to Elastic Pressure. Inch. that.. — "Calculation of the Strength of the same 68-PonNDEB Oast-Ieon Gun. in. ift in. in. which will produce a nearly corresponding amount of compression on the inner ring.** Table L. as 28 00 2d Layer 12' : 28 : ! 14' : 20-57 Tranfverfe ftrength of a unit in length of i inch of lining tube —Tons. Tons. Tons. so that when the inner surface of the inner ring its elasticity.

" Now. the interior of the lining tube is strained to its elastic which will extend it about -0015 of its length. taking the section through the shell. to about 4 tons per square inch. as 8" : -OOIS : : 16° : -00038. ^''Cast-Iron Casing. without any material it. Longitudinal Strength. as the exterior of the lining tube.: 274 Ordnance. cast iron to about the full limit of its elasticity .21 = Tranfverfe ftrength per each fquare inch of the bore. and the lining tube being inserted into the breech a fair it.. Tons. Ins.12 4 '23 3. . or nearly '0004. and continuing the calculations of the cast-iron cylinder of the reinforce on the same system. with an extension of about '00042. or nearly the same. or.72 and 8 = 15. ift Sides. 121 . fit. Layer 1x2 = 2x4= as 16"^ : S'OO 2d Layer 3d do S : l8» ! 16= 16^ lb'' : 8 8 8 : 20" 22° : 4th 5th do - : : 6-34 5. Sq. follows that the extension of the outer surface of the lining tube at the same time will be inversely. "The longitudinal strength. taking the is strained coeffi- same cient as before. in. "When limit. we have: Transverse Strength. Tons. initial strain being put on either or the cast iron encasing the extension of the interior surface of the cast iron will be the same.56 27 -23 do : : 24= : Tons Add ftrength of lining tube 94-49 i Tranfverfe ftrength of a unit In length of inch Tons.121 -72 Tons. Tons. the relative its extension of any layer being inversely as the square of it diameter. will weakest part of the cast-iron be .

when one tube is on the point of yielding all the tubes may be on the point of yielding. Captain Palliser thus states the principle of My general principle same metal for the construction of dif- ordnance consists in forming the barrel of concentric tubes of ferent metals or of the difierently treated. " This is not taking credit for any longitudinal strengtli derived . gun "To effect this. and about 6 cwt. so that. owing to their respective ranges of elasticity." There appears to be some confusion of terms in this specification. Ins. ins. from the lining tube so that the strengthened gun shows a in its ordinary strength nearly five times as great as the same state. the power of any substance to resist an impulsive strain is Since meas- ured by the product of the resistance the distance through which surface of a it it offers .ins. Captain vember varj-ing elasticity : Palliser's Method. while it greatest amount of assistance from the exterior portions of the gun .Resistance to Elastic Pressure. 275 Sq. as nearly as possible. I therefore make the interior of the barrel of a tube of the most ductile wrought iron coiled round a mandrel. area of 12 = 415 — 113 = 302 Sq. ins. of cast iron will be required. izoS and 302 X 4 = 1208 and fq. made into a coiled tube and rings. It thus differs essentially from the method hitherto prevalent of equalizing strains on concentric tubes by placing an initial or permanent strain on the exterior ones. of wrought iron. A wrought-iron tube does not accomplish the purpose spe- . Ins.16 Tons 50 area of bore = longitudinal ftrength per each fquare inch in the area of the bore. Area of 23 — Tons. about 13^ cwt. 1862. Tons.ins. will follow that an extensible will evoke the substance at the interior of a gun will offer the greatest resistance to the impulsive pressure of the discharge." 338. so that the grain or fibres of the iron may run circumferentially or spirally. Tons. Sq. = 24. " —In his patent dated No- 11. Sq. while stretching into interior can stretch it and since the gun stretches most. ins.

I found that it produced no farther efiiect on the latter.. diameter of bore. .* Since. . and accurately cylindro-conoidal shot. and his obvious meaning is 329. The tube was fitted into the gun to within 1 inch from the bottom. 330. the last and most severe discharge. "When the elastic limit of wrought iron has been exceeded." 1863. so that it by putting it under slight com- can stretch to a greater distance. given in the Blakely guns constructed on this principle Captain PalUser accom(60. it has been found This com- necessary to supply the deficiency pression. I found that there was some power required to unscrew the nut. tested it at follows " I constructed a tube-gun which was 1^ lb. the elasticity of the wrought-iron inner its not proportioned to greater elongation. owing to the tube having become slightly jammed. and was I screwed home with ease by means of the nut at the muzzle. the ductility of wrought iron is way. in case of the chains for raising Palliser. by Captain Palliser. 61) by shrinking the tubes together. because it is of elastieity. Ductility involves the idea of perma- nent change of figure utilized in another in fact. but because it has a high range it stretches to a comparatively great disis tance before the limit of its ductility called into action— before it reaches its elasticity. also proposes tapering the tubes and forcing them t9gether by shown in the engraving of his gun. with fine emery and oil. and After each discharge I took out the tube and examined it. On using the same charge in the gun as that which had previously enlarged the tube. and it has acquired a permanent elongation. 155 and 156. heavy weights. by means of heavy proof-charges. fired a series of charges increasing in severity after from this gun. Edwin Clark. I then reinserted the tube and ground it back to its place as before. because very ductile. * "A Treatise on Compound Ordnance. i. in practice. it will " set" no This was found to be farther by a repetition of the same strain.: 276 cified Ordnance. and by Captain threw a 1^ who in. Figs. e. He a screw. plishes it by permanently stretching the wrought-iron tube while pression is it is within the cast-iron tube. tube is explained by reference to his pamphlet. as the case by Mr.

to 1 by making it very and placing it in the gun. the excessive expansion of wrought iron greater due to heat.Resistance to Elastic Pressure. The precise proportions will depend on various circumstances. " The mechanical method by insert the is Fig. ft. describes the and construction of gun " The manner in which is I propose to satisfy the conditions already enunciated by introducing into the cast-iron gun a barrel or hollow cylinder of coiled wrought iron. in." 277 as at 331. also the range between the limits of elasticity and rupture of this metal. * End view of 68-pounder. 155. of such thickness in proportion to its calibre that the residual strain borne by this tube shall it bear a trans- relation to the strain mits to the surrounding cast iron which shall be most suit- ably proportioned to their respective elasticities. whose bore is tapered . which can be taken out and reinserted with the same ease first. strengthScale. pamphlet principles his : Captain thus Palhser's Fig. ened bj ternal t'it Palliser's in- which I propose to tube slightly taper tube. ently I shall pres- show that by varying the thickness of the tube we can * * regulate the transmitted strains to the greatest nicety. and that the cast iron will have to do nearly all the longitudinal work. 155.

ed. into a its screw washer place. and thus a useful slightly enlarged. abut against some substance to prevent the breech The bore of the inner tube will be found to be very The tube will now be rebored up to the proper size. we shall in this manner be able to measure most accurately the strain placed on wrought iron due the cast-iron outer gun.278 Ordnance. and most ductile wrought iron. and placed in the gun. The 68-pounder by Captain Palliser (Fig. the thickness of the interior tubes wiU length placed iirmly over these. and these may be forced one over the other in such a manner that the work done by each tube ized its . These tubes may merely fit each other accurately. " This tube may in the larger guns be divided into two or more concentric tubes. It gun first in. and that the increment or decrement in cast or to any pressure is also known. during this proof. " In the very largest guns I should wish the innermost tube to be constructed of the as softest . will have to withstand.. correspondingly: as soon as the tube comes into contact with the gun throughout it its length. This strain or set in the inner tube will never be increased by an equal charge. harsher nature when completed blowing oflf. in other words. such the next might be of a stronger and and the third of steel for some distance from the chamber. rifl. depend on the elasticity of the steel tube. The tubes will be found to have become immovably fixed in each other. The tube will. a wrought-iron tube (Armstrong coil) of 9 bore and 2 was tested in the usual way —10 rounds with cylinders of 68 . thickness. or. strengthened 155) was bored out to 13 in. known. and the whole tube be fired with a charge equal to any that the gun Bradley (L) charcoul iron . strain will be placed on each. is round the muzzle will screw home Since the amount of taper as well as the distance the tnhe is driven by the washer." 333. may be equal- and a third tube made of some suitable steel for a part of The distance of the inner surface of this tube from that of the gun will be fixed by its elasticity. and received in. even were the tube (8-inch) cast-iron not placed in the gun.

The wrought iron of course yielded beyond the capacity of the steel to stretch. and the gan burst at the first round.. 10 rounds with inders of 136 &c. dated Fig. if it •was not to demonstrate the certain failure of deviating from the principle laid Captain Palliser. Captain. Blakely's breeoh-loadmg gun. . to his French Patent of June 28. 279 cyl- weight and the service-charge of 16 lbs. a 10 in. cylinder and 16 lbs.: Resistance to Elastic Pressure. cast-iron shell-gun which had been rejected as worn out. of wrought this construction. 1855. April 4. 15t. It the 81st round with a 612 wich. It resisted the 100 rounds with cylinders increased by the weight of 1 shot every 10 rounds. with internal strengthening tube. —In the addition. Captain Palliser's second gun had an internal tube and a wrought-iron tube between the steel and the cast-iron shell. 1860.. can hardly be accounted In addition to the improper arrangement of the materials with reference to their down by elasticity and ductility. and afterwards steel burst at the Yth round with double charges and single cylinders. was strengthened on introduction of two wrought-iron coiled tubes — this ^bore was tested with increasing charges. Captain Blakely thus explains the principle of varying elasticity it " I sometimes form the internal tube or part of * The object of for. the softness of the wrought iron rendered it perfectly unfit to transfer the pressure from the steel to the cast iron.Blaxblt's Method. and burst at plan by the was 6^ in.* Early in the year 1864. lb. lbs. Other guns on Captain Palliser's plan are in process of construction at Wool- 333. of powder. lbs.

and sometimes the outer tube only extends a short distance from the breech. which forms nearly the whole much to its strength. adds to the this I prefer to make plug taper towards the front for facility of putting it into its place. tube. so that before the inside of the inner one is fully strained the inside of the outer one shall be so. to which is attached a support for the breech-plug when withdrawn from the g. then the outer parts are I therefore try only strained one-seventh as much as the inner. The outer when it forms the principal part of the gun. BB an internal tube which. A hole through the plug will admit of the powder . being compressed by the tube gun. Q-^^ If now the outer tube be made it of the same steel but with the fibres laid longitudinally so that 600.280 Ordnance. then I can only stretch say one in make it its inner diameter 9'99o. making tbe exterior of the inner tube slightly conical. iron or steel (by preference in welded spiral coils) or of brass of brass or iron or steel covered witb coils of wire —and I some- —or times cast on the outer tube after times force it warming the inner. 157) shows a section of a gun thus built. and some- on cold. and in 300.m. with the fibres laid longitudinally. its outer parts are only strained about one-third so much as its inner parts. If. so that fully strained. how much the material of both tubes can be stretched without injury and adjust the size of each tube. I have found by experiment that when the inner tube is one-third as thick as the diameter of the bo're. " The annexed drawing (Fig. A is the hollow breech-plug. adds C C. The amount of the compression must depend on the kind of metal used and on the thickness of the inner tube. and when two-thirds as thick as the bore. for example. circumferential strength of the gun. " Breech-loading cannon I make with the screwed breech-plug It thus hollow open to the front and closed behind. the outside will only be stretched to lO^V stretched to inches. the inner tube be 6 inches in bore and 2 inches thick. I prefer to make of rolled iron or steel. then I made of coils of good steel which will stretch 1 know that when the inner diameter of the tube is inches. Sometimes the ianer. when it be- comes IOjV shall be D D gun is a ring bearing the trunnions also adding strength to the as does the ring E E.

the layers were welded together. has already been described (59. especially of sudden strain. this ten- . but so that it jumps violently . and if resisted by only its own weight on But the other by a heavy mass on one side. second tube of a less elastic steel. When it recovers its originall by is its elasticity. The Effects of Yibeatioit." 334.. of increasing the gun to vaere pressure. are perfected only in proporBut tion to the number of separate tubes or layers employed. Fig. layer struck will be for an instant reduced in thickness and ex- tended in figure its other dimensions. gun the inner tube is made of a highly elastic steel. lessens the resistance of a body to resistance of a 335. composed of layers placed in close contact but not fastened nor welded together. result will be (supposing for the The observed is moment if that the figure of the parts is not permanently changed). nating powder. When this last it is layer compressed it is (its inertia tends to hold it in place until compressed) then in the condition of a spring pressing equally in both directions. and the outer jacket of all cast iron which tubes is least elastic. the plate will be per second. Sbctioit II. it will in turn compress the next layer. by a wave moving at about the velocity of sound. andl so on. If a thick armor-plate. by combining it with the system of initial tension. the whole force of the shot will have been communicated through the mass from one layer to the other. two kinds of motion mil be imparted by the shot. is struck by a shot. as 281 I prefer a needle to strike deto- is now much practised for small arms. is The deficiency in elasticity of the inner compensated by shrinking the tubes together with a slight initial tension. increasing the number of parts. The second. Both another effect of strain. 60). 158 is a 9 in. the .THE EFFECTS OF VIBRATION. that the plate 100 times heavier than the shot. to the rear. and the shot has a velocity of 1000 feet per moved bodily at the rate of 10 feet But before this occurs. the means above considered. The manner in which Captain Blakely at present utilizes the varying elasticity of metals. being ignited by suitable means. until the last layer receives the shock.

to 1 gun. when a gun is fired. Of course. this of vibra- tion is probably much initial aggravated. j'^ in. the shock on the outer layer as is not as great the iirst shock upon it the interior. .. but its indi- vidual resistance to strain is Blaikely 9-ineli nigh and low steel Scale. opposes ance to the wave of . The ob- vious method of modify- ing the efi'ect of strain of the wave upon the outer layer. in a If the layers are already detached tubes.. The shock wave.. 158. This phenomenon occurs Pra. and diminished in overcoming the ductility of the interior. dency to separation would be overcome by the cobesion of tbe metal. and cast-iron ft. the outer one has rest in no help from the resisting vibration. is to give it mass. lessened.282 Ordnance. . is propagated from layer to layer.- and it . tension of tlie The outer tube certainly increases the resistance of the whole series of tubes to a statical internal pressure. o^v ^'-^ individual resiststrain.. because has been distributed over more space. and hence great inertia. But in case the outer tube is in high initial teneffect sion.

The heat of gunpowder when exploded within its volume. The heat of the. even. neering. has not been ascertained. to warrant positive conclusions any very on the subject . what the temperature in a gun acts and how long it on the walls of the gun. puts the interior into com- pression. . 283 * These instance facts would appear to account for the failure of many outer tubes of the Armstrong guns —tubes -which are understood — of to be the 300-pounder. Whatever heat there may and. The Effects or IIea. for less ten- put on with sion.— THE EFFECTS OF HEAT. Exactly. if be. in a of external compression (364). but in the case of rifled guns. The character and circumstances of the failure of hooped guns are too indefinitely understood. but it is certainly reasonable up principle may be carried too far that there must be a certain amount of mass and continuity of to suppose that the building structure to resist waves of force and vibration. and the left. a Section III. other vibra- In addition tions. is original estimated to be about 7000° Fahr. as well as certain division of parts to resist statical pressure. to this instantaneous M'ave of strain. the heating of the interior. by the quicker cooHng of the exterior. or even approximately. and these vibrations are unequal. like those of musical strings. exploded gas may be felt outside a thin field-gun immediately after the first discharge. where the plates of a boiler overlap. and an appreciable time for the reception of heat by the surroimding metal. especially when the inertia and friction of the projectile are great while the area pressed upon is small. exterior into tension. known in engi- for where parts under instance. that fractures are likely to occur vibration suddenly increase in size . there is obviously an excessive temperature. thus strengthening the and therefore state When a gun is cast or forged solid. being proporIt is tioned to the size and tension of the parts. expands the interior of the gun. than that required by statical pressure alone. undoubtedly take place in the pieces of a gun. at present. by up to a certain point. it the walls are without strain.t. 336. is. piece.

1862.* in 337. June. by increasing the compression of the interior parts and the tension of the exterior parts.. with the same rapidity Jour. Service Inst. must depend on very rapid This rapid increase of heat — the intense and maintained heat due to heavy charges and elongated projectiles —in guns with thick walls. the interior of the gun expanded longitu- dinally." f It is. with a 61 lb. gun are once properly adjusted. and endured 2000 rounds. when. . if it is solid. as Mr. gun "was remarkably free from tendency to become heated by a fact which can only be explained upon the supposition that the heating of a is cannon occasioned.284 the Ordnance. stated. that his firing. Soyal U. powder gas. produced than by cast iron or by the contact of the flame. although the dislocation of the parts would- gun in other respects. and 50 in the evening. but by some molecular action by the explosion. is At the same time. strengthens the gun in a still greater degree. thus weakening the gun to an extent which is worthy of consideration. But if the out- heated inner tube can side of it endways without disturbing those (the inner tubes of Armstrong guns do slip in this way. which made the gun so hot it could not be touched with the hand. and more effectually resisted by wrought iron bronze but possibly the compound structure of this gun may also .f In * Sir William Armstrong says. must be view It is therefore obvious. that stood 136G rounds. The guns an iron-clad ship must be few in number. Longridge proves (293). On the following days. and that many of the largo British siege-mortars have stood 2000 rounds with 20 lb. and prevent the evil in question. at intervals of 1 minute to 1^ minutes. that in the Crimea. an error of its sio inch in the diameter of a 17-inch hoop decreases strength 40 per cent. the longitudinal expansion may not be a source of direct strain. 50 rounds were fired in the morning. Captain Blakely says that a Spanish cast-iron hooped gun. not of the metal. WiS fired on the first day 100 rounds. some 68-pounders were fired rapidly. that effective iron-clad warfare firing. which also tends to rupture slip it. But when the strains of a hooped this internal expansion by heat disarranges them. from various injure the causes). 1855. would appear to be suflaciently dangerous to warrant at least a thorough experimental investigation of the subject. on wrought-iron rifled field guna. in his report of July 14. especially in of the limited offensive qualities of the Monitors before Charleston. charges. that the cast-iron guns at the siege of San Sebastian stood 300 rounds a day. of powder. however. elongated shot and 7 lbs. resist shot because turrets and casemates thick enough to of small dimensions. operate to deaden vibration. fired very rapidly.

to make the tubes of a gun of different metals.— Conclusions. that the inner layers of metal are more stretched. although in direct contact with the heated gases. probably. . acting tangentially. little not to its resistance to A homogeneous gun." 1856. in a state of initial repose. Wiard proposes heat. the gunpowder gets warmed and bums more rapidly. \ Mr. drags or forces the exterior to elongate along with it. it is proper importance to this obvious cause of weakness in large ordnance. cannot. so that the initial strain would be little disturbed. — It has been clearly demonstrated that if merely thickening the walls of a gun. The most obvious and simple remedy is. the absence of all direct 285 impossible to assign tbe experiment. has treated the subject with great ingenu- his views and be found effects of : in the Other authorities* have referred to the the durability of cannon. elonga- tion of the interior of the chase. Mr. Wiard two ways : proposes to remedy this cause of failure in so that it 1st. E. beyond a point nearly quite reached in practice. from the same cause. rapid firing upon of its Mr. but when the gun is heated. to do this has been designed.. Longridge says: "This is.) 339." Inst. exercises against rigidly resisting exterior a powerful splitting strain. sustain a pressure per square inch greater than the tenacity of a square inch of the metal of which it is composed. It Is not that the iron is weaker. however thick. and hence strained. than the outer * "On the ConstruGtion of Artillery. The reason is. (See Chapter on Breech-Loading. by shaping the gun 2d." " Consiruciion of ArtiUery. to cool the interior of Automatic machinery the gun with water after each discharge. adds very internal pressure. 1860. New York. This plan will be referred to under the head of Mr. the cause of guns being more liable to burst when they get hot. can expand without excessive strain. arranged with reference to their respec- tive elongation by An inner tube of steel. Mallet says " The expansion The the interior of the gun. of ity . Conclusions. and the force is generated and applied more suddenly. would not expand much more than an outer. Wiard. Fairbaim has shown that up to 600° the strength of cast iron is not materially diminished. less exposed tube of bronze. especially when placed under illustrations will initial strains. C."f 338. for Mr. Norman appendix. cast iron (383). Mr.

with the present materials. the proper accuracy of tension. distress a the- gun in proportion to parts . the maintenance of the proper longitudinal strength is an embarrassing problem —witness the history of the Armstrong an inconvenient preponderelastic in gun. or ance. and the effects of unequal vibration. . the layers must be placed under such that all initial strain. At the same time.* and a change in the structure of the gun-carriage. or parts of the gun will be equally must possess such varying elasticity. Both these conditions are perfectly carried (in distinction tion to the number But the wave of force number of its of separate layers or tubes thus treated. unlike receives. resist statical pressure as resist one composed of would a greater number of heavy charges of gunpowder. involves certain practical difficulties. and prove more trustworthy and valuable weapon. worked at the instant of out. elongation it proportion to the gun vastly more than it could be strengthened by a hoop of the same cost and weight. in the inverse proportion of the squares of their diameters. And. and an acknowledged improvement in the construction of a ordnance. and given weights. is obviously the * Turning — most expensive proceeding possible. or even for the purpose of avoiding changes in the gun-carriage (which would appear to be the only excuse for the construction adopted by Sir Wijliam Armstrong see Fig. Therefore. The hooping of old cast-iron guns requires either a change in the position of the trunnions. hj an internal pressure. Ordnance. with the present materials. from statical pressure). The system of hoops with initial tension. although not as strong to five or six tubes.286 layers. strengthens the ter down the reinforce of a cast-iron gun. in propor- firing. It is probable that. It is difficult to obtain. for the purpose of maintaining the proper preponderance. difficult to preserve. instead of hooping outside the original thickness of cast iron. Lining a cast-iron gun with a tube. and making up the original diamewith wrought iron. and. for it simply ruins the gun. so that the building-up principle cannot be carried far without depriving the gun of the necessary mass and continuity of substance. a gun composed of two tubes. although theoretically perfect. and requires no change in the trunnions and carriage. When several thicknesses of hoops are employed. 49). it would be very much stronger than a single homogeneous tube.

$600. would be almost impossible fire. hollow- cast Navy —the gun. is 287 not under a constant deteriorating Such a lining is also likely to prevent explosive bursting. the lining tube tension.* In either case. and trustworthy can- non of large calibre. Its great weight and inertia absorb the wave of force (335). cast hollow and not hammered. and but about half as expensive as a hollow-forged jacket. and the coarser and cheaper metals without. is. so modified as to avoid some of its defects. If the internal tube of a gun cannot stretch to the ex- tent required without injury. iron. but overcomes the other grand defect of mass not only performs the work demanded of the outer hooped guns. so tempered (probably by hardening as to have the greatest possible elongation within (or otherwise its elastic limits. like the United States 15-in. * The cost of hollow-oast jackets for 11-inoh guns is $350 per ton. which would fracture the thin ring under initial tension. this ex- jacket. and the outer tube will take a greater share of the strain. perhaps.Conclusions. the hooping system. cheap. may be brought to the aid of the system of varying elasticity. with the present materials. the hoop. placing the external tube in slight tension will remedy the defect. it But. A heavy mass of cast where weight and large not a serious embarrassment. to insure uniformly a degree of elasticity in the different layers exactly proportional to their respective elongation under Therefore. Then the inner tube will have a greater safe range of elongation. the best outer jacket. with trunnions and cascable cast on for cheapness slight initial compression of the steel being sufficient to its comto be pensate for want of safe elongation (59) —would appear the best system of fabricating strong. and forced into compressed within) a heavy cast-iron jacket of good shape. is A mass of steel. . The system of varying tension) elasticity is most conveniently and initial cheaply carried out (even in connection with the system of by placing the finer and more size are costly metals within. that of jackets liammered over mandrels. a steel tube. terior stronger than cast iron. On in oil) the whole.

square. the general belief is will off". SKcnou I. so nearly. long and 1 in. square inch. aU forms. only an approximate indication of their safe All metals used for cannon have an appreciable elasticity. nitely determined for The use of elasticity in. is 341. metal having no elasticity either Upon would in permanently stretch. Mr. but the range of this elasticity elongated is —the extent to which may be by pressure before permanently changing their figure — very diverse for different metals. Under a strain of 3 tons per be true. working they Elasticity. taken There are high authorities.288 Ordnance. Edwin Clark has experimented on a wroughtiron bar 10 ft. Elasticitt and Dttctilitt 340." 1863. the relation between the safe load and the ultimate tensile strength of iron. or else it would instantly break. its will when straiaed to a certain extent. this may * * * Mr. is It has long been known that the ultimate tenacity of metals load. March . figure. that it allows space for the power to act without permanently stretching and thus injuring the metal. in his valuable paper before the Society is of Engineers :* "It commonly held that within certain limits of strain. has some positive elasticity —There no doubt that —that resimie it iron. If we are to understand that the set is exceedingly small. Elastic LiMrr of Metaxs. iron is perfectly elastic. who maintain that iron takes a permanent set under even very moderate strains. Col- bum says on this subject. that for aU practical purposes its elasticity may be called perfect. No matter how often it may be is stretched or deflected that it up to a certain point. he gives the permanent set as nearly the * y^fV f part of "On 2. CANNON METALS AND PROCESSES OP FABRICATION. CHAPTER IV. is. and very indefiall. the application of any force. come back to its original form every time the load however.

Edwin Clark gives the permanent after a strain of 8 tons per square inch. Colburn says : When no general rule has been we come to the question of exists working strength. the permanent set given as strain about the X2V0 of ^n iiich in 10 feet. perhaps doubt if there was really any perma- nent set at with strains under 9 or 10 tons per square inch. while the measurements were being made. the permanent supporting power of iron being ously estimated at from j\ down to yV of its breaking strength. safe experiments have been " made to determine the elastic limit of diflferent metals. * * * What information we have goes to show that there is no. more than ac- count for some of the reported strains. that Mr. An increase of temperature in the bar. as it hardly be expressed as an average than i to more than | of the breaking weight to or. 289 is an inch in 10 feet. a Thus. although the range in ordinary bar iron and plate iron 19 not nearly as great. as the tj 3V4 P^^ of its length . Iron is heated in the very act of straining it. the former more variable than the latter. With such exceedingly minute meas- urements. So few adopted." . sets. and this is almost exactly what the extension of the bar would have been had its temperature been raised but a single degree between the observations. even under considerable set of his bar. With 8 tons. Such a slight apparent extension might also have occurred while the shackles by which the bar was strained were coming to their bearings. the instances cited show that the power varies from 3J up is 24^ tons per square inch in different qualities of iron. settled relation between the is elastic limit and the breaking weight and can ranges from less : of iron. we may all. of perhaps a single degree.Elasticity and Ductility. and a sudden breaking strain will generally leave the broken ends too hot to be handled. result. But even affecting if such a microscopic permanent set really existed. and it was not until a of 13 tons per square inch had been applied that a set of 3V inch in 10 feet became apparent." 343. if the clastic limit be taken irrespective of the breaking weight. it is one of which the no engineer would take the strength of the bar in which it slightest notice. would. as was observed. much difference of opinion among vari- engineers. Mr.

Ratio to the ulti- Valoe of Coefficient of lbs. 10 per cent. blue temper. X i (Einkron). bar 1-0. + Tr= foot-pounds to produce rvpture by tension. 3 107516 73138 19341 221° 322" Wrought Iron Caft 25020 17510 4028220 105060 Iron Gun Metal. No. foft 00088 mean (Morln) • 50 67 Caft Steel. inch. Do. —Resisting- OTHER Metals for Constructing Ordnance. Relation of Elastic Limit and of Extension to Ultimate Co- hesion.36 34133400 (Duleau). Mallet in his " Con- stmction of Artillery. Value of Tr deduced. mean mean •00062 •00072 • 17634 21349 28444500 29440100 25591165 26026718 24177825 (Lagerhjilm). ACCORDING TO CONTINENTAL EXPERIMENTS.' higheft •00167 30000 o. Elongation Corre- Mature of Metal."* Table LI.in. Ultimate Angle of Torsion before to Tension Resistance per sq uare to Torsion. Steel. Tin 43536 20430 400 386° 315° 130° 408 6000 Do. 00222 93866 42666750 Table Powers op Krupp's Cast Steel as Compared with From a Report by the Prussian Ministry of War. Englifli. 41454 36615 20810 20320 18300 4016330 3 200400 II 12 3^334 1189500 * The elongation of wrought iron and steel at the point of rupture. 9 Do Do Do. and AuthQrity. LII. Do. 40140 34620 3652740 3825510 Do. Do.63 o. Ultimate Resistance Metal. IN ENGLISH MEASURES.. at limit of Elasticity. 0-40 0-45 0-33 o^ o- Strong Bars (Na vier) Iron 00093 25600 21300 21300 Wire (i -2 mil diam. will be further considered. mateCo.— 290 Ordnance. ponnds per hesion. and the corre- sponding pressure. after the limit of elasticity has been exceeded. Length of sponding Strain in sq. Tables (51. inch.)hard •00084 Ditto (Ardant). and 53) are given by Mr. . 52.Elasticity in peraq. J17213 110393 36300 207 128° 3757050 Do.t Rupture Krupp*s Caft Do. Wrought-iron Ditto Ditto Bars.

Table LIII. 291 — Resistant Vis Yita of Elasticitt and op Ruptuee by Tension of THE Metals applicable to the Construction op Ordnance.6 7 -660 96000 25000000 Wrought-iron rigid bar. blue temper. experimented upon by Mr. Mallet puts this '00222. Dines mentioned that he had tested upwards of 8000 it cast-iron girders for the late Thomas Oubitt. foft •00096 Wrought-iron duftility maximum • 00090 17024 7. •00085 5-997 5-30? 1 Gun metal. and that he found hardly possible to apply a weight so set. limit Lbs. Colburn states that two cast-iron beams. • 00 1 04 10304 93252 31680 9955575 Brafs wire. which right according to other experimenters. while one bore bars. Dynams. a Mr. mean foftened. Mr. Bynams.. Brafs. •Te =i Pi Tr Value for Metal BtoD per unit of Value for Coefficient length up to elastic unit of of elasticity unit of length and length and for unit of section. is t In Table 61 Mr. small as not to produce some permanent breaking weight producing a perceptible one-twentieth of the * * * In seven ex- periments by Professor Barlow. Lbs. caft.. . •00022-|- 47040 3539^ 15-8 5-125 16-988 39650 103500 42666750 28866725 iteel (German). section. on wrought-iron bars 10 feet long. Hodg- kinson. and another. drawn and 00135 •00076 21280 6944 6 '490 9173190 8930000 mean 2-639 20900 As to the elastic limit of cast and wrought iron. made from old furnace beyond a its elasticity strain of 8J tons per square inch. set.2 Elasticity and Ductility. mean caft. ****** * ' Te = foot-pnunda in rptiching elastic limit of tension. section. tons. Exten- T=P Strain per P unit of Strain section at elastic limit. 2 of them retained their full elasticity under a strain of 11 tons per 3 bars bore 10 tons without injury. and that " in a discussion at the Institution of Civil Engineers. bar. ftrong and •00054 25760 141 1 6-955 383^5 12287 28444500 17066700 Caft iron. Caft Caft ftecl (EngUfh). took each a permanent set with weights respectively equal to j\ and jV of the breaking weight . did not retain square inch 9-J- .

1859. " On the Coefficients of Elasticity and Rupture in Massive Forgings :" Mr. while the point of or rather ultimate rupture gives an average of 57120 more than double that of the point when permanent elongation commences. states* that "from several hundred experiments that have been for the made with wrought iron cut from bars intended manufacture of Armstrong guns. or cold rolled or cold stretched.. elasticity until close to the elasticity and is ductility. considers is Mr. Aug. yond the iron. 1862. Anderfirst son states. lbs. limit of elasticity. After stretching. a bar that a square inch in section after stretching. —average point of ultimate fracture being — Be- The forgings from which the specimens were cut were of high quality.292 Ordnance. some metals.. Edwin Clark. and such parts as have been so reduced have a greater tenacity per square inch than * Journal of the Eoyal United Service Institution. results of his experiments. from the inch. and especially when stretched after a little heating. gives an aver- age resistance of 28000 per square inch. the wrought-iron specimen gradually stretches until it has been considerably reduced in diameter . by the addition of extra weight. but —that is to say. that "after the yielding. tenacity Wrought iron increases in when drawn into wire. the following result has : been obtained The point of yielding permanently lbs.* as a result of many experiments on iron for Armstrong guns." 344. will stand a greater pull than an inch- square bar that has not been stretched. Mr." that the limit of elasticity of wrought iron 12 tons per square 343. The his following results (Table 54) of Mr. Anderson." In heavy forgings. " the average point of yielding per- manently was 23760 lbs. in paper of March 1. Mallet's experi- ments were stated by him to the Institution of Civil Engineers. 48160 all lbs. . they appear to assume a new ment of particles and a new limit of point of rupture. especially soft wrought arrange- may be considerably and permanently stretched without rup- ture. Superintendent of the Armstrong Gun Factory at Woolwich. when they lose all gain ultimate cohesion. Ductility (Gain of Strength by Steetchdig).

corroborate those of Professor Johnson. thick and rifled. But the addition of strength by is not all gain." 343. it back into its place as with fine emery and oil. 293 when in the previous normal condition. was estimated to have been obtained with a variety of irons. and in an extensive course of experiments made about twenty years ago. which can be taken out stretching is and reinserted with the same ease as at first. diameter of bore. * * * The tube was accurately fitted into the gun to within one inch from the bottom. The iron has to a small extent assumed the character of wire. I then reinserted the tube and ground before. is is always stronger than the iron out of which the wire made. and was screwed of the nut at the muzzle (332). from the drawing process. After the this shot sufficed slightly to disturb the equilibrium of the tube. from the known results of drawing wire. by Professor Walter E. owing to charge. * "Treatise on Compound Ordnance. for the United States Government. which." Captain Palliser mentions the following experiment structed a tube-gun which :* '' I con- was 1^ in. increas- ing in severity. On using the same charge in the gun it as that which had previously enlarged the tube. or to less than a dull red. and threw is -^^ a 1} lb.Elasticity and Ductility. cylindro-conoidal shot. home with ease by means I fired a series of charges. I found that there was some last and most severe dispower required to unscrew the tube having become slightly jammed. because." Mr. I found that effect produced no further on the latter. and his experiments. and This treatment that " when heated moderately. . although the tenacity of a given area increased. stretched. it is understood. a total gain of nearly 30 per cent. and after each discharge I took the tube out and examined the nut. Johnson. iron is strengthened throughout." 1863. This tube in. in strength and length. Colburn ing it is states that increasing the strength of iron by drawand then is probable. taken together. * * * Captain Blakely has lately proposed the same treatment of iron. from this gun. known as thermo-tension. Thus it.

Mallet. . Unit of Section.294 Ordnance. Inst. —Properties op Lioht and Heavy 'WrouGht-Ihon FoRGDfGa March. 1 foot in length. 1859. Table LIV. 1 square inch x No. Oivil Engineers.

295 Table LIT.— Elasticity and Ductility. Contintied. §1 .

and in 38 months its stretched at the rate of 2f parts in every 1000 parts of length. is just now discussed in Great Britain with unusual earnestness.296 the total area is Ordnance. still when is tried immediately will retain its full breaking strength. afterwards. a fourth wire stretched. Under a strain of f of the breaking weight. which circumstance terminated the experiment. One wire was strained to i breaking weight. A second wire was strained to i of its breaking weight. of natural The same late writer mentions the following experi- ments strains its : The Mr. 6 parts in every 1000 parts of its length." 346. Under a strain of i of the breaking weight. The importance it of determining the elastic limit of metals. then. is diminished. the limit of elasticity is not exceeded in other Are the circumstances under which wrought iron does appear to gain strength by stretching. but beyond the elongation which at once took place no additional stretching occurred in 33 months. a load that will permanently change the figure is On of an iron or steel structure. tenacity by stretching : —" But from what has been is after mentioning instances of increased said. The injury appear when a subsequent working strain long continued . Yicat. Mr. the same as those of cannon strained by gunpowder ? In one structures. investigated the " on unannealed iron wire. in 33 months. and even without waiting for this." if not the whole. another wire stretched rather more than 4 parts in every 1000 parts of its length. this stretching being additional to that which took it place as soon as the weight was applied. the contrary. so that may not be exceeded in practice. If. it is not to be supposed that iron not injured by excessive strains. not- withstanding that the metal strained may. why should it be in guns ? particular they are certainly similar. it will be found that strained iron its has been deprived of a large part. from 1830 to 1833. Colbum remarks. deemed unsafe. And this property of ductile metals not depended upon in the construction of engineering works. "Wire drawing and cold rolling involve the application of lateral pressure in addition to . but which of itself was not sufficient to immediately produce any permanent set. elasticity. and then broke.

In the experiments of Mr. illustrated 347. which will thus be depressed to P'. '. but with a constantly diminishing velocity. set. bars drawn down to f inch square at the centre.1. P" will be twice as low as P. engineer of the Niagara Suspension Bridge.Elasticity and Ductility. howof Application of Force. and there is no atmospheric and continue resistance. The testimony of Sir William Armstrong and Mr. In Mr. John Anderson before the Defence Commissioners point (402).i weight. Fig. go. and approaching very near to their ultimate tenacity. and the weight slowly placed upon the end i. 159.11 immediately took a permanent ever. when that of a uniformly loaded beam or chain would be dangerous ? Experiments show that a sudden jar will cause the fracture of bars that had long remained whole under strains greatly exceeding their elastic limit. to vibrate. is very clear on this But does the suddenness of the its strain brought upon a gun render change of figure safe. J>. the weight will exceed the resistance until P' is after h) which the momentum acquired by the total weight (P and will depress i to P". bore a strain of 20^ tons per square inch without visibly stretching. is being placed in contact with h but not resting upon let suddenly reached. Gunpowder upsets or draws the iron as under a hammer. columns loaded with ^f of their breaking weight could only be made to support it for a long period of time by preventing and about them. 159. the point where is —This P the resistance will if equal the v4ii. Farbairn's experiments of 1837 to 1842. Effect of Different Rates by Fig. Hoebling. If the elasti- because the resistance will then exceed the weight. Let the elastic body a S be firmly secured in the wall W. but. city is perfect. wevQ permanently loaded and then jarred. and all vibration in having an ultimate tenacity of 33 tons per square inch. Upon any vibration. the elastic force being in excess. when no jar was given to them. From P". But the weight it. they The above specimens. the weight will again rise to owing . for a week. 297 mere stretching.

. and imperfect elasticity. around the seat of the charge. "The above excess of strain due to the rate of application of any that due to its statical equilibrium. or by the To illustrate : momentum at which they arrive at that position. infinitely small. and the resisting power of a same. " The statical pressure exerted upon that portion of tlie surface of the bore. So more slowly a force is applied. on the area of a The weight of cross-section of the bore of that gun. the point of statical equilibrium. and they would consequently be carried by position with the that momentum only an infinitely small distance beyond the posi- tion of statical equilibrium. Eeferring to this illustration. with that assigned them in the discussion above referred to and the force of gravity to be so increased as to cause their weight to remain constant. conse- quently. suppose the sum of the masses of the resisting body a h and of the weight P to become infinitely small as compared . it will finally be brought to that. by hypothesis. The ultimate strain would. as compared with its value under the former hypothesis. "These hypotheses would not change the position of statical and the moving and resisting bodies would reach that . same velocity as before but their mass being.298 to atmospheric resistance Ordnance. under this hypothesis. Captain Eodman says:* force. 5 to remain the equilibrium. This would be the weight of the moving or strain- * "Experiments on Metals for Cannon and Cannon Powder. in firing a 10-inch gun with service charges and solid shot. the rest at P' . the less the resisting body will be strained by being moved beyond the position of statical equilibrium. their momentum at that position would also be infinitely small. this a body that would produce amount of statical pressure per square inch. or living force developed in both the straining and resisting up to the time when they attain their position of statical equilib- rium. per square inch. is caused by the momentum bodies. cannot be less than 50000 lbs. be independent of the rate of application of the straining force. would =78-54x50000= 3927000 lbs." 1861.

and the momentum correspondingly small.. be so great as to ren. to is weight which would be certain. at the highest estimate. in architecture and practical mechanics. and that portion of the gun around the seat of the charge is the resisting mass. and. The surface of the in.. caused by the most rapid rate is of application or development of that pressure. for this is of primary importance .. Elasticity and Ductility. " It is well for a limited time. that a given beam of wood or bar of iron will sustain. percentage of the total strain. the excess in strain upon the gun. moving and resisting masses in the case of a 10-inch gun. at the moment of interior rupture. must not. and the conclusion to which it leads. but from causes entirely diflferent from that discussed above. at the moment when the bore attains the diameter due to the der its statical pressure exerted upon it. ultimate- break it . " The extensibility of gun-iron is. would be very trifling. as compared with that of a body whose weight = 3927000 lbs. in general terms. in the discussion above referred to. in firing cannon. in passing over a space of "03 in. " The sum of the charge. in the discharge of cannon." * * * known and understood. the velocity developed in that mass. . that the rupturing force it a decreasing function of the time required for to produce rupture. whereas. momentum of any considerable magnitude from which it follows that. the charge of powder the moving mass.. would be very small nor can the radial velocity of the . applicable to a 10-inch gun is . and the extent of radial motion of the surface of the bore would =-02 in. however. " This reasoning. a ly. ing mass necessary to 299 render the remarks. a very small above that due to statical pressure. per inch in length. of the bore of a 10-inch bore would have a greater extent of motion than any other part and if there were no other resistance to motion than the inertia of the mass of the metal around the seat of the charge. indeed. ='04 in. be construed into a disregard of the rate of combustion of the charge. not over '004 The increase in diameter gun would therefore be.

as well as others. 1. 4 (same page and with 2 inches thickness of metal. 1 and 2 of the same inte- cylinders just referred rior capacity. for to. near as could be. per square inch. . indi- cate that such the fact. and were burst by Set No. -5 No. show the important dif- ferences in resistance due to differences in time of action. five differ- a tensile specimen of cast iron on the testing machine minutes. For example : in bursting cylinders set with powder inch lbs. gave a bursting pressure per square tensile strength of iron =37842 lbs. and the ence between this and any smaller space must be still less. or 53732 lbs. believed. For example the time required to rupture say. And test if so. of very great. that we have not heretofore properly appreciated the effect of time on the resistance which a body can offer. when the greatest duration was so small as to be entirely inappreciable to the senses. And in set No. probably as great as the ratio of the time structure of either of existence of any known wood or iron to that required to test the strength of a single specimen of either material. but as compared with the length of time during which the maximum pressure is exerted upon the bore of a gun at a single discharge it becomes very great . Keport of 1860). with a thickness of metal of inches. 1 was "5 equal charges of powder of the same quality. as the permanent architectural load is less required of any material than that indicated by the test specimen ? " The results of different is experiments which I have made. the bursting it pressure was 80229 lbs. to a single discharge. sets Nos. This is a small absolute space of time. Take. example. why should not the resistance of a gun or shell. These sets were both of the same same metal. however. and requiring a =75684 per square inch. while the tensile strength of the iron by the testing machine was only 26866 report). but where the ratio of the action is maximum : to the minimum time is. " These same results. be as much greater than indi- cated by the specimen. (see page 192.300 "It is Ordnance. lbs. where the absolute difference in the times of action is small.. while the most that could have been by the testing machine would be twice the tensile strength.

inch thick. and set No. to produce rupture (as indicated by the fact of one the whole products of combustion of one charge out through a hole one-tenth of an inch in diameter. while of set No. with pieces mean strength was 25-86 tons per square inch the third breakage. * * * Now these the difierence in the times of action of the forces in examples was entirely inappreciable to the senses." 348. otherwise accounted may be Mr. 1 was 37842 lbs. with pieces 2 feet long. The apparent increase of strength by stretching for. so that may be said that cannon do not burst because they have not time to do so before the bursting pressure is relieved. greatly exceed the resisting power of the cylinder of set No. in the ordinary discharge oft cannon the gun is subjected. on 10 bars of 4rJ- SC Crown At iron. that it did not 2. One cylinder of set No. a Engineer to the Admiralty. And at it. series of experiments. 1| inch diameter and feet long. 2 was only 38313 lbs. Thomas Lloyd. made a like few years ago. 2 required two charges less for to burst it. but not before almost the " all pressure due to the charge of powder used had been developed. The mean breaking weight at the first breakage was 23*94 tons per square inch.. . to a force which would if inevitably burst permitted to it act for any appreciable length of time . in the space in which it was burned still . without bursting). 1. 2 was 1 inch thick. Elasticity and Ductility. though is unappreciable length of time. each discharge. per square inch. that 38. 27"06 tons per * The pressures were determined by Captain Rodman's indenting apparatus. 301 The mean bursting pressure of set No. yet the ratio of the greatest to the least must have been very considerable. explanation of these results believed to be. it greatly exceeded the resisting set in power and consequently burst that full much less time. the at the second breakage.* Now the only true lbs. 3 feet long. the indication of pressure being something first the second than for the is charge.313 was the pressure due to the combustion of the charge of powder used. while set No. Colburn says: ''Mr. and required a cylinder forcing greater.

that there was a difference of strength of 20 per cent.' The permanent stretching of the interior layers of a out initial strains would tend to put exterior layers into tension.'s extensive the 10 bars tried. 302 square inch . the cohesion was everywhere else increased. from 23-94 tons to 29'2 tons in the strength of the same bar is A undoubtedly large. Blaenavon iron broke with 6'551 first. gun withthem into compression. and 6"777 tons ' at the second breakage. manager of Messrs. and found. sound and 50 the first may be supposed to take place time at the largest defect. known. the greater strength being 22 per cent. A more obvious exother words. and so on. Brown. that hardly any two bars of iron have exactly the same strength. the strength of cast bars Low-Moor tons at was 7'326 tons per square inch at the first. Gartsherrie broke with 7'567 tons per square inch at at the second breakage. with 15-inch lengths. and 8'475 tons Other cast-iron bars of a certain mixtiire broke with 6'6126 tons per square inch at the first. tons per square inch at the and 6"738 tons at the second breakage. and Mr. the first. and at tlie fourth breakage. Upon these results the commissioners remarked. between the strongest and the weakest of these pieces. 29-3 tons per square inch. In the experiments of the Railway Iron Com- mission upon the extension of cast iron. on testing. Ordnance. that planation is. lengths. more than the lesser a difierence which appeared to exist in each of . that would appear that iron repeatedly broken becomes more tenacious than it was originally. however. Lloyd's experiments have been it held to show that iron was actually strengthened by stretching or. William Roberts. and 8'152 the second breaking. It is well chain-cable works at Millwall. and subsequently at those smaller. that the bars first broke at the weakest part. has cast a 12-ft. Mr. then variation of again at the next weakest part. & Co. Lenox." . until finally none remain. if may be obviated by considering that Fractures it would be very not impracticable. the latter being at an unsound place. and the a condition of strength (405) which is . in by destroying the cohesion at one point. This erroneous it conclusion difficult. to obtain cast-iron bars perfectly feet long. bar of iron into 2-ft.

Safety for another reason soft of Ductilitt. — 303 349. it ultimately by stretching. — Mr. exceeded. is Mr. 350. or and the breaking If the former is accident- through defects in the metal or the fabrication. although loses its ductility may have a higher tenacity. and thus gradually approaches the and cast iron witJunit a margin of safety. if this margin of work done material.— Elasticity and Ductilitt. limit of high steel But when the and other slightly ductile metals is reached. provide only by excessive quantity. soft Work done in Steetohing. such as high cast the breaking point (352). wrought city. or if accidental overposition assigned by Mr. there is then very little " work done" required to reach the breaking point. elastic limit ally. it has very little elastimore reduces the above margin of safety. that high steel perfectly safe. however. Mr. still Nor is this the only defect of stretched As compared with steel. Wrought cast iron. \ which . Mallet admits. and it is at any time likely to be. If any of the material is bad (it may even have been fractured in some unseen part). But if wrought iron changes figure under the it strain of gunpowder. Very little " work done" then required to reach the breaking point. to work done in slightly stretching a but very much more tenacious metal. iron. will still the gun be far from the bursting point. so that the working strain shall never exceed the limit of elasticity. Mallet considers : — wrought iron the proper cannon metal the work done in greatly stretching a bar of its wrought iron beyond elastic limit to the breaking point. less considerably exceeds the ductile steel. and may considelastic erably stretch and give ample warning. through defective material or fabrication. is provided for by an excessive qiiantity of In other words. (466). but advocates its use because there is such a large margin of safety between the strain. Mallet to high steel pressure occurs. it High and and metals. iron provides this all less ductile ductility. Mallet does not propose to load wrought iron above its elastic limit. —fracture is occurs almost immediately. there must be provision for the expen- diture of a great power between the working by its strain and the steel ulti- mate tenacity.

to steel. for cast harsh strong iron. C the curve and d' D that for extremely ductile but not very strong iron. in which the quadratures of the four curves indicate the values of tic limit Te (foot-pounds in reaching the elas- of tension). strong wrought iron for soft strong iron . it gradually assumes the very defect it by Mr. and 53) the succeeding diagram (Fig. and Tr (foot-pounds to produce rupture steel.304 Ordnance. tension. dl y is the ordinate of strain in kilogrammes. curve d' B. . . 160) has been produced." 1856. if —a greater thickness of wa]l its ^than steel. so that steel can endure the greater pressure. reach the limit of elasticity The strain required to much greater for steel than for iron. permanent change of 333. and hence upon the gun. while steel wiU the strains imposed upon it do not permais its figure. without a figure. that for the extension of cast steel. it is kept below the limit of gun. by and wrought iron of extreme but of moderate strength). d' nearly a right line. may be as safe as a heavy But the demand is for the highest possible pressure upon the shot. d' z the abscissa of extension in millimetres. 331. it would appear that its if the wrought iron is stretched by gunpow- der beyond ascribed elastic limit. although the rupture of wrought iron may at first require of any force in motion Tastly more effort than the rupture of steel. that for harsh. is The curve d' A. ductility soft strong iron. From and d' the origin. Mallet's reasoning and conclusions are as follows :* From these tables (51. because the strain required to reach it limit of elas- ticity is less never deteriorate nently change must deteriorate with use. So steel long as the pressure in a light wrought-iron gun elasticity. the . " On the known principles of ins viva. " Mr. 52. Thus. Mallet tenacity by stretching. and propel a given shot with the higher velocity. the ' work done' in each case in producing these extensions will be equal to one-half the * "On the Construction of Artillery. although may gain in ultimate So that a wrought-iron gun must origin- — ally have a greater excess of material or else.

from ea ao . " Hence it follows. still. in the abscissa d' z. that will rupture the best and toughest its cast while again. for the very ductile wrought iron. tliat although the strength of cast steel is ultimate cohesion) iron. quadrature of eacli respective curve. or even is its extension within the elastic limit. effort to it will require of any force in motion above 50 times the ductile steel . that required to bring the cast steel up In fact. that a iron. nearly 650 times that for Te. Mallet's tables (353). then. 160. 20 . so great is value for Tr is the range or limit of work to be done between the elastic (safe) limit and that of rupture. enormously greater than that of the very ductile Fig. in round numbers. gun formed of it cast steel or of harsh. its extension to final rupture.«u so 60 go 8 laO 110 ISO 130 the greater range of extension of the the work done' in producing ' latter. 305 It is obvious.Elasticity and Ductility. strong wrought provided have an enormous surplus of * The statement as to the work done in producing the extension of iron and steel within the elastic hmit should be compared willi Mr.* enormously in excess of to the point of rupture. to tlie (its eye. rupture a given section and length of wrought iron.

But he appears steel. the following Nature of Metal. " The . while in all cases the such balance. otherwise. highest possible ultimate cohesion is. are obviously correct and useful. Mallet's conclusions about the superiority of wrought when the amount of material used is proportioned to the ultimate cohesion of the respective metals. to have been so absorbed in his crusade against that he allowed himself to found another tables. . and Authority. theory against it. or to the sUk-wrapped guns of the Chinese. but made of glass whUe the latter approximates to a gun made of sufficient strength. above . This might be popularly illustrated by saying to that the former gun approximates . one of enormous strength. so as to approach possible. or if the latter be brought up. the cast steel or the harsh wrought iron will be the most unsafe gun will gun of ductile iron be the safest. most de- sirable but this quality alone will not answer for ordnance (or for strains are concerned) . will be very safe but if its proportions be reduced within a narrower limit of balancing the final resistances with the bursting strain. security must be purchased by the accumulation of an immense overplus of material. of leather or india-rubber. accidentally or otherwise. tlie higliest strain to -which it is to be exposed. ductility within the elastic range* to give security. any other purpose in which impulsive it must be united with the largest possible amount of or. no doubt. on an obvious inconsistency in his own We find in the table on page 73 of his work. Mr." 3S3. iron to steel. — if conceivable.: 306 strengtli Ordnance.

' / .Elasticity and Ductility. 307 In the table on page 19 we find the following: No.

" Inst. and three calibres in diameter. a means make cast iron alone more than its ultimate strength. The first resort for strengthening a gun thus fabricated from a weak material. is its comparative weakness. No possible thickness will ena- ble a cylinder to permanently bear an internal pressure greater per square inch than the tensile strength of a square inch of the material (282).* with reference to this law. its strength in a cylinder represented by the areas B. The strength of the metal being represented by the square is A. three. against cast iron as a material for an entire thickness. is to make it thicker.: 308 Ordnance. 161) shows the advantage of using strong metal. 8. relations of elasticity The strain and ductility to the endurance of have already been considered.. attempt to compensate by quantity for defect in . "Weakness a — beyond a point nearly or quite attained in practice. 186a . two. their tensile strength will be compared in some detail. Section II. is represented by the numbers 3. Mr. 334. E. But it has been shown that mere increase of Seeious Objection. C. and 15 and the addi: * "Construction of Artillery. Cast Ieon." The diagram (Fig. Longridge says.. and that experiment which is after experiment should be made in search of that as impossible to to be found as the endure philosopher's stone. and making gims (if homogeneous) and rings for hooping guns of moderate thickness. assuming the pressure of powder to be more than 8 tons per tons square inch (he assumes 17 tons). and the strength of iron to be 8 " It does seem strange that the use of this material should : be persisted in. viz. Since the ultimate tenacity of metals approximately indicates their safe working strain. leather thati to use its weak metal. and four calibres in diameter. D and the weight of guns of one. The inner full tensile circle represents the calibre of a gun the outer arcs represent tubes for two. The chief argument gun made without regulated initial tension. and quality. C. does not practically strengthen a gun.

as follows: 39364.." Inst. 35520. 48672. 45575. Mr. Spuyten Duyvel. is represented by the middle part of a ring 6 slight . Longridge gives the strength of English gun-iron at less than 20000 lbs. is stated by Major Wade to be 45970 and the average of the highest and the lowest is 27485 lbs. 39040. Johnson. f "Experiments on Metals for Cannon. and that cooling and is still contraction when it its elastic limit are favorable for cannon-making. weight. — sufficient per square inch. An sile Comparative Strength. steel at a weak material when compared with 100000 to 150000 lbs." 1861. J "Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. 31000 lbs. of a ring The only other resort. T. 30420. —twice five to three times as much.* Assuming a its supply of such iron of uniform quality. J. from 23638 lbs.. and the additional weight to give the additional strength represented hj the Pig 161 area D is represented by the outer part 7. then. has been quite recently applied cannon-founding. N. if the principles of construction are not radically changed. 42748. 45044. series of years. 1860. American cast iron.J of the quality of gun-iron used. 49496. cast by Mr. * Prom the notes of Colonel Delafield (in charge of the defences of New York). 355. 309 tional weight to give the additional strength corresponding to the area 0.f gun-iron since 1841.. 356. 42660. § "Construction of Artillery. But cast iron does not average 50000 nor even 40000 lbs. Civil Engineers. 45632. 45044. The system of inspection of aii also stated to have resulted in improveto ment Ibs. 45044. The tensile strength varied from 30420 to 49496 lbs. etc. 33590. 137-138. The average of samples of the highest quality.. 42336. Malleable Iron Works. 40090. The average of 19 specimens was 41913 lbs. pp. 37340. 46078.Cast Ieon. and state8§ that in the Blue Book of 1858. mentioned by is is Captain E. tensile strength. 37774 The highest tensile strength of the various gun-iron tested during a lbs. is to add bet- what strength can be got out of a ter process of founding. .odman. it appears that this iron was taken from a G-pounder of 1000 lbs. 42C60. having a tenstrength of 49496 to lbs." 1856.

and that of Low-Moor. and some of the Scotch 12912 lbs. strength of the same iron was not quite 8 tons." Mr.) to the square inch of section before it gave way. The average of the Nova Scotia iron. before referred ple (of cast iron) to. and doubtless considered by them as the best for the purpose.) per square inch. This is erably above the strength of the greater proportion of the cast iron of commerce.) an average tensile strength of 7 to 7^ tons (15680 to 16800 per square inch ." * Journal Royal United Service Inst. From the report of the Commissionit appeared that the tensile strength of Bowling iron was 6 to 6i tons (13440 to 15120 lbs. " on inquiry.) Those experiments were made upon irons prepared and sent specially by the makers. "Woolwich experiments : " The maximum strength lbs. . of cast iron there tried was 15 tons (33600 strength ii tons (10080 lbs." Mr. only gave In the discussion on Artillery.* that "from several hundred experiments made with the higher qualities of cast iron. that bore 19^ tons (43680 lbs. the minimum and the average strength 10 tons (22400 lbs. John Anderson (superintendent of the Royal at Gun Factory Woolwich) states. 1862. Hodgkin- son's experiments. he found that in that instance Acadian charcoal iron was But in the same page of the pamphlet from which this high result was quoted. selected at random. lbs. which were collected with a view to obtain the strongest iron for cast-iron guns. Mr. and 7 tons. per square inch. August.' showed lbs. gave only 15821 lbs.. recorded in his edition of Tredgold. ' Carron iron 6f to ers on the use of Iron in Railway Structures' (1849).). 7 tons (15680 lbs. the ultimate tenacity was found to range from 10886 lbs.310 containing tlie Ordnance. there were instances in which the tensile used.). Longridge replied that. specimens of which have recently been tested." pig-iron. up to 31480 consid- or an average of 21173 lbs..). The result of ' Mr. Low Moor iron being 6^ tons (14560 lbs.). before the Institution of Civil Engineers. Bramwell said " he had a samwhich was broken at the testing machine at Woolwich.

of powder. 311 357. and then it burst. of wads. six timesj and seven times. of powder. \ Colonel Eardley Wilmot. and 2 tons 19 cwt. It was then fired 827 times without injury. of powder and 6 shots.-j- 358. 4 shots. wHcli require much greater strength than smooth-hores. at was increased.Cast Iron. and 2 wads. and 3 wads next with 9 lbs. and that the pounders to failure has induced the Department to withdraw them pretty generally from service. 21 lbs. when the gun was full to the muzzle. Wiard states* that work on a number of T^ inch cast-iron rifled guns (Fig. the strain . tainly good... in the discussion on rance of certain cast-iron guns: a tlie Construction of Artillery. and so on to four times. with 9 lbs. 15 lbs. has been generally abandoned on accoimt of the weakness of the material. 3 shots. and 2 wads. of shot. Five rounds had since been fired. and weighing 45 cwt. 18 lbs. when the to burst that gun was again filled to the muzzle. at the West Point Foundry and elsewhere. It thus took gun an aggregate of 3 tons 13 cwt of powder. That gun was fired. of powder and 10 shots. Geeatee Sheestkage of Steong Ieons. This was repaired. 10 rounds with a cylinder weighing three times 68 lbs.. .. before the Institution of Civil Engineers. 8 feet 9 inches long. " wh?n the gun burst. it was tried with 12 lbs. 10 rounds with a cylinder weighing twice 68 lbs. 2 shots. Subsequently. Mr. of powder and 7 shots." 1863. first with 21 lbs. that as the elevation upon the gun became greater. furnished with the results of experiments made with a Spanish cast metal 32-pounder. 25 tons 8 cwt. 24 lbs. — * "Great Guns. 27 lbs. and a cylinder weighing 544 lbs. up to 11 and 12 shots. continuing with the same charge of powder. and another round was fired of the same proportions of charge and weight of cylinder. the charge of powder being in all cases 16 lbs. of powder. of powder. of powder and 9 shots. 83) was stopped because " various trials. so that the weight of the cylinder with the last 10 rounds was 476 lbs." ers He were equally unsuccessful. in 1860. He need hardly say. 2 shots. yet the gun was uninjured. which had the effect of destroying the carriage of the gun. 2 shots. . then with 9 lbs. with gun which had stood the following discharges: 10 rounds with a cylinder weighing . and the same number of wads. then with 9 lbs. demonstrated these also states that the 80-poundliability of the 50- guns to be entirely unreliable. cast-iron English ex- periments on the rifling of old guns will be It is farther detailed under the head of Rifling Projectiles. of powder and 5 and 3 wads. and 2 wads. five times. 68 lbs. He had been an elevation of 10 degrees. with the same charge of powder. gave the following facts about the endu- "At the present moment experiments were being made in Woolwich Arsenal. shots. but the material The shape and new and of these guns was cer- was not trustworthy. of powder. of rifled guns. of powder and 8 shots. The construction from unstrengthened cast iron.

312 Ordnance. The very low endurance of the first pair (8-inch) of experi- "Au American shell-gun. Table LT. and weighing 81J had been fired with the results given in Table 55.. Nnmber of . 9 feet long. proved that the strongest iron does not always during gun. ewt. " make the most en- Several examples mentioned by Captain Rodman* illustrate the general experience in this direqtion. 9 inches diameter.

one of our most experienced gun-founders. hard. the best is made of low. solid- however. cast lbs.. p. gray iron. same lot of iron. and the tenacity was reduced. stood 671 while two guns of the same pattern. The poorest was made of high. powder (800 and 200 with fires. 1857. and the first pair of 10-inch guns were made from the and with a tenacity of 37000 lbs. ted to its This inferiority of the strongest iron for guns is attribu- greater contraction in cooling. Parrott. and West Point foundries. and a part of it remelted before * " Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. lbs. soft.. from iron of 37814 fires. the effect of which will be further considered. the solid-cast gun burst at the 20th fire. close-grained strong iron.. lbs. cast his trial contract guns of iron having a tenacity of 30000 to 32000 lbs. in 1851. . having the greater contraction of -10 to "15 inch all more in the diameter of a gun than lower irons. Two years which was were spent in searching undoubtedly found cast. The and that pair was only between gun of the first pair burst of the second pair at the YSd fire the solid-cast ." 1856. of iron giving a tensile strength of 26376 lbs. 313 was attributed to the inferior quality of the iron of which they were made.Cast Iron. "In Pitt. superior iron giving the inferior solid-cast gun. after guns of good tenacity had failed at the Fort South Boston. . One of these guns has endured 1000 service charges of 14 rounds with shell. at the 8 5th fire. It was melted and run into pigs once. after a better quality of iron. Mr. These results. stated to have been city and small Of the last guns mentioned. and in 1851 another pair of 8-iiich The iron in this pair of guns guns were had a tenacity of near 38000 first while that of the iron in the 27000 and 28000 lbs. . 198. four out of seven for inspection at the last-named guns offered foundry having burst in proof.* gave a mean endurance of 46 359. of moderate tenashrinkage. shot). proprietor of the "West Point Foundry." An 8-inch gun cast in 1844. mental guns which were cast in that year (1849). This result weakened confidence in very strong iron. did not destroy the confidence in strong iron for cast guns.

guns. without the aid of other ingredients or pro- has only been improved by the discovery of better ores Indeed. WAifT OF UNiroEMiTy. as cast iron. it Cast iron has perhaps reached maximum strength. if we did. as well as greater strength. do ties of iron are necessary to make the best gun we know how. Cast iron is not uniform. there would ap- pear to be some uniformity. 361. the least charges being 14 lbs. powder and solid shot. and neither gun yet broken." 1861. the iron. its 360. to the square inch . \ " Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. our pig-iron has deteriorated within the last half cen- iron was of a density of In an English gun. tury. constantly to produce iron which shall possess those qualities ?" From the fact that high. being melted for casting the guns. the cast 7-04. and tensile strength corresponding to 28067 lbs. to the square inch." But the strength of steel and the size of the masses produced are increased every year.. " which have been fired 2452 rounds each.314- Ordnance." TJie same iron is generally supposed to be uniform in * contrac- "The Useful Metals. in the variation of iron. 213. imported about thirty years previously. what qualinor. etc. These guns have since been fired 1000 rounds each. having a tenacity of 30000 to 32000 was condemned by him as too high having too much contraction for heavy From this rejected iron two 10-inch guns were made. at other facts mentioned that " we are at least." p.. Captain Rodman says rf " "We do not hnmo. quality of. from any of its ores. contained metal of a density of 7*202. and tensile strength 18145 lbs." fire. A gun made by Captain Parrott having failed at the 169th lbs. of powder and one solid shot and neither gun broke. . for example. with 18 lbs. while other English guns. . cesses. The reduction of the carbon its bj this process appears to its account for greater shrinkage. But by Captain Rodman warrant the conclusion present far from possessing a practical knowledge its of the properties of cast iron in application to gun-founding. At least. — — . one authority* states that "the and better mixtures. imported into America in 1845. — strong iron'makes a weaker gun than lower iron.

are substantially alike. tested during a series of years." Inst. nor pigs broken for remelting. Two guns were broken in the process. f "Construction of ArtUlery. and obviously should materials the Steel is more uniform. In five specimens of the best American iron mentioned above. The The difi'erence in the strength of the highest and lowest American gun36970 lbs. because cannot be remedied. Anderson. from different sources. But be. from trol. Abel. 1860. is 40000 lbs. he foimd them. chemist to the British War Department. is stated at difference in the strength of the lowest English iron mentioned by Mr. tion. 274. that the endurance was limited compared with that of a tube put without initial strain into a cast-iron gun (Table XIII. enables founders 363." 1856. p. steel and the more Cast refined metals are. 153). This was unintentionally admitted by Mr. and the metal of the third shrunk so unequally. it This want of uniformity must always be risked.Cast Iron. from the blast furnace. Civil Engineers. and the highest American reported by Colonel Delafield.* iron. iron is made from not know. and 332). in the following statement :f "The as obtained chemical examination of a large number of samples of cast iron. but no two charges in the smelting furnace. to the conclusion that had led him the uniformity of this material was to a great extent under con- examined specimens obtained from some of the best and on comparing with them samples made. vals of two or three years. 315 is the attempt at Woolgun over a wrought-iron tube (Fig. He had * "Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. Long experiment indeed to mix ores with some degree of certainty as to the intended pro- duct. at interiron-works. A striking instance to tlie contrary wicli to shrink a there was a maximum variation of 11000 lbs. . either or after repeated remeltings. we do proportion of which are number and proportion of which made from materials the number and much more definitely known beforehand. at the same works. per square inch —a variation equal to the total strength of other qualities. per square inch —a number given by Haswell for the highest cast iron of commerce.

phosphorus was a deadly poison. and ignited with the least friction in its ordinary state . a few years ago. yet in another state. there may be a variation in density and other it physical properties of cast iron. the important results obtained by the further treatment of cast iron should not be lost sight of By progressive decarbonization. At the same time. resulting from the temperature at -which tlie metal was cast. and did not ignite by friction. Therefore he did not much to do with the mechanical He was supported in that opinion by the Keport of a Committee of Chemists appointed in the United . There a chemical point of view. without might be swallowed without causing any injury. could be produced^ Amongst Mr. or to acquire the character- Such conversions could. Longridge replied " Many striking instances might be given to show." this direction by Mr. Krupp. or by most laborious process now they could be effected upon a very large scale. it might be made to approach to perfect istics steel in its nature. size. and yet no chemical difference could be detected. masses of the products. it cast iron might. For example. was found that facture. only be carried out upon a small scale. almost identical in their nature. He believed there were any change chemically. it certain compounds. of great others. That is to say. some faith ought to be placed in that material. : To might this Mr. but promises great results when improvements amounting to a new manufacture are introduced. and other physical properties. but the regulation of such differences was under the control of foimders and engineers. . such as one of chlorine and naphthaline. therefore. the liquid. that identity of chemical composition coexist with great variation of physical properties. with proper attention to its manu- be made almost perfectly uniform.316 Ordnance. especially a new manufacture of steel. might be a variation in the density. and the solid form. so that of malleable iron. and from other circumstances. If. ticularly He it thought they might prove most important. par- when was remembered what had already been done in in Prussia. Bessemer had obtained results which should not be passed over. which existed in the gaseous. think that chemical identity had properties of iron.

' Therefore. all ' But in the final report. " There are both as guns and in other constructions certain. which was of a hopeful character. still. or ordnance espe- cially. as will . as it 'gives no warning before for rupture . was reported that a decided relation. but there was not any certainty of uniform results being obtained. he thought. * Journal Royal United Service Inst.: Cast Iron. at the best. and that. however desirable it might be yet its to ascertain the chemical qualities of iron. had been observed between the amount of uncombined carbon and the tensile strength of the metal. Bidder. and verbially treacherous to depend upon. toughness. it seems about to give place to a better material. wonderful firing in the same dishad no doubt occasionally exhibited They had withstood an immense amount of and strain . said cussion : " Cast-iron guns results. either perhaps a combination of both. it was believed. John Anderson. it is not strong. steel. and hence the time has arrived when. In 1852. had not resisted for a single day. in a paper on materials for cannon. . it the former reports were withdrawn. the completion of them sensibly diminished that estimate of their usefulness.. it is is unpro- be seen hereafter. practical men were very far from being in a nosition to accept them as indices of tensile strength. It is can be pretty certainly predicted upon an examination of the minute cracks and other appearances in the bore after a certain number of rounds ." indeed stated. and. In one case a cast-iron gun had sustained 1500 or 2000 rounds." Mr. in 1855. in 1849. to investigate this question. whilst another gun. in a general way. and at first largely appreciating the was stated. and general endurance." Mr. 1 862. experience has settled "Without questioning the number of fires that a gun will stand. that the endurance of cast-iron guns wrought iron or 363.* says many instances on record of cast iron having shown an amazing amount of strength. States. 317 In 1851 their first it report was made. that though extent of our labors. August. stated to have been cast from the same metal and imder precisely the same conditions. President of the Institution.

in when it is turned. . and the sharp and decisive warfare which a more trustworthy gun-metal of no greater strength would render safe and practicable. and is discipline. In every large casting this. this respect. solid-cast some degree. It : when the outside is firmly the and in contracting tends to do three things tends to pull the outside into a smaller diameter. with a ture (2700°). result would actually occur . in the best form to maintain pressed. idEFECTS m Founding. 1st. but with only the weaker or tensile force reduced by heat. and ^ of the latter would be in a direction from the centre towards the exterior. high velocities. is — The actual strength of the inte- rior of a thick casting far less than that of the small bar.: 318 these statements. guns have endured 1500 to 2000 rounds. only necessary to consider that this informait tion has not been. perhaps because could not be. while the outside opposes the stronger or compressive resistance. . treasure. in maximum difference of tempera- would be about two inches in length and a half an inch diameter. so that the efftects of an unyielding arch are modified. failed to And what worse. The * The American solid cast guns are slightly oval in section. squeezing some part Taking set. it —the arch. The outside cools same iron in a and contracts first. little As the inside meets with these two resistances in trying to get into a cylinder of less diameter.* is The outside is then a little com- The contracting interior tends to break loose from but the exterior but as the metal cooler and the section greater is towards the periphery than at the centre. the iron strained in this direction. has remove that constant looking for of disaster which prohibits high charges. its last tendency is to separate in radial cracks. tending to split open the gun. Several of the 1 1-in. The Dahlgren guns are also cast much larger than the finished size. it from the bursting of cast-iron guns. otherwise the inside would be left in high tension. the case of a solid cylinder inside begins to cool. so far utilized as to prevent very serious losses of life. 2d. cooled as above supposed. " The extent of contraction in a 10-inch gun. of the liquid or pasty iron within up into the riser-head. so that the metal can adjust itself to the strains. 3d. it is Ordnance. Cast and wrought iron wiU be further compared in 364.

The tendency of the core of the gun to contract away is from the outer portion. as some greater when cooled rapidly than greater contraction of the outer part of the tent relieve the difficulty specified . it may be so slightly elongated by the powder as never to come into tension until the inside is actually burst. the mode of proceeding adopted in the construction of east-iron ordnance cast solid and cooled from the exterior." * Major Wade. is If. the gun would to that ex- but if the reverse is true and upon this theory Captain Rodman proposes to put the exterior of a gun cooled from the inside into tension the strains described above would be aggravated. a condition which never exists in practice. to explain the law which governs the contraction of iron. 1860." Inst. in which a 319 maximum it difference of temperature between the exterior and interior occurs. 367. "Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. and. to the ternal pressure. . 36®. the interior is In any not compact and dense. The outer layer of any tube is but slightly stretched by elastic in- being in compression. f Discussion on the "Construction of ArtiUerj. the contraction of cast iron 363. authorities state." 1856. then.Cast Iron. compared by Mr. while the inner layer is greatly stretched —the amount being if inversely as the squares of their diameters. are as follows when the gun is cool. when the ring had cooled. But serves. the outer layer initially compressed. resist the powder. by heating the second ring and placing it within the exterior ring already shrunk ."* case. above supposes an extreme case. Civil Engineers. repeating the operation with a third red-hot ring. — — : thus leaving only the residue to side. its first tendency is to help the powder open the gun. The sources of failure. is Hence. while the out- first oppose no resistance at all powder on the contrary. But this does not fully state the case. tirely destitute of coherence Such a gun would be enand strength yet this " was precisely . Conybearef to build- ing up a gun of a number of concentric wrought-iron rings. however. a considerable part of the tensile strength of the inside is already employed in preventing the inside from contracting. can at . when cooled slowly.

not only relieves the tension of the interior and the compression of the exterior. E." expansion of the inner layer of metal by the heat of 369. had stood their work. one at the eighty-fourth. existence of strains from unequal cooling is 368. still having ceased. burst. that the after eight lbs. but reverses these strains. * "Construction of Artillery. to the better quality of metal in those days." Inst. but to their having been cast a long time . But this advantage can never be depended upon in practice. after being cast. a direct it and unqualified advantage. Mr. the one had a tensile strength of 27000 and the other a tensile strength of 37000 per square inch of section. It when originally new castings were the two guns to which he had alliided. while the strains in the exerting a prejudicial effect. If carried far enough. Both these recently cast guns endured a less number of rounds than those which had been cast some years. thus giving the metal time to recover a condition of repose.320 Okdnance. tried thirty days after casting. to Of the guns which were lbs. 1860. was not due. A . The by proved the superior endurance of guns that have been kept a long time after casting. and did not burst. although the metal of these latter was much weaker than that of the former.. endured it . had a tensile strength of 29000 lbs. that existed in them. as was commonly supposed. in the case of guns cast solid. as compared with the presand to the strains ent. cast. was proved. eight hundred discharges before while another gun en- dured two thousand five hundred and eighty-two discharges. The firing is. placing the various layers in the condition to be equally strained at the instant of the maximum elastic pressure.. tested thirty days lbs. but recently used. Guns of the same description. five dred discharges without bursting.. in the case of gun which burst tensile strength of hundred discharges had a 23000 hun- and that which endured upwards of two thousand the square inch. C. as compared with those of modern make. Bramwell* thus refers to the American exburst periments : " A gun which had been so kept for six years. and the other at the seventy-second discharge. from unequal contraction. ble that the superior This result showed it was not impossimanner in which guns cast some years ago.

but the chamber. . made up of octohedral crystals . 371. as lead or soft stone. where the greatest strain comes. ST'O. These facts are fully competent to account for the weakness of solid cast-iron guns. the whole so loose. a sample cut out near the trunnion showed a tensile strength of 44000 lbs. resistance of the former bar to crushing The reduction was 43 per is and to transverse strain." 1860. for the outside and 31000 lbs.* Mr. but has less total strength than a gun uni- formly cooled.. Mallet thus describes 4 " In a casting of 2 or 3 feet or more in diameter. :f "On the Physical Conditions involved in the Construction of Artillery. So that a gun unequally cooled not only offers the resistance of but a part of its strength to the strain of the powder. •f "Construction of Artillery. gun may never does. 42 per cent. is. that upon a newly cut eye in tals section dark cavities can be seen by the naked sharp pointed all directions. The next source of weakness due to casting guns solid the reduction of the tensile strength of the material. and tested with a bar originally cast 1 inch square. condition Mr. consisting of a spongy mass of scarcely coherent crystals of cast iron. out of which. is the worst part of the casting. Longridge of the opinionf that " in a mass of metal such as was required in a 68-pounder gun. often. A bar of cast in the cent. it is not unusual (with a founder's best care) to find a central por- tion of from 6 to 8 inches in diameter. Commander * "Report of Commission on Railway Structures. it attain the exact state of strain required and if it instantly goes beyond it. usually in arborescent masses. the solid loss of strengtli would be at least 50 per cent.Cast Iron. for the inside. 21 ." The poorest part of this core is bored out in the chase. especially in the case of rifled guns. 321 . single or grouped cryssoft that a can be picked with the hand." In a gun mentioned by Captain Rodman. iron 1 inch square was cut out of a bar 3 inches square." 1856. The want its of density in the metal of guns thus cast is the source of another species of failure." 1849. and so chisel of steel if into may be easily driven into the mass some iuches. Hardness and density of bore are necessary to prevent enlargement both from concussion and friction.

15. But it is not proposed to leave the metal in a condition * "Construction of Artillery. is bored out.Eodmau's Peo- OESS. Civil Engineers. 1st. tends assume a natural position of repose.* that " from being cast solid. rounds. then turning off the additional metal on the exterior which had caused the strain in unequal shrinkage) shrinkage. in order that gun might not be worn away by the rubbing of of He instances certain guns cast at "Woolwich. \ The Dahlgren guns. Since there would then be no force own initial strains. some of which have endured above 2000 but considerably larger in diameter than the finished size." injurious to tenacity. the others were one of them stood 800 rounds. and. Scott states. . All the rifles are cast without trunnions. 374. The fabrication and test of these guns have been described in a . In a discussion on guns. Three 8-inch columbiads of the same form and dimensions. 2d. opposed to the contraction of the inner layers of metal. from after the same iron. were tried as follows casting. supposed to be the weakest." Inst." Scientific American. before the Franklin Institute (1862). His guns were cast solid. thus placed by unequal cooling in an unnatural condition. 322 Ordnance. preceding chapter (154). they could not exert any power to pull the exterior layers into compression. were cast to 11-in. by having been first cooled in the mould. 373. then the interior part. The design their is to remedy the various defects of the old process principally to obviate the tendency of solid castings to be burst by by reversing the process of cooling and shrinking described above. they would not be and therefore. The heavy Navy guns are now cast hollow. after 6 years. and the other 2582 (368). 373.Engineer -Wood said that "Captain Dahlgren's method to obviate the evil (of strain due to unequal consi^d in casting the gun more nearly in the form of a cylinder.f Captain. — The metal of a gun. failed at the fired . Impeovembnt ix EorNDiNG-. Nov. 1862. calibre. guns were made with a degree of hardness which was the centre of the the shot. casting them hollow.— . and cast in the same way. Effect to Age on Endueance. 1860. Chief. : —One fired immediately 72d round . for this purpose. except the trifling cohesion of the liquid or pasty mass that they shrunk left in tension. —The is principal improvement in the fabrication of cast-iron guns. away from. Captain Rodman's process of cooling them as far as possi- ble from the interior. up solid.

as stated above. In other words. viz. already considered. and the outer infinitely thin cylinder. on Metals for Cannon. These results would be very minute. a given length of metal would have to contract more in one cylinder than in the other. would tend to to stretch it into a state of tension. Now of the iron were alike in their composition and struc- ture. when a gun is cooled from within. of repose. instead of shrinking to a diameter less than 2 feet. since the heat has a shorter distance to travel. The lows to. to throw the gun upon a such that under the action of the law of strain. p. be itself compressed and so on throughout the mass.. Longridge has demonstrated that a deviation from the proper tension of ^^j inch * "Reports of Experiments t Ibid. Hence the outside contracts less than the inside. but Mr." 373. . . that the inside sure. as to the greater The object of my improvement was in strain. the cooling of all parts in a given time would of course leave But certain experiments are said to show that " the contraction of the same iron is greater or less. 323 The attempt is is to remedy by the same process the defective strength of a hollow cylinder.Cast Iron. endurance of his hollow-cast gun :* and " viz.. : process of cooling would then have to occur as fol- —Taking any two of the infinitely thin cylinders referred the exterior of the inner one having set at a diameter of say feet. says." 1856. so as to compress the one within it. 212. 2 the interior of the outer one would have to contract to a diameter somewhat less than two feet. Captain Hodman more stretched than the outside by internal presquotes this law from Professor Barlow. That which cools most rapidly contracts most. part. if not fully attained.. the inside is not only cooled the whole mass in repose. in the case we have supposed. 195. according to the greater or less rapidity with which it is cooled. first."t If this is true. shall be brought to the breaking strain at the same instant. if all parts by the abstraction of a given amount of heat. and. in stretching it. but most rapidly. which is just the opposite state of strain to that required. p. each one of the infinitely thin cylinders composing the thickness of the gun.

time. reduces the strength of a cylinder 40 per cent. in a diameter of 17 inches. the bar was considerably longer than the space The results are at least so irregular. section of the casting The position of the fissures liquid. The fissures are irregular. near the front of the chase. in other parts the metal has a sponge-like appearance . When broken out. will Mr. it The mass of the metal below had become solid being greater. f The gun was of the old pattern. the place referred to muzzle-swell. to supply the vacancies made by the shrinkage beneath. experiments indicate that a large mass of metal contract upon a smaller mass which. would be almost imby this method. Wiard its cast a heavy ring with a thin bar ex- tending across tightly that it diameter. while the intermediate portions are Major Wade's report on this subject states that* "the fis- fracture of the 10-inch gun. viz." 1856. half an inch wide and 4 or 5 inches in length and depth . are from 10 to 14 inches below the neck or narrowest part of the casting. from no other part than that where the directly beneath the cross-section at the neck. presenting in some parts an they open chasm. first where the metal is becomes solid throughout.324 Ordnance. that it possible to produce theoretically exact strains it had filled. is in outside of * "Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. the shrinkage below could be replaced fissures are found. 376. for it is evident that they were formed by the liquid iron in this part descending. The ring contracted upon the bar so could not easily be broken out. a portion of continued liquid a longer period of .. soonest becomes solid entirely through a cross-section of the gun. cast hollow. in cooling. heing thin- last. Other cooling ner. Another liquid. cools first. the rear of the long . 198." " The area of that part of the cross-section which p. in this marks the place where the iron remained longest . and until after a cross-section at the neck and this solid intercepting the descent of liquid metal from the sinking-head above.f where the iron. developed cavities or sures in the face of the fractured surface. 377. source of error arises from the partial cooling of still the oiitside of the casting.

walls of a 15-in. would continue to contract. in a hollow-cast gun. The strains would then be as follows: still —The intermediate had it metal. hot. 380. 80. through the exterior surface. proceeding outward from the centre. thus pulling the parts within it into tension. tion of the The unequal contrac- same mass of iron. mould must be made to fall the same rapidity for if it falls faster. then. and of the gun will the walls of the gun. would be al- 16|^ in. would in any case disturb the desired uniformity of strain. that the the heat is ab- stracted exclusively from within. Some of the strains. would obviously prevent cooling from without. tliis When with occurs. while the defect of rupturing strains in solid castings may be entirely avoided by means of a mould that can be . This indicates that /j of the heat contained in the liquid metal escaped by passing it ward. the if it falls slower. are in the opposite direction to that required And supposing that the layers by Professor Barlow's formula.Cast Iron. the remaining /j- of the heat passed inward to the and was carried off by the water. So that. so as to be always hotter than the gun. and treme tension. or elsewhere. the absolute condition of such a result is. gun will begin to cool from the layei'S the stress on the different become irregular. though very much less than in a solid-cast gun of equal size. or about the size of the rifled siege-gun. the temperature of the . 379. is /j- 325 . and after the surrounding parts had become so pasty that could receive still no supply of metal from the sinking-head. Surrounding the mould with a mass of molten iron thicker than outside. in external diameter. after the exterior and interior set. of a gun will be drawn tightly over if each other. the fissure. These strains in all parts of the 16|-in. and the parts outside of it into compression. off. to the mould. pulling itself about equal to the strains in a solid-cast gun itself into ex- apart. gun. by which was conducted core. by reason of its chemical differences. mould shall be kept at the temperature of molten iron (:3700°) until the extreme outer layer of the gun begins to fall below that point by the abstraction of heat from within. or. Fig." 378. of the area of the whole section is -^a and the part out- within the fissures of the whole. in large castings.

layers of metal to expand more without straining the outer than Eut the longitudinal strain of expansion by the heat of firing. same instant. the first few rounds would increase surfaces. Wiabd's Plan. and strengthen either gun. because the walls may be thin and by hooped guns. the by Captain Rodman's process. but the thick must endure its greatest force. was attained. cast may slide within the hoops . expansion of the interior of the gun by the heat of initial strains. as the coolless carried ing is more or on from the interior. are partially or en- bore is remedied by Captain Rodman's process. is heated to 2700° before the iron poured. not drawn like the interior of a solid-cast The intermediate metal is stronger or weaker. cast hollow The intermediate spongy and cooled from both place in the wall of a gun would allow the inner layer. gun would lose mucli of it Even if this tension it is in time. that castings lose their other initial strains The results certainly show a vast by age improvement over (368. Mk. nor " brought to the breaking strain at the the charges they^are allowed to carry. produces no compensating results.—Mr. insufficient. 383. for well known 372).326 Ordnance. because it is shock of the exploding powder. The surface of the the hardest and densest part of the casting. being cooled from without. it appears impracticable to put the outer layers of metal into tension regulated Tvith theoretical nicety. 381. This strain is in a great degree avoided by strong steel guns. would of course disturb the hooped gun. Even if hooped with iron must be quite thick to have the necessary longitu(304. Norman Wiard. 383. was in the opposite condition of strain. whose ingeni- . and best calcu- lated to resist pressure and abrasion. if the metal were solid throughout. but neither the endurance of the hollow-cast guns. . The firing. shows that W of the hollow casting. warrant the belief that the iron in them can be In fact.) dinal strength. because the inner tube cast-iron wall steel. first The tensile strength of the is metal that receives the uninjured." the above extract from Major Wade's report.solid- east guns. but no more than in the case of the If the tension of the exterior was it. gun. The tirely other defects of solid-cast guns.

327 ous and important speculations on the bursting of guns by the beat of the firing have been re- Fm. The ribs are curved in both directions. and weigh 43000 lbs. based upon the durance of either one of two guns. will cool last after casting. these are the subject of extended experiments and calculations not yet perfected. and is by this means intended to com- press the barrel with such force as to bring all parts of the metal into equal strain at the instant of firing. according to Professor Barlow's formula. so that they can spring enough to allow the inner barrel arid the intention is. The interior parts may be cooled uniformly by water passing through the cores between the ribs and in the bore.— Cast Iron. has received a large order for en- heavy cannon. The exterior part or reinforce. upon Captain Rodman's plan. but not the exact proportions. barrel to the outer hoop or reinforce. 162. is greater external diameter. by the heat of firing. gun. ferred to in the foregoing chapter. without seriously The ribs also yield during the process of . straining the structure. front to rear. The gun is to have the same diameter and length of bore as the Navy to 15-in. being thicker than the other parts. radially. from and from the inner — Wiard's cast-iron gun. to expand both longitudinally. test- The engravings illustrate the general features of his plan. and about 9 in.

casting. First. * Messrs. plain disk wheels. goes pieces under service. in- stead of breaking or being severely strained at some part that cannot ser- be bent. Ordnance. flexible to and suflBciently bend under the greater force of expansion — a force limited elasticity of the only by the ultimate strength of the metal. under unequal contraction due either to unequal cooling or to chemical differences in the metal. 163. especially in founding car-wheels (which a cross-section of the gun resembles). serious rupturing The whole practice in founding. of cast Phila- most extensive car-wheel manin ufacturers CrosB-Beotion of "Wiard's cast-iron gun. This gun wiU unwhole structure doubtedly initial cool without strains. endures more hard vice than would be ordinarily ex- pected of cast-iron. the Whitney & Sons. and therefore Longitudinal oeciioa of 'Wiard's castiron gun.328 Fig. thin part intended to be bent.* can only be stretched or compressed. 164. the world. and to so broken or greatly strained. 384. in cooling. The would be greater than that of guns without ribs. A ted as to gun when so corrugabend in cooling at some Fia. stiff They are proposed to be enough to resist the pressure of the powder. warrants this sion. delphia. which are afterwards annealed for . not an- nealed. conclu- A plain disk wheel. A.

Third. For the foregoing reasons. after all. shrinks too high much to make a safe casting by other plans. But the reinforce of the Wiard tread. depends. without strain. then. . regulates the strain of the The interior and the exterior parts of the walls of the Rodman gun cool independently. Second. and it. The latter is cooled (in prac- tice) only from the outside. as required. the heat of firing. been realized in — In other words. as far as possible. In which can the tension be the better regulated ? The ofloicial report already quoted (375) is evidence that the outer part of the Rodman gun is drawn into cowpression It by the subsequent shrinkage of the intermediate metal. 329 iron 385. curved in two directions to prevent unequal and injurious strain due to what strained unequal shrinkage there may be. It appears. the part that cools rest. so that its interior surface is and weakened. sion. the former is cooled on all sides unequal shrinkage. that the former would be in a ' better condition to stand the tension. the strongest may be employed. and is to prevent. Then the intermediate metal cools. because and strongest iron ion is from a weaker its ample provis- made to change figure more or less. and this can only be done by keeping the mould temperature of 2700° practice. cannot be put into the desired tension except by cooling the gun exclusively from within at a . It has already been shown that a pure. the elasticity of the parts within strength of the gun. and puts strains into tliem which are just opposite to those required.Cast-Iron. the chief exterior of Captain Comparing the reinforce with an equal thickness of metal on the Hodman's gun. last. Upon by the proper tension and strength of the its reinforce as modified large diameter. and without any great strain. But car-wheels as for it are cast as sound from the highest iron. 386. —a process — so diflicult that it has not But there is nothing to draw the corresponding part of the Wiard gun the reinforce into compresAll the parts enclosed by it have already cooled and set. iron of great tenacity. some hours under the hig-hest temperature that will not draw the chill of the The strains which would otherwise destroy the wheels are thus removed.

On the whole. Mr. a pressure equal to that of the powder. His . The larger diameter of the reinforce is parative weakness. If the ribs do not yield under the pressure of the powder. it is probable that the barrel and ribs Wiard's gun can be cast without serious strains strongest iron can be used . up to a pressure equal to the pressure of the powder. part of a solid gun. strained by heat. ribs. must compress the inner into tension and be itself drawn —the required condition. them equally. in is is surface. and. cools last. So that the expansion of the barrel by heat. the barrel the reinforce is may be stretched to the breaking point before stretched to the same point. then they wiU not yield under an equal pressure from the expansion of the barrel by heat. has not been bored or tested.: 330 gun tube. provided for by the longitudinal corrua source of com- gation of the 388. ILring 387. however defines these principles with first imperfect may be. beyond . The failure of the first guns. and as much as they would safely bear in service if the ribs yield under the pressure of the powder. shrinks most. much clearness. the ribs may yield to the pressure by heat without straining the reinforce as much as it would be strained in a solid gun. that the reinforce . that the and that the gun will not be seriously fail. the longitiidinal the source of the greatest strain. if they should ought to be attributed to the improper carrying out of the principles . if it Ordnance.* upon cores * Since the above was written. As to the strain due to expansion by the heat of —Suppose the reinforce and the barrel to be put under such respective initial tension and compression that the force of the powder would strain . Besides. the case similar to that of a solid gun wiU bear. can be shrunk upon them with some degree of tension . Wiard's gun having been cast was difficult or impossible second gun burst at triaL which it to remove. 389. and the Wiard gun. will act directly to stretch the rein- force which had already been stretched is as much as it Up to this point. because exposed to the air on both and presents a large radiating expansion of the barrel this. But the barrel will not be heated as it is much as the corresponding sides. for the present it knowledge on the subject of cast-iron. of Mr.

crj'stals Mr. * * * lines of equal stress of the particles of the occiirs. * amongst the diminishes its efiiciency * * Take.* Mr." The shaping of guns so that each part shall bear only the * "On the Physical Conditions involved in the Construction of Artillery. justify him in determining thereby a plane of weak- They have always ajjpeared to be a confused mass of more. Whenever a varia- tion in thickness occurs. may account for fracture taking place at those particular places. Mallet law of cooling alone will calls their prin- cipal axes. "that without having recourse fully account for the to this theory. the source of weakness in the cases in question. stress must This alone must give rise to a state of varied particles of the metal. it is certain they . Longridge thinks. f "Construcliou of Artillery. without doubt. . would be the cold. Longridge is of the opinionf that this explanation depends too much upon what him appear to be arbitrary assumptions. ^ 331 390. but in no instance has he been able to satisfy himself that the crystals have that definite direction which would ness. and suppose to have cooled down casting. sions of a gun. for instance. but certainly not so arranged that he could ascertain any uniform direction of what Mr. Mallet's theory that the principal axes of arrange themselves in the direction of the flow of heat outwards. as a resisting substance. to enable it. to place miich coniidence in " He has examined carefully many cases of fracture of cast iron. planes of weakness are thereby produced. 1860. or less. must approximate shown in the sketch and following these lines according to some definite law. —With reference to sudden changes in the dimenis. Civil Engineers. gun when Whenever a change of dimensions which the cooling will give rise to varying strains. the Shape.Cast Iron. and that whenever re-entering angles or sudden changes of dimensions occur. it would be impossible to determine the to the dotted lines absolute position of the isothermal lines at any period of cooling. which. the its accompanying sketch of a gun after (Fig. " Inst." Mr. defined crystals. 1G5) distorted in it proportions for the sake of illustration. Although in the present state of knowledge on the yet subject. a difference in the rate of cooling also take place." 1856.

332 strain Okdnance. "Weight. enables it change of shape by pressure and abrasion. the recent improvements in present weight to be dispensed much of the . strength. 165. Gun distorted to show the efiects of irregular cooling. As venting excessive recoil compressors will allow concerned. is —The great weight of is cast-iron guns for a given far as pre- not. imposed upon it without waste of material. and away their rifling. That it adds nothing to Fig. is an obvious advantage of cast iron and steel. IIbsistance to Concussion astd "Weak. the cost of a cast gun. 393. of cast iron as compared with wrought iron to better resist The hardness and bronze. lias been well considered by American designers (149). a serious objection. The rifled projectiles often cut — chambers of wrought-iron guns almost invariably enlarge under high charges. bronze over wrought iron and 391. in all cases. The Parrott cast-iron 100-pounder has fired 1000 expanding (brass ring) projectiles -without injurious enlargement or wear.

and loss of material. should be placed in the better class of iron-clad ships. but should efficiency make up in what they lack in numbers. preparing the moulds. But if a fixed sum to be invested in availa- guns will not purchase enough of the best to defend every ble point. and dressing the surfaces already shaped. however cheap. at the risk of their But it does not follow that they should all be weak because weak guns are cheap. an armament of 11-inch guns said to impair the sea-going qualities of some of our lighter-gunboats and cruisers. and especially steel when Uned with on the plans described. When On reinforced with wrought iron or steel. nothing but the best. however. wear of machinery. at a great expenditure of fuel and labor. recoil. In a a few thousand if fort. compared with wrought iron or To convert and shape the latter. since here they not only are in a position to do the best work.. a few thousand pounds increased weight at dollars reduced cost per gun. If cast- iron guns will not stand the necessary powder.costs in England. simply to relieve the This is chiefly a question of situation and cost. 333 On the other hand. is On the other hand. the other hand. can be done for from 7 to 13 cents per pound. Cost. in rough 393. they are a waste of money. the cost of large guns increasing faster than their weight. would be desirable the question could be considered independently of strength. But calibre is not always a measure of work. The principal argument in favor of cast weather. the very light steel guns of Mr. it is both cheap and strong. Melting cast iron. from 20 to 40 cents per pound . . set in Krupp have been heavy cast-iron jackets which add no strength. where prices are lowest. witli.Cast Iron. iron as a — material for guns steel. Nor can such guns be handled on small vessels. without making weak guns. which (Table is about half the cost of wrought iron for a given calibre 27). being weak. at any price. is its cheapness. it is undoubtedly better to have a part of them cheap. Cast iron may be utilized.

Maramecy Mo. brands. Wade. Section III. Govan B. it It has lost the brittle property . round 61864 6^553 64795 * Mr. —Cast of is iron its in such a crude state that the number and proportion and comparatively refined." 1862. and 55872 lbs. for American. 1862. Bed. •f Gun Factory). Kirkaldy. Weought is Ikon.\. being very much not necessarily so various in quality. . —Tensile Strenoth of Wrought Iron. — . § "Engineers and Mechanics' Pocket Companion.. .." 1854. and the is breaking point double that of the yielding point. for : Whil- gives the table (56) of tensile strength Table LTI. "Nystrom's Mechanics. according to Nystrom.verage tensile strength of the best qualities of iron. ( 47000 43000 53000 " J-Maj. Steength. Englifli Pittsfield. and " The conversion of cast into wrought stronger. I J . while wrought iron. or about double that of the best qualities of cast gun-iron. The range of good lbs." 1862. " ) According bars is to Mr. lar. Conn Pa Bellefonte. silicium completely changes the iron by the removal of carbon and characteristics of the material. Mafs '. Anderson (Superintendent Royal Inst. is about 60000 lbs. ing point now yields and stretches before it breaks the permanent yieldis now higher than the former breaking point. it is deteriorating ingredients are irregu- in practice imperfectly known. Journal Royal United Service August. f in. 334 Ordnance. "Experiments on Wrought Iron and Steel. ) 'Saliftury. ac- cording to Haswell.:]: 60000 to 72000 ton. " Engineers and Mechanics' Pocket-Book."* 39a. ( ' " t Tranklin " ) " \ Inftitute. 66000 58000 56000 lbs. 394.§ 64000 lbs." 1860.— — . per square inch. The wrought a. the highest mean for English rolled Lowest Highest Mean.t is from 56000 to 65000 lbs. din|| according to TempleEnglish.

do. do.. do. . length do. do. flat 36979 40977 38526 Table LVII. do. —Summary op Results of Kjrkaldt's Experiments* for British Hammered Iron. do. forged Bufhelled iron. do. crofs do. down do . do. do. do. do. . Scrap iron. 4 Highest Mean. do. do. Crank fliaft. do. Yftalyfera puddled. fcrap iron. do. do. 335 is The lowest mean for English rolled bars Lowest.. x i in. Lowest.— "Wrought Iron. do. Armor plate. cut out.

which lar the same) affords such evidences of its is —each — maker in this particu- quality. it On the other hand. tires. and the qualities adapting lar uses. Longridge's statement (356). are not to particu- measured exclusively by to. Anderson says* oh "Wrought iron "is never high.) were in some measure due a large mass solid. Mr. wrought iron from any particular maker." a second advantage of a refined metal over a crude one. Its elasticity and it ductility under various treatment. tliat the cast iron sent to "Woolwich for test undoubtedly supposing his own the best for guns varied in strength all the way from 10080 to 33600 lbs. from Mr. an argument against the can be shown that any other process can the full strength of the material. being it is possessed of great toughness.'' August.— 336 view of tlie Ordnance. by this test. are better indices by Mr. tensile strength. to the process of is strength of both the armor-plate and the crank-shaft (45670 lbs. and. tenacity of wrought iron. and have been referred 396. nor never low. is its strength will permit. the most uniform products and Yickers' this point: steels are compounded. indeed. on the contrary. . is found to be nearly uniform. practically —Although there is a wide range of strength iron. and being without brittleness. The armor-plate about 37000 lbs. Unifokmitt. Another source of embarrassment in the use of cast iron — ^the unfitness of the finest and strongest varieties for guns (358) * "Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. At each stage in its progress its character is better understood. that. exceedingly reliable so far as This. 1862. process only. if it manufacture —forging utilize This.. The mere fracture of wrought iron (including puddled steel. Kirkaldy indeed averaged but but it has been found that softness and ductility The low of fitness for this particular service. however. it is between the highest and lowest specimens of wrought much more uniform than iron tested cast iron. appears. the iron for a given service can be selected with much more certainty. that is to say. who is careful — —such as Low-Moor and Krupp's in the manufacture.

26'8. has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase of quality. irrespective of chemical differences. 22 . Telford. and Eaton Hodgkinson. which. pud- as if they uniform. wrought and arises from- other causes. 337 iron. the w^ill of general improvement means and opportunities be wanting. Hughes remarks. probably from more careful experiments than any other. materials on account of their chemical relations to the desired result. Beardmore. would tear asunder a bar of ordinary wrought iron 1 inch square. irrespective of tutional and intellectual diversities. appears to be true of wrought Mr. The iron manufacture of this country (Great Britain) has attained an enormous development. The selection. 25 tons. "spirit of speculation. 29'29. as yet but approximately developed in the Bessemer process. and elimination of care and faithfulness will necessarily lead to the deterioration of the product. &c. unfortunately. during the last half-century. all the early experimenters on iron is found a greater strength than qualities. In fact. On the contrary. But —deal with ore and iron —smelting. are avoided though not all serious defects in steel. while at the present day Tem- Brown. 1858.* that " writers on the strength of materials in the last century seldom assigned to bar-iron a less tensile strength than 30 tons per square inch as the weight which 34 tons. by the use of wrought iron and 397. such as to "cunning chemical inferior iron." which enable manufacturers so long as processes work and the for it. Drewry. just as certain sys- tems of medicine deal with human bodies.Wrought applies only in a limited degree to Ikon. the wide range of defects in founding. up This deterioration is attributed to various causes. at 23"817." which in some were always consti- measure account dling. What iron. and any relaxation of compounding. Emerson gives the tensile strength of pleton gives 25 tons. secrets. has been said of the average deterioration of cast iron." now possessed even by the best 398." February. piling. but destined to lead to much * "The Artisan. is the new system of treatment. fabrication. bar-ir(jn at Thus. 27 tons.

when it approaches.f eral solid wrought-iron com- The bursting of sev- guns without warning — the Prinoeton's * "Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. But from the fact that cast iron breaks in the testing machine at the instant of perceptible elongation.—Unmistakable evidence of failure. is not one has burst explosively. The forgings from which the specimens were cut were all of high quality. however faithfully they who are in may be looked after. —average point of ultimate fracture being 48160 lbs. lbs. .. or without giving warning. a position to decide the matter. the coming fracture of cast-iron guns may undoubtedly be determined from minute cracks and other delicate tests. were found to be in about the same proportion. •f Two 40-pounders are said to have burst into small pieces under the extraordinary service of proving vent-pieces.338 •greater uniformity Ordnance. these evidences must be detection of the vague to the professional observer." The fact that out of some 3000 Armstrong wrought-iron guns. is obviously the function of gun-metal next in importance. Detection of Weakness. Mr. an average of 57120 or rather more than double that of the point where perma. Wrought eral iron and low steel continue to stretch after the point of permanent elongation. while the point of ultimate rupture gives lbs." August. 399. and quite obscure to the per- sons throughout the fleets and fortresses of a country." heavy forgings. Mr. nent elongation commences the margin that lies between these In two amounts is of great importance as a condition of safety. the yielding and breaking points. Anderson states* that "from sev- hundred experiments that have been made with wrought iron cut from bars intended for the manufacture of Armstrong guns. 1862. the following result has been obtained : The point of yielding perper square manently. Anderson says that " the average point of yielding permanently was 23760 lbs. As a matter of professional experiment. although both lower. pletely satisfactory evidence on this point. gives an average resistance of 28000 inch. and certaiil-ty in the adaptation of iron to its various service.

its to a gun made wholly of wrought iron. and steel. ranges from 30500 to 40700 lbs. and in a wrought-iron reinforce after no sensible change of figure the gun has been fired 1000 rounds. The authorities do not agree as to the use of wrought-iron hoops on Captain Blakely and others in England say that is limit of elasticity too low to allow the necessary tension. the particles readjust themselves. Anderson in the the material shall be sufiiciently hard. wrought iron. The Committee that tlie iron of fabrication. after a time. It remarkable. sensible indentation or shortening. undoubtedly.. —One of tlie desiderata for gun-metal paper before quoted : —" That is thus specified by Mr. of the Franklin Institute found this by experiment its gun had deteriorated 50 per cent. " to The pressure per square inch which is required in either metal produce a permanent. per square inch ducing an average compression of pJ^^ of an inch the softest . parts of guns of the highest quality. 4:00. cease to compress what within them. but which have been severally being 30000 proburst. lbs. This refers cast-iron guns. 339 to the degra- — is known to have been due dation of the iron in the process of fabrication." details of a series of He then gives the important experiments made at Woolwich to fitness of determine the relative is gun-metals in this particular. the liardest 40300 lbs. If this limit is exceeded. or even by the premature fracture or explo- sion of a cast-iron shell within the bore. so that the surface of the interior of the bore shall not in any way be indented or bruised. or otherwise acted upon by the powder or projectile. gave 35000 lbs. Kesistance to Compression and Wear. or under constantly recurring strains. however. about equal to y Ao iucli in measurement. during from over-heating. is under low pressures compared with those that will be required for punching modern armor. that in resistance to compression." " Ten specimens. . and acquire a ticity. new limit of elasis the rings will. for instance Iron.Wrought gun (426). are more nearly alike than in any of their other properties. 401. cast iron. if. This. finds Captain Parrott uses better iron." .

gave an average of 76000 per square inch.. that is. the specimens being selected at random and reduced from bars 3 inches square. A of Essen." " . or shortening. welded together like layers of sandwiches. with an average compression of to\t inch. made specially for guns. . with an average compression of y/^^ inch. the softest requiring 31000 the Ten specimens of wrought iron. the two metals closer together. guns. that the average resistance to y/j^ inch :" compression. was as follows * Prom cauaeg (138) that Mr. the hardest 46000 lbs. pf an inch . cut from large forgings of lbs. cut from a lbs. superior quality. gun which failed at first proof. per square inch. gave an average of 26900 producing an average compression of y/o o lbs.. gave an average of 33000 per square inch.* x-fy-g gave 25300 per square inch. gave an average of 35500 per soft- square inch. which broke round at proof. with an averlbs. proof-rounds were completed.— 340 " Ordnance." " It will thus be seen. an average of 26000 inch. cut from a gun made by Mr. and in quality almost for cutting-instrimients." " specimen of cast steel. AnderaoD does not mention. according to these experiments. with a compression of inch. or " Ten specimens of soft cast steel of the finest quality." " Four specimens of steel and iron." either withstood the proof-rounds." of cast steel " Ten specimens first more highly converted than the fit former. gave in the direction of the fibre. Ten specimens of rolled wronght-iron bars. pressing the steel and iron upon the edge of the sandwich. thus pressing lbs. and that which failed before the 7 lbs. gave an average of 25400 per square inch. age compression of tto o inch hardest 35000 lbs." lbs.. all of the highest quality and suitable for lbs. Krupp. exactly 1 inch in length and i inch in diameter.. the softest being 22800 the hardest 31000 lbs. with an average compression of t/ot inch est . with an average compression of y/o? flat " Four specimens upon the of the sandwich. the being 25000 lbs. but lbs. which were all made on carefully prepared specimens.

7. I. 3. Mr. Anderson says : 403. and gradually producing an bore or in other parts of the structure. The fact that the star-gauge showed no compression in a gun of this steel.Wrought Table LTIII. Mr. resisted proof successfully. each successive round acting like the blow of an enormous sledge- hammer. Iron.. Caft fteel i. 341 —Resistance of Ieon and Steel to Oompbession. it. caft fteel 25400 25300 steel to compression." In answer to various inquiries. and that the smaller guns also gave way to some extent. " Report of the Select Committee on Ordnance. Caft iron. Wrought-iron bar Wrought-iron forgings 4." 1862. 5. —" In wrought-iron guns. minor defects will sometimes appear after a number of ordinary such defects have required a into repetition of charges to bring them out view for examination.* speaking of the Armstrong wrought-iron gun.. * * * We tent ." alteration of form in the Mr. 3550° 35000 '. is the test The low resistance of Krupp's of a single specimen. Anderson said that he wished * " Report of the Defence Commissioners. they seldom come back from the proof the same size that they went away. 403. Sandwich Sandwich Krupp's fteel fteel and iron on edge and iron on flat 33000 26900 26000 6. which have service rounds . that " the effect produced with high charges is altering the dimensions of very considerable in compressing the iron." 1862. Anderson testified before the Defence Commission. The chambers of wrought-iron guns have been permaIn the paper last quoted. there is more effect produced than in the smaller find the larger guns are affected to a small exones. * * * In the larger guns that have yet been tried. after is 3000 rounds and an unu- sually severe additional test (137). f . Anderson stated that the 100-pounder was considerably enlarged in diameter by the first few rounds. nently indented by the powder-gas. evidence of at least sufficient hardness. On another occasionf Mr.

an effect which pro- duced from having carbon. and our iron is now tolerably good. we obtained was fit for our purpose it was full of blisters. but the strength of the iron ferent. and has to be taken out and another put houses for the kind of material which In commencing the manufacture. resist- ing a pressure of 33000 soft. to produce a sensible compression is wrought iron if very defective. with a power of 33000 lbs. the consequence being that many of the guns had to be half made over again. hard wrought iron to avoid indentation. which leads to blistering and to defects in the welding. we obtained better iron. you attain a point at which the material begins to crush : the metal in the chamber yields to the . the chances soon makes when the iron is hard. we make of hard material. non-welding is now. on a square inch. one of its greatest defects being its softness. By and by some of the makers having greater aptitude than others in seeing what we wanted. we are now using wrought iron with a capacity of lbs. but none of . harder we so the greater is the liability to are. so that when the gun comes to be proved the bore in. as the strength of the iron in the outward direction. but that " the get it. that some portion unwelded. 342 to use a Ordnance. dented . If you fire a long shot with a very heavy charge." the lateral direction are dif- Sir "Willi am Armstrong said before the Defence Commission.. and then the powder acts upon that part of it. we applied the iron to seven or eight of the we required. The gun would have to be inconveniently long. for it when the gun comes to be is put together. which has many defects. and did not weld properly." He also said that "the material which Sir "William Armstrong is inclined to trust in is wrought iron. with reference to his ovm gun also : —""With a long shot and such a charge as would give a high velocity there would be risk of injuring the gun. or a liability to be in- draw the interior of the gun.. and an ultimate tenacity represented by coils in 57120 lbs. may first be defective. and renders it necessary to with- and put in another lining. it and very appear worse. to 50000 still the square inch. but that is much too the capacity of resisting pressure should be very nearly lbs. to the square inch of resisting compression inside.

The celebrated HorsfaU gun is enlarged 404. Iron.) gun made by the Mersey Co. to lose its form. (See 444 and Table 64).) . shows the permanent enlargement of a 40pounder (4-Y5 in. at the seat of the charge." Table LIX. under 117 rounds with increasing charges. are mentioned under another head. Instances of the failure of Armstrong guns from this cause. 343 and and it is is displaced .— Wrought pressure. Expansion of 40-Pouni)er Rifle made by the Mersey Steel and Iron Company. (Prom the Report of the Select Committee on Ordmance.. 1863. Table LIX. the gun begins therefore desirable to keep your velocity moderately low.

Anderson says* that little. iron. strains But if have already been adjusted. the piling process The puddling process by by which large masses are parts. — . so would present a surface of minute cast iron are not But . Wrought iron cannot be produced from the pig-metal in larger masses than puddle-balls weighing from 200 * " Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. and to weaken the gun. 1862. are observed in the form of minute grooves running with the grain of the that the bore. be- tends to put tbe interior metal into compression. As Mr. and that of wrought iron lowest." August. steel and grooved or fur- rowed by corrosion they are smoothly and evenly reduced. In case of coils. are united. This result is aggravated by the comparative purity of the material and its greater corrosion by the powder-gas. ridges and spikes. The as the hardness of metals^their resistance to abrasion such projectiles wear of —approximates is to their resistance to compression. and the welding process small. and the exterior metal into tension. so that both will be more equally the proper initial strained at the instant of firing (287). like steel. so well adapted for this pur- pose. thus acted upon. large aggregated. of Homogeneity. is forged gun. are all the rities and means of interposing strata of impu- and planes of weakness. Want iron is." after a time the iron becomes set and it does not farther enlarge. and is better able to resist the wear of the 406. as to fire 1000 rifle projectiles without sensible injury (80). as in a hooped gun. largement of the interior metal by pressure or heat tends to derange them.344 Ordnance. ^ 407. . 408. without initial strains. The wearing down of the grooving in wrought-iron guns is not of unfrequent occurrence. The average hardness of Cast iron steel is highest. and that " It therefore becomes very hard after a becomes more projectile. the effects of this corrosion. and of oxidation when the gun is damp. "Welds. cause it iindoubtedly beneficial. which it is produced. is — The grand defect by which aU of wrought that it not homogeneous. the ento the compression. The Arm- strong multigroove rifling crosses these nearly at right angles.

. are. "With all other descriptions of welding.'' August. and by means of a steam hammer welded into a homogeneous cylinder. the result lower than the above. the bar iron is and then a welding heat is taken it is through the entire mass. the entire surface of each piece being exposed to oxidation. Anderson. quality which With coil iron of the very best we have as yet been able to obtain. 345 300 lbs. average tenacity of the welding of the per square inch.Wrought to Ikon. could be welded together in such a manner as to strong as the solid bar (56000 lbs. Two pieces of the best quality of iron butted together. Before these can be brought together. made under a hand-ham- mer. with a uniform heat. under the best conditions which I have been able to effect up to the present time. per square inch. which is only a little over the half of the iron bar. Armstrong guns. aflects lbs. to be welded into a bloom. " Iron butt welded to steel under the best conditions invariably iron breaks at the weld. . of course. properly heated in a impurities. and shows only an average tenacity of 26800 lbs. have only given an average ultimate tenacity of 32140 lbs. and either in the iron or in the cases the strength of the weld in still many down to 10000 and even lower. the highest has been 32140 lbs. or of the steely property. Small welds. the same care having been observed in every instance. Anderson* found that two bars from be as of the finest quality of iron. is " which I have yet tested." says Mr. 1862. Large masses are formed by welding small pieces to the end of a bar It . the surfaces oxidize and prevent a perfect union. and these fire free weaker than the solid bar.) only by scarfing them. down even to 12000 lbs. steel . per square inch. the iron being 55500 lbs. " In the construction of the first woiind into a spiral coil. and so increasing the surface that the welded area was much larger than the fractured area. steel. But even this depends entirely on the nature of the any increase of hardness. * "Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. also difficult to prevent the enclosing of cinder in it is some points are instead of squeezing out. Mr. much better.

however. whilst some bear almost is as much as the uncut bar. The cost of this operation. also of a high quality and of a tenacity. A railway axle is a beam. there would appear to be no difference between forming these shoulders by tm-ning a large bar down to different diameters.346 Ordnance. still " With other iron. and therefore subject to the Still. —A solid-forged gun may be Ames's gun. and building a small bar up to the same diameters by shrinking on rings. and would not apply to a built-up gun. obviously due to the It is process of casting. is. have been lower down. Kirkaldy concludes* that " a great variation strength of iron bars which have been cut and welded. per inch . without and within. . . The weakness already is of cast-iron guns with re-entering angles. and cause to blister. the strength of others turned down to the reduced fully a third. 1 Dahlgren form (see 29). the practice with wrought-iron guns does not yet appear to have demonstrated any particular tendency to fracture at the junction of a larger with a smaller cylinder. although considerable. especially in the case of railway axles. and the staves of which a cannon sist may be supposed to con- are beams. The outline of a hooped gun is almost necessarily a series explained. even to 10000 iron. and the almost certain starting point of a fracture." exists in the Mr. unsuitable for being naade into coils to the reluctance shown by harder and stronger iron it when raised to a temperature that will not otherwise injure the quality of the material. Perhaps the to fail in other large guns thus constructed have * " Experiments on shown a tendency Wrought Iron and Steel. same sources of weak- ness." 1862. well known. the welds greater lbs. is a source of weakness. So far as the fracture arises from the unequal vibration of the adjacent parts. Shape. 41 0. so as to have the greatest strength with the least weight." 409. of sharp curves and right angles. that a sharp shoulder turned in a bar of iron or steel subjected to con- tinuous shocks. is much less than that of turning the rings of a built-up gun. hence such however strong. from the steely propthe defect being due to unite erty.

lbs. lbs. on the other hand. The 15-inch Rodman degree. iron The lb. tensile strength does not fully measure resistance to internal pressure. (See note in Appendix. 'No fracture occurred at this junction or .. for east iron. Cost. differ in a So that the 53846 lbs. Dahlgren gun weighs lb. after 1000 rounds with service charges it is stated by Captain not Parrott. wrought iron more trust- worthy. this rule. Practically. 347 was time for tliis source of failure to develop is The reinforce of the Parrott lOO-pounder 64 it. service lbs. 413. cific iron has the greater spe- gravity its . elsewhere. 13-inch Horsfall wroughtof powder.. This source of embarrassment is avoided by the use of cast which is not only stronger than wrought iron. shot with 74 lbs.. that the few guns of his that have burst did fail at this point. steel. The — cost of large wrought-iron cannon is about double that of cast-iron cannon of the same calibre. with a tensile strength of 50000 latter. large. and burns 18 is is In the built-up form. wrought-iron gun weighs 24094 and has been it is only with 20 and 30 pounds lb. cast-iron gun carries a 425 shot with 60 lbs. Weight.Wrought places before there itself Iron.) 411. of powder. The Alfred fired 10-in.. inches lar- ger in diameter than the cast-iron barrel within vibrates and hence it much more slowly under a given shock . gun carries a 279 lb. less undoubtedly competent to stand 50 cast-iron The new 10 inch lbs. although service charges. lbs. weighs while the with a tensile strength of say 30000 only weighs 49100 lbs. and can be made lighter. the process of welding a strong metal rather less trustworthy than that of casting a weaker one.. of powder. and for some time stood 47 charges. and and joins the barrel at a sharp angle. The 10-inch Rodman army gun weighs 15059 lbs. is —The saving of weight by substituting wrought Wrought its theoretically about in proportion to the respective strength of the two materials. than 20000 of powder. or of the same . solid wrought-iron guns are not proportioned by the strength of a ba-r cannot be relied on in a gun is — because ^that is to say. strains on these guns cannot very great The former. but homogeneous and without welds. although weight not reduced in proportion to tensile strength in the smaller Armstrong guns.

by substituting chemical processes that require very little aid from hands or tools. It has been found that large pieces of iron do not weld soundly by the rolling or forging process. Seven weeks were occupied in forging the Horsfall gun. substantially a sepa- been formed . But it much more closely resembles high steel than wrought iron. and trimming off a great deal of scrap. because it is not hard Ulte high steel. wrought iron is not melted a practicable heat. so that a new process must be resorted to. after a large amount of subsequent compression refined would be good. the large mass of material. is Refining and strengthening the material rate operation. Solid FoEGHTG. If the gun is built-up. than that of formed by carbonizing wrought iron or by decarbonizing pig iron by is often cdlhd wrought iron. before. 1858. power. f The blacksmith makes an artificial cinder to unite refined irons. and sufficiently pressed together. it is not homogeneous. the welds between raw iron. finest quality Old railway rails of the when re-rolled into new rails without a large admixture of raw iron. Were pieces fitted to each other. . (See Table 27 of Cost of Gruns. are usually very unsound. The and most serious is the liability to imperfect welds between the great of pieces. is greater in proportion to the mass. If the gun is forged solid. is drawn and condensed after the mass has wrought iron. iron. uniformly heated. Systems of Fabricating Wronglit-Iroii Ouns. Low f " European Railways." Colburn & HoUey. "When all this is done. Low steel produced by the puddling process may be more reasonably called high wrought the Bessemer process. small pieces are fitted together by tools. There does not appear to be either cinder or pressure enough to insure a thorough union. The inventions of Bessemer Steel and others are constantly reducing the cost of forming steel masses from the pig-metal. castings of any size at first the production of a While melted east iron and steel run into by their own gravity. at a still greater cost. when (because welds cannot be trusted) equal weights of material are used in both cases. and the compression from the blow of his * hammer steel.* 4:13. the process consists in adding a little at a time under the hammer.) necessity is In fabricating guns.348 Ordnance. first —The defects of number this process have been alluded the to.

are not fitted beforehand. The purilied importance of forming the mass before the iron expelled. but the irregular edges and ends do not always happen to be pressed together hard enough to make sound work so that there are scarf-welds. or are only The tendency is the drawing to squeeze out cinder. is com- The flat sides of two slabs may be soundly welded. The slabs or bars of which a large gun-forging posed." London. if is is and the cinder therefore evident. at the 416. welding temperature of various irons part * is not always One may be burned before another Jan. Roebling* refers to the nious theory to account for tures under vibration same subject. . But if the edges of a slab happen to be united to the mass before the centre. Wrought Iron. : the loosening of the iron threads and lammffi in their cinder envelopes. Puddleweight. cinder . is sufiiciently "The Engineer. these If the forgings are farther drawn. and no welds. in stating his the weakening of wrought-iron ingestruc- — viz. lbs. under the hammer cavities are not only flattened into long. although the mass would be weak throughout in the absence of farther drawing. Mr. The the same. that to the melting point. ot or. or rolls. exact about his heats. heated to welding. wide seams. Two raw puddle-balls weld soundly. cavities are sometimes left in such forgings. 41«l. 25. butt. balls cannot well be handled above 300 or 400 If 100 of these could be forged at once into a mass. and after- wards worked into a gun in such a way fluous cinder. Cast iron has the He can also be very maximum amount of is. 349 the machinery employed for heavy work. the product as to expel the then supertrust- would be more homogeneous and worthy.welds. seams between parts that either do not touch stuck together by cinder (426). 1861. an excess of cinder Large is shut in and prevents a farther union of the metal. process under the hamGtner or the rolls at all. but the seams run in the direction of the grain. thus weakening a gun point most strained by internal pressure. rather. unite perfectly. two pieces of it.. 414.

. Mr.dissents from this view of the case. and consequently deteriorated. of the Mersey Steel and Iron Works. Kirkaldy's conclusion on this that " iron if injured by being brought to a white or welding heat. however. necessary for welding the iron . f "Construction of Artillery. the whole of the mass fluid condition. who ing again brought under the hammer. when it occurs during the process of heating. usually produced from the is furnace being urged to a much greater heat than first. before the more highly refined portions are at a welding heat. may be burned but we are not to suppose that such a result either inevitable or * "Experiments on Wrought Iron and Steel." Kirkaldy. in a report body of iron is kept The Committee of the Franklin frigate on the failure of the United States (426)." is Mr. reduced to a pasty or partially is The structure of the iron as thus entirely changed. The defect under consideration is says :f " The change in the structure of a is mass of iron. tbe small slabs may receive much more heat from the fire than the large mass." Inst. Ordnance. Institute. By the solid-forging process a great red hot or white hot for weeks. Or. is less " "When worked together. says on this point.. Clay." 417. that various qualities of iron all have their own special welding points. 1860. nor that any amount of ham- mering will restore subject is. its fibre. 350 softened. Civil Engineers. stances the iron Under it is these circum- may be injured —in other words. and we are thus placed in the awkward dilemma of either burning the one or of being unable to weld the other. 1862. Longridge. Clay. crystallization takes place in the same manner with other substances which crystallize in passing from the fluid to the solid state. one portion that refined is too much heated. in fact.t inasmuch as he does not believe that long exposure to heat alone will deteriorate the iron."* The finished part of a large forging kept at a high heat without beadmitted by Mr. Princeton^s wrought-iron gun mention this as a cause of weakness. Mr. if the heat be not checked.. not at the same time is hammered or rolled. the outside is and. and in the process of cooling the mass.* speaking of scrap-iron.

the peculiar constraining forces due to contraction in None of these forces act to the same extent upon rectangular massfes. The grain of the iron. The greatest strength is in a longitudinal direction. The mean breaking strain of shaft* six pieces cut lengthways from a heavy crankwas found by Mr. and by cooling. axis. \ Paper before the Institution of Civil Engineers. the lieat necessary to with diflSculty obtained ia an ordinary furnace. 38487 in favor of those cut lengthways was in the shafts respectively. or 6'7 and 13"7 per Similar results were observed from iron cut lengthways and crossways from an armor-plate. Mallet on " The Coefficients of Elasticity and Rupture in Massive Forgings. 3J tons per square inch while in heavy rectangular forged slabs of upward of 12 inches in thickness in the plane of the slab.Wrought by any means common produce the evil is . " The integral crystals of the cylindrical masses are strained. and the con- straining forces of cooling are all parallel to the faces of the parallelopiped. under the most favorable circumstances. from the other. and within the elastic limits. ways from the first lbs. . the resistance end on." 418. Another defect in the usual process of forging wrought- * "Experiments on Wrought Iron and Steel. The greatest strain acts in a radial direction. 3004 and 5272 lbs. any diameter. tons. Iron." 419. or in the line of the axis." it rises to 8f tons per square inch for equal Mr. The experiments of Mr. by the effects of hammering in various directions. 6 tons. . and partially separated. which are only hammered in two directions. Kirkaldy to be 47582 lbs."f show that " as regards relative resistance to tension in different directions within the same large mass of forged iron of cylindrical form. in a solid-forged gun. Mallet attributes the difference in strength to the difference in molecular arrangement. or in is 10^ and transverse to the . The breaking strain of six pieces cut cross. from another crank-shaft. sections." 1862. 351 on tlie contrary.. 43579 lbs. or in these directions also. 1859. The difference two cent. runs in the wrong direction. distorted. shaft was 44578 lbs. March. tangential to the circumference.

due to the light tlie blows of small hammers. but the results are bad in the case of guns. The outer part of the forging is sometimes expanded interior and thus drawn away from the centre.. We made that 13-inch gun with machinery is less as inferior to our present machinery as the 68-pounder in size than the 13-inch gun. or even of solid-forged masses of wrought testified as follows before the if iron. Kirkaldy* that the difference in the breaking strain between specimens cut from the outside of a marine crank-shaft. Clay acknowledged this diflSeulty before the Defence Commissioners. * "Experiments on 'Wrought Iron and Steei. was. or 6-5 per cent. the result of inadequate machinery.f in Defence Commission- answer to the inquiry the limit of manufacture was not reached: "Certainly not with our present machinery. Only the skin of the iron is soundly worked and condensed. and specimens cut from its centre. 3221 2'6 per cent. or actually cracked weak- —the exact which state of a solid-cast gun." 1862. or Second." initial strains of large cylindrical forgings are to some extent deranged by a cause that operates so unfavorably in solid cast-iron guns the cooling of the exterior first. It was ascertained by Mr. The five or six times as powerful. and stated that his new process —hollow forging—overcame it (429). The inner part of the gun outer part is left in tension while the in compression. in another case llil lbs.. is Third. and does not necessarily follow the use of wrought iron. however. to cover a crack arising from this cause." 1862. "Such (113). shafts thus made prove defective.352 iron guns is Ordnance. t "Eeport of the Defence Commissioners. a result actually occurred in the case of the Horsfall gun A breech-plug or false bottom was placed in the chamber. is the opposite state of strain is to that reqiiired. Mr. and the — consequent stretching of the interior (364). We have now machinery 430.. This defect. compress only the shell of Steamboat peculiarly First. in one case. Clay ers. and are not felt at its centre. -which mass. lbs. leaving the ened. . Mr.

Civil 23 . under the hammer. 166. long. together into a rude sort of square prism.Wkought Iron. laying these upon each other. with jagged. 167. now to be described. crystalline. opposite faces of the rents were counterparts. but more careful and exact examination proved that in least.* gives the following FlS. wide in the line of the axis. ameter and 8 tars ft. but after they had become cold. at the corners. have large rents internally. March. They were and at slightly tapered. presenting laterally the general form shown in Fig. Mallet. * * * At to first it / Pile for mortar-chamber. or at right angles to had undoubtedly been * * * The those planes. by slabbing up two or more large flat pieces (Fig. These pieces were welded together. upon borings being made into the centre. Two in di- masses. 166. were forged for two 36-inch mor- which Mr. 167). seemed probable that the rents due to cooling. perfectly sound . Mr. in the paper before referred facts and illustrations as to this cause of failure. 1859. were formed in the direction of the broad planes of the slabs. which was afterwards partially rounded down. these rents more than one case. they were invariably found. m Massive Forgings." Inst. and welding them •' Fia. and presented dis* "The Coefficients of Elasticity and Rupture Engineers. 353 to. about 2^ ft. apparently. The masses were forged from puddled slabs of manageable size. irregular surfaces. one end there was a collar proall iecting about 6 inches round. and about 12 inches Forging for Mallet's mortar-chamber. Mallet was constructing for the British Government. at formed across.

| inch open at the widest part. 168. Bents iu forged masses —from cooling. 168 and 169. than half the external diameter of the mass in breadth. 170." Two of these rents are shown by Figs. were found to be generally as shown by Fig. and passed at each extremity. as seen perpendicularly to their plane. from the centre towards the circumference. and usually rather more to was from two to three feet along the axis. as the mass cooled. The cracks were from i off. the fractures. 169. Fia. The ascertainable extent Section of rent —from cooling—in mortar-ohamber. 170.354 tiiict Ordnance. iii the centre. evidence of having been torn asunder by contraction. . measured across the large end. " The limits of FiO. Fig.

which cools This is the theoretic limit of the size . beyond which internal rents must occur. exceeds the limit of extension of the iron at rupture. would then be rent. cided. and rigidity of the internal portions: the external soft condition surface would rupture all close. Mr. its external cooling. and the final cooling. The change to the oval figure would probably be accompanied with a reopening of some of the external fissures situated towards the ends of the major axis of the oval section. in any one ameter. or fissures. sound metal. contraction. These fissures would afterwards and the opposite and abutting surfaces would press against each other. the whole mass would at length assume stable equihbrium as respects its molecular forces." 431. Mallet reasons that this defect must occur in solid cylinders or conic frustra. from its di- highest temperature down to that of the atmo- sphere. heavy forgings obviously. in several places. like the voussoirs of a circular arch. . " whenever the dimensions are such that the total amount of the contraction of the metal. in the instance. the drawing asunder of all the par- . They were clean In this conclusion presenting opposite surfaces of solid." One great cause of the low measure of strength of material in is. " If it were possible that a cylindrical mass of forged iron could suflBciently in be increased diameter so as to bring it into evi- dence. 355 an indefinitely tliin wedge. first and directed to the centre.Wrought to Iron. The internal diametric fissure. Mr. bad welding fissures. contraction. there can be no doubt that the following would be the phenomena resulting from the conjoint reactions of its originally and uniformly high temperature. parallel to the axis. it appeared that the phenomenon was simply due to contraction on cooling. due to the length of the diameter of the last. and the external form of the mass would change from a circle to an oval. or of defective In no case was there a trace of workmansMp. Clay coin- On consideration.of forging. though rough by being torn asunder. interior core. as fixed by the circumference of rigidity due to the outer cold shell. the minor axis being in the plane of the internal rent . and assumption of rigidity.

It was assumed that the accident cipally paddle cost of these accidents. Lbs. Kirkaldy. and to be found in tides in both a tangential and a radial direction. forged mean down. do do Armor-plate.* is as follows (Table 60): Table LX. would average $10000 each. ^4795 534^0 Crank-fhaft. every three months. some attempt state- having been made to rebut the author's " assumptions. he produced a statement from the manager of the Penin- and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. Hence. — Strensth of Heavy and Light Foegings. During the last five and a half years (down to 1859). " The Coefficients of Elasticity and Rupture in Massive Forgings. do. do 36824 According to Mr. higheft Scrap-iron. after all. cut croflwife. fcrap. diminished cohesive strength the proof of this the fact that the specific gravity of the material of these great forgings is lower than that of the iron from which they are formed. to the following During ten years. as the produced. per sq. an average of more than one serious : had occurred from the breaking of large forgings. inch. due to the unsoundness of large forgings. do. to one or the other of 41 ships. prinand screw shafts. on the same number of ships. or nearly one every two months. ment sular effect same fagoted mass. foregoing authority expresses tions it. 4758^ 43759 44578 38487 38868 do do. do. The comparative strength of heavy and light forgings.356 ' OrdnInce." f . During the discussion of Mr. fcrap. mean do. Mallet's experimentsf the tensile strength was as follows (Table 61): * " Experiments on Wrought Iron and Steel. mean mean do do. pretty sound and trust- worthy. EngliHi rolled bars." 1862. cut lengthwife. there were 37 such accidents." Mallet's paper. 4S3. or than that of small portions of the 493. do. do. "increased distance in both direcis is between the integrant crystalline faces . according to the experiments of Mr. do." by a that large forgings were.

charcoal-rolled Bar. do. A wroughtiron 8-inch gun forged at the Gospel Iron "Works. ." Mallet: the f "Journal of Fraukhn Institute. 335). 30 were up "On in a fagot. facts are compiled : The greater gun was composed. flab. Hammered flab or bar. Tons. Several of these have burst on trial. On the other hand." that burst on board the United States steamer Princeton. from borings of 424. longitudinal cut from d^ do. do. in the shape square and about 8^ long. Wrought Table LXl. The metal appeared to the eye to be sound and perfect without and within. and rounded up into a Appendix. Iron. to place it. Only a few large guns have been fabricated by the solidforging process. The gun as the stated to have been of very nearly the same dimensions established cast-iron guns of the calibre. the solid-forging process overcomes tion of parts due to the fracture and relaxawant of mass and continuity (299. burst into several pieces at the first is discharge. made a detailed examination into the character of the " Peacemaker" gun from their reportf the following part of the iron of which the of bars 4 laid in. 357 Strength op Heavy Porgin68. A committee of the Franklin Institute. of Philadelphia. was ft. welded. 171. circumferential tranfverfe 18-839 16-561 16-562 gun 22. and proved at a grave objection to the plan of hooping — "Woolwich on the 17th July. Fig. 1855.321 do. original fagot bars do. "Ward The gun was built by & Co.— . 66. Of these. 425. 206 (1844). Tlie most memorable case is that of the 12-inch solid- forged gun. do. with 28 lbs. The 12-inch gun. powder and 2 same spherical shot. The thickness at the breech end was therefore about 9 inches." Vol.. almost re- an exact copy. shaft 20 to 21 * the Construction of Artillery. i2X4inches 24'o6z 18-594 19-688 gun do do Fagoted forged 48 X48 x I2 inches Horsfall 13-inch gun. Messrs. Fig. called the "Peacemaker. was built by the Mersey Steel and Iron Co. p. under the direction of Commodore Stockton. do.* 426. 8. now in the Brooklyn navy yard..

con- . The hammer used weighed 15000 lbs. long and embracing half the of the circumference gun. 172. across nnder the trunnion-bands. in different places. 5 ft. Ordnance. The relative size is of one of these (10 x 3 in. the many were others. there being two strata of segments over the breech. were then welded on. A part of planes. the fracture showed large cryslying in various Traces of the original bars were olservdble.. "Besides the spots indicating a want of continuity edges of in the metal in the plane of the fracture. is shown tals at Fig. was kept more or days. in. the The breech split into 3 principal pieces. also a wide solution of continuity was seen throughThe 'Peacemaker" 12-inch wrought-iron gun. out a cylindrical surface.) shown at a. observed. in diameter. also spots covered with scale. varying in weight from 200 to 800 lbs.358 Fia. the largest of which. was 45J The gun was broken chase remaining entire. 171. The time occupied forging. during in the which the iron less heated. and nsually large enough to reach i round the gun. Iron in the form of segments.

. iron gave the following results The average tensile force with which the specimens from the interior of 2. was evident from the 1^8. 172." fact that oil. the gun broke. after passing through a distance. gave an aver- age of less than 45333 " . came out at a. lbs. centric with entirely tlie 359 at ^east. into this opening a wire thrust to a depth of 10 inches. ad 3d " " 38595 « 5*5^1 " : Other experiments made from the Same 1. poured in at the upper side. face is Another opening in the prolongation of the cylindrical surshown at c. 43700 fibre. Fragment of the " Peacemaker. of about 3 feet. gave 3.. and." sures Several other considerable were observed. —Strenoth os Ieok in the "Peaobmakbb" Guk.— Wkdttght Iron. of the original bar was The mean 1st tensile strength per square inch bar 46086 '. strained in a of the fibre. that they was evident was fis- had never been welded . across the . in one place This around the fragment. by inspecting these. bore. is less than. Table LXII. when strained in the direction The specimen from the interior. The specimens from the outside of the gun. The sides of this were separated to a distance it of a quarter of an inch. and extending. 32100 1 direction across the fibre. within the fragment.

strained Annealed specimens from the gave an average of. The practical difficulty. the use of wrought-iron guns made on the same plan as the gun now under : examination. after being drawn series. state. the proportion to the original bar cent. that of the average of the iron. as is it existed in the gun. 59824 " 46950. two series can be compared. of restoring the fibre by hammering. 3d. Kirkaldy to be 45670 in the direc- . 335^6 lbs. as existing in the gun. of a bar made from a portion of the gun reworked under the hammer. interior. for the following reasons 1. The very uncertainty. and if the tensile force of the intefibres. their " opinion. with the hammers at present in use in this country." Experiments were made to determine the tensile strength. From the fact tliat iron decreases much in strength from the long exposure to the intense heat necessary in making a gun of this size. from both series.. not hammered. " Consequentlj. vail. if not impossibility. in the present state of the arts (in 1844). in 2. are the same as those" from the experiments in Boston. showing. without a possibility. that be taken. rior . worked down under hammer. crank- shafts—was found by Mr. is as 50 to 100. The The The average of all the specimens from the gun. that will always pre. when strained in a direction across the being the actual direction of the strain in the gun. The mean strength of two large forgings —steamship lbs.. regard to imperfections in the welding and 3. so as to insure a perfect soundness and uni- formity throughout. a. that. of welding such a large mass of iron. The The The average strength of the iron. the is is 33300 " 63475 '* average of the specimens. 360 4. average strength of the iron from the gun.. ought to be abandoned.. average strength of the original bar from the experiments of the is series. or a deterioration of 50 per The Committee of large calibre. Ordnance. of the original bar 2d. so far as the made by the Committee I. from both 3. 36067 " 5. a deterioration of 28 per cent. lengthwise of the fibre. 6. of a bar cut from the interior of the gun . was 72. in conclusion. general conclusions. 1st. down first ' : with the hammer. from these results.— . is. taking the original strength as 100.

\ "Orr's Circle of the Industrial Arts. and that would always be more or less the case in the heart of all such large structures when forged. Anderson says on this subject: "A few years ago it was believed that the proper gun would be obtained by forging. "f On the other hand. Iron.Wbought tion of the grain. Mallet. 361 Among his " concluding observations" are the : following which bear on the subject " Inferior qualities show a much greater variation in the breaking strain than superior. Clay. but the main evil Some and of the evils incident to this gun might have been avoided by greater experience and judgment . as dicating the absolute uncertainty that ever must exist as to the trustworthiness of wrought-iron guns." " Gonstmction of AridU f Mr. immediate success in any new fabrication." . Mr. which were defective. :* 427. that " the several ter of surprise for it is hardly reasonable to expect ures in the manufacture of wrought-iron guns should not be a mat. differs fail from Mr. It was a magnificent forging the finest he had ever seen yet it was not a perfect gun." From which it may be concluded that large forgings are not less only weaker than smaller bars. were aiming at would be obtained by the system of forging. Mr. CirM Engineers. when Mr. The end of that gun might be said to have been a national disappointment. The bore of that gun would never have passed the proof of the artillerist." Inst. forged in one great mass. Mr. and very justly observes. the country expected great results. At the present moment there were at Woolwich some apparently very fine forgings. but uniform and trustworthy. 1860." 1856. and most so where the weldings are most numerous. there had been the Liverpool puns a monster mortar. Mallett says "The in- (which he has previously stated) are worthy of notice. is inherent." 428. in- separable from every huge forging. although executed without regard to faithfully to cost. of the Mersey Iron Works. " Greater differences exist between small and large bars in coarse than in fine varieties. Since then. — — — — k9'!/. and by parties anxious produce a result of the highest excellence.) * "On the Construction of Artillery. facts Speaking of wrought-iron guns. and more especially Therefore he did not think the good gun which all in the chamber at the breech. There were defects in it. In 1854. owing to fissures at the core. Nasmyth was at work. which was referred to in the paper. Clay gives an account:]: of experiments to determine the tensile strength of the iron from which the monster gun (no.

per sq. there a gain of 2 per cent. Sample Experi- ment. Longridge is of the opinion* that these experiments are not very conclusive. Civil Eng. The it results were as follow (Table 63) Taking the average of about 13 per cent. where the thickness greatest and the deterioration is necessarily the most. Borings from gun reworked with charcoal.. iron.. in. Mr. 76584 60584 76584 60584 12 Swedish iron as imported. and comparing is with that of the following three. after : mamifacture into the gun. 7th.. and 8th.— 362 was made. 1860. of the first two experiments." Inst. a decrease of strength whilst on the other hand. in. Description of Iron. and uncertainty. because " the iron was cut from the muzzle of the gun. exis pense. long. Ditto Ditto ditto 7 8 50624 50624 ditto 52864 60584' 9 Borings from gun reworked with coal Ditto ditto 61704 10 II 62824. and however the difficulty and expense Moreover. —Strbnoth of Iron im the Horsfall Guit.." He sums up the question by saying that " the manufacture of large forged wroiight-iron guns is an operation of great difiiculty. the uncertainty must Table LXIII. f inch square * "Construction of Artillery. Ditto Ditto ditto 4 5 43904 50624 48384" 4339° ditto 6 Cut with the grain from muzzle of gun. in. and of the same Ordnance. Ditto ditto 48384"! 49504 50624 J 41644' 3 Cut across the grain from muzzle of gun. Elon^ ted Original iron of which the gun was made. there . Breaking strain in lbs. and not from the interior at the breech. bars 4 Average. . may be decreased. as compared with is the 6th. still remain..

of field-guns. the the Horsfall gun. and of and the comparatively small reduction and purification the direction of the seams it is wrong of the mass after aggregated. the radical defect of a homogeneous mass still remaining. Another bar was wound upon. similar to the Armstrong 10^-inch gun. form of a on an arbor which was placed in a in section bar f X 4^ —a rhomboid first. viz. overcomes several defects of the system last discussed. By forging them hollow. low. according to Mr. Grif- Rolled staves | barrel. 363 but substituting for cast iron a material of a the unequal distribution of the strain. of Pennsylvania. long. Still. to five layers had been applied. x f in. were rolled hollow at the Phoenix Iron Works in.Wrought at the best. in. unsound the fibre . The Alfred gun (115) a process which. to be and . . and a plug driven close it. on the plan of Mr. air namely. solid-forging process remain badly-fitted parts. now in service. it is Iron. Clsuj.." 429. overheating ." This process also gives the superfluous cinder more chance of escape. where the metal is exposed to the cooling influence of the on three sides instead of merely on the two sides. we get over the difficulty. the spirals running in an opposite direc- and so on until of staves was then into the breech.the tion. and may be conducted so as to make the heat more uni- form throughout the mass. A number fin. which gets over a He says :* " We forge our guns hol- difficulty which we had experienced. from higher tensile strength . the inner to the outer circumference. Thevrhole "Report of the Defence Commissionera." 1862. the tendency to contraction in the breech of the gun. and where. and leaving the breech screwed in. their liability. a contraction takes place. and similar to our Prince Alfred gun in the Exhibition. the outside crust getting cool first. x i^ ft. A long upon —was wound spirally the barrel by the revolution of the lathe. and to form the cascable. A thin layer boimd upon the outside. were laid up in the lathe. Hollow-Forging and was forged hollow maker of this and of — Rolling. the fundamental defects of the —the multiplication of welds between from various causes.

the mass being cylindrical when it left the rolls. T. then inserting the mandrel and welding the whole mass together. the approximate shape of a barrel before turning. the most carefully oonsohdated plates of iron or steel are welded together in one continuous length. for British patent. to produce. The plate or sheet used should be of sufficient length. " Another mode of carrying out the invention consists in using a cold mandrel of wrought or cast metal. and rolling the sheets or plates of iron or steel around it till the desired size is produced.* and appear scale. The mandrel should always be less than the bore or hollow to be produced. if uSed of a uniform must be contmued till a sufBoient diameter at the breech is obtained.. and promises weU A * "Ordnance and Gunnery." 1862. These guns are to well spoken of cessful by Captain Benton. when roUed and welded. after which it 7 feet in length. and of a breadth several inches wider than the desired length of the barrel or cylinder. But this process. or. when used in one piece. around a central manbe welded together as it is rolled up. D. The sheet or plate of iron or steel may be used of a uniform thickness. after is rolled up. or the The mandrel should be of less if diameter than the desired bore of the gun-barrel or shaft-cylinder. heated to welding and upset endways two inches in a press. when rolled or thickness. and turning in the manner now pursued with cast guns or hollow shafts. uniform consohdation of metal. if the mandrel is to be bored out or otherwise removed. the barrel or cylinder of the desired thickness or diameter before turning. but without the mandrel. without removing the gun from the reverberatory furnace. consists in rolling or winding a plate. Indiana. of Lafayette. was drawn out between the rolls from 4J to The trunnions were then welded on.f and substituted another. thereby producing a quality. so that the boring the latter is may remove all of the mandrel. have been suc- on a small 430. dated April 16. by the pressure of roUers. the welding to be done impact of a hammer or hammers at welding heat. viz. Teakel. or sheet of iron or drel of steel. intended to be hollow. which forms the subject of the present invention. and a form of barrel composed of concentric welded of gunpowder. so as to produce. j- The following is an abstract of the specification of Mr. the bore was dressed out. "Another mode consists in rolling up the sheets or plates in the same form.364 was tlien Ordnance. "By the improved process of making cannon or shafting. folds. reaming. capable of offering a resistance to the explosive force in which cannot be obtained any other way. which produces a cheaper and sounder gun." . then removing the mandrel. the Phoenix Iron Company have now abandoned for larger ordnance. Sheets or plates are to be rolled around the mandrel at a welding heat and welded together as rolled. or several steel . the rolling welded. or it may be tapered from one edge of its breadth to the other. 1862: "One of the improved modes of constructing cannon and other ordnance. (if more than one is to is wrought iron or it the whole mass required). and the chase reduced to the proper size by turning. and boring.

from within. burst at the second round (127). although the field-guns of the Phoenix Iron Company stand very well. welding in cinder. And iron may be refined before made all a gun. and the advantages of cooling the mass. of steel. as or Phoenix Iron Armstrong Company's gims. are The process appears to be in many respects an improvement on the plan of building upon the end of a bar with rough secured. pieces and multiform welds. The rings are separately hooped before welding. resisted The principal strain of the But there powder is by the unbroken strength of the solid ring. this case would not weaken the gun —indeed. is forged were mentioned hollow by welding a series of short. . Overheating and the bad effects of imperfectly fitting pieces. The bore may be made entirely The seams in within the mandrel. any is left is left initial tension they may have is destroyed in the sxibsequent heating and hammering. 431. are more likely to be avoided. which may be Fie. As the rings are forged solid. of which the fabrication (128). At the same time. and light hammering. But with these advantages. 365 rolled around a mandrel iato a cylinder. are no longitudinal yields. Gun made from a sheet of iron. its the mere sticking of the iron together would prevent coiling unthe it is under into fire. no well- defined grain in the is developed in the direction of its circumference. Lynall Thomas. at JSTewcastle. and the gun without the desirable without rupturing initial strains. the 7-inch this gun made on plan for Mr. to some extent.Wrought sheet of iron is Iron. Ames's and the test wrought-iron gun. 173. and drawn down into a tube with solid walls. thick rings to the end of a bar. thus building out gun from the breech to the muzzle. Mr. is it initial strains — the metal substantially in a state of repose.

174 1'5. ing up a barrel. 175). piece is forged so that and shrunk together (Fig. 1863. The Armstrong Gun. 174). 433. Leading Featuebs strain. Sir stated* that he did not carry out plan with the nicety prescribed by Mr. and its charges. parallel with the bore." Inst. The system of rifling and projectiles. and will be considered under their respective heads. Placing the grain of the iron in the direction of the greatest That is and opposing the tension of the welds to the least strain. sidersf the important principle of his Indeed. Sir William conto be. welded up from I'lO- Fig. 176). of the System. to say 1st. 1860. . —These are First. so that aU may be equally strained at WilUam Armstrong has publicly parts this the instant of firing (287). The grain of a suffi- cient portion of the breech to resist the longitudinal strain runs Second. OivU Engineers. is —The process by which this gun first fabricated. Both tend. but welding coiled tubes end to end. the grain and the welds in the body of the gun — run in the direction of its circumference. are the other leading features of the Armstrong Ordnance. not gun merely buildinitial strains. and shrinking them together. The gun consists of several hoops (Fig. The breechits grain shall run longitudinally. 433. The breech-loading. Longridge (293). Fourth. and. Placing the outer hoops in initial tension. coils (Fig. directly or indi- * " Construotion of Artillery. nor the placing of it under regulated Third. have been described in the chapter.— 366 Ordnance. \ Select Committee on Ordnance. 2d. but that the rings were simply applied with a sufficient difference of diameter to secure effective shrinkage.

. weaken tbe gun. Burning the iron may be avoided. and the want of proper initial tension. and the welds the in the direction of the least strain. and having such of firing. The prac- warrants this conclusion. 1862. and possible the flaws. ia case of the soKd-forged gun. also. —The first grand advantage of wrought- iron tubes having the grain in the direction of the greatest. of J light hammering is Although the iron of the Armstrong gun refined before welding (414). among them. in the heavier guns. in the other case. Mr. 11 and the surfaces to be joined are so plain. great strength to resist internal pressure. initial strain that all iron will do equal is. 36. 176. but there is enough over-heating to weaken the says: material. other of solid-forged defects gun are modified or avoided in the Armstrong ^ \j gun . 434. and are either modified or abandoned Fig. that the union of the parts can be more certainly relied on than. effects (420). is 1 The it iron refined." August. after the forging is may be crude done. unequal shrinkage and the various bad (419). Besides the wrong direction of welds and fibres. in welding i % In and although the pressure the coil into a tube as it is not as uniform is should be. to Iron. tice. work at the instant % obviously. Anderson " "WTien rolled bars of the best * "Journal Royal United Service Inst. the heat so uniform. . Advaittages of the System.Wrought rectly.

such a mass of forging being always more or less defective... point. as a general rule. superior to the bore which formed within the heart of an im- mense forging. of dimensions suitable for a large gun. the soundness high tenacity afforded by the the opportunity which it system circnmferentiaUy. Subsequent experi- . the iron. 368 Ordnance. 10 with 136-lb. iron gun. is even in that respect. has been tested lbs.. Rupture •^ . . as follows A 6^-in. shot. At the 70th round. the gun burst into eight pieces. The following shows the average results both in regard to yielding and breaking u* . as follows. The comparative strength of the coil : solid-forging system. shot. \ Iron in bar " cylinder ^izoo (^g^^ 58986 . shot. "^ . 17* • f Iron in bar.. and then welded into cyKnders for gun manufacture. shot. and 10 with 4:76-lb." 436. wroughtCharge. was tested lbs. is found to suffer to about 3481 Ihs. in 1862. per square inch on the average. portion than the working. . Another advantage stated is thus this by Mr. 16 8-oz. 10 with 273-lb.: — . a purpose for by no means so perfect.. 10 with 204-lb... even under the system and the best and most careful workmanship. 10-oz. 10 rounds with 68-lb. and gives of knowing of the is gun in this every part. . <. yet. 10 with 4:10-lb. Yielding point. 8-oz. and from the fact that every part of the full exercise put under the of its gun duty from the commencement arrangement of building up guns will always have an imsingle solid forging. shot." 433. shot.^^^^ „ . . | f ^^^. in point mense advantage over guns made of a and even when the which it is of strength and security against bursting of the whole structure coiled cylinder is considered as a means of it is obtaining the inner lining or bore of a rifled gun.. weighing 9282 made from a block forged at the Mersey Iron Works. Anderson : " In building coil up guns of cylinders. shot. quality are wound into coils. 10 with 340-lb.„„ 555°° " The loss is due to the necessary heatiag being greater in proof this system of fabrication.

beginning At and increasing. The inner barrel was made from a solid forging The gun fired 100 rounds. which will not be exceeded for shot of 110 lbs. if not fully equal to guns made on the coil system. . up to the last 10. by Sir William Armstrong. weight. the first 10 rounds. lbs. 24 . in the chamber. and so on. and projected 2 slightly These beyond the muzzle. 10-oz. The powder-chamber and shot-chamber were found seamed in the direction of the The breech-screw worked freely throughout the * "Report of the Select Committee oa Ordnance." 437. cylinders of 200 lbs. 8 in. the the 60th round a cavity was found ually Increased to 2'75 in. last The projectiles were cylinders. \ From an admiralty circular. of a 100-pounder Armstrong breech-loading gun My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty desire that the as to the testing for lowing particulars endurance of an Armstrong for the infor- 100-pomider breech-loading gun be communicated mation of the " ner. feet were 8 ft. 94T4: lbs. for which cylinders of no last less than 1000 were employed. Armstrong wrought-iron gmi was tested in comparison with the above. The gun was found grain of the iron.. a 40-pounder and a 12-pounder Mersey solid-forged and the committee reported* shown an endurance. charge. every 10 rounds. A 6^-in. For lbs. however. to be uninjured. weight. if it is accompanied by the power gun were tested (122). that "both these guns have of resisting a very great number is of service charges. 'rounds being 672 lbs. as originally proposed 14 lbs. at 68-lbs. The under " following an official account of the " endurance. with small fissures. were employed . xised was the service charge of the gun for shot of 100 lbs.. and was carried on of until 100 rounds The charge viz. 369 showed it to possess a tensile strength of 45359 lbs. :f fol- testing. Wrought merits on the metal Iron. The proof of this gun." 1863. long. officers and crews of Her Majesty's ships. Afterwards. for the next 10. yet at least ample for the requirements of the service. powder had been completed on the 10th September last. which grad- deep. 16 lbs. which was conducted in the usual manwas commenced on the 20th June last. cylinders of 100 .

16 lbs. and were replaced of the by copper cups. which every endeavor made to effect. . but were too gas. ultimately. of a subsequent experiment.. as was suggested by Commander Scott before the Select . which recoiled up a steep inclined plane. at the 91st round. and the gun was placed on a species of carriage. It should be remarked. with reference to this experiment. checked by sand. by the Inspector of Artillery. and weighed 81 cwt. became very violent the suspending-rods. and At round. and was of the usual external dimensions. viz. and a single proof-shot of 110 lbs. 3 qrs. stated. 370 experiment. Gups of strong tinned plate were used 35 rounds. at the 28th and Slst round respectively were broken in the course of one . afterwards those of Captain Lyon's pattern. being seldom broken. The powder-chamber was washed out for the first after each round. that great difSculty in completing the experiment even with this arrange- was found ment." 438. Okdnance. after every 35th round replaced after the 63d round . The recoil. Two steel vent-pieces this experiment. wrought-iron vent-piece. to exhibit a number of fine cracks. to allow the expansion of the breech-copper to be measured. was foimd so much worn on the face as to injure the cups and a second wrought-iron vent-piece was used from the 82d to the 100th round. at the 30th replaced. and would appear being to leave nothing in that respect to be desired. were removed. after being used from the 32d to the 81st round. The breech-copper required refacing it was removed and the 85th round the new copper was refaced. The gun used in these experiments was of Elswick manufacture.. The remarkable strength exhibited by this gun is very satisfactory. with proof-charges of 27^ lbs. weak to resist the pressure exerted by the with the cylinders of the weight then in use. as the experiments advanced. It is however. service pattern Lubricating wads of the were used for the first 10 rounds. This vent-piece was observed. except is some improvement in the vent-pieces. the copper then put in received no repairs during the rest of the experiments.. which extended considerably in the course of the remaining 9 rounds it broke at the 4th round . made entirely on the coil principle. which answered well for the remainder trial.

and did not close the bore of the gun 3d. 371 (1863)." 440. that "with guns which had been previously fired 100 rounds with shot rising up to 100 lbs. that the gun was kept perfectly clean. one gun had stood 319 proof rounds. that the lead was turned down . . previously cracked. but the guns are issued.screws. another which has been fired 1515 rounds. 4:39. another which has been fired 1911 rounds. Sir "William Armstrong stated. off the cylinders. that the great length of time occupied by the experiments prevented the possibility of heating gun . and one only 27 proof roiinds. Of the 40-pounders. and another which has been fired 1146 rounds. guns requiring repairs hare many costly repairs are required before "Report of Select Committee on Ordnance. if any. and perfectly good and service- I have here another 12-pounder which has been fired 1453 rounds. jamming the shot through the rifling was modified and 4th. before the Select Committee on Ordnance (1863). another 261 proof rounds. Table 64 strong gives a list of 3. Of the 110-pounders. 799 were issued and * We have no means of knowing not been returned. out of 392 land service and 178 sea service issued. that the velocity of the service-shot." some 50000 rounds. which showed the high ultimate strength of the gun. This is exclusive of 20 broken vent-pieces and 22 broken breech. which may be taken as instances of the very great endurance possessed by these guns. 641 were issued and 9 returned. 1st. to the endurance of some of the 12-pounders. the heavy cylinders being lower than that of the destructive effect of . another 119 proof rounds. only one had to be returned for repairs." He also stated that one. j- we know (443) that how many." 1863. fired These guns had 9 returned. another 313 proof rounds. another 357 proof rounds. is 7 has been fired 3263 rounds.: Wrought Committee on Ordnance the Iron. of the 12-pounders. 2d.. he says: "No. all the guns returned to "Woolwich for repairs up to June Sir William Armmakes the following statementf with reference to the guns 1863. As able. stood 15 proof rounds. another 274 proof rounds.* mentioned in Table 65 " Out of 66 9-pounders had issued. 13 to be returned.

372 Ordnance. § .

Wrought-Iron Guns. 373 .

— ^List op AnMSTKOira Guns EEfTDEKED unseeviceable by proving Vent-Pieces.) Nature. I {From the SepoH of the Select Committee <m Ordnance. Ordnance. 1863.374 Table LXT. .

without sacrificing the whole structure.). 442.25 (£740—5) Sir . 444. " it is utterly -wrong. for Mr. am convinced gun made of welded iron will stand. "1 believe Q. is more conclusive evidence against the system. as an advantage of the Armstrong sys- tem. Whitworth. has fired but very few rounds. The first lO^inch Armstrong muzzle- loader has burst twice after a short service (446). either for the inner tube or for coil. and not of repair. that these "are questions of manufacture. " Because I was desirous to show that I could that I could —send —and I think 7-inch a shell through armor-plates. The 9-inch gun made on the same plan at Woolwich. in the manner indicated by Mr.Wrought Iron. weighing 7 tons. obvious from the about the 40-pounders. Defects of the System. I utterly condemn welded iron in a gun at all. Out of 192 guns. (see It is mentioned. except at Woolwich. —All the guns mentioned in service." the But the injury of that very gun." avail yourself of Then why did you A. Lynall Thomas (34). 153 had lapped out and otherwise repaired at the cost of $20270 been (£4054). But this feature only provides a remedy for a defect which it induces — this very want of integrity creates weakness and hastens failure. lengths. indeed. is Table 64 failed after they were issued for costly failures occur before the facts elicited That many guns are issued. after less than 30 rounds. 21 of them were bouched throughout at the cost of and 25 were bouched with tubes of various William Armstrong said. 375 Q. that injured guns can be taken apart and repaired in detail Table LXIY. 443. and there was I could get the no other way in which that no large gun made with a I bore. . " Do you think the system of manufacture under Sir Wil- liam Armstrong's principle is right or wrong ?" it ?" A." $3701. during the session of 1863. by the Committee on Ord- nance. as in case of solid guns. The most material used — obvious defect in the Armstrong gun softness is in the its and consequent yielding under the Since no other material but wrought pressure of the powder-gas.

Lynall Thomas on this plan. A 127 rounds with 27^ parted lbs. gun was indented cham- ber with a 90-lb. the harder kinds of irons weld badly. have permanently 9-in. and destroyed in the 57 service rounds.. f The chamber of the 600-pr. Anderson and Sir "WiUiam Armstrong. to allow for expansion in proof in proof. The 110- 200-pounder side breech-loader bulged at the 7th round. (335). 133 rounds. R. The wrought iron strong failed. allows the hoops of the ArmIn several instances the inner tubes have — while the outer ones have remained whole. of powder. admitting this defect. as well the 7-in. Anderson (" Report of Committee on Ordnance. up in this way. But they are sooner developed * According to the evidence of Mr. Jour.— 376 iron could be welded Okdnance. was indented and cracked in the chamber. with 27^ near the trun- One 110-pounder is reported to have become fractured in rifling." 1862). became oval.) has many examples of both kinds ordnance. the 110-pounders in a considerable — and they all expand and irregular degree.f All the Armstrong guns are left smaller in the bore than the finished size. lbs. The as gun made for Mr. has already been quoted (402). A 6^in. facility In view of the with which the outer hoops can stretch. endured 100 rounds with increasing while the Mersey gun burst at the 70th round." Capt. solid-forged gun. 445. small amount of " work done" in slightly stretching its — great ductility gun to relax. The first 10^-in. tested in comparison with a Mersey charges. their fracture. after the chamber. Armstrong gun. and the inner tube started after XJ. 1864. changed figure — ^the latter is unfit for regular service after less in the than 30 rounds. stances will illustrate the Some in- character of the failure. " a . Service Inst. gun made for Mr. ball.* The evidence of Mr. Whitworth. several instances of which are mentioned in the Ee- port of the Select Committee on Ordnance (1863). Mshbourne. charge (446). and a round 150-lb. but at the 60th round the in. dozen or twenty rounds. May. so that the coils split. must be traced to those efi'ects of vibration which are due to want of continuity of in the larger substance of failure.. the defect may be fairly urged against the system. it Subsequently. and 48 with 14 nions. lbs. Table (LXIY. Armstrong gun had a cavity 2*75 pounder that had fired deep in the chamber.

The next round. when rifled. shot. and the copper disk a a. elongated shot that the gun fired was intended to carry Other guns of 300-lb. but only equivalent. The first lOf-in. 178 after shows the condition of the gun fracture. 377 446.. with 4:0-lb. one of 80. The lat- charge was not considered as excessive. Fig. and as the gun had never been proved. After a few rounds more. is * It tion was adopted solidly-closed inner tube (31). one of 70.Wrought Iron. in nearly all cases. . charge. parallel to coil. the breech-piece pulled apart. and blew out. and one of 90 ter lbs. charges. as shown by the dotted lines a e. with 80 lbs. 177) burst after firing 264 spherical shot. with a spherical shot. the inner coil split in the spiral weld. at the next crack closed round. to 50 lbs. with the 300-lb. with the 90-lbs. made a crack the bore.. This result was undoubt- edly hastened by the gas leaking past the movable bottom F of the chamber. in the outer behind the trunnions. of powder. this class have At the discharge with 70 lbs. Anderson's were made with a Blswick. smooth- bore (Fig. this and another opened parallel and near to it. there were several of 50 lbs. and pressing upon the larger area of the screw-plug G* worthy of note that the same construcfor the new guns made at Mr.

and hence. which they were authorized to lbs. of powder and a round ball. rendering the gun unserviceable after a few rounds with Pig. an opening an annular passage around the gun was left. hence the pressure came upon nearly a double area. And the new lO^in. at the 8th to 35 lbs. First Armatrong lOJ-incli gun. that have been rifled round. that " to provide for any escape of gas that there might be. IIS. 447 The following is the report of the Ordnance Select Com- mittee on the failure of the 120-pounder shunt gun :t " The Com- mittee have the honor to report. fire with shot reduced to 100 weight. Prom a photograph. Anderson said. and then One of them was fractured in the chase. by the sudden nipping of the shxmt-shot. 1862. Mr. another part of the gun.378 Ordnance. gave way in the trunnion * With regard to the bursting of this gun. guns show such limited endurance that the charge with an elongated shot has been reduced from 50 to 45. there being no vent part." Eeport of the Select Committee on Ordnance. after the breech blew out. drilled a hole into to the outside. 50 lbs. in making that opening. and a charge of one-fourth. when the leakage arose. before the Select Committee on Ordnance. for the information of the Secretary of State. and in the drawing it was shown with The workman. and not into the passage. one of the outer tubes cracked again. . This gun* having been repaired. that the 120-pounder muzzle-loading shunt gun." 1863. the pressure " through the solid f was exerted over a very much larger surface.

because the force of the powder would be diminished by expansion to less than one-half its original amount before it could operate on that Perhaps the sudden blow of the shunt-shot account for this a similar place. by the Iron Plate Committee. 1S61. Nearly all the old pattern 12-pounders were found too weak. to pieces of the — — the splitting of the inner coil is admitted by Mr. and in. with shot of 140 and a charge of 20 lbs.Wrought coil at tlie Iron. The Committee do not appreliend the latter is to be the case and the reported position of the crack. which far forward. in the evidence before the Select Committee on Ordnance (1863). The gun having been with impunity." as it centred in that part of the bore. 103 rounds. and the various effects of vibration. must be traced. 379 second round. known A 4. and the charge 24 lbs. tends to show that a flaw must have existed. to want of mass and continuity of parts. Although the welds are in the direction of least strain. since part of the structure. failure. is are said to have rapidly destroyed 110-pounders.. during the session of 1863. It has fired. to be of frequent occurrence. it. and a heavier and longer coil placed in front of the trunnions. about which much testimony was taken by the Select Committee on Ordnance. of powder lbs. at present unserviceable. 449. and the present failure must either be traceable to a weakness originally stated by Sir "William or be the consequence of using the pow- Armstrong der to exist in as 2 . The service charge (for shot) for these guns has been rediiced from 14 to 12 The effect of multiplying parts shown by the failure of bouched guns. before the United Service Insti- . and is The actual weight of the shot fired was only 98 fired lbs.. this accident cannot be attributed to the severity of the charge. The character of these failures a general loosening and shaking gun after short service although aggravated by the softness and extreme ductility of the metal. Charges of 25 lbs. lbs. altogether. would one of the 300-pounders gave way in 448. in a great degree.* * lu discussing this subject in December. Andereon and others. are being altered by having 12 cut off from the muzzle..

Service •)• Inst. charges were very distant firing. show flaws after firing * * This was shown by the 100-pounder which was returned from Shoeburyness. Aug. the iron being 55500 average tenacity of the welding of the coil has been 32140 lbs. also sent back on apcount of a similar flaw in a similar part. and the strain of driving it ' through a hole of smaller diameter than itself" * Jour.f following defect mentioned by Captain Fish. consequently the joints open . Commander Scott said — " The coils of which the gun is made. so as to resemble the effect of In this trial the 12-pounder was broken to pieces sufiicient to disable it .. Royal U. * * * It will thus lbs. ceedingly strong to resist direct internal pressure. per inch. is damage from the blows of shot or flying pieces of armor. which must lead early to the disintegration of the gun. and also at a 9-pounder brass gun. j Jour. which takes must be thrown in turn on these separate parts. Anderson says :* "With iron of the very best quality which we have as yet been able to obtain. often the coils are also liable to separate. the highest per square inch. 1861. though ex. and in another gun. * * * The separation of coils has frequently happened in proof with both 40 and 100-pounders." 4S1. it were impossible they should be close joints indicate the the overlapping pieces at the knowledge of is fired. serious. Jour. The coils are shrunk on hot the metal of course con. perhaps. at a rifled 12-pounder coiled gun. Royal U. but not very likely to occur in case of guns wholly inclosed in turrets or easeevery time the gun mates. All these are points of weakness. coil in the circumferential be seen that the ultimate strength of a direction. Dec. The bourne. blow being alone : while the tution. Another possible disaster. owing to the continuity being broken. it is is about 55000 lbs." is 4^0." says Commander Scott. and also took place with one 120pounder shunt. Mr. lbs.." in 3 rounds. 1862. Service Inst.:]: " in the experiment of firing with a 9-pounder smooth-bore brass field-piece. June. each The much reduced. badly cracked in the inner tube of the breech.. and may be expected to happen on service from the concussion and friction resulting from the jar before the leaded shot starts. and the whole of the great vibration place.. It was also equally apparent in the 12-pounder which failed and became wholly disabled in ordinary practice at Shoeburyness. " This was shown. tracts in every direction. Royal U.380 As to the welds. and not distributed. Ordnance. . while in that of its length only 32 140 " per inch. 1862. Service Inst. this defect.

The success of the system certainly depends upon the and its development from the beginning . but that he had been devising arrangements "to make men into giants. and getting fect them absolutely others. come were numerous and formidable. involved so much costly experiment. but at a very considerable expense. . per- when made . the adjustment of the hoops to give the necessary initial tension. case. and remained serviceable for discharging grape. 381 of shots on one side. that access to the Government purse was an important. evidently expects great results —the Armstrong gun would probably have been far more formidable. With reference to the necessity of employing this system for very large guns. The difficulties to be overThe proper joining of the rings at their ends. fact. or two * * * You want an arralngement that would enable a man to manipulate those great things readily without going near them. that " building the gun up with portions of the iron one above the other. on a bad system of loading. after receiving the same Iron. still number sustained a similar discharge against the other." appeared to be " the only ready way of constructing enormous guns. Anderson. He said that the great difficulty of manufac- ture was in handling such enormous masses.Wrought 9-pounder. if not an essential condition. and the general elasticity of the whole structure under fire. If the still larger sums which have been expended low steel." and that upon consultation with he had determined that 24-iuch guns could be made. the gun fire its could have continued to usual ammunition . of the final production of the present Arm- strong gun. before the Defence Com- mission in 1862. In but for one blow on the thinnest part of the chase. and an unnecessary system of breechto the adaptation of all his had been devoted which Mr. Mr. the brass gun could have been made as serviceable as ever in a couple of hours. has been chiefly a matter of money. the proportioning of the breech-piece to the requisite longitudinal strength. and while the broken breech-loader would have perhaps not been worth removal from the field of battle." 4S3." use of costly machinery 4:S3. Anderson said. round balls. or 6-lb. rifling. as it were. with from preferences for iron.

because it allows them to move among themselves. When so brought together. —The hardest ancj toughest wrought iron such as that used by Captain Parrott for reinforcing cast-iron guns —may indeed be indented and stretched by the heaviest charges but its chief defect. and a further allowance is made. especially in large forgings is for actual seams or flaws. It has long since been proposed to shape the parts so that the centre or one edge will be first joined. or may is. cast steel. adhesion of necessarily small pieces (415). To remedy this defect.— . may be welded at a melting heat but although wrought . "Welding. be artificially supplied. although in the general practice. when welded into masses of sufficient size to is avoid the destructive effects of vibration (335). and held from "When they are violently separated. Hence welds are treated as weak points. They are kept at a certain distance apart by heat. and by slight pressure when only a softening heat is attained. is and sometimes more strength. as far as concerned. 454. The risk. hot or cold. Cast iron. it much strength at the as elsewhere. 382 Ordnance. only a convenient means of restoring the distance between the atoms. that too much of it will be enclosed by joining the edges of the iron. in the imperfect Nor is the objection to welds — ^that is to say. when a melting heat is reached. still at this point ^55. Heat is the old antagonism of forces will ensue. 179). and to adjust themselves by gravity. but this already exists in the iron. beyond the range of cohesion. and under the proper pressure. because the iron appears that. they cannot be again perfectly united until they are brought within their original distances from each other. and thus preventing a union at the centre (Fig. iron cannot be melted at a practicable heat. further separation by the attraction of cohesion. and bronze. every iron-worker knows weld that it can be treated so as to have as better worked. iron and iron are brought together at the proper heat. Indeed. A certain amount of cinder cinder is is necessary to the process. there if no physical law against sound welding. the ultimate atoms of matter are not supposed to be in absolute contact with each other. to the uniting of parts that once were separate. thus allowing the superfluous cinder .

in the form of scales. exposing fresh surfaces to oxidation. The next condition that will impair it of a perfect weld is. undoubtedly prevents a perfect The blacksmith joins his two bars . The first few blows of the hammer jar off is this scale. the scales coil (432). Meanwhile. 4:57. hammer upon the outside. he brushes away the scale. which can- not be got at and removed. by bringing the edges together (Fig. it form a pile in the tube several inches in depth. adopted in the welding of the reinforce of first the Parrott gun. a thick scale. that no substance shall be interposed between the parts. if much time is lost. before the seam closed to exclude air. 179). The scales that form on the inside of the tube are jarred off at every stroke of the fresh surfaces to oxidation. in the fire. thus exposing At the end of the process.Wrought to Iron. as the parts are brought together. or as quickly as possible after they are removed or. (Figs. and located on the anvil. up at one edge. But several minutes must elapse before large parts can be brought together. swung round to the hammer. Oxide of iron. by bringing the flatly coils (slightly upset on their edges by the coiling process) is together (Fig. 1'79. and 181. the outflowing cinder might . 181). 383 be squeezed out at one or both edges. By the time this is done. To upset the Armstrong must be taken from the furnace by a crane. 456. 181. which form very rapidly when a heated bar union. This improvement. and then instantly closes up the joint by heavy blows and so makes a good weld. Fig. thick scales are forming in places where they cannot be . 180 Fig. or in the centre. has covered the entire surface to be welded. provision is made to avoid in the Armstrong gun. The rapidity is with which iron at a welding heat of becomes oxydized strikingly illustrated in the operation " patting" the Armstrong tubes after they are welded end to end (8).) Kg. sufiiciently If the surfaces were bevelled so as to close first. which special 180. is exposed to the air. removed..

that is to say. Bridges Adams. Government experiments at Woolwich show the following percentage of strength. of London. considering the crudity of the "Woolwich. The gaseous products of combustion constitute such an atmosphere.* as follows " As regarded the question between built guns and solid forgings. f Patent. at most. and the compression faces are clean is done (not much is required when the sur- and fit well) by hand-hammers or steam-hammers. by Mr. 21. The parts are already in it when raised to the welding heat. avoid the interposition of scale. Dee. Gas-welding was long since proposed by Mr. of The edges to be welded are placed in contact between jets of flame issuing from two furnaces attached to cranes or cars.f machinery and processes employed. the only of oxygen. without any oxidation of the surfaces " internally 459. at the welds between bars having 55500 lbs. W. would enable the manufacturer to pile any mass of iron together in perfect welds. or. As they are. William Bertram. cars that they can be so fixed to the same or other cranes or into instantly brought service. This would appear to explain the reason why Mr. Anderson gets only the highest average tenacity of 32140 lbs. 2G92. one on each side. carry off some of the scale. after which the furnaces are removed. but it was probable that ultimately a mode of welding by jets of intense gas-flame." already quoted. and require only proper contact before they are removed from it. and referred to by him during the discussion on " The Construction of Artillery." Inst. This system has been applied to the construction of steam-boilers with great success. Since oxidation cannot be prevented by any practicable remedy appears to be the exclusion making the weld in an atmosphere which contains no oxygen.: 384 Ordnance. instead of by fur- nace-heat. both cinder and scale must be shut in. . Civil Engineers. but a trace of oxygen. that of the plate being 100 "Construction of Artillery. 1854. to rapidity of operation. 1860. No. 4:58. : the present practical condition of the art of forging made the former mode preferable .

l-in. Alonzo Hitchcock. that Mr. is proposes the system by Fig. Bessemer melts the pig-iron. plate Do. that the superfluous cinder may be (a) are squeezed out. from an atmosphere in which there is very little if any oxygen. steel The gun is formed of rings of wrought iron. its contact with sulphur in a Adequate heat and pressure are the remaining obvious conditions of sound welding. 182. static press (^). rather than to risk cupola. f-in. T^f-in. but. do. the rings (^) are heated to welding in the same time. The anvil (J) is seated on the piston of a hydro- so as to be lowered as the successive rings added. Meanwhile. in a reverberatory furnace. for conversion by his process. Iron Company in in the manufacture of is phur effects coal another cause of imperfect welds. they are laid together and instantly welded by a few strokes of 25 . the principles of sound welding considered above. 385 824- ^^' ^^-- ' " ' joiAt. in the fabrication of large cannon.Wrought Flush Iron. on the contrary. an excessive amount can do no harm. and the hammer drops into from above. by proportioning the heat. to avoid contact with sulphur and other impurities of coal. do 101 Do. as by Ames's process (128). of illustrated New York. 460. and upset or butted together. The ring to form the muzzle of the gim is laid upon the movable anvil and projected the flame to raise it sufficiently into the furnace to allow to the welding heat. Hitchcock's System. . do. (/") is situated between the anvil and the it steam-hammer and so arranged that the rings project into it from below. do 105'7 Bertram's process is successfully employed by the Butterly heavy beams. The sulThe bad of this mineral are so . in another part of the furnace. by means of dampers. Mr. its The iron heated in a reverberatory furnace. to Without removing the parts the relative bulks of the two parts. improves the iron. Although little pressure may be required. — ^To carry out. The furnace (A). or low made without welds (68).formidable. The rings are so formed as to be united first in the centre (455).

. Hitchcock's system of forging cannon.386 Ordnance. Fig. 182.

it is because the mass of the gun below cold. Tlie blows 46 1 that. Although the gun may be of any size. since an accurate fit is not important. by some burned before the larger mass heated to welding. or may be actually. screw would answer the purpose. the screw might be employed simply to elevate and depress the anvil —the force of the blow being received by blocks of varying ness. It would appear that all the conditions of sound welding may thus will be be attained. and would not be liable to derangement. is not Certainly the heat in what are substantially. Besides. no fear of injuring other parts by setting it up soundly.Wbought the steam-hammer. exactly the requisite pressure for that joint can be applied. 183) have to weld a great number of joints those next the anvil and those from bad fitting. can be regulated with the utmost nicety. upon the end of the Armstrong . 387 of another ring. set is . Or. Ibon. The that the pressure of a hammer of moderate weight will be adequate. coil (Fig. iron. and forms a rigid — practically a continuation of the anvil. Locating an anvil upon water is simply a question of the strength of what holds the water. is And when and there pillar is the whole operation of upsetting confined to one joint. that the single ring is The objection well founded. the parts actually united at one operation may be made so light by reducing their thickness.workers. . and the ad- A justment does not take place at the instant of the blow. which Fig. bo restored to the cylindrical shape by " patting" (8). a long column softoried by heat. 183. at a considerable Even these are bulged. To avoid to destroy- ing the tubes in this way. require the most pressure. 463. and the anvil is then lowered by the thickness same process is repeated. placed thick- between the anvil and its bed. two different furnaces. made which have be joined by a subsequent process. raised if the process can be practically carried out. the mass is already hot before the ring to be added to it is put into the flame. and have to cost. are bulged and disfigured. they are in short lengths. are not always up until other parts of the tube.

Hitchcock's process was intended especially for fabri- cating guns of low steel —the rings be made without welds. This treatment would develop an endless grain in the rings. Bessemer has patented* a low steel — flattening masses into large washers. to a larger being originally cast in the form of small thick rings. by Mr. The do not appear to be serious and a considerable of sound work. —^By high * Jan. and then boring or punching them. thus avoiding the embarrassments of Armstrong's present process. Mr. and then opening out the plan of making hoops Mr. slotting between these holes. 184). very short Armstrong . and then rolled. the furnace may be little larger than that employed for gas-welding the Armstrong tubes to (8). — ^ Rings (tires) are made without sides. welds. be formed into rings without seams Ames's process (128) flattening a mass by under the hammer. High and Low Steel. by boring holes in the ends of a bar (Fig. coils Again. . by machine.. and then punching or boring a hole in it. „ . could be rolled in the tire-machine so as to develop an endless circular grain. of being drawn into Or Mr. "Wrought iron may parallel to the bore. 464. to would be upset into lammse instead fibres. mechanical difficulties 463. Ames's rings thod of mar rings. cost of apparatus is warranted by the certainty The expense of dressing the ends of short tubes by the Armstrong process. and the grain would run both radially and circumferentially say. 388 Ordnance. T^ia 1 R4- The material thus that is treated would be very sound. 1861. in the direction of the circumference (68). 26. Steel. is dispensed with. Section IV. Krupp. and a consequently low 466. could be welded together by Hitchcock's pro- cess. the crystals . in a modification of the tire-rolling diameter and a smaller section. 463. and of making colossal furnaces and hammers to heat and condense a 30 or 40-ton forging to the core. steel is meant that which contains a large amount of carbon. Indeed.

" and "homogeneous iron. It will harden when heated and immersed in water it is witli difficulty welded. although has much greater hardness and ultimate tenacity. greater elasticity. for nearly purposes. Its other important advantages for cannon are. Elasticity and Ductility. and a lower range of ductility. hardness. is. however. manent change of figure but its extensibility beyond the elastic limit is small. and hardness. a more suitable metal for cannon. greater ductility. and it is therefore brittle under concussion. it can be welded without it. this objection. according to present Low steel." " soft steel. metal. also called " mild steel. let us briefiy '" In answering review what has been said under the head of Ductility" (344)." " homogeneous difiiculty. and because its welding heat is so very near its melting point and it is melted at a low temperature as compared with wrought iron. Mr. Hence high steel. especially whicli wrought iron will stand. is jacketed with a less extensible metal this defect is remedied or modified. or if it (320). Suppose two thin tubes . has been condemned as a cannon-metal. tests. complain." contains less carbon. It has less extensibility within the elastic limit than high but greater extensibility beyond it . Sir William Armstrong. . tenacity.Steel. Mallet. that it can be melted at a practicable heat and run into large masses. and others. that most of the steel they have experimented with for guns strains. The grand advantage all of low steel over wrought iron. Mr. Anderson. thus avoiding the serious defect of wrought iron in large masses —want of soundness — and homogeneity. specific gravity. Low steel. in various public statements. steel. but if so large a mass is is used that its elastic limit will never be exceeded. and capability of extension without per. Its obvious defect for guns is its brittleness . its proportion of carbon. Its distinguishing properties are 389 extreme ulti- mate tenacity. and has a higher specific gravity. because it deteriorates under high heat. is 467. too brittle —that it gives way under sudden steel. that is to say. . although overheating deteriorates and it more nearly resembles it wrought iron depending on in all its properties.

it overcome. is steel to be increased for instance —will Its never overcome its elastic limit. until it at last arrives at a point where its it can stretch no further without tility. It has exhauated reserved ducat all If it were not iron this. for the highest possible pressure of powder). in order to bear the same pressure (and the demand elastic limit.390 of equal size. to a great extent. and there . because the " ticity is less work done" to raise it to its limit of elasits than that required to raise steel to limit of elas- ticity (349. stretches for a long time without fracture. its ability to stretch but although it may pres- renewed application of the and its range of elasticity are constantly diminishing. and soon breaks. made This explains the failure. 353)- 468. to The straina^of gunpowder. The elastic limit of the wrought-iron tube it is overcome much and so sooner. equally increased in quantity. and the attraction of cohesion. for particles continued cohesion. stretches and Ifow suppose the quantity just so much that the pressure —thickness of —proof charges. iron. while thin . so. original resistance to the next strain is then unimpaired. to eke out integrity. no evidence that it will ever simply the antagonism between two become impaired for elasticity is tireless and changeless forces is —repulsion by But heat. Its great ductility allows this . the iron quantity. be subjected to the violent and sadden elastic limit of the steel is it and the other of wrought iron. but it has an immense capital of ductility to expend. Ordnance. because its has but a small reserve of ductility to draw upon. still a substitution of a to strong iron for much weak must be In order greater in endure as long as the steel. 352. rearrangement to continue for some time stretch to a less distance at each sure. after short service. the iron. one of high steel. iron may sustain is more than the same area of the constantly diminishing. that is to say. will stretch beyond its and therefore must and a new limit of depend upon a new arrangement of elasticity. In addition to although a given area of stretched original metal. so that its particles will return to their original position after the pressure ceases. little the total area It is. would never be broken by stretching. fracture. of thin tubes of the moderately high steel heretofore used.

"Were this done. appears have arisen from the that of iron. Mallet (Pig. 160). to extreme charges of powder. * It is to be regretted that Mr. it. practically. iron tubes appear to be unimpaired 391 by elongation. could also be made to have a great range of ductility beyond most perfect cannon-metal would be obtained.) Low steel. (Table 69.* the lower have a considerable degree of extensibility before fracture. elastic range. The for serious mistake in the use of the steel heretofore obtained. to show where the we elasticity ends and the ductility begins. or resistance to extension. neglect of the whole subject of the elastic and the ductile limits. tlie one property increases. within the limits of safety. (Table ^^\ and so much tenacity that the work done in stretch- ing them to rupture actually exceeds that required to rupture the best wrought iron. Kirkaldy. several of the best specimens of both iron and this regard. as far as ductility ia concerned. It is simply a question of excess of metal and. as the safest and But unfortunately. the amounts of metal being the same in each case. As a compromise between : high steel and wrought has this advantage that a small increase of weight of ma- terial will bear a considerable increase of pressure. both the iron and the steel would show much more work done before rupture. But steels according to Mr. Kirkaldy's experiments. In the table. . would stand more pressure than iron within the would stand sudden strains longer and than high it steel but its elastic limit once exceeded. endless endurance. are compared in of the steel not specially treated. Because the ultimate strength of steel was higher than the quantity of the material has been proportionately reduced. is The average higher than that of the iron. 469. would fail sooner than wrought iron. on the one hand. so that cannot form a diagram like that given by Mr. effort of any metal requiring the highest attainable it force in motion to stretch within its elastic limit. it iron. .Steel. and ultimate failure on the other hand. The result would probably be slightly favorable to the iron. from any cause. steel mentioned by Mr. Eirkaldy has not given the limit of elasticity. although they certainly are impaired from another cause —compression. the other decreases. when its quantity should have been proportioned to the its work done in overcoming If steel.

86166 _ 7056 . Tool Highly heated and cooled in oil . Bradley. do. 125978 " Shortridge & Howell's Ho.. Do.. LXVI.. Condition and Treatment. rupture a bar 1 foot long and 1 in. . 18 J 1 12750 10147 - Cooled in ashes Cooled slowly . is greatly in its favor... cooled slowly Soft Plates. qualities of steel which are under 40000 lbs. Work done ed to in lbs. lift- Names of Makers or "Works. Do.. they continually more and more by the increase of pressure.Highly heated. cooled in "1 tallow do. square. as tested bt Kirkaldy. Lowmoor Farnley . Anderson concludes.. 1964 79937 7850 J 470. 1862.07 1217II 4260 6298 9038 do. .. Bar. do...—The "Work done" in Stretching to Rupture. several op the Best Specimens op Iron and Steel. Low heat. Royal U. . . Turton's... 1 foot in stretching Ext'n Strain. Service Institution. Aug. the same remark applies to most of the good . 1571 58534 4098 Cast Stebl. Breaking. .249 •16+5 60364 62544 55546 7315 5'44 3830 Average Govan . and the structure of the steel shows a wonderful adaptation for keeping together without cracking at the edges^ unlike almost any of the other descriptions of material.— 392 Table ORDNANCE... as experiments upon Krupp's follows :* " This material'is so soft as to admit of being flattened down to any extent yield . indeed. Mr.. soft mogeneous Metal Krupp's Bolt Steel .. from steel. both for guns and armor-plates and if it could be made to resist * Jour.1673 94838 7933 Moss & Gamble.033 215400 3554 Jowitt's do..} . Plate. This property .1379 • 5076 .

and miitilate iron plates. It is known." 4:7 1 . indent. because it is resist indentation. 473. Tlie pressure in a cannon is not exerted upon one point. relation of tenacity same mens tested Third. however. Mr.— Steel. Mallet. the rendered more liable to be thrown The iron. that the Bessemer and other plates tried. Kirkaldy. So that the rule of " work done" is equally applicable to steel and to iron. do not and that " work done. Second. but over the whole inner surface of a cylinder.. Mallet. not to speak of the greater resistance to that extension. But does not prove a difference in the work is done. be said that steel armor-plates practically resist shot as well as iron armor-plates. much off. on the contrary. not hard enough to nor tenacious enough to overcome the inertia of the surrounding metal. much more at the point struck. 393 it a sudden shock as well as it does the effect of mere pressure. however. because it is armor-plate. but Table 68 shows them to have much less ductility than iron. Fourth. considered as an greater. Steel plates are cerTo which it may be answered : tainly cracked and fractured this for some distance around the point of impact. considered as an armor-plate. The tenacity of the steel inertia of the sufficient to distribute the blow hard- — to overcome the surrounding parts —and its ness prevents The iron yields very much expenditure of power in local indentation. It will. if it is not actually punched.* gives " Tr. There is no evidence that the armor-plates tried had the and ductility as the steel and iron speciby Mr. The damage is to the steel. by shot that only locally bulge. elastic gas. First. * " in one of his tables. On the Construction of Artillery." as computed in this table. and in the tables of Mr. is not a correct measure of the effect of a sudden hlow (346). The blow of a cannon-shot is obviously very differentt from the blow of a perfectly Fifth. value for Table on page 79. were not sufficiently worked. is not materially injured. The actual extension of some of the steel specimens was greater than that of some of the iron specimens. TheMersey puddled steel plates failed." . lighter than air. would be exceedingly valuable.

it was " twisted cold show a single flaw after a ribbon. that the specimens are correctly described. he does not believe that the excellence of the steel is overstated by the editor of the . however.394 Ordnance. especially — Elasticity is an indispensable quality in is when the inner barrel of cast iron or a slightly ductile metal. and the other | in. without showing the smallest indication of * * * There are also some extraordinary examples fracture. is Go's. the able engineer of the railway works at Crewe." The same some authority says of other specimens rails. Victers & steel as compared with high ductility of the steel. The extreme Bessemer low steel various specimens in the Great Exhibition of 1862. while the central portion of the bar preserves original length of 1 foot. of the toughness of the Bessemer steel. The author ia aware. Bessemer's works in Sheffield." at 103-500. length of surface. and for " wr ought-iron bar (maximum ductility)." at The low ductility of Messrs. had this piece taken up while covered with sharp frost and placed under the large steam-hammer. Mr. although he did not see them put into these shapes. made from British coke vessels of 1 sides. From tests that he has seen and made. when it stood the blows necessary to double both ends together. Steel Hoops. soft. Kamsbottom. square bar has been so twisted. that angles have approached within less than half an inch of each other. lioops. so that what was originally 1 ft. and of shown by Tables 68 and 69. pig-iron. * f If hoops change their figure permanently. among which may be enumerated two deep with flattened bottoms and vertical foot in diameter. At the top edge. at Mr. was shown by The London Engineer* says of one them into a spiral like this severe treatment."f 473. one of them is | in. : " There are also close bends of one of which is deserving special noticfe. from personal inspection and measurement. 96-000. unit of length and section" for "cast-steel (German). and does not —a rail —that ' All idea of the brittleness of steel' van- ishes with the inspection of this example. while hot. steel. their May 2. 1862. in thickness. has still now become 26 its feet. * its * * A 4-in. J^aylor.

out of the whole number. especially in large masses. The present causes these is : of the costliness of steel are principally is Such a high temperature two The subsequent heating of immense ingots (one of Krupp's. greater strength. With the high charges is necessary to punch the best armor. its cost. But tlie substitution of very another important principle. as compared (Table 27. all the way from the puddle-ball to the finished gun.Steel. to the cost of production. Quality. that the pots for very low steel only stand one or meltings. Many of the large this process British establishments have introduced the Bessemer process. especially in England. — numerous strata of impurities and planes of weakness introduced into wrought iron. —others are covered by patents . not to speak of its injurious effects (419. to-day. although the number of operations reduced. this 474. by the present processes of manufacture. Again. —By the present processes. several iron-masters.) with that of wrought Still. likely to fail nent change of figure. Some of the processes are secret difficulty is. The careful preparation and selection of the marequired. . wrought iron in this particular (445). compares favorably. have already been explained (413 to 416). Standard qualities of low bring a price much more dispro- portionate than that of wrought iron. considering Melting the metal expensive. is excepting Bessemer's (486). terial adds considerably to the is cost. in the Great Exhibition. is a very long operation. it iron. but the chief that very few establishments. usefulness is 395 in a great degree destroyed. 160). this country. Its grand defect. size overcomes Cost. have undertaken the manufacture. The whole casting of low steel into masses of any difficulty. is somewhat its increased. Weight. by casting steel in large masses. For a given elongation without permahigh steel requires more " work done" low steel for wrought iron involves The want of homogeneity tlie than any other metal (Fig. was 44 inches in diameter and 8 drawing them under ordinary feet long) requires time and skill hammers. is imperfect welds. the business now monopolized by steel a few manufacturers. is fast The remedy In developing itself. pronounce a . 421).

and. but are indifferently encouraged. The largest cast-steel ingot ever made. and in another 50-ton Staffordshire. steel of Firth. of Sheffield. 396 failure. Krupp lbs. Then. in England. and it is manufacture of cannon Mr. promise further reduction in articles. over of iron in its its more crude forms that the at number and quantity its ingredients are better known each stage of refinement. have recently erected a 40-ton for the hammer and two steel 10-ton Bessemer converting-vessels. for working large masses. to the Great Exhibition of that year. weighed 4500 One of his ingots. The great steel. The its manufacture do not seem be capable of much further development. The processes are certainly dissimilar to find the right . others are doing all they can to develop improvements There will be is (490). Prussia. and even in India — all within three or four years. the growing improvements in treating produced. and of the Bochum Prussian and of JSTaylor. John Brown & Co. Krupp's 40-ton hammer is to be rivalled In some of the larger establishments. means of improving and cheapening to . Belgium. and indicates the steel demand for the rigljt product. & Go's. Bessemer metal. however. and promise the most favorable results. and of the all. wrought iron must be puddled and piled. and propose to stick to puddling and piling. tlie steel. weighed 44800 lbs. Howell. after it is cost of manufactured In an establishment about to be erected in London. coming to 1851. equally good cast steel. this At the same and similar steel time.— about ten times as much. prove that great talent and capital are already concentrated on this subject. is rapidly said that in his own works. no doubt. up was it sent by Mr. Meanwhile. Sweden. for the production of will be used. but that only shows the determination increasing way. It has already been remarked that the advantage of is. into use. increase in the use of Krupp's. above the wonderful success and spread of the Bessemer process. and other English makers.. that within a few years low all produced at a cheap rate Vickers over the world. hydraulic presses are to be substituted for hammers. and other heavy machinery. hammers Messrs. in the Exhi- bition of 1862. France. Ordnance..

its impurities floated to * Journal of the United Service Institution. that in his oil more recent practice at Woolwich. August. and has been brought to the present. Anderson and to the subject to say. if we except is Henry it is Cort. Now that this method of proceeding likely to be superseded. at the could be made as trustworthy same time. for the certain possession of toughness. and. wronght and if. there is no particular want felt for steel to constitute the entire body of the gun.Steel. it could be depended it upon tion. especially coils. as wrought iron is so reliable and the cost moderate. . would be perfec- notwithstanding the cost . 397 : The iron is secret of the whole matter is this The New Treatment of based on chemical laws. from as its soundness in the bore. Anderson remarks all form and trustworthy. due to Mr. persisted in. modified. steel hardened in a has quite superseded wrought iron. 1862. Mr. Indeed. or an old and wrong course has been its There is ing but blundering into truth in the part of whole history. that " such a mass of homogeneous all steel. was a matter The Bessemer process a chemical process —suggested by the study of chemical laws. trial. however. The old is conducted on chemical principles. finding the noth- every course has been taken. liable to be disorganized by accidental and unexpected causes. is and guess-work. and improved. new products are not always uniMr. according to the results of chemical analyses. iron. but the uncertainty of manufac- ture which now exists must first be completely removed before it can be compared with wronght iron as an instrument for fire men to and stand alongside with perfect assurance of safety . Anderson admits in the same lecture. yet. 4:75. " Cast steel is :* the most expensive of if it cannon-metals. right course. process was suggested by accident. and then pursuing it. But said that the we may look for rapid improvement. The old treatment of tradition. as material for the inner barrels of guns." It is. after Instead of first generations of groping in the dark. failure. speaking of the 8-inch Krupp gun tested at after Woolwich (138). which is perhaps the ultimate degree of perfection. and prosecuted. having been cast into an ingot.

there had been some disappointment attending the manufacture of guns of large calibre. the war-steamer. because wrought iron '' fails). until hammers of thirty or forty tons were applied. which had successfully resisted all the proofs to which they had been submitted. Mr. The steam-engine. Mr. Krupp stated that. however. and afterwards properly annealed. at present. or flaws. as non. Bidder. superior to any . the rifled canall had to fight their way into notice and iron-clad But. they are apt to be over-cautious and too easily frightened. He had received a letter from Mr. This. and the remedy specified (467 and 468). to his own peculiar mode of construction. as the resulls of his experience with 12-pounder guns. of homogeneous iron." . and the same attention had been bestowed upon that metal. by old practition- ers. they would be justified in saying that liomogeneous iron had ever yet had a fair trial and had been found wanting. in the Institution of Civil Engineers. stating. accompanied by a communication from Colonel Petiet. .. of the Artillery Commission of France. under Sir William Armstrong's superintendence." not give way under long-continued The failure of steel. they were not justified in rejecting homogeneous iron for guns. . . president. in this country. has already been accounted Other authorities* do for. in regard to entire freedom from specks. There could be no doubt that. was not suitable for the purpose and. coiled or forged fine and some remarkably steel linings. Such a combiis nation gives the perfect bore and the strong gun. they had made guns of 8-inchea bore. of Essen. a rule. on "Tlie National Defences. in Prussia. new things will be avoided as long as possible. after Sir William Armstrong pretty freely against steel (which is now adopted in all and others had talked the new Armstrong guns for inner lubes. the adoption. to give the requisite strength to the steel lining. might be fairly attributed to the mode of manufacture. but there yet sufficient experience to enable steel will not me to assert positively. then well worked under the hammer. The machinery for working the iron in the large masses necessary for guns. it would not be fair to pronounce the condemnation of homogeneous iron as a material for artillery indeed. *In tie discussion before referred to. not entertain so high an opinion of the trustworthiness of wrought iron as not to particularly want something better. that the firing. constructed of homogeneous iron. even when men are willing to adopt an improve- — ment. wronght-iron structure.: 398 Ordnance." 1861. Krupp. seams. as had been given. has a degree of perfection in the bore. that they had been completely successful. The president could not concur in that view he did not think that. as used in guns. guns have been constructed with such having the main structure of the gun built up with wrought-iron hoops. until the same experience had been gained. tke surface. Of course. said Sir William had expressed an entire want of confidence in homogeneous iron.

of the highest quality. was found by Mr. the low Steehgth. to have a tenacity of 215400 477. The 117212 at strength of Krupp's steel. That of the highest Bessemer about 90000 tool-steel is (remelted in crucibles and drawn under the hammer) lbs. 107516 it is to In Mr. Kirkaldy's summary of results for the lower steels will be found in Table 67. as some authorities seriously do. steel. adapted to gun-making. (cypress) to 23000 (lancewood). a perfect. supposed to be uni- less so than certain qualities of wrought iron. traditions and expedients. is The lbs. according to the report of the is Prussian Minister of War. in trying to more out of wrought cause of complaint. hardened in lbs. form. lbs. Comings & Winslow's' (American) puddled steel. is would be to condemn timber. (See Tables 67. iron than there there would be its Besides. however well founded principles may be. liable at any time to acci- dental confusion —are certain to lead also to uniformity in the . strength of the lowest and softest Bessemer steel 72000 per square inch. because it ranges all the way from 6000 lbs. Krupp's gun-circular (134 note). If they •would devote the 399 in trying to perfect same energy they and develop get less steel. tensile strength.. that now expended is in it. for instance. and 50 per cent. fairly urged against when certain qualities. absurd as — ceeding in accordance with chemical laws. to it condemn all steel. oil. as quoted by Mallet. taken 120000 lbs. result cannot be at once expected from a new manufacture. Kirkaldy is. But. 170000 That of the average metal is lbs. averages about 90000 lbs. 68. and steel. High steel. 69). —Want of uniformity in one sense.Steel. The strength of lbs. at "Woolwich are said to have endured 68314 to 73166 Messrs. Plates tested lbs. 476. more than that of the best wrought iron. tensile strength. averages about 90000 or three times that of cast gim-iron. tensile The causes of improvement already considered prostrength. instead of groping among product. because to ranges as the way from 50000 it 200000 lbs. are UNiFOEMriY.

*s Homogeneous Metal ditto 99570 947S» 90647 84794 67065 89724 71486 70168 6525s Mersey Co. Kirkaldy. 42564 4593' ditto 62769 Shortridge & Co. Shape. —What has been —The we have said." 1862.'s ditto ditto i -1% 76772 -IS Morse Mersey Ditto Ditto & Gambles's and 67977 7SS94 101450 102593 Co. Kirkaldy's late experiments. LXTIL —Tensile Stebngth op Low Steel. Rolled. Rolled. Temper.400 Table Ordnance.*s Cast Steel 85650 108900 87972 81588 96280 81719 Naylor. Highest Mean. thick. 479.*s Puddled Steel ditto Forged. Krupp's Steel Shortridge Ditto for Bolts Rolled. or Works. Breaking weight per square inch of original area. specific gravity of steel has been found to affect the qualities considered — tenacity. elasticity.*s ditto Puddled 92676 i i 95946 67184 108906 106110 86908 Hard Mild ditto 77046 But. according to Mr. Plates Lengthwise.* steel compares very favorably with iron. of Mr. 86054 82218 96208 92015 & Co. Kjeealdt. Forged. and of ultimate elongation. Bars. under wrought iron (409). 75304 57114 71501 70341 Blochairn Ditto Ditto 55006 ditto Forged. as to uniformity of strength. * "Experiments on Wrought Iron and Steel. applies also to steel. Vickers & Co. In. of 478. . Names of the Makers. The table (68) is compiled from the tables this head. Forged.

round. Vickers & Co.64 17-32 19-82 Turton's Cast Steel.. Lowest Iron Bass. Plate and [44561 32528 20.5 Rolled I round. Moss & Gamble's Cast Do. Highest. or Works. Steel.'s Homo- Do. Lowest. Do.. Bradley & Co. Metal. Rolled f to [•59820 i^in. 86908 Blochairn ditto 106394 ..'s Cast Steel. Description. Shortridge.Steel. 53266 23-8 '7 Farmley 62544 62429 5 '54' 145 II -I Dundyvan (Common). 45611 Armor- Heavy Forgings Stekl. Names of the Makers. 108906 106110 92676 95946 67184 933*7 "Hard".2 24. Plates |7S"4 4593' "•3 *9. 108900 85650 8-93 Ditto ditto Highly heat' ed and cooled slowly [•82166 Mersey Puddled (Ship Ditto Plates). Turton's and Jowitt's Cast Steel 1 for Tools J Bars 148229 112224 Krupp's Steel for Bolts. round.. / Rolled 99570 and 82218 forged bars. 54S7S Govan Ex.0 I [63604 30.. geneous Howell & Metal Co. Ditto "Mild". I95360 87972 81588 92858 81588 67977 Naylor. Low Moor. Bowling Rolled 1 in. in. (lengthwise). Highest.9 20. [-61635 58228 24.... Best. square. Do. Rolled I in and ^ in. Bars. 401 —The Unipobmitt and BxiEirsiBiLiTr op 'Wbought Ieon and Steel Coufabed.. 65701 58687 26. Plates (lengthwise). J. Bars..4 J..5 crank shaft.. Do. B. Table LXVIII. Breaking weight per square inch of original Percentage of Elongation before fracture. and *1 Howeirs Homogeneous Blochalrn Puddled.

or other parts thereof. compiled from Mr. gation within the elastic limit. Yickers & Co. Sheffield).. has been de- Elswicli: The following is the provisional specification of Mr. because rupture is this tenacity. Table 70. Low steel Decreasing specific gravity increases tenacity. The soft. the " work done" in overcoming than for the same steel cooled slowly. as having the effect of reducing the volume venient furnace. or the liquid may be cooled by any other suitable arrangement but any arrangement for cooling is not essential to the process of strengthening. and had The high. which sufficiently describes the "I. 5. —very materially. 1863. of liquid necessary for cooling large masses of metaL" . which stood 17 blows of the drop. 3d. . and 5th propositions. shows the remarkable gain in ultimate tenacity cific by decreasing the oil. as follows 1. in -the County of Nor- thumberland. dated November 13th. which is raised in the act of cooling the cannon or parts thereof. or the Barrels. in which pipes a current of cold water circulates.' to he as follows "I bring the cannon or parts of cannon to a suitable heat in an oven. and bent only 6i| inches. and I then plunge . Vickers (of Naylor. Rendel (one of the Ordnance Co. do hereby declare the nature of the said invention for ' An Improved Method of Strengthening and Hardening Cannon made wholly or partially of Carbonized Iron or Steel. which stood a specific gravity of 7'871. mild steel (Table 69). Kirkaldy's experiments. The 1st. High steel has a low specific gravity. E. as practised at 'Woolwich. gation between the limit of elasticity and the point of rupture. and bent 58i| inches. I pour the liquid over them and to keep down the temperature of the liquid. but 10 blows. endured but 30| tons tensile puU. is less elongation before so much less. Decreasing specific gravity increases the capability of elonDecreasing specific gravity diminishes the capability of elon- 4. I employ pipes winding through the liquid. T. generally.: : : 402 and ductility Oednance. 3. are proved by the experiments of Mr. has a high specific gravity. 2. or any conthem into a bath of oil or other liquid or instead of plunging the cannon or parts of cannon. very simple process Geoese WiSHTWiOE Eendel.). George W. It may be stated. being only a matter of convenience. and had a specific gravity of 7'823. * The process of hardening steel in scribed (35). Civil Engineer. endured 69 tons tensile pull. 2d. oil.* spe- gravity of steel in another way —hardening in its At the same time. Nowcastle-on-Tyne. hard steel.

Esq. 12f. 1^. and 36 feet. Vickers. Showing that Decreas1n8 the Specific Gravitt of Steel mCEEASEB ITS ULTIMATE TENACITY. {Compiled from the — Experimenis of T. The material subjected to tensile test was a bar 14 in. 5. 20. 403 Iaslb LXIX. in the form of —The 1^ in. long and Note. diameter. 25. and 36 feet at the remaining blows. 4. falling 1. . E.. 2. m diameter Specific Gravity. 3.Steel. was laid on bearings 3 feet apart. and subjected to the blows of a drop weighing ISi? lbs. 15. AND DIMENISHES ITS DUCTILITY. 10. 80. up to the 13th blow. material.) an axle of 3f| in.

.404 Ordnance.

Table LXXI. 405 —Hardness Major Wade. of Cannon-Metals. —1856.Steel. Metal .

iron. the grand defect of wrought iron — want of is Construction of Ordnance.— 406 ' Ordnance. hand. On the other make equally strong guns by reinforcing steel tubes with steel in a cheaper form. and when brought to a heat sufficient to expand the crystals in the mass.. would obviously be destroyed by the annealing process. by icasting the gun hollow and cooling it from within. the block of steel. " Improvements in the * Extracts from T. "When bored out. I first roU. Naylor. product made in the puddling-furnace. and which possesses a sufficiently low gun shall temperature to cool the metal. Initial tension obtained and promises the best results. 1862 * * * The object of my invention is to cool the block • of metal in such a manner as to cause that portion of the inside of the bore to contract to cool first. however. Blakely. now practised. than they gain in resistance to internal pressure. Sheffield) is about to That of Mr.) aietl»ocl§ is steel gun. . or forging the same. &c. to consist. Ticker's Patent of Dec. Vickers* be tried. as in boring. "In carrying out my mvention. guns that have been cast of steel in a mould made of fire-proof material. Puddled Steel. metal gun-blocks. but employ other fluids or air. Whitworth. I introduce into the hollow portion of the the' gun a stream or jet of water. There are also various schemes a solid initial for putting the layers. or of reheating and cooling from the inside. * * » " The essential feature of novelty in the present invention. to about the required size for the calibre of the piece. Anderson. into the required state of (Messrs. or other metal or alloy. which is continued until have cooled dawn entirely. of the required form. As by a modification of — the puddling process solid masses are aggregated only by piling and welding. B. iron. "I also subject to the above process Of reheating and cooling from the centre. guu-blooks that have been made with a hollow core. 11. this of producing and as large Steel. which should always follow the casting or forging of a (See Table 70. hammer. Thomas E. in any convenient manner. or otherwise form a solid block of steel or iron. is to be subjected to heat in a reheating or annealmg furnace. its section which nearest to the other portions of the section being allowed upon it in the order of their respective distances from the axis of the piece. 483. on Cap- tain Rodman's plan. and while the block of metal is stUl in the furnace. rolling. consists made either by casting. or other suitable metal or alloy. and with a hollow core. or any material which is capable of being passed through the bore of the gun.. in contradistinction to that of cooling molten metal from the inside of the block. and I then bore out the soUd block of steel. Yickers & Co. I do not. or other suitable metal or alloy." . of which gun may be supposed strain or elasticity. or with a cheaper material than steel. confine myself to the use of water alone. reheating from the inside.

for iron ma- king is employed. a homogeneity material — is not avoided. are differently used by different manufacturers. N. Now. In changing from . the pig-metal passes through the state of steel —that is to say. 484. 1862. of metal. for guns and large masses. cannot be melted at a practicable heat. 407 however. the low cast steels. In small masses..Steel. It is. Usually. in a puddling-furnaee. lbs.) The process of making puddled steel may be described. of carbon. Low Crucible Steel oe Homogeneous Metal.* general features. especially in But it has considerably less ductility than its lower or mild form. T.f * The latter thing that went by the \ name was firat introduced because consumers did not name of steel. believe in any London Engineer. Several modifications in furnaces and processes have been patented. of a very uniform quality. much stronger than wrought iron. a higher heat than that necessary. (Table 68. Comings & "Winslow. the process of as that is —In its making low cast steel is the same employed for making ordinary indicates. Troy. and at the Mersey Iron Works. iron is The wrought The great broken into small pieces and put in the pots along with 5 oz. as follows: Cast iron contains from 3 to 5 per cent. it is now produced by lbs. the best iron averag- ing about 60000 Messrs. especially manganese. in what is termed a boiling-furnace. The tensile strength of the best averages about 90000 per square inch. of carbon while wrought iron contains but a trace. Liverpool. The chief object to obtain. or 6 oz. of charcoal to every 40 lbs. making puddled steel is simply stopping common puddling process just at the moment when the is decarbonizing mass under treatment in the state of steel. in a general way. cast steel. which has but a trace of carbon. May 2. which can only be done by casting Since wrought iron. it is steel before it is wrought the iron. ordinary steel contains from J to 1 per cent. a it. just enough carbon is introduced to render it fluid under the highest tempera- ture that the crucibles will stand for one melting. . Various fluxes. cast to wrought iron. as the name homogeneous iron.

skill. and heavy hammers are features of obvious importance. Krupp. to condense them to the core. The treatment of the solid and hollow ingots has already been described (62.408 secret of the Ordnance. that the manganesian iron (Spiegeleisen) of the country. the metal can never be very invention. Four hundred clay are required to crucibles. Kktjpp's Steel. and pieces of similar fracture are selected for melting. Record of the Great Exhibition. Bessemer's will would indicate that the process be gradually changed. success of the manufacture. . resembling the Franklinite of N'ew Jersey. sufficient Large castings are made by emptying a then tapped from the bottom. would hardly be necessary. now erecting. may be traced. to a great extent. how- cheaply produced. the So long ever. are produced by Messrs. of 50- an immense ladle placed over the mould the ladle The largest (7 tons) and best castings made in England by this process. 4:8S. they will be able to cast ingots of 15 tons weight. 69). especially under the skilful treatment of Mr. broken up instead of puddled Considering the character of the Bessemer metal as produced.* introduced the Bessemer process —but to Mr. 68. and particuthis process It is known larly in heating such masses to the centre without burning them on the outside. to this and the proper use of manganese. Naylor. make a 20-ton casting. as crucibles are employed. and in the pouring of sound Ib. holding 100 Prussian pounds each. * Praotioal Mechanics' Journal. manufacture is in the selection and mixture of irons. These ingots will be worked by hydraulic presses as well as by hammers. Vickers & Co. In their new works. — It is understood that a superior quality of puddled steel is broken up. crucibles into is ingots. Krupp has recently what extent the Bessemer It has been steel for remeltit is first metal is used for guns. suggested that ing. This celebrated material is also produced by a modification of the ordinary process of making cast steel. Great skill in melting and pouring the metal. number . is of especial value. it is is not known to the public. Indeed. The adoption of Mr.

" In the bottom of the vessel are about 50 small * The following account of the Bessemer process is taken from the Practical Mechanics' Journal. without being turned. An ingot 8 ft. made of plate-iron. fracture. in masses of any size. weighing 15j tons (34720 . fine-grained. A similar kind of steel is made at the some of them. long and 44 in. weighing. weighing only 800 lbs. from the ore or from the large 486. about 11 feet high and 7 feet in diameter. 30 wide and 17 in. long and weighing about was forged down at one end. A forging of 15 tons weight.* —The great value of the Bessemer that it produces steel direct pig-iron. forged from a single ft. finished. lbs.) .) was cut around in the middle and broken under the 40-ton hammer. in diameter. in diameter. The " It is converting-vessel" (Fig. in Prussia. presenting just as it was cast.). without hammering. without seams or cracks. homogeneous 8 tons. long and 15 in. Bessemer process is. and broken longitudinally to show the fracture of the east and the hammered metal.. show its quality. in.: Steel. is when enough to con- vert 5 tons at a heat. Record of the Great Exhibition of 1862. over its It had worn down about i in. weighing 20 tons (44800 lbs. and lined with a silicious stone called^ "ganister.. 409 Among the specimens of Krupp's steel in the Exhibition of 1862. 24 lbs. at about the cost of wrought iron. forged from a 25-ton a double-crank propeller-shaft. . Bochum works. equallj' whole circumference. tires of this It is proper to mention here. . The extent to which Mr. in diameter. 18000 lbs. 185). an area of above 1500 square inches of uniform. and the severe have already been mentioned (135). ft. Krupp's tests of cannon have been employed. thick. A square ingot 8 was broken at four places to ft. ingot gun. ingot weighing 50000 a crank-shaft 15 lbs.. weighing 11 tons (24640 and a screw propeller 9 ft. were the following A 9-in. long and 24 in. that above 40000 railway material were at that time in of service all over the world. in diameter. Some them have run above 90000 miles without requiring to be turned One of the engine tires exhibited had run 67000 miles on the Eastern Counties Kailway. Steel.

required decarbonization being determined by the time of tion. are not connected with smelting so furnaces pig-iron is that melted for conversion in a reverbera^ tory furnace. Most of the establishments where Fia.. As this burns away. In Sweden. this process is employed. coal. it is usually continued until from the sudden dropping of the flame. is heated. . forming is silicic acid. which is and turned round upon the hydraulic cylinder P. the melted iron is let into and the blast turned on at a pressure of in. on the lever H. producing a series of harmless explosions. tuyeres. and at some is of the British establishments. to avoid contact with any sulphur there may The must be in the Front of Bessemer converting-vessel. first about 14 lbs. through the trunnions. the iron after is known to be quite decarbonized which a small amount of pig-iron of known qualityj already melted in another compartment of the reverberatory furnace. instead of a cupola. The oxygen thus forced unites with the silicium in the iron. lowered. until the mass rises in a frothy state. and the heat increased. 186. G (Fig. the whole process lasting from 15 to 20 minutes. 186). communicating. is put into the converting-vessel. the oxygen begins to unite with the carbon in the iron. In Sheffield. is The vessel then turned on its run out into the ladle elevated. After the converting-vessel it. 410 Ordnance. which soon increases the heat and rate of combustion air. presenting a great surface to the contact of the then the combustion becomes excessively intense. iron orio-inally be as free as possible from sulphur and especially from phosphorus. the process stopped here its —the dura. per square inch. is In a few seconds more the blast trunnions so that the metal will shut ofi". with a blower. and throws out liquid slag and a column of white flame.

although the value. a double-headed rail. verting-vessels are thus emptied into one mould. under this treatment. is said After the ingots are heated of Plan some 15 minutes. the Bessemer converting apparatus. The whole burned of it. 487.ounder cannon . but is not absolutely lost. to show that the metal was perfectly solid. inside still being pasty. To PiO. the specimens of Bessemer metal in the Exhi- were a octagonal ingot broken at one end and turned at the other end. several con- are filled. to soften the outside. of the silicium is not out. some of the iron also unites with it. important i'eature —and much fuel saved.. P. silicium are all steelj to While the carbon and uniting with the oxygen. was the 6410th " direct steel" ingot made works of Messrs. product is of little In working English iron in small quantities. Some 5 to 6 ounces per ton. the it respective cast-iron moulds (K) ranged around ingot. with the purer Swedish irons. crank-shaft. from 14 to 18 per is cent. they are hammered into cannon or other shapes. The turned end looked weighing 3136 at the lbs. Among bition of 1862. a 24-pounder and a 32-p. 40 feet long. tapped from the blast-furnace. 411 By removing pour a heavy a fire-clay ping in the bottom of the ladle. Henry Bessemer & Co.Steel. There were also exhibited. 186. are required in insure solid casting. like forged steel. a 250 H. An 18-inch ingot. The interior of the ingot certain to be thoroughly heated is —an l-l-in. This steel does not fly to pieces like some other is cast steel. which has been chilled by the mould. of the iron thus lost . and several . the loss to be but 8J per cent.

therefore. and other European that its general substitution for processes of making either fine wrought iron or cheap low steel is now considered certain. on home-made Correspondence of (he London Engineer. of steel guns. are giving Mr. associated with Colonel Aboukoff and Mr. and calculated. from accidents in castings. the Russian Government will have sunk at least a million and a half on this system. and in 6-in. The works are on a very large scale. which will make the total product of Bessemer metal at these works alone over 400 tons per week.— : 412 tires tility Ordnance. last The Bessemer process has been adopted. 1864. Bessemer. The Government. on Nasymth's plan. but which. Kondraftzoff. and by so many all leading manufacturers in states. thus described in the patent White cast iron 540 I lbs. Belgium. made on Aboukoff's system. of Troy. of steel. which. &o. Magnetic ore Arsenic Z08 " " lbs. will enable them to make " 9-in. John Brown years. The specimens. his smaller works in Petersburg. to enable him to produce. have been referred to (472). This factory Mr. of Newcastle. lishment at Colpino. is also producing smaller guns rapidly . Messrs. bore) of cast steel. Messrs. 488. close to Petersburg. "Winslow & Griswold. a 25-ton hammer. Povteeloff hopes to start in November. to produce ten large guns per week. * * * By sterling June. Sweden. New York. Aboukoff's Steel. Povteeloff every assistance in their estab. at his large works in Finland. —two 3-ton vessels have been at work above two and a pair of 10-ton vessels are now completed. showing the wonderful duc- of the metal. and that gentleman.* on Aboukoffs system. since its two or early embarrassments were overcome. by January 1st next. nearly ready for producing solid guns of the very largest calibre. that is to say. with such great success. Nov. during the three years. under the direction of Mr. 1863.. without welds. At one establishment in Sheffield— the Atlas Works. have a very extensive factory. & Co. There will be sufficient crucible furnaces in it to enable him to cast a block of 1 5 tons and the hammer-power intended to be used for reducing these masses to shape is a 35-ton one. or rather quality. oast-steel guns. — The steel now made for guns is at several establishments in Russia." . France. in a "year or so. England. are now erecting apparatus for the production of Bessemer steel. guns rapidly. 20. ordered from Morrison's. 649 (up to * "In Russia (the tJral Works) they are producing about twenty guns per month Mr. Povteeloff. will not be delivered till the spring of 1864. with a 15-ton hammer from England.

a further reference to them would be outside of the scope of this work. 20. they can cast a portion of a block of pour the remainder into mass. . the Government understood to be developsteel."* is 489. that they deserve more than a passing notice but. . another method of producing cheap in a reverberatory furnace. and thus melted and run into moulds without the aid of and of the costly processes usually employed. 413 is In the specification of the patent the manipulation scribed : thus de- —First melt in the crucible the pig-iron. 18 lbs. crucibles 490. and of improving and cheapening the manufacture generally. Other manufacturers in the United States are experi- menting with various processes of making steel direct from the ore. as also Colonel Aboukoflf. and other destructive agents. under the direction of Mr. 14 lbs. or puddled protected from oxygen. ing. arsenic. Nov. are erecting works for steel. is the wrought iron. masses have not yet been produced. inasmuch as large .. of Troy. " Mr. In France. and ten hours after the mould.. Such success has attended many of these latter efforts. 3 iron. and the proportions are varied may . Povteeloff. no doubt possesses some beyond what is thus given. resembling a puddling furnace steel. 1 oz. Bes- semer. for they maintain that steel. American Cast Steel. at great 'expense. ore. and then the the as steel. Winslow & Griswold. Thus hard . the production of Bessemer — It has been remarked that Messrs. 1 oz. by a covering or bath of cinder. and have a perfectly united Our Sheffield manufacturers vcould do well to ponder on The steel produced is really very good but whether or not the iiniforuiity claimed is to be had in making on a large scale . sul- phur. iron. 10 chippings. . 22 lbs. this. : be required. arsenic. steel lbs. 1863. Soft ore. and as the products have not yet attained to celebrity as cannon-metals. viz. steel is made :—White . * Correspondence of Tke London Engineer. chippings. then add the size of magnetic ore (previously reduced to the peas by crushing). New York. Steel. magnetic arsenic. If it is desirable to improve the quality of iron chippings are added. —"White secret magnetic lbs. remains to be seen. . 3 lbs.

because the surrounding metal would not have it. tools. just as a light cannon-shot shears a hole for itself. or the Tnain piece which gives the gun longitudinal strength. maintained for several days. The vis viva of a light blow is absorbed a very changing the figure of the surface metal. and by the importance of the subject. Krupp. 49 1 . first^ a uniform heat throughout the mass. in diameter requires. That ments in Europe. so greatly depends. must be a large and heavy mass of metal. But this is not a fault of either Good work necessarily implies good and adequate Krupp's in- The drawing down of a heavy ingot — for instance. requires a moderate and steady temperature. The effect of the hammer nmst be in felt at the centre of the mass. Nor would rapid stroke from a light hammer answer the purpose. and in the most remarkable variety of combination. which was 8 feet long and 44 — in. The liave serious defects of the solid-forging process for wrought iron been specified (413 to 421). got in the Exhibition. while a very . in the greatest abun- dance. they apply to wrought ii'on only. and the European steel-makers. steel is. Second. the Franklinite ores of JSTew Jersey possess. instead of being confined to the outside. time to distribute The " grain" of the metal would also be broken and distorted. With one exception. The use of light hammers would be more injurious to steel than to iron. To soften the centre of such a casting through 22 inches of solid metal. and so homogeneous throughout. 414 It Ordnance. material. without burning the outside. these improvements have not rendered the encouragement which is to warranted by the notorious success of similar improve2d. the inner barrel. —The grand masses advantage of that very large left may be forged without welds.. —Solid Foeging. Sy8tem§ of Fabrication. and the old established iron-firms. And to whatever extent hoops may be employed. however — 1st. Its effect would be local. at high velocity in the side of an iron-clad. the very materials— manganese and zinc —upon which the success of Bessemer. with a That the Government very few exceptions. should be remarked.

sometimes cracking and always weakening a it 3d. the interior of is gun thus forged which is is left in tension. and a cold mandrel is inserted is in the place of the heated one. Naylor.Steel. in a subsequent patent for constructing steel or homogeneous metal ordnance. and the hammering or forging continued until ferred. FoEGiNG Hollow. Hulse. while the exterior in com- pression. and too little distributed and interior and extecompression upon large Therefore steel-makers much masses of steel. especially irregular in shape. For this reason. hammering. it is then withdrawn. the outer part of the forging expanded. Mr. Vickers & Co. And is heavy hammers are inconvenient. 493. which is said to have a fall of 12 feet. The ascertaiued defects of resisted heavy forgings. CoMPEEssiNG BT Hydbaulio Machineet. however. If pre- mandrel may is be used and cooled internally. At the new works of Messrs. 1st. a hollow it is made of the desired size and shape. is A by the whole mass of the forging below and around the place where it strikes." '193. the opposite state of strain to that required. Mr. Mr. —The heaviest local hammers. falling from a moderate height. Whitworth and specify the his partner. are found to produce too rior.'s steel jackets are forged hollow for Blakely guns has been referred to under the latter head (22. & Co. and afterwards hammer it between an angularshaped anvil-block and a hammer-head of a similar or flat shape. Auiandrel of a taper form is inserted through the hole cast in the ingot. 68. If necessary. and thus drawn away from the centre of the mass. thus method of hollow forging They " cast an ingot with a hole through it. The hammered tubular ingot subsequently annealed. are — . due the metal is not' to light . when the forging are beginning to use hydraulic presses for drawing and shaping their ingots. 6g). and the operation of hammering or forging proceeds till the mandrel beconies too hot from its contact with the heated metal : of the ingot .. 415 structure. the interior surface of the tubular ingot maybe 'converted' to the required depth. the interior of is condensed 2d. Vickers —The manner in which Naylor. . Krupp employs a iO-ton hammer. heavy and slow shot racks and drives in the whole great weight.

416 Ordnance. and its developed in the direction of circum- Messrs. PiQ J3Y the cheap fabis The machinery used a modification of the ordinary rollingmill. bnt one of them might have a movable pillow-block at one end. erecting at Sheffield. A Machine for rolling hoops. the rolls are short. EoLLiNG AND —Another. Mr. It is obvious that the slow and uniform pressure of water a small aperture into a large cylinder. overhang- ing their journals. perhaps equally steel. Bessemer has also patented some alterations especially adapting hydraulic apparatus to the drawing of his ingots. time to distribute the pressure to the next particle. is important advantage due to the casting of rication of hoops with endless grain. and. the interior metal would be better worked and more condensed than Joining Hoops. in making tubes two or three feet long in this way. but that it will allow each particle of matter acted upon. however thick the mass. say.* This is put between and drawn round by the rolls. will not pumped through strike a blow. is east as any other ingot is cast. . ^ ring .t. . if the springing of the necessarily not serious. the exterior metal. of. ji ished ring. * Messrs. so that a ring can be slipped over them (Fig. In the case of ingots compressed while hot from the moulds. east a great many ingots in this shape for tires. Long rolls would require support at both ends. 494. so that a ring could be readily put in or removed.i and double ii ii. Naylor Tickers and Co. half the diameter • ^ t. and have patented their process. is its diameter is properly increased. Tickers & Co. Naylor. which are made to gradually approach each other until a continuous grain ference. oast these ingots on a yielding core. There would be no small inner roll is difiiculty. therefore. 187). n the thickness oi the fin- jr i. this machinery will be substituted for now the heaviest hammers. softer within than without. and for Blakely and other hooped guns.

Hitchcock. of New York. Krupp's Circular —Great Exhibition. Besides. 188. Naylor.. can only be forged at a very great be so little cost. the necessity of and the costly experiments. and roll- uniting them by a opening it out into a ring. and then „ ing it in the manner described. On the other thinner. he can make hoops of any diameter.Steel. of fabricating solid guns from small masses of low case. 417 by forging an ingot its Mr. upon which must be formed or secured the trunnions and cascable. they could little compressed or drawn by forging. it is contended that the gain in strength will always pay steel. 21 . but only anis and there a growing impression in heaviest ordnance will be cast solid England that the from steel. 1862. if cast for the sake of longitudinal strength. that the defects much unequal cooling hand. steel or wrought iron. of hollow ingots not forged. And.* "With his present machinery. /~~--~r\ ^^M^U^ thod of ma- To avoid furnaces. immense hammers and by which alone a manufacture like Mr. Vickers & Co. that very * Mr. proposes the process already discussed and illustrated (460). especially those produced —The soundness of steel castings. the cost of hammering The outer jackets of built-up guns. to construct parts of Prussia. and which. and by the Bochum Company. In any Mr. As such guns cast iron per square would have about three times the tenacity of inch. should be solid at the breech end. with different materials and unskilled workmen. Krupp makes rings into the shape witli endless grain. Krupp's can be established in ^^^^ another country. Mr. having holes in ends. the walls could be so due to would not be very serious. Hitchcock's process would be valuable for the fabrica- tion of long hoops from rings. 4:95. such as outer jackets to some of embrace inner nealed . but not of a width exceeding 6 inches. Solid Cast-Steel Onn§. (364) the advantages of hollow casting (373) and cooling from the interior could be as well realized in steel as in iron. at Fig. hollow. shown slot. tubes. have induced Captain Blakely his guns. by Messrs.

. are cast sound and homogeneous throughout. Section Y. by the two establishments mentioned." waa about 45 cents per pound. and to the point of fracture. This defect. Bkonze. added to the costliness* of bronze." it Referring to Table 72. to its softness. has not warranted its compression. A strong cast iron known in America as " gun-metal. and ricated much greater than for steel fab- wrought iron fabricated by Ames's or Hitchcock's process. The increase of with increase of weight. will be observed that the " work done" in stretching to the elastic limit less for tility. These castings are always annealed. to be sound and tenacious. is ordinary bronze than for wrought iron of for maximum duc- and low steel. and actually immense non-paying capital would be tied up in a national bronze armament. and to its injury by em- ployment cost. would probably be greater for bronze than for cast iron. for large calibres and high charges. them by that process. from low steel. were it the proper metal or in other particulars.418 strength would be added to Ordnance. according to Benton's " Ordnance and Gunnery. An alloy of about 90 parts of copper as and 10 parts of is commonly known " gun-metal" in Europe. 49l6> tin. would seem to be a very valuable improvement in gun-making. in the manner adopted by Captain Blakely. and consequently rapid wear and heat. to the various embarrassments experienced in the casting of large masses. It has already been remarked that tubes for hydraulic presses. when used for cannon. railway tires and wheels. cranked axles and bells of every size. Therefore the simple casting and annealing of snch parts. * The price of bronze fleld-piecea. and named is also " bronze" by recent American writers. The high value of the old material would not offset this 1862.. which increases their specific gravity and toughness. So that. popularly called " brass" in America. because bronze must be cast under great pressure. an unnecessarily large by Bessemer's.

. per square inch. it 419 does in railway matters.f that " the density Captain Benton says.* Major Wade from 17698 56786 Ibs. Density. cost to the extent that reasons. is about 33000 lbs. Mallet states it states it from 32334 to lbs. In one of his tables. five This is exhibited by the means of guns cast at the Chicopee Foundry. Mr. mode made on of cooling. for obvious The mean ultimate cohesion of gun-metal. depend upon the when cast into the form of cannon. to 43536 lbs.: Bronze. are found to pressure and observations viz.:]: and tenacity of bronze. according to Euro- pean authorities and the experiments of the United States Government.

These differences occur in samples taken castings. is and for which no obvious or satisfactory cause assigned. is If this the case with field-guns. 1862.t says is it " The most remark- able feature of the above table the irregular and heterogeneous exhibits. a difference in the ratio of and that the tenacity varies 2 to 3. the heavy charges and pro- * "Ordnance and Naval Gunnery.420 field-cannon. The guns is authorities generally agree that the tin in bronze gradually melted by the heat of successive explosions. it is difficult to seize the precise moment when the alloy can be properly formed ." seen or can be 498."* Major "Wade. gives a correct measure of the quality of the metal in all parts of the gun. \ " Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. they were melted. ." Speaking of another bronze howitzers. * * * all By an examination it of the results obtained from the heads of the gnus cast. in the cubic foot. lot of after calculating the results of : experiments on a bronze guns. cast at Chicopee. The causes why such irregular and unequal results were produced. but there are many objections even to this alloy. will appear that the density varies from 8"308 to 8"756. * * The materials used in all these castings were of the same quality. from 23529 to 35484. the same authority says tained from exhibited is " On a general resurvey of the results ob- all the samples tested. and cooled in the same manner. in character of the results which different parts of the samples taken from same guns. much used. in iron cannon. cast." Simpson. and must be introduced when the latter is in fusion. a difference equal to 28 lbs. bronze is Ordnance. the most striking feature that of their great diversity in density and strength. and were designed to be similarly treated in all respects. when lot of the materials used and the treatment of them were ap- parently equal. are yet to be ascertained." 1856. the from the same part of different gun-head * . part of the tin is frequently burned and converted into scoria. As the tin is much more fusible than the copper. : made at the South Boston Foundry. the part which.

when calibres are large To remedy by hooping bronze with would not avoid the defective surface of the bore. abrasion." 1862. other . just considered. for another reason : bronze can safely ." 1856. § "Reports of Experiments on Metals for Cannon. or by atmospheric causes . and." June." but Captain Simpson remarks^ that the gases produced produce an injurious effect by the combustion of gunpowder also upon this kind of piece. viz. X "Ordnance and Naval Gunnery. have lined cast-iron guns with bronze. at a meeting of the United Service Institution. as compared with cast and wrought iron.. are conclusive evidence as to the unfitness of the material to meet the conditions of greatest effect under The average ultimate tenacity of bronze is so low due to above that of the best average cast gun-iron strength." 1862.)§ All these defects of bronze for the bore of a gun. Colonel Wilford stated. \ "Ordnance and Gunnery. . The liardness of bronze. the conversion. when taken in connection with rifling pressures. and Captain Blakely has constructed some experimental guns in the same way. 500. irrespective of strength. 499. Both abrasion and compression are due to softness. little loss of want of regulated serious defect. it initial tension and compression. (Table 7l. the change of figure. —that the — in fact. Captain Benton says if " Bronze is but slightly corroded by the action of the gases evolved from gunpowder. by acting chemically on the bronze. however. elongate more than cast iron. As to decomposition. jectlles. 1862. is tabulated by Major Wade. The Dutch.* that iron mortars were introduced because holes were burned in the chambers of bronze mortars by the immense heat of the powder-gas. would soon destroy this material. without permanent change of figure * "Journal of tlie United Service Institution. becomes a very sure high. ^also Heat causes the drooping of the warts of a bronze gun that over- hang the trunnions. the melting of the tin.Bronze. and pressteel or iron. and compression —obviously aggravate each and excessive consideration. 421 iii and the quick firing demanded iron-clad warfare.

He by gun-metal might be repre. Abel. Othee Allots. they would expand to the same extent.00 to 50000 lbs. due to the unequal stretching of the layers of a tube by internal pressure. stated before the Institution of Civil Engineers. Wiard (338) is. preliminary. Inst. to a certain extent. checked by the field-guns. is by internal pressure. as the more highly -heated iron barrel. chemist to the British War Department. the strength of the thus brought into service— the principle of varying considered. sented by 31000 lbs. remarkable for density and tenacity. put in a position where it must be more elongated whole structure elasticity. that with the little heat they would get from the powder.422 and when it is Okdnance. of phosphorus into copper. A principal advantage of bronze hoops mentioned by Mr. The matewas more uniform throughout.. Phosphoetjs it is known improve the strength of copper.* had made some experiments upon the combinations of phosphorus with copper. to- 503. upon the square inch whilst the material obtained by adding phosphorus to copper bore a strain of from 480. and to make that he cast soundly. say from 2 to 4 per cent. approximately. But the increased tenacity was not the only beneficial result obtained rial by this treatment of copper. but would increase the defect just considered. Civil Engineers. Section YI. a metal its was produced. . is already approximately realized (320). Mr. improvements since introduced in the construction of which had led to a discontinuance of the employment of gun- * Construction of Artillery. 501. and superior in every respect to ordinary gun-metal (the alloy of copper and tin believed the average strain borne known by that name). and The experiments alluded to were merely had been. thus reducing the danger of bursting by rapid firing. Bronze hoops upon steel or iron barrels it (106) would avoid the defect of a soft bore. and " had found that by the introduction of a small proportion of that substance. which was scarcely ever the case with gun-metrl. 1860.

and having about the same hardness as iron. it found superior to gun-metal. which resist the tools."t by weight of copper by Mr. a state to which it agaia returns fusion. rather than chemical combination of the metals . an alloy of a very brittle character is produced by the a first melting . which were not quite sound. cent. 423 Tlie improvements alluded to were -wrought iron and and the Armstrong and "Whitworth processes of fabrication. has found the tensile strength of an alloy of 90 per cent. is said to possess the . most uniform composition and the best degree of hardness is but it not always an easy thing to produce this desirable uniformity of texture. The alloy. had only a mean tensile strength of and 1 Aluminium of aluminium. ALUMmitrM is found to add great strength to copper. 132146 lbs. per square inch. Mr. lbs." steel. 503. and a metal is produced free from brittleness. Anderson. to be Y3181 . * Philosophical Magazine. In transverse strength or rigidity. in the ratio of ticity 44 to 1. of aluminium.Bronze. Anderson to have a tensile strength of about 43 tons (96320 lbs. that of gun-metal being 120000 The aluminium bronze was also did not begin to change figure until the pressure exceeded 20384 lbs. was found . as. Woolwich. Its tenacity : and elasfirst depend on a particular number of meltings at the melting it is very brittle. metal. Superintendent of the Royal Gun-Factories. containing afforded by repeated melting. of copper and 10 per lbs.) but two other specimens. rather less than 10 per cent. and are altogether unamenable bronze.* after " The first melting appears to produce internal mechanical mix- ture. composed of 9 parts to the action of the rollers. f Newton's Journal of Arts. The compound thus formed is called Aluminium Bronze. as patches of extreme hardness sometimes occur. in the proportion of 10 of aluminium and 90 of copper. . of aluminium. but renewed opportunity of uniting into a definite chemical compound being more uniform combination seems to take place.. or twice that of gun-metal and its resistance to crushing.

is recent invention of Baron de Eosthom. Feb. —Experiments of Poly- Tensile Strength in Tons. After simple Fusion 27 60480 After Forging Red-hot After 34 38 76160 85120 Drawn Cold Gun-Metal—Bbonze. 6. 6s.. TEOHNio iNSTirnnoN. Feb. Tbhsile Stbbn9th of Sterbo-Metal. 504. and I now have before me a duly attested copy of the tabulated results of not fewer than 30 experiments. or $1. 1863. and the results are as follow " The same copper.). So that the metal is liable to great The cost of this alloy. Yienna. would of course prevent extensive introduction as a cannon-metal. . U. : * Correspondence of the f London Times. Both alloys were cast under precisely similar conditions. from Boston. Vienna. lbs.— : 424 about 22^ tons* (50400 variations in strength. from which I select the following. Stebbo-Metal. Beduced to Founds. and for the latter the best English tin was employed. Steeko-Metal.\ in an article that contains so many : accurate statements on other points. described by a correspondent of the London Times. The tensile strength per square inch is estimated in English tons Table LXXIII. 1863.62 per its pound. 6d. Vienna. in the presence of competent observers . Similar tests were made at the Arsenal. and run into th'e same mould. a of Yienna.. After Simple Fusion Ig 40320 was used in making both the sterro-metal and the gun-metal. Also quoted by the London Enigmeer. 3d. as to merit consideration " The mechanical properties of the alloy /have been carefully examined at the Polytechnic Institution. London JVmes. Okdnance. S.

—Analysis of Austrian Steero-Mbtal. Bronze. . 61720 After Forging Red-hot 71680 82880 Drawn Cold and to reduced from zoo 77 of transverse Sectional Area.. Arsenal Metal. —^Expeeimbnts at Eeduced to Founds. Polytechnic Metal..... Copper Spelter 5S-°4 Iron . the Stbbbo-Mbtai. Vienna. Arsenal. After Simple Fusion . " The specimens of metal operated on in the preceding experi- ments were analyzed under at the Austrian mint. Tin. 425 —Tensile Stbenoth op Steero-Metai. The results are as Table LXXV.... Tabub LXXIT.

It derives its name from a Greek word signifying firm. —The following is the ofiieial report of experi- ments made by Mr. whereby expense in forging is avoided. which. tin. the interior . composition is : copper. -905. with small portions of iron and tin uted. and whether tlie surface of a metal containing so large a proportion of spelter will not be seriously corroded. John Anderson. 1-93 . wrrn Steeeo-Mbtal. tin. in heavy ordnance. made zinc. 60. . or other purposes. Vienna. " Sterro-metal possesses another quality. iron. and to these latter its peculiar properties are attrib- "It has a brass-yellow ity. where resistance to friction needed. at the Polytechnic. is free it is from poros- and has considerable hardness. Woolwich. color. copper and spelter. * * * " It remains to be seen whether the tremendous concussions occasioned by firing will not seriously injure this new alloy. ' is said to be the invention of Baron de Rosthorn. a hydraulic press. as made in the arsenal at Vienna. —copper. * as . variously compounded and is treated " Composition of this alloy. namely. 60 46-18 iron.: 426 action of Ordnance. is regarded as more important than elasticity." Experiments at the Eotal Gun-Faotokies. 1'94:. zinc. also prepared in the from mixtures of the Aus- Royal Gun-Factories. is close in grain. 'ISe. its And. from which a better result has been obtained than trian metals. whereby well adapted to is bearing-metal. great " The inventor proposes that. its high tenacity. The subdif- joined table shows the results of the experiments with these ferent specimens. il'SS . but reliable experiments have demonstrated that the metal thus treated has precisely the same properties and the same tensile strength as bars of it drawn out under the steamhammer. upon this metal. in reference to its application for guns. " This alloy of Vienna.' It consists of . " Alloys of similar composition to that of the Austrian metal have been prepared in the Royal Gun-Factories.

manent elon- gation of -002 per Ineh. 60 zinc.iS Do. 39 .. > 1 Cast in sand..Bronze. zinc. Do. copper. G. Factories Mixture ofj . Cast in iron Cast in iron . Strain at per- Treatment. 60 . do.. . copper. iron. • of 44 .. Table 427 LXXVL—Composition and Comppsltton. Forged red-hot. > Cast in sand. do. Austrian Mixture As received . } do. 4> ''"» Do. Woolwich. R. iron. J do. do. do. do. 3><:'n. and annealed Do. Stebngth of Sterro-Metal.

at prac- tant feature in common ticable temperatures —the alloys —homogeneity. which. upon the ductility of the metal. and the other necessary ingredients and fluxes silicium — are —carbon. While certain alloys. discovery and improvement is and promising but no more Although the alloying of copper. by mixing with iron a small percentage of wolfram.8. beyond the elastic limit . already mixed. all metals — are undeveloped. and should. advantageous. has been practised for more than five hundred years. have not been propei-ly investigated. on the whole. both metals — is the work of the last decade. the other most im- . to predict either great success or failure for the alloys considered. Musliet liad obtained great density. have one importo fusibility. which would appear to be. resist compression and wear. for the purposes of artillery. this It also depends. therefore. and especially their elongation. . than could be obtained sive eflfeet. manganese. tic limit. Therefore. so than in the case of steel. in absence of further experiments. of both iron and copper. and equally abundant. zinc. — 1. that guns densest alloys would have greater thickness. especially for cannon. within and beyond the elastic limit. is Hardness. cast of the in proportion to their by any complicated and expenthe mode of construction.428 Ordnance. due of iron have this grand advan- tage: iron is everywhere cheap and abundant. ^in fact. upon the amount of elongation and the corresponding pressure. upon their elasticity. although the mixtures are not found in proper proportions." 507. as compared with certainly broad steel. and the corresponding pressures. in some localities. to portant quality. The field for . *S0. and.' be in advance of steel-making. It is obviously impossible. Conclnsions. and great strength by the use of titanium. because their chemical relations. if the least possible weight is to be combined with the greatest possible preventive against explosive bursting. The fitness of metals for cannon elas- depends chiefly on the amount of their elongation within the and the amount of pressure required to produce elongation that is to say. he was inclined to believe. that is to say.

429 and duc- 2. Another wrought iron is its softness. because it is uniform and trustworthy than wrought geneous. simple cast is too weak. but it Bronze has greater ultimate tenacity than cast little has more elasticity. pieces. small extensibility. cast steel has the greatest ultimate tenacity and hardis ness and. but is the softest of cannon-metals. although it can be used to advantage for jackets over steel tubes —a position where mass. The 6. serious defect of and may be modified by improved processes. and their endurance. more in the process of fabrication than in the material. a high degree of ductility. It has the great advantage over wrought iron. and. Cast iron has the . with an equal degree of duc- tility. in either solid or built-up guns. iron In view of the duty demanded of modern guns. it has a high degree of ductility. solid castings leaves them under but hollow casting. although iron. Low . as large masses : however. and cooling from within. it has the highest elasticity. from small defect. than cast iron . cast-iron barrels. unlike the other metals. tility but it is harder than bronze and wrought iron. are the chief requirements. of being adapted to the different degrees of elongation that 5. And. yielding. and a greater ultirnate tenacity. is. under pressure 4. subjected to.CoNCLUsiosrs. steel. this is must be welded up this tenacity cannot be depended upon but. and injuriously affected by the heat of high charges. it and is less homogeneity. homoinitial The unequal cooling of rupturing strains . other alloys of copper are very costly. not determined. hooped fulfil with the best high wrought and with low cannot . what more important. is under high charges. least ultimate tenacity. it is therefore. capable of great variation in den- by the simple processes of hardening and annealing. i in masses of any It sity. of homogeneity. and consequent and friction. size. and other minor defects. iron. elasticity. and more iron. and the cheap application of the trunnions and other projections. 3. Wrought iron has the advantage of a considerable amount of elasticity. remedies this defect.

by reason of the associated qualities which . . is. the theoretical conditions of strength. in large masses. too soft. in all cases. impracticably soft and destructible by heat. Low may steel therefore (possibly in connection with cast iron. Wrought Bronze is iron. as stated above). the only material from to which we can hope maintain resistance to the high pressures demanded in modern warfare. cannot be trusted. and do not endure the highest charges. they have thus far proved trustworthy and efficient.430 all Oednance. and is. be called strength and toughness.

431 CHAPTER RrPLTNG V. and finally by the Russian and the British Governments. Scott. until the breech- loading apparatus gave way. 189. a Sardinian officer. In 1847. The gun was the invention of Montigny. 510. The first comprehensive experiment with cannon appears to have been in firing 1800 rounds made in Russia. in 1845. from both an 18-pounder and a 24-pounder. about 1836. 262 shots in one day from an 18-pounder. on successive days. A.Rifling and Projectiles. 189) which was rifled with two grooves for a plain iron shot (Fig. with a breech-loading gun (Fig. * Many of the following historical and descriptive facts about European projectiles are compiled from papers read by Commander R. AND PROJECTILES. without either wads or grease. R. B. N. before the Royal United Service Institution. and consisted from a 12-pounder. Cavalli rifled breech-loader. gun. and was rejected by his own Government.* rifled 509. Major (now General) Cavalli. Standard Forms ajstd Practice described. of Belgium. Fig. 190).. he obtained good results with an 8-in. and 100 shots continuously. . experimented.

which will be further mentioned (535). be larger than the bore. affixed lead to the sides of elongated projectiles by means of grooves (Fig. which may. 511. the exterior of these projections. may be covered with a soft substance.. but without . of Belgium. has been improved by " centrical" sys- Commander Scott. 513. tions formed While the shot it is rotated by the solid projec- upon and fitting into the grooves of the gun. and in 1857 success. to fill the grooves of the gun. Wahrendorfs lead-coating. . like the Sawyer projectile . Fig. N. 192) sabot. the compression of a soft covering on the system). which was forced into the rifling. The plan was tried at Berlin in 1861. In these plans we find the germs of the three leading systems of the present day —the solid projectile. Tlie Centering System. in the case of a breech- loader. Baron Wahrendorf.432 Ordnance. of Sweden. feet. Cavalli projectile. invented an expanding (Fig. General Timmerhaus. 192. 191). remarkable In 1856. with a slow twist I'm. His gun had two. or which may. in a 6-grooved 12-pounder . fitted to the rifling of the gun so as to centre itself. with one turn in 18 513. and six grooves. The centering system may embody the compressing or expanding system in any required degree. In 1846. and thus gave rotation four. —The solid projectile. shot by the lands of the gun (the Armstrong and the expansion of the rear of the by the pressure of the powder. and afterwards in both Sweden and Prussia in France. and thus be compressed while passing out of the gun . in what he calls the tem. fitted to enter the grooves of the gun shot Timmerhaus's eX' panding shot. to the projectile. R. 190. or of the whole shot (521).

* Fig. 28 . 315. trials the before-mentioned of Wahrendorf's and several other rifled It consisted of 12 zinc studs. shot. winged fire shot. enemy has no guns fitted for winged when any are captured or successful adoption of rifled recovered. Treuille in 1869. Rifling and Projectiles. in warfare —The first cannon was by the French against the Austrians. so as to decrease French serTice jarring and play. Eeench. the French commenced by making two shallow elliptical grooves (Fig. (540). Projectiles.. brought forward as early as by Colonel (now General) Beaulieu. or buttons. if the he cannot such shot back. projectiles. The plan (Fig. In a gun grooved be employed shot. placed on the shot in pairs. which was offered to the British Government in August. was after finally appreciated by the Emperor. while compressed or ex- panded shot will adapt themselves to any form of rifiing. for . 1860. can own bore. One stud. 193). Whitworth's (531) and Scott's (535) projectiles are examples of this practice." and those having long beariii^s with the uniform twist * The present French centering system was introduced in Dec. 194). crun. so as to project into the 6 rounded grooves of the gun. 433 fill be expanded by tbe pressure of the powder to the Usually. however. 514:. 1859. having wings only be used. was ar- ranged to push the bearings of the shot tight against those sides of the groove on which it Beaulieu's. the hard surface of the projectile directly is dressed to bear upon the surface of the bore. or projection on the gun. after Commander Scott's centering sj'stem. and twice ignored by 1842 Artillery de the French Committee. or first rifle would press in going out. 193. For larger ordnance. leaving a little windage. The projectiles were of solid iron those having short studs or bearings were used with the " gaining twist. any expanding shot can wliile. each with its fitted for certain grooves.

Studs faced with white metal were cast on the bearing side of the projectile (Fig. was introFlG.. duced. 1860. 194. 196. 5-5 following are the particulars of the French rifling projectile (Fig. The and charge. two points. The ordnance thus treated were cast-iron 30-pounders and 50-pounders. 195). I'fes. Early French rifling for ordnance. with the gaining twist. 195. 196). strengthened by hoops over the breech. 1860. 516. Pig. French rifling. the three-grooved gun (Fig. 197) used with a cast-iron 32-pounder gun. 1860. in the English competitive trials of 1861 :—In- . 0French projectile.434 But Ordnance. as the projectile could not accurately centre itself on. three points were provided. Fig. and in December.

powder-chamber. with charges of Tf lbs. weight. lbs. length. pro- jectiles with a 5-lb. bore and lbs. and an 8-8-lb. number of width.* old 30-poun- of 6-5-in. 3 lbs. . and rifled carry 99-lb. 4-66 bursting charge.) .. ter. . projectile. . 8239 with weight. Fig. 14-05 in. with a charge of 1 3 oz. diame- diameter of in. note). 1-919 in. other section. 59-5 Fig. Rifling and Projectiles. projectiles. depth. stud of this gun are shown. of 4400 lbs. . full size. French shell. 0-2363 in. 2-oz. 435 grooves. 6-36 in. 519. . (592). 5 oz. has the calibre of the old 4-pounder —3-4 inches . is It will be observed that a considerable windage allowed in French guns. 518. 191. weight of shot. . is hooped to steel. 24 pounder. The is rifled old 6-in.. to carry 53-lb. by Fig. The hooped Canon de 30 is the standard French naval gun. it weighs 730 lb. is The which to the will directly opposed practice. 198. The der. from to 4-652 ia 88"548 . charge. creasing twist. The fires regular French bronze field-gun. Armstrong be considered in an(647. object of this practice. 5SO. to 26 lbs. 5 517. bursting * This gun is minutely described in Chapter I. The rifling and the present 199. lbs. . (84.

French field-gun. mounted. Fra. 198.) . (From a photograph.436 Ordnance.

weight of shell. as specially adapted to gun-cotton. 531. weight. on the AuBTBiAN. the gun freely when the projection h bears against the land a is but which.. projectile The cast-iron. particidars arei —Bore. Fig. 203 a cross-section of the 3-in. The mountain howitzer. use? 1 oz. Fig. Cwnxm de 30. Rifling and Pkojectiles. Austrians. 200 (longitudinal with the soft section). 2"2 lbs. bore and shuts off the windage. 201 e e. and all the rest of the bore the bearing side which rotates the shot coming out. is callied a gun of reserve. a the same ammunition. having experimented with both the compressive system and the centering system. 202 represents the fuse used with the 53*3. charge of shell. Fig. 4f —The in. . k compressed by the spiral the shot To prevent jamming m n. field-gim. when rifled. But the shot is centred and as by the whole circumference of the bore well as by these three grooves. a material by Figs. is spiral in section. full size. 437 shorter gun. More 200 recently they have iatroduced the system illustrated to 203. The is land a c\s. substantially in the form used by the French. and Fig. . 1350 lbs. section). in the bore. The old 12-pounder. Its Present French groove and stud. rotated coming out.) gunpowder is in the Austrian service. 25 "3 lbs. as the shot comes out. (cross- d d. the bearing side going in. are introduced to receive corresponding ribs on the shot. now (See entirely substituted for dix. decided latter. is covered metal coating which enters c. three grooves. increasing in diameter from the AppenThe bore point a. charge. shell. The Russians have adopted the French rifling for heavy .

438 Ordnance. 200. . 201. \ \ . Fig. 203. Pig. 202.^^ ^' Austrian rifling. Fia. shell and fuse for gun-cotton. K / Flo.

have been mostly lar rifled in a simi- manner . 205. 534. Three grooves are used Service Inst. the Russians rifling shunt system of with their steel ordnance. instead of placing the studs in pairs. Journal Royal tJ. Russian rifle-groove. and having Their twelve of them. the * Com.Rifling and Projectiles. . but. Pig. 207 and 209). . More recently. which have been also tried in France. in another section (552). and placing the studs upon the projectile in pairs (Figs. possess no advantage over the fit- tings adopted for the French service. 206. illustrated. and their field-pieces Russian studded rifle-shell. 204. and the grooves are slightly narrowed at the bottom. the bearings of to which are also sloped off. Soott. Section of Pig. wedge itself tightly. 204. 439 for and have provided themselves with machinery 56-pounders grooving guns without dismounting them. April.. they use only six placed alternately. The Spaioaeds have modified the French system by adopting a uniform twist. In the field-piece they are sloped off on one side to allow the projectile. 1862. and 120- pounders are to be hooped and rifled with three grooves. "The of (30- Russians their had rifled several smaller fortress-guns pounders and 24-pounders) with six grooves. but these slight modifications."* have adopted the Armstrong This will be 533. ordnance. Fig. rifling has an equal twist. as used in England and in Russia. cast-iron It is stated that their Fia.

Holland. rifles. and since costly experiments. FlS. 207. centering the projectile. led to the abandonFig. made the subject of many The gun is rifled with two rounded grooves. on the Con- tinent generally. and for other experimental guns. in Sardinia. A similar failure of the Armstrong breechIn that at loader anticipated. The and Wahrendorf breech-load- ing apparatus for heavy guns. 209. ment of the compression system. guns are reinforced with hoops having definite failure of the Cavalli initial tension. for experimental 70 and 12-pounders. on the French plan. Section of Spanish gun. 210). by the English in the Crimea. Lahcastbe. 336. 337. which depends upon loading the rear end of the bore. if not quite realized. has been adopted been adopted in England. with a for rifled ordnance. and the adoption of the French rifling and is projectiles. the compression system. It has also modification (see Armstrong 10^ and 13-in. In Sweden. would of course be abandoned. for the — of Mr. used. and Portugal —in little fact. Charles Lancaster (Fig. Another plan of centering the shot is that shunt-rifling). Only a trace of the original bore is left at its . with partial success. event. Spanish shell.440 cast-iron Ordnance. each half the circumference in width. excepting in Prussia and Belgium. 525. in England. so that the cross-section of the bore is oval.

Rifling and Projectiles. The weight of this projectile was 44 lbs. viz. The Lancaster shell (Fig. lbs. The ear- lier projectiles. grooves are centres. simply oval. and this. projecting 4 inches Lancaster's rifiing. but more recently the shot have been bent to the shape of the bore some of these had a wrought-iron casing put over a cast-iron projectile. 538.. but without any rifle. is inch deep at their of the rifling Fig. The major "3 axis in the 32-pounder 6'97 in. to the rear. 210. 4i front... were made of wrought iron. 211.. those sent to the Crimea. and the the axis 6-37 in. fired in the competitive Fio. considered as a two-grooved rifle. and its capacity for bursting charge. Lancaster cast-iroa shell. tapering to It was thick in the rear.. The pitch one turn in 30 feet. 211). 441 is minor minor axis. . carried a lubricant which the wooden wedges at the so as to fill bottom sent out while expanding the casing the bore. so that.twist upon them. and thin in the a point.

diameter . has a major axis of 7-6 and a minor axis of 7 inches. was in length. diameter (major). Whitworth's system of known. earlier forms were about } deep and took away nearly two-thirds of the surface of the bore. and 3-4 in. as used in the in. 529. . bore is —Mr. 4 in. with 6 lbs.. The in. weight. The present guns have a regular twist. 6-90 in. and hence is not a source of weakness The trial projectile (Fig. (592). with other 7-inch guns rifled on different plans. Haddan's by Figs. of 1861. and had a shoulder for the ring-wad a a to The later projectiles have merely a wooden projectile. 215 to 219) system. In the stop the windage. earlier projectiles (Fig. . 218) for a 32-pounder bore. The wrought-iron Lancaster gun. . (minor) 6-32 diameter of powder-chamber 4-59 in. 214) the rear tapered. of 1861. "WnrrwoETH. wide. rifling is carried only to within one calibre of the powder-chamber. sabot. 6 oz. is —Mr. bursting charge. the As the wings are on the front part of the at that point. 5 1 lbs. recently making at Woolwich for trial. . The rifling of the earlier guns is 4 lbs. . from a cast-iron gun 531. from a cast-iron 32-pouiider. rifling (Figs. of powder. deep. Mr. its axis. (592). as the hexagonal sides is A larger number of ways (664). 11-9 in. 7 lbs. had an increasing pitch. 212 plan of centering against the to illustrated FlGr 214. The twist was 1 turn in 25 feet. in the smaller ordnance. In the competitive trials of 1861. . diameter of powder-chamber. Haddan's grooves were 0'15 in. 46-5 lbs. The projectile is rotated by 3 wings formed upon the front of the shot. J cal grooves. of 3 large 212 " The rifling consists and shallow elliptiwhich in the in. bursting charge 530. 7 oz. in .442 trials Ordnance. have been experimented with a full-sized section of part of a in various Fig. straight with Haddan's rifling. weight. lbs. was 11'95 . 219 . long. and 6'20 in. Haddax. 3 charge.

Haddan's projectile for wood sabot. 443 Whitworth bore and 70-poiinder projectile. showing that what is called a " flat" of the gun is not a plane surface. to The bore must be slightly larger allow easy loading when the gun is . 213. hexagonal corners. This formation facilitates loading. is but its principal and very important use to give the shot so much Fia. bearing that it will not cut into the gun. A hexagonal bolt orifice. re- volved on its axis within a slightly larger its sides. incline with the apex inward. Haddan's projectile. would points not bear upon but only upon lines. but a double Pia.Rifling and Projectiles. its six The of contact would be mere than the projectile. 214.

Mr. 216. it. Whilrwortli's aliort round-fronted shot. " Construction of Artillery" Inst. Mr. the powder retained in by the * In hia patent of April 23. is to be reduced to 6 cents.— 444 foul. 1860. 219.f projectile For range. "Whitworth uses a ameter . is plain. 215. The si 1 cartridge for the breech-loader fit is is made of tinned iron. a shorter shot. for projectiles. . i. obviously this imof with form 5S2. 1855. &c. Whibuorth. Mr. to save weight. and thus secure a high velocity. In Fig. this Whitworth's rifling. as that the cost should not exceed one penny per shot. is first turned truly cylindrical are then planed its flats by a special ma- chine-tool. for the 12prs. 3 calibres in di- for punching. of 10 cents per dozen . \ The value of the self-acting machinery for shaping the rifled-cannon projectiles. in coming out. the face ^e of the gun is so inclined that the shot. The projectile . wiU bear upon the whole of Pl8. to enable a workman to produce the shot at such a rate.* Ordnance. Fl&. as shown. Civil Engineers. If the face aeoi the bore was also would bear only The e. Whitworth specifies that they are cut so as to exacthj fit the bore of the gun. the shot on the corners gaining twist practicable rifling. for wages only. while the face a e of the shot is flat.. it aped to the rifled bore . at the cost. would be about £500.

in diameter in the middle. in diameter. 217. 27 lbs. and 7 5-lb. The powder-chamber is 12 long. with a good quality of powder. and 3 in. in. through the Warrior target at tlie 800 yards. 8 oz. 25. 6-i flats. in. The 70-lb. It weighed 130 lbs. 64 in. lubricating the bore so tlioroTighly that. the gun Fig. at the rear. 219. across and 7 in. at the front. which is 445 This placed in the open end. shot *nd rifling. lbs. across the corners. of powder. across the corners. Pull-sized section of WMtworth's 70-lb. wad is composed of wax and it is tallow. Whitvvorth's flat-fronted projectile. 1862. and burst in the backing of the at 800 yards range. was 17 inches long. powder Whitworth's lona: round-fronted shot.Rifling and Projectiles. 13th.218. in the in. Its thickness. . 1862. may be fired for a long time without sponging. and. lbs. Nov. lubricating wad. and when the explosion takes place melted and driven through the gun. Fis. was 20^ long. through the Minotaur 5^inch target. The shell fired with plate. cast-iron shell is 15| in. in. across the flats. 533. 5 in. fired with 25 lbs. The Whitworth shell. It weighed 151 and held a bursting charge. 4 iu. held a bursting charge of 3 ^«J. long. 1 in. is middle. and If in. Sept.

Charge No No difficulty in loading. of rounds flred. Ordnance. tal heavy ship-carin 6. Gun mounted on 5 •4in. feet. Weight of gun Length Diameter of bore lbs. of grooves Twist . Axis of gun above plane 3 ft. and partly inclined i . a^in. — Experimental So cwt ao io SO-POUNDER. I turn in 8 ft. 6. . I 4 a in lbs. = . "Whitworth Breech-Loauin<} Practice. escape of gas perceptible. platform partly horizon- No.446 Table LXXYII. . SOUTHPORT. 1860. No. 5 in. . JULT 25 AND 26. and riage.

The Army and Navy Gazette of April 9th. but their test had not commenced. of the 12-pounder and 70-pounder Whitworth muzzle-loading guns. at 300 yards. and 81. The rifling of both these guns is thus on the centering system. to 223. have been given The practice for range and A competitive trial of is given in Tables Y7. The Armstrong shunt rifling has also been changed. 1864. 220 in 1849. Whitworth's guns for this trial. 221. —The " centrical" system of Commander Scott. illustrated by Figs. FlO. 220. The Armstrong projectiles were more accu" The Armstrong shell shows a superiority in cutting up abatrate in this particular. 447 534. The projectiles particulars and charges of the Whitworth guns and in Table 8.Rifling and Projectiles. 1864.* 535. respects to the other guns. Scott's rifling. at Shoeburyneas. The breech-loading Armstrong gun was inferior in all still had a slight advantage. says that each gun had fired 600 of the 3000 rounds assigned. The Whitworth rifling tis or earthworks. but that the shots fell short or went over a wall 8| feet high at 1100 yards. . The Engineer of April 22d. states that up to 900 yards range the Whitworth 12-pouuder had a shght advantage in range. and now resembles the French. ing edges of the rifling have been so modified as to more nearlj accuracy resemble 6 roimded grooves. Scott. All the guns are constructed of mUd steel. and that at 1600 yards the Whitworth gun fired 10 shots with a lateral deviation of only 5 inches. was laid before the British ' War Department " The rifling is called centrical' from the * No official report has been made as to the breech-loading trials lately in progress. Pig. 78. and that it put every shot At 1300 yards the Whitworth into a bull's eye one foot in diameter." has been considerably altered from the original hexagonal form. Armstrong and Whitworth 12-pounders and 70-pounders is now in In Mr. the outer bearprogress. The 70-pounders are ready for trial. and the Armstrong anj shunt 12-pounder and 70-pounder guns.

1 in . . projectile leaving the gun. and of powder. .448 peculiar Ordnance. weight of 39 lbs. in.) chamber. . sists in leaving three or His present rifling conmore very narrow lands and the in the gun. following are the particulars of the rifling and shell (Fig. : —Twist. . without jar by the Tiiis is first pressure of the elastic fluid. trials of 1861 in. 337. 13 oz. depth. 223." 53G. the Projections are planed in the shot to correspond with the lands. shot to turn against in loading. 4 lbs. ex- . length. in the . (Figs. 222. 221 and 222) taken out for the Scott's groove and rib. 0'20 in. passage Full-sized section Scott's rifling. 48 ft. efiected by the peculiar curves of the shoulders of the 3 grooves (Fig. «i38. Ltnall Thomas. which. 3 width I'T in. is centered on its rounded bearings. Thomas's first system resembled the Hotchkiss expansion system (566). The 6 lbs. 223). diameter. 4'42 bursting charge. . upon without being compressed In case of large calibres with a shallow shoulder is or strained. its in- stead of inclining towards the bottom of the bore in Fig. which incline towards the centre of the bore. heavy projectiles. 6-28 diameter of powder(592. numshell ber of grooves. out. . merely —Mr. and thus form 3 rails for slide out tlie projectiles to Fig. 11-88 in. 224) used in a 32-pounder east-iron gun. same number of very wide grooves sight. At first system closely resembles Commander Scott's (535). mode of centering its simple iron projectile. witji 5'5 lbs.

1863. the upon the whole cylindrical part of the projecGazette. cast with projec- tions corresponding with and slightly smaller than the grooves in the gun. But it will be observed that lift Commander are so rounded as to gradually the shot and hold in the FlO. lands. ^40. and that spherical shot cannot be fired from Mr. 29 . considerably is in. fabricated on the Armstrong plan. 225 and 226). with results given in Table 79. 224 Scott's shell. to bear Instead of being dressed. The lands are also in the way of loading the powder easily and rapidly. gun. and without some very strong and cumbrous arrangement to stop the excessive windage. like Scott's and "Whitworth's. 1863. Sawyee. Mr. centre of the bore. the United States —The Army Sawyer (Figs. A 9-in. was tried S39. cept that the grooves are 449 made in the shot and the projections in Scott's grooves it the gun. * Letter to Army and Navy Deo. 6th. projectile. at Shoeburyness on the 20th of Noveriiber.Rifling and Projectiles. Thomas's gun without injuring the three narrow lands. Thomas attributes the comparative inaccuracy of the to the stripping of the zinc bearings with firing* which the grooves of the used shot were surfaced.

1863. 20. . . Oednance. . Not. 300 lbs. Weight of shot (3 calibres). Charge. -fj in. Windage. 40 lbs. —Eanse and Deplectioit op Ltstall Thomas's 9-Inoe Gun. Shoebubtnbss.450 Table LSXIZ.

but has not been adopted in the service. Pattison's projectile (Figs. cast is upon it to fit the rounded grooves of the gun. The Armstrong under the shot latter head. with little or no com- pression. 229). The windage is stopped by a simple leather bat. into a cliamber larger than the rest of the bore closing apparatus reduces and whatever escape of gas there may be around the breechits range and velocity. c which driven upon the conical base of the shot by the powder-gas. 228.EiPLiNG AND Projectiles. 544. (which is 451 compressed slightly chamfered). . is This principle of construction of course applicable to any but has only been applied to the standard Ameri- can groove (560). c. and will be considered 543. 230). This projectile has been used with some success experimentally.* " Shunt" rifling is a modification of both the centering and the compressing systems. This plan was early adopted and perfected by the Prus.d. The must therefore be entered at the breech. so as to to stop the be sufficiently by the powder-gas form of rifling. windage. —With shot this system the fit larger than the bore. The shot was encircled by 4 rounded lead bands grooves in the shot. 227 and 228) has projections Pia. sians. Leather band. The Compreising is System. and is squeezed or planed to the bore by the lands of the rifling. who obtained great accuracy and range with charges of ->- the weight of the projectile. 541. 543. this is a centering projeotUe. Pattison's projectile. The rifling consisted of numerous shallow rectangular grooves (Fig. * or hoops (Fig. held in place by As most recently modified.

452 54:5. consists of The rifling a great number of ---^ ~~^^ shallow. 4 times enlarged. 229. Aemsteong. 232. 230. The grooves of the 6-pounder and 12-pounder are shown. —The Armstrong system of rifling for breechto. Adopted Armstrong groove. so that the shot can . narrow grooves 7-in. 546. 110-pounder has 76 — — (the ^see tables 1 and 2) —the object being Earty Prussian riflingj i to give the soft metal covering of the shot a very large bearing on the driving side of the grooves. and make up for want of depth. Pis. Pio. The shot-chamber of the gun is about i in. the Prussian compression system. 231. tried are shown by Figs. Original Armstrong rifling. larger in diameter than the adjacent part of the bore. last mentioned. have been Figs. 231 to 233. Early Prussian lead-coated shot. by 234 and 235. and was subsequent Ka. The different forms of grooves that Fid. and thus prevent stripping. Ordnance. loaders does not differ in principle from.

The ranges of several guns are given * For heavy guns. will thus be converted into muzzle-loaders. spealiing of operations at "Woolwich. to centre the shot as Fig. the worlanen are preparing button- shot (the centering system) for the 70-pounder3 and 100-lb.screw. and to give freedom in passing through the remainit is der of the bore . 1864. The Army and Navy Gazette. weight. rifling. the bore is Armstrong groove of 1861. this system of use. . which will prevent zle-loaders. with this rifling. rifling and projectiles seems to be going out of No new Armstrong guns. leaving the muzzle. 1st. which are to be substituted for those of 110-lb. From a point a few inches in front of the shot-chamber to a point near the muzzle. so soon loaders are finished. 236.Rifling and Projectiles. T'lS powder- chamber. 7"2 in. In the gun-factories. 4 times enlarged. from the rear. . 234. the continuance of the compressing system." the 70-pounders now in process of conversion from breech- . the same authority says: "We understand that the further manufacture of 100-lb. projectiles. . Fias. be easily entered 453 by Fig. . of June 4. in. as it is in contemplation to convert the r.to mould the lead covering of the shot at the it first instant of motion. —opening Fie. and in the descriptions of dif- ferent guns. shot-chamber.* in following Tables." The TO-pounders and the lOO-pounders. have been fabricated since the beginning of 1863. now in the service. 54:7. 2d. 234 and 235. 7"075 bore. which are intended to take the place of the prevent vent-pieces. the object being. the men are busily employed in converting the breech-loading coil tO-pounders into muz- * * * They are also preparing solid breech-pieces for the 110-pounders.s guns into muzzle-loaders. This is illustrated The actual diameters for the 110-pounder are in. Chapter I. —Armstrong 6 and 12-Pr. The particulars of the Armstrong have been given in Tables 1 rifling and projectiles and 2. says : " In the laboratory. through the breech. firing non- leaded shot. enlarged to 7'005. 233. lead-coated shot for the Armstrong breech-loaders has been stopped. On the 13th of August. 7 in.

coated alloyed with tin. and the score made nearer the base. 236 to 239) is of east iron. Bashley Britten shot. but. charge. cutting the heat of the zinc its would draw temper. by Mr.48 4-18 16 lbs. near the centre. to with lead harden ering it. now soldered to the cylindrical part of the shot.g^ Mean range (yards) Mean difference of Mean deflection With averages 12 lbs. encircling the shot (Fig. The steel however. or score. This soft metal covin place was formerly kept It is by grooves. The with the practice Armstrong rifle llO-pounder gives the following averages lo „„. 237). the surfaces of the lead being otherwise nearly straight lately. 237). 548. The projectile (Figs. requires under. the soft . invented (581). for the lead to strip into. range 3387 61. In the earlier shot there was an opening. by a solder. at 10°. 549. metal has been reduced in front. which is now the largest part of the shot (Fig. the range 4139 yards. which zinc is turned smooth. .: 454 Ordnance.

238. the fuse is adjusted so as to prevent the ignition of the bursting . As the cartridge must fill the powder-cham* This shell was first patented by a Mr.Rifling and Projectiles. Holland. in 1854. and. the canister-shot.3 530. Pio. The segmental shell (Figs. The cartridges for the Armstrong 110-pounder are shown by Figs. 45. AnnstroDg segmental shelL 5£»1.) short of either kind of ammunition. shell. 240 to 242.* Fig. . of the solid shot thus preventing the risk of running (717. 237. charge. 239. Armstrong lead-coated if shot. 238 and 239) is intended to answer the purposes of the common Flo.

— 456 Ordnance. =2 II "3 > se-r—^ .

M l-> . 457 O J 1^ Area expressiDg Error.<! O CLi .^ •^ s M i p 09 CQ I U^ P •O (J o zc P? bo tf) .S -S « M CO S u o .Rifling and Pkojectiles. rt cu E M O U .!. Area expreBSing^ Error.

Minute No. 28th March. 8625. Diameter of Bore 3 inches. Peacticb. Height of axis of Gim above plane. 1861. Armstrong Breech-Loading 2. of Armstrong's Breech-loading 12-Pdr. L. Nature and object of tlie Experiment^-To ascertain the Eange. Width. Akmbtbong's B. Gun. Wind. Iron Gun. .— Experimental 12-PouNDER. f Nature. Direction of | J Ordnance Depth. I "Weight Wind. South—8. 2d April. lbs. 12-Pdr. 11 3 8 -j Length TJ feet. Stores received. 1861. LXXXI. 0-15 inches. 3i feet. in comparison with "Whitworth's Breech-loading 12-Pdr. 29-7. . Programme received. April 6. &c. 0*05 Inches. No. Number 88. Barometer. Shoeburyness. if rifled. Spiral. 1 turn in 88 calibres. cwt qrs.Grooves..458 Table Ordnance.

Wind. Major axis 3 in. Barometer. 3625. . if Eilled. lbs. Depth. 186L 1. Nature and object of the Experiment—To ascertain the Eange. 2d April. 459 —Expeeimbntal Peaotice. 13-Pdr. I. 28th March. "Width.. — — . Whitwoetu's B. 12-PouNDEE. in comparison with Armstrong's Breech-loading 12-Pdr.. April "Whitwoeth Breech-Loading 2. 2*75 in. &c. No. of Wind.XXXTT .-—. Gun. Iron Gun. f Diameter of Bore. Programme received. Table T. 9 8 Ordnance Direction ) 8 8-12 feet. Stores received. 3^ feet Nature. Grooves. . 29 • 7. of Whitworth's Breech-loading 12-Pdr. Minute No. No. Minor. C Shoebuetness. L. Height of axis of Gun above ^ane. 1 turn in 55 inches. cwt Weight Length qra. / Spiral. South—3.Rifling and Projectiles.

242). fired at target. . Table LXXXIII. PouNDEKS.j 12- lb. 8 oz. 5'. charge (Fig. I and Aoouract of Lone Airo Short ABMSTEOua H. Charge. The whole is secured by a wooden screw. Ordnance. Ship "Ezoellent. —Ranse . Elevation. The lubricator consists of a hollow disk. 1861. to a wooden plug. as in the 10-lb." Mat 22. the necessary reduction of powder-space is made by placing a paper cylinder inside the cartridge. filled with tallow. of thin copper. 7° feet square. Projectile. whatever the amount of powder. tied into the mouth of the cartridge-bag. in layers. 2550 yards and 14 Long 12-Pounder. 10-75 distant l''^. M. and resting upon a paper sabot and felt.460 ber.

— {Ordncmce Select Committee^s Report^ .Rifling and Projectiles. Table LXXXIT. 461 —Range and Deflection. AEMSiEONa Side Beeech-loading AND SeEVICE 40-POTniDEES.

462 Ordnance. a ^ .

463 .Rifling and Projectiles.

shot going in. Elevation of shunt shot. as shown. a section at the muz- with the shot going by Fig. I . to facilitate com- pression. . The grooves the muzzle are slightly wider than they are lower or down. levels. allel. width with the entire rib. The Fig. Fig.464 the shell) is Ordnance. at hj Fig. tion. par- eight inches (in the 7-in. zinc bars are sometimes notched. The tops of the Pis. and the deeper higher level being narrower. off to the where an incline com- mences running low -level 14 inches lower down the . so that the projectile will only enter by the low level. 243. 246 zle. fitted with three bars of zinc. and rotate the projectile. gun). 24A. The outsides of the zinc bars bear against the lands of the gun. for The high level runs into the muzzle. or portion of the groove. section at muzzle. abutting against and ribs cast projecting above iron on the shot. 553.244. development of is one of the grooves shown by in. and are stepped. and the same sec- with the shot coming out. have two the lower level corresponding in Shunt. 245.

1 in 28 in. then. fired with 5-5 trials of . weight.* 354. . runs against a curve. 15-22 shunt shot (Fig. Dec. at this point. side of the groove. in coming out. because the rotation would be in a contrary direction. oz. 5 lbs. 247). . projectiles. diameter of powder-chamber. one of the ribs of a wrought-iron gun giving Scott. 1861 (592). 1'25 depth of grooves. 0-18 333. in total length. when the compression. 3 in. the shot is regularly revolved In coming side of the groove. on it the right side. Rifling and Projectiles. it would hug the left side. in rows. way after about 100 rounds. shot coming out. are now generally used instead of zinc strips. . in the in. 30 . . number of grooves. and a greater number of rows. but slides along the by the straight bottom of the bore until it reaches the incline. from a cast-iron 32-pounder. 6'32 . or switch. and was unsuccessful. out. consisting in reversing the grooves by making the former in the shot and placing the latter upon the bore. 13 twist of rifling. powder. so that the shot runs easily. lbs. 465 Supposing the spiral direction of the groove to be such that the shot. section at muzzle. width of grooves. Shunt. 4-8 in. The particulars of the lOJ-in. 50"5 lbs. As the shot goes down. 13-in. it squeezes it up into the middle of the bore. have been given in a foregoing chapter (22 to * Upon some of the heavier "The projections modification of the shunt system. in going down. as viewed from the muzzle.. so that leaves cen- tered and tightly nipped. in.." Commcmohr Jour. Service Inst. which deflects it to' the side is upon situ- which the high ated. would hug the right Pie. all without compression. and other shunt guns and 30). commencing gradually. bursting-charge. Brass studs. diameter. . 1861.— . Soyal TJ. bove. level But. 245. the way down. The Armstrong was. in. the high level has become extinct..

slumt shots there are three kinds of projections for three different circular row of studs on the base guides the shot as purposes. A Zf cjl .466 Ordnance.

Table 467 70-poundek LXXXVII. Feb. Elevation. Result from 119 rounds. Diameter of Bore 6»4 109 in. in.) (Abstract of Report of Ordnance Select Committee. of Projectile Width of do Depth of do Twist. —Range and Deflection op the Armstbong Muzzle-Loading 6-geooved Shunt-Gdn. . 1 0-94 0-15 45 in- Mean weight 71-7 lbs. 6 oz. 6 Length of Bore No. Charge 11 lbs. 6. in. Bursting Charge jibs. turn in cals. of Grooves Weight 60 cwt.Rifling and Projectiles. Gun 17^ feet above plane. 1863.

OfiDNANCE. 70 grooves. Gun 17 feet above plane. length. in. I turn in 45 calibres. e-4in... Calibre. e . —Range no and Deviation of TO-poitndee Side Bheech-LoadiNa Aemsteons Gun..468 Table LXXXVIII. weight. 6903 lbs.

RiFLisra AND Pbojectiles 469 9 3. i t I- .

. of Kouuds. Pbaotioe with Akmstrong's 1-nsoa SHUjra-RirLED Mortar. No. Shells with Copper and Zinc Eibs.— 470 Table LS2XIS. Ordnance.

With higher elevations 6000 yards are easily attaiaed. FlO.). " 148 a49 250 252 Section at muzzle. 255 to 258. —The James (American) Figs. 564. is illustrated by and is cast with 8 or 10 longitudinal recesses or slits projectile . in. << 251. The gaining twist is not employed to any considerable extent except in the PaiTOtt gnns.^^ -9"3S^ w Figs. 92 in. 249. 1ft. . Fia. 250. 2-9 to 3'80 in. and Parrott's projectile (573) is particularly adapted to this twist. SB . 248 to Fig. or about 2 mUes.— Shunt rifling of Russian 9-i _ . 471 with 12° or 13° elevation (the greatest elevation the carriages If to wiU admit of). by having a very short bearing. 248.Rifling and Projectiles. FlO. 563. The long bearing James. from muzzle. from muzzle. 251. from muzzle. " X24. of the Armstrong shot (459) would evi- dently be stripped by lands with increasing pitch. Fig. is from 3000 to 3500 yards. 36 in.

The outer canvas wrapper is well greased. 253. 64. is cylindrical. United States siege gun. respectively. 6. if a shell. less in diamthe cylindrical part FlG. 259) consists of a cast-iron body. mm are the The projec- entrances to other recesses. The James projectiles used in the breaching of Fort Pulaski were fired from 42. which may be a shot or a shell. Full size. 252. if solid. which adheres to the tin and prevents its revolving on the shot. in which is wrapped a plate of tin. These leading from the periphery to a central orifice in the base. 257 a section through one of these recesses. Rifling of 4. and 5 lbs. The space inside of the tin wrapper is filled with melted lead.2-in.472 Ordnance. eter. tile retains its full diameter for f in. the gun by the powder-gas is acting through the orifice Fig. over which a iron cap is fitted. Eussian shunt steel Fig. The chaises were. and 24-pounder guns. 565. . cast- These parts are slightly less in diameter than . FiS. and to clean and lubricate the gun. of powder. Fig. d.. 254. of its length at each end of The intermediate space is ^ in. which is pressed out into the grooves of e. forming a recess. and 48 lbs. The gun is. and weighed. 8. average weight of the projectile for a 42-pr. covered by a piece of canvas. with a cylindrical base of diminished diameter. 84. 32. from the central cavity. are filled with soft metal. 81 1 lbs. 64J lbs. 255. to insure an easy entrance. respectively. HoTCHKiss. secured to the tin by being folded under it and cross sewed. 566. —The Hotchkiss (American) projectile (Fig. (old) in. Its length is 13 of which 6 f in.

The lengths and weights of projectiles of difiPerent calibres are varied according to circumstances. James inertia of the shot. thus squeezing out the intermediate Fig. Em. since the rebellion Government at the rate of 3000 per commenced. lead into the grooves of the gun. James shot. New James shell. Thomas. —Mr. 255. as in a vice. projectile (Fig. Lynall Thomas's (English) Journal. The groove between the body and the cap power of the powder. without packing. the lead is covered by a greased canvas band. and at the same time holding the lead. 260).* 567. As in the James shot. Mr. 256. 1-1. * In a letter to the that he is Army and Navy 1863. is 473 cast full of lead^ so that the first Pig. of Not. is devoted to driving the cap farther upon the body.Rifling and Projectiles. Hotchkiss states furnishing his projectiles to the day. 258. . before the FlS. over 1600000 projectiles. whole projectile is overcome. as used with little success in the competitive trials of 1861. Section of James shell. TJ. and that he has made. 257. the bore of the gun. so that it cannot revolve on the projectile. S.

closely resembles the Hotchkiss projectile. 474 Ordnance. 1 5^ oz. range on record after a —10070 yards. charge. weight of shell.. . 35°. in. depth of grooves. 27 lbs. charge. . of 7 tons Fif! 2 fin. 7 width of grooves. diameter. With a 7-in. . turn in 18 feet . and a 175-lb. . 7 lbs. 6-3 in. 55 lbs.. 3-2 in. .. 368. 10"2 in. 259. No. of grooves (flat. Section of the Hotchkiss shell 1-8 in. forged solid at the Mersey Iron works. length. Thomas has obtained the longest The gun burst few discharges. the rifling and projectile are as follows : The lead is forced into The particulars of rifling. the grooves by a sliding ring instead of a cap. bursting charge. Pm. weight. puddled-steel gun. 7-grooved. diameter of powder-chamber. Lynall Thomas's early projectile. lb. . 1 Pitch of . Mr. shot. elevation. or nearly 6 miles. O'l . square-cornered).

The than the bore. The Schenkl (American) projectile (Figs. from which point. so as to run home weights and lengths are varied for different service. to the rear end. so that there shall be : no lateral slipping the exterior is cylindrical. 570. the interior of which made conical and grooved to fit the projections on the casting. than ^ of its length from the forward end it . and slightly smaller The powder-gas drives packing forward upon the cone. 261 Pig. Schenkl projectile. papier mdchS flies off in the shape of a harmless powder. 262. without patch. but illustrates the principle of several projectiles extensively used in both the Northern and Southern States. ScHENKL. Around this rear portion is placed a is ring of papier mdohe.Rifling and Projectiles. 569. —The Reed (American) system (Kg. Schenkl projectile. 261 — and 262) is a casting. and made so compact as to Upon leaving the gun. Reed. whence it is the pajuer-mdehe jammed into the grooves of the gun. having its greatest diameter a little more Fl&. Thomas has been described under the centering system. the projectiles are usually of Eng- . 475 The rifling lately adopted by Mr. presents the form of a truncated cone. 263) is not largely adopted in the form shown. with straight projections cast upon it. the rotate the projectile without stripping. easily. In the latter. with papier mache patch.

571. 266. The small metal studs a are greater in number than the grooves of the . shot for an " 18-pounder. and have a brass disk. expanding copper cup ever its size. planed) on the base of the shot.. gun Fig. bolted to the base of the shot. make. c is secured to the base of the shot. The Fig. jections cast (or in case of steel shot. The engraving shows a 21-lb. projectile. or shown by gun by Fig. The projectile manufactured by the Blakely Ordnance Co. . The pressure of the powder ex- pands and mashes the ring into the grooves of the gun. The Reed cast into the base of the shot.. 263. what- and is prevented from revolving on the shot by being compressed by the powder-gas against proby a single tap-bolt. 263 shows a comigated ring of wrought iron Fie. and elsewhere in England. — Captain Blakely's projectilei. to lubricate the gun. and of Brooke's (Confederate) 7-in." \ 57S. 900-pounder gui (66). size. or a brass cup.476 lish Ordnance. is The groove of Captaia Blakely's 12f in. and hold up or centre the point of the shot. 266 (104). 264. is illustrated by Fig. Fig. 264. The soft space e is tilled with tallow. Blakbly. some of the studs will bear upon the lands. The rifling of Captain Blakely's 9-iQ. gun so that however the shot is put in. to be used with the Blakely guns and Brooke's guns.

573. parallel to its length. In the 3^. greatest at the shot. Fig. projections. in is maximum depth. is 477 shown by Fig. and -^ The bottom corners of the grooves . gun. is numerous gearing. 574. the recess The diameter is of RiiJing of Brooke's 7-in. The Parrott projectiles used in the breaching of Fort Pulaski were 30-pounders —charge. like the teeth of by which the ring is prevented from revolving on the shot. and are used Commander Scott's projectile (535). FuE size. and about in. The entire shot is slightly smaller than the bore. the grooves and lands are of deep. Rifling of Blakely 9-in. in width. Parrott guns. to li 1 in. so extreme rear of the that the brass ring cannot fly off without breaking. averages about 250 lbs. gun. 265. which mashed into of the gun by the grooves the explosion of the powder.lbs. (32-pounder) Parrott shot and from 70 to 100 lbs..Rifling and Projectiles. 268 and 269) consists of a cast-iron body. so as to be easily rammed home. 6'4:-in. equal width. Pabeott. recessed around the corner of the base to receive a brass ring from 1 in.—The Parrott projectile (Figs. The 8-in. with a modification of The grooves are 4 in number. The shell is weight of the lbs. 267. projectile weighs from 132 to 175 and the 10-in. The ring recess in which the brass provided with is cast. rifling of the in.

I 478 Ordnance. M O o Ph o o w I— CD 00 00 CM O H PM td g o 1 X .

Rifling and Projectiles 479 rt .

480 Ordnance. § b O M m o .

481 .Rifling and Projectiles.

The 10-in. at 0. the twist Groove of Blakely 12|-iii. Pig. 575. 268. Parrott 100-pounder shell. long. Ordnance. . 18 feet. rifle has and ends at 1 The bore 11 grooves. rifle has 15 grooves. the twist com- mences 136 at 0. The bore is 130 The 8-in. having Fig. The twist of the grooves in the lOO-poiinder comat 1 revolution in in. long. Parrott's hollow shot. 270 shells and 271 show the accuracy of the Parrott 100ia practice which was much like service. 269. mences at and ends Fia. 267. turn in 23 is feet. commences is and feet. ends at 1 turn in 30 The bore 144 in.482 are rounded. gun. long. pounder Figs. in. Pull size.

2 do do 4480 33^0 2352 336 2240 Scotch Gun-Heads do 12768 The Dbhbity.. Charge. 1151 ft. entering the bore. 1862. 483 Table XCI. Foundry. metal was 2^ hours in fusion. The cartridges . by pmiN& it 1000 Times with 100-lb. at 3*75 in. was reinforce. No. The gun was fired by a friction tube. 7 were 5-7 in. lbs. commenced at o. 1725 lbs. diameter. Cast Greenwood Greenwood Salisbury — May 22. The powder was grain. with rounded corners. and weighed. made from a bar 4x4 in. extreme 154-25 130 5 Do. vent vertical. diameter. Do. Length. 29897 7. 339. Do. Trial op Parrott 6 '4-Inch 100-PotrNDEB Riflb. furnished by the Navy Department. Inches. i ^ No. mean of 3 fires. pressure per sq.Rifling and Projectiles. Dimensions. and consisted of Dupont's No. Muzzle Increasing twist I3<038 Grooves square. in. Bae. Gun. 34975 long and 3-2 in. Bore Trunnions Trunnions at Diameter of Bore 6-4 8 • Do. long. in. thick. Tensile Strength.. 7.2848 Wrought-iron and 76 ft.. 27 in.3750 Head. July 1 to July 19. Projectile and 10 lbs. in vent. No. "West Point. Iron. Grooves Width of Grooves Depth Weight do 124 o-jii o-i Preponderance 9812 zo |- lbs. ** Copper bushing from the bottom.. 8226 lbs. 1862. do. and ended at muzzle with i revolution in 18 ft. Initial velocity. Diameter reinforce ^5 '9 Length from face to end of -. finished. Inches.

good Do. but were not only to polish them. do. Their edges were sharp end of the trial. Four were fired at 10°. The projectiles used averaged '^^° to 100 The gun being at yet in good condition. —Shot flat-headed. do. broken 73 927 1000 At the 300th round 3 incipient cracks much increased by constant firing. when heated by firing. range good Do. and 18 at 15''. when cold. —The was not diminished at the bore was gauged at the termination of every 25 rounds. lbs. good 48 2 2 i Unloaded shell. was 130°. and opposite where the reinforce terminates. The elevations varied from 15°. Star-Gauge. and the accuracy of firing appeared round the vent-piece. — The gun less often became very much heated from the rapid as fast as one round in results. The effect of firing on the grooves was and well defined. 34 at loJ% 6 at 14°. Shells loaded with sand. 12 8 bad Ring broken. the majority- 4-I'' and 5"- Of the der projectiles. averaging is loi^ lbs. . averaging 98^ lbs. 81°. seat The firing greatest enlargement was -023 inches. bad Sound angular. Of the remain- Wobbled.— 484 Ordnance. Parrott's Projectile. 927 took the grooves perfectly and performed well. than two minutes —and the consequent expansion of the metal gave large The temperature of the gun. with Brass Rings at the Base. near the of the brass ring.

truncated " Weight Weight Weight Weight 150 176 155 lbs. weight. . 6ooo lbs. 34059. in. —Trial 1 of Paeeott 8-Inoh 200-Pouni)ee Rifle. Bore. conoidal " " 17^" 19 " " Long shell. and ended apeil 2. Hollow Short shot. at muz- specific gravity of metal. . zle i rifled with 1 1 • grooves . 485 "West Podtt: Table XCII. prepared with brass in. truncated 15 15 Solid shot. long. " " 200 " The cartridges fitted the bore with just windage enough to render loading easy.Experiments against Armor. 1862. . wide. truncated shell. -a p . 23 ft. I-J- tenacity. 7 3025 rings. commenced mat 28. 8 in. Projectiles. increasing twist.

Time of Bight. — (CONTiiniED.: 486 Ordnance. in. at the position of the expanding brass and was At 90th round At looth " June dulum . great. zo struck within 10 sq.) loo shot fired into a Accuracy very 5 feet. had not been largement was 12 rings. The greatest enfrom the bottom of the bore. -004 in. Of bank aioo yards distant. Drift not to exceed the first 26. AH the projectiles took the grooves with'out failure. 6^ to 6J seconds. -006 « of the same gun by means of Benton's Electric Ballistic 2. — Initial velocity Pen- p p . Table XCII. as the gun fired before. which was remarkable. and was the first gun made of this calibre. ft.

was hit. 6 times in 14 consecutive rounds. 578. 577. 274 and 275. square. 8 11 by 4 ft. trated Mr. Fia.RijFling and Peojectiles. was hit 9 times in 17 consecutive rounds. The cup of lead at by a thin brass sleeve which and rifling are illus- forced into the grooves of the gun. Buckle. while firing the gun 1000 rounds. Jeffbet. 273. 271. The smaller target. The other target. a hollow. and in. —The is projectile. has cently employed in the United States the base of the shot is held in place Army. set at 2000 yards from the gun. is Stafford. as shown. —The projectile shown by Fig. The targets were made of boiler-plate. A brass cup also been re- forced upon the conical base of the shot (590).. Fig. 272 has re- cently been introduced in the United States Army. 2 in. 210. respectively. 10 ft. Jeffery's projectile by Figs. 487 been made at the 501st and 601st rounds. ft. . into it is cast . 576. resem- Pia. The lead which is affixed to the rear of the projectile by dovetails.

CO CO o 3 Eh" M o Ph ^ J3 .488 Ordnance.

489 -a u B 3 a a 3 O OQ tXl o M J3 O l: - -T .5 s 5" § O i .Experiments against Armor.

4'6 in. 580. diam- FlO. Beittek. 1-65 weight of shot. 278 has been employed by Captain Blakely for this pro- . The range of the 100-poiinder projectiles. 212. Fl&. and resembles the American system. of grooves. . as is Fig. width of . turn in 64 feet . 7 in. 6-3 in. lbs. is at present in considerable favor in England. 0-12 in. . rifling. depth of grooves. 45 length. grooves. shown Jeffery. 9-68 in. 1 . 2 lbs. Ordnance. 2Y4 Jeffery's ahelL by Figs. bursting charge. 8 oz. both in the shape of The groove shown the grooves and in the expanding lead base. No. . — compared with the Armstrong shown by table 108. 273. r Stafford's new projectile. Buckle's projectile. : charge in a 32-pounder cast-iron gun —Pitch of . diameter of powder-chamber. . Bashley Britten. 276 and 277. by Fig.490 lb. The system of Mr. eter.

which roughly cleans the surface. held for about 2 minutes in a Jefifery's rifling. hard- ened with zinc or tin. This process for is now used Armstrong coating the projectiles (549). Fig. and was adjusted Britten's rifling. 581. as follows is : iron projectile heated to a dull-red heat. and causes it to expand into the grooves. The The process. It is finally placed in an iron mould. dipped in tho- sal-ammoniac. of projection on The amount the ring //. T -u i lead ring to an iron shot.275. 276. so firmly that the explosion will not strip it off. The projectile. screwed to usually of the bottom is Britten's projectile. The most vention T novel and valuable part of Mr. for 3 or 4 minutes. squeezed out of the mould is by a screw. bath of melted zinc alloyed with antimony. Britten's PlO. and then placed in a bath of melted lead. as the projectile was formerly con- structed. so as . in- is the fastening of a . as practised at is "Woolwich. 491 for other expand- and is largely used by the Confederates ing projectiles. Fia.— Rifling and Pkojectiles. driven against the lead. thus coated. 279. • by zinc solder. and lead from the last bath is poured around it. A wooden plug. regulated the press- ure of the lead against the bore. jectile.

projectile at 10° elevalbs. To Mr. windage without wasting power or straining the gun. 584. diameter. however. Select \ No. diameter of powder-chamber. The following are the particulars of the rifling andproFm. 1863. Armor-Ptincliing punching is Projectiles. depth of shot. 4*7 bursting charge. of powder. 218. 1862. in. 1663. 211. 6*25 " _ '~^ ' in. . . in. with 5 lbs. in. charge 10 are from 3400 to 3500 yards. . June 2d. the Ordnance Select Committee say (Novem"there Is great reason to expect similar results from the guns of the service wlien the will same material (for sheila) is employed. 583. ranges of the Britten 100-lb.* lately fired through the Warrior target (23 1)^ in his patent specification :f thus described by the inventor ber. 3 lbs. No. . . Whitworth. weight of . (592). 0-10 Pia.. always be due the great distinction of having first effected it. of grooves. lO"? in. and a cast1 in 48 feet .) that * Speaking of armor-punching shells. —"Whitworth's armor- shells. . 5 width of grooves. 7 oz." Report of the Oommittee on Ordnance. 383. iron 32-pounder gun —Twist. lbs. 1862.— . Britten's projectile. jectile used in the trials of : 1861. The tion. 492 to just stop the Ordnance. 47 length. 2 grooves.

Rifling and Projectiles. to the shell. thus fracturing before it has had time plating. 280. 219. properly hardened.Britten's early projectile. A. Pig. sufficient to pene- generates so much it heat as to explode the bursting charge in the shell. shells are Fig. on a shell striking armorplates of any considerable thickness. of metal 28. They are solid for a sufficient length in front of the internal cavity to give the requisite strength for penetration. to pass through the armor- Another cause of the armor-plates ineffi- ciency of shells heretofore employed against has been. and with velocity trate. 281. " 493 Now it has been found. that that the the shells have been so force of the to weak fracture blow has been sufficient them mechanically this . Fig. Pie.^. . or both. that one cause of the inefficiency of shells heretofore employed against armor-plates has been. 282. Whitworth's armor-punching projectiles. that the concussion. shells have been formed being or brittle. According my made Fig. also to and * * in many * cases from the form given invention. weakness has arisen usually from the material of which soft.

heated redness. Captain Norton completed an elongated rifle-shot and shell. indicate that it is properly tempered. in 1828. it and cooled by its jets of water or brine. i to ^ in. is steel). sometimes used to enable the regulated shell to be more thoroughly hardened. Mechanics' Magazine. is The front plug. being dressed and to carbonizes a forged bar of homogeneous iron (or very mild. firing aflat-fronted steel punch-formed rifle-shot from an air-gun through a Life Guard's cuirass.' " Cor. Norton stated that ' . as it is uses the flat front for punching armor. or other material which lieat. * * * in x832. and to regulate the is sufficient to ignite. The "I time of bursting is by the thickness of the flannel layers. at a range of 800 yards. 1863. have found practically.— 494 " Ordnance. put into the ordinary case-hardening material. pene- with facility a 5-in. a round end will glance. will. the bursting charge is surrounded with a proper is thickness of flannel. we find Captain Norton at Windsor. The shot is is made largest in the middle."* 587." a non-conductor of 583. WJiitworth then states that he converts or highly deep. side. virought-iron plate supported by a heavy backing of timber and iron skin. He then tempers by placing base on a block of metal heated to a dull-red heat. which then. as well as at various other places. until a straw-color at the point and a blue color at the base h. thus leaving room for the body to * " In the year 1824. Jan. diameter of 7 inches. x x. and propelled trate by 27 lbs. because the hole made by the head always larger than the head. generally impossible to make a shot strike at exactly the right angle. lowly- carbonized bored. Mr. such as shown. with complete success. WTiitworth because. by drilling a hollow tube into its front. we find him using them at Dublin. and Captain it might also be converted into a shell. having a maximum. and exploding powder placed on the other This steel punch-fronted rifle-shot was tested at "Woolwich. The fuse usually employed for igniting the bursting charge is dispensed with.the bursting charge." the speciflcation continues. time of ignition. Addlscombe. of powder. 30. also hardened and tempered. and in 1826. Mr. as the heat generated by the impact of the shell To prevent the heat generated by impact from acting prematurely. 'Woolwich. " that a shell. and Sandherst. 586.

Stafford (249) for punching armor. pass through without 495 flight. armor. 284. 590 A. which mashing Mr. . but reduced and chilled at the end. with chilled end. covered with wood. (p) The following before and after chill in considerations and facts are quoted from the inventor's circular The engraving shows the shaft projectile * Cast-iron spherical shot have been more recentl7 cast with a England. Bates & Macy. Scott's steel shell. so that its full size of is weight Parrott's shot. 285. by Captain Palliser. The proposed by Commander is Scott for punching 284. while the area upon which the powder acts is the same for both. 589. (570). with a percussion fuse in the rear. are shown by Figs. much resistance and better The best compromise results in the shell form shown.— a Rifling and Projectiles. The projectile is rotated by a brass disk attached to the rear modification of the — Eeed system by Figs. of : Kew York. simply to centre is attached in the rear to a piston the the bore. it. 588. proposed The by sub-calibre shot and shell Fig. is " illustrated 287 A to 287 E. shown by Fig. 285) is is entirely of cast iron. Fig. The sub-calibre projectile of Messrs.* 59 0. like strong soft cast iron. 286 and 287. very small compared with the fall- calibre projectile of equal length. Captain prevents its Parrott's shot for iron-clad fighting (Fig. The steel projectile.

and any tendency towards tumbling " is entirely prevented. The form of the Stafford's sub-calibre punching-shell. A right motion is thus secured in the direction of the axis of the projectile. its may be expressed by . the tail being guided in the minor bore of the breech. 286. by an annular disk line a point before the centre of gravity . multiplying tiles weight by the square of its velocity but projec- of equal weight and velocity. for perforating iron armor. at to the shoulder of the head. Ordnance. It occupies about one-eighth of the space is in. By a proper device in the breech of the gun. whilst the impulse of the discharge communicated (n). the gun. but of unequal resistant areas. tlie bore of the piece. thte true direction of its flight does not ciple of its projection is the depend upon as that same The prinof the arrow. or piercing ships under water. however. and of equal weight with a ball Pig. The force of a projectile. or for entering masonry or earthworks. end of the head conical.496 loading. . its this projectile can be rotated during discharge. for may be square. (b) of the calibre of Stafford's sub-calibre punching shot. of greater or lesser weight. but rotation. or its impact. 281. for a shell. The centre is of gravity is placed forward of the centre of bulk and lateral resistance. It may be. and of greater diameter when adapted Fm.

as the square root of the ratio of resistant areas. 32 . 497 will differ in penetrative powers.Rifling and Projectiles. the long. and the great advantage of reducing the section of penetration. in favor of the one of least area. portance of a high degree of velocity. Hence the im- 1^ fei a. * * * " The force of the gas being exerted in every direction.

and comes to the at ground within range command. thus dispensits ing with the usual vent in the gun. being about eight times greater on the large surface of the disk than on the head of the projectile. " The invention described requires a muzzle-loading. in which ease must have a differential tail bore . the disk is When freed from the stripped from the projectile. The disk may be fltted with a vent for discharging the piece. This arrangement leaves effected gun smooth-bored for the discharge of round shot or shell. This is done by the resistance of the atmosphere. or a jacket can be fitted to cover the pro- truding " of the shaft. the sooner Influenced "by these facts. The charge is contained in an annular cartridge tail (o). It fits loosely on the tail. bore of commensurate diameter. fire " This ordnance will the following classes of projectiles : . tail which shall act of the projectile. It by stopping the bore in the breech with a close-fitting which is bolt. the projectile is absorbs a given force more rapidly. by means of a upon the rifled the is rifle-box inserted in the breech. secured in place with a screw. smooth- bore piece. cliarge acts witli proportionate it far the gun. thereby straining power against the sides of more than the shorter charge in a In the latter. or the piece may it be adapted to contain the entire projectile. " of the projectile passes The force is applied to the base of the head of the projectile by means of the disk (d).— 498 narrow Ordnance. and occupies the bore when loaded. gun. as shown in the engraving. a large diameter of cartridge has been deemed essential in the system under consideration. should prove desirable. The advantage of the rifle motion can be gained without the expensive and weakening process of grooving the bore of the gun. and the piece relieved of strain. and guides the head in passing from the gun. and thereby increasing durability. in pieces which are fitted in the manner it shown in the engraving. Through the space in the middle the in loading. The Avindage is stopped by a leaden flange inserted in the rear edge. fitted with a small bore through the breech for the insertion of the tail of the shaft projectile .

the fired projectile air. of served to prove the the- ory of the system. it no matter reaches. as in the air. The first trial of this system of shooting was made with a model cannon about sixteen inches in length and of two-inch The bore of the breech was half an inch in diameter. The chief object was to discover the proper proportions in the distri- bution of weight and form. head. twelve Eound were fired first their penetration was about three and a half inches through. A 12-pounder . gun was fitted by boring the breech for the tail of the The length of the bore was 40 inches diameter. 4:-62 The length of projectile was 53 inches diameter of the . —the shaft projectiles went entirely "The cast-iron second trials were with a larger piece. one inch and five-eighths— of the tail. The balls target was a white-oak . 499 2d. The easy is application of this improvement to ordnance already in service an advantage which is very great. and to show entire feasibility in practice. and others were not —but when fired they to 2 lbs. . inches thick.lbs.Rifling and Projectiles. powder — ^the disks weighed "At a distance of 250 yards from the gun. Whether it be discharged into the water from above or below the " surface. Shaft Round shot and shell. or to its fiight what distance axis is it what Along round the entire path of its maintained in a tangent to the trajectory. projectile. 3d. nine-eighths. some of them were rotated in all its their flight. * * * " The shaft projectile will strike with its end. The charge was from 1^ from 2| to 3 lbs. inches. and was fired with three ounces of powder. Ist. All smooth-bore cannon can be fitted readily according to this system. The bore. or other smooth-bore missiles. The projectiles differed in weight from 14 to 16|. its motion is governed by the same principle. This theory has been proved in practice. at elevation may be fired. * * * It will not ricochet or glance like a ball or rifle-shot. butt. can plainly be seen sailing like an arrow through the The . and shell shot with smooth-bore motion. projectile weighed seventeen ounces. but will pursue the original direction. thus vastly improving their efficiency. Shaft shot and shell with rifle motion.

Lead-coated projectiles would. 289.— 500 Ordnance. in case of delay in firing. —Figs. Lancaster shell for molten metal. SheII§ tor FlG. to prevent the excessive escape of heat from either expanding the shell and sticking it fast in the gun. it makes a trajectory of less elevation. . They are lined with loam. and to test any seemiag objections which might arise to the theory and practice of the system. samples of the iron gave a tensile streng-th of 28501 per square inch. caster's and Scott's shells for firing molten iron. of course. or from igni- ting the charge. disk invariably comes to the ground before the projectile follow- ing it at an ever-increasing distance. a com- prehensive experiment on six different systems of rifling and projectiles was made by the British Government.S guns were new Lowmoor 82-pounders. 288 and 289 showLan. Competitive Trial of Rifled Guns. S. Pig. Molten IHetal. The whole of the The mean of lbs. 59fS. —In 1861. of 4:2 cwt. Scott's shell for molten metal. 288. The systems were as follow : ." 391. " These experiments have been regarded as valuable chiefly for preKminaiy objects. be destroyed by the heat of molten metal.

55 lbs. An expanding wad or a wooden sabot were Three circular grooves. 260). weight. rifling. 45J of the zinc . final trial. 594. one turn in 18 Jeffery's (Fig. deep one . difference of axis. deep one turn in 48 593. 213). wide and '062 in. and faced with in. (The projectile used on this occasion is shown bj Expanding projectile lead attached by zinc weight. deep one turn in .87 to $2. wings set to the angle on the projectile lbs. Scott.) 47 48 lbs. 274).25 967. Expanding lbs. edges planed. . Expanding projectile . feet. . deep . 211). Scott's (Fig. Thomas's (Fig. Britten. shot 2420. 32-lb. attached .lbs lbs lbs lbs Britten Thomas Smooth-bore. Lancaster. 1"8 projectile wide and •! in. Thomas. The results are shown by — Table 100. Five grooves. weight. 601 Fig. . 2 in. Centering system projections cast on the weight. Jeffery. 1476-25 1527' lbs lbs Do. Three grooves.50 438. In order to perfect the various systems for some preliminary experiments were undertaken during 1859 to 1861. feet. wide and "15 in. lead mechanically in. . wide and "225 in. 277.50 per gun. . Britten's. 1'65 feet.25 971 Haddan Lancaster JefFery 49-I. with '6 in. . weight. oval bore. Rifling and Projectiles. (Fig. turn in 25 feet. lbs.— . . shell 47^ 54^ 22 32 do. . cast Centering system . 51 used. 38f . Projectile planed to the twist of the rifling weight. 3"4 in. The was Scott estimated cost per thousand of these projectiles 40 47^ 49 lbs lbs $922. one turn in 20 feet. one turn in 64 Haddan's. Lancaster's (Fig. 1-875 feet. Seven grooves. 224). 45|- Seven circular grooves.50 429-25 The estimated cost of the rifling was $1. lbs. deep . the order of merit being as follows: Haddan. wide and shot "12 in. lead mechanically in. attached . Centering system fit . .

and deep increasing pitch from . it was then determiaed . . (Fig. 56 grooves. 247) centering and compressing system zinc ribs weight. To obtain a direct comparison of range. 3 studs faced in. the following systems were also introduced. . 197) lbs. Three grooves. weight. 1"25 in. 395. wide and 'IB in. —The endurance of the guns shown. is 396. . 50'5 lbs. velocities of the various projectiles are given in Table 101. . and The smooth bore 32-pounder. weight and character of guns the same. The Armstrong 40-pounder was here introduced. . Endtjbance of Competitive Eifled Gmfs. deep 1 turn in 28 calibres. one turn in 36|^ The The results are shown in Table 99. Endueais^ce. 59-5 . calibres.— 502 Ordnance. Armstrong's shunt (Fig. The results of this trial are given in Table 102. Gun. in Table 94 Table 20IT. Weight of compression system. centering system. with equal relative charges of tV the weight of the shot. shot. 41'06 lbs. The French plan with zinc 2363 in. . Three grooves. to make a new trial of the best systems. to 4"652 in 88'548 calibres. 1-919 wide. In the subsequent trial.

and may be ac- for. Jeffery. as the sine of is the angle of the rifling. The * Reference to Commander Scott's rifling (535) will justify a difference of opinion. Lynall Thomas's. driving side of the grooves. French. It was assumed that the French shot got through the bore with the least friction. by the accidental superiority of the iron. open it by the radial strain. The cup at the base of Mr. due to wedging in the bore. Jeffery. which for the guns mentioned shown in Table 96. Lancaster. — . and the sliding ring at the base of Mr. S98. Jeffery. Haddan. • French. 60 1 AcciTEAOY. is burst. — as follows First Trial. Lancaster. Thomas. as in the case of Whitwortb. Thomas. as liability of the projectiles : shown to in Table 95. Britten's system obviously strains the gun least. 399. 503 The Committee report that Mr. appeared to upset the lead with unnecessary friction. Britten's system. Seamd Trial. Haddan. especially of Mr. Jeffery's shot. Britlead. following mechanical considerations favor this view of the is but the Committee's opinion chiefly based on the great endurance of several other guns rifled on Mr. Lancaster. The order of accuracy in the two trials was . Shunt. 597'. especially in Mr. and Haddan (See experiments at Woolwich 644). The Committee believe that the jam in the bore. Scott. Lancaster's case. inertia of the shot simply tends to rotate the gun in the opposite direction not to .* Haddan. Britten. Scott. The Committee believe that the liability of the gun to be from the direct strain of rotating the shot. The case. Britten. 600. arid that the high endurance of some of the others was out of counted all proportion to the strain imposed. was somewhat worn by the The grooves of Commander Scott's gun were not perceptibly worn by the projectile. The ten's gun. is in the following order Lancaster (most liable). Shunt. Britten.: Rifling and Projectiles.

—Endurance Gttns. SCV. Beitten's System.504 Table Ordnance. op Cast-Iron Gtws rifled on Mr. .

Rifling and Projectiles. Table XCVI. . 505 —PABTicnLAES or Eiflins of Compbtitite Guns.

Lancaster Ordnance. . Haddan French Britten i-oo " 1-36 " " Shunt Scqtt 0.* is was not ascertained. JefFery I- ^*955 i-jy square inch 14 square inch. but shown by Table 98. Name of system. Table XCVIII. for a given weight. —'WiNDAaB " of Competitive Rifled Guks.500 Table XOTII.67 0-53 " " Thomas 1-26 city of its Commander powder Scott's projectile superior capacity. —Bitestino Ohaeges of Shells. Trial of 1861.

more easily injured. pendizt . with elongated as well as spherical shot. Mr. •(• Thomas dedined was remaining rounds allotted to him. hardened in In other particulars.Rifling anb Projectiles. less simply attached. with Britten's grooving). of the quality turned out avow a considerable distrust of cast by English foundries. Lancaster. are to be tried again.) placed behind it. Bashley Britten. Lancaster's system was rejected for irregular practice.f * Mr. the committee iron. Mr. and the heavy wood sabot (1 lb. The Mr. also the French system. and with the improvements suggested practice. Mr. Scott's system was rejected on account of inferior and the low endurance of the gun. (7-inch bore and 7^ tons weight) are cess of completion at Woolwich. with high initial velocities. See Ap- Since the above written. is not 507 even mentioned in the Committee's conclu- sions. and productive of greater friction. in capacity to the and Whitworth 7-inch firing the eighty-two rifle. Commander practice. But this rejection was qualified by the explanations already mentioned. Finally. Britten's. Haddan's system was rejected on account of the weight of the projectile. except with such restrictions as would limit them of to the use of howitzers.. The systems Commander Scott.* Indeed. by previous in prois The guns oil. on a larger scale. and Messrs. as a material to charge as for rifled cannon. because several . the trial of these guns has commenced. Britten and JeiFery (the two latter in one gun. Jeffery's plan is rejected. Mr. going tables. Lynall Thomas has subsequently adopted to the centering system (538). 5 oz. as compared with Mr. on account of the small strain upon his gun. guns thus rifled have showed a low endurance is and because the lead on the pro- greater in quantity. The inner tube cast steel. jectile first place is awarded Mr. the guns are similar in construction to the Armstrong muzzle-loading 110-pounder. His rifling was also calculated to burst the gun.

o a > o ci s .508 Ordnance.

509 .Rifling and Projectiles.

05 00 1-1 O O M o o H Iz. o O o <1 o I CO M i o hi .510 Area pf Ordnance.

511 t. .Rifling and Projectiles.

^ .512 Ordnance.

Rifling and Projectiles. 513 00 .

514 Ordnance. H n |zi O O H o .

Rifling and Projectiles. 515 vn a O o T o fa .


shot. ^ Mr. with 1300 feet per second. it would be 1230 yards. at 35° of elevation. fired from a Whitworth gun. during a long time of flight. at 33° of elevation. Service Inst. Civil Engineers." Mr. "A yards. as. shells. that whatever state shall thoroughly comprehend the nature of rifled-barrelled pieces. and that 57-lb. The difliculty of judging the distance. lioyal U. that of the G8-pounder only 2J lbs.. shells. at least impunity into apparently inaccessible places. and — — of observing the effect of the fire.. " 32-lb. they will by this means acquire a superiority which will almost equal any thing that has been done at any time by the particular . lioyal V. would be 730 yards." Maj. the strongest masonry. so that the chance of striking an object in this manner would not certainly be worth the powder expended. Owen. can destroy. Service Inst. shall introduce into their armies their general use with a dexterity in the management of them. with 2° of elfevation. that 21 -lb. can breach. and their occasional excellence in eflPort operating against armor (250). from a gun of Mr. in a short time. close this paper with predicting. "All these ranges being obtained at very high angles over 30° the 'angles of descent' of the projectiles must have been very great. "Construction of Artillery. shot. Thomas. shell is l-in. for instance. fired from rifled guna. masonry. at double the range. within 2000 yards. Jour. . fired "A 175-lb. or for still bombarding a naval arsenal. for supporting troops and shelling* tant woriisf and encampments." Inst. are sufficient to breach quickly a good wall. with 1500 feet per second. buildings.— — — Rifling aj^d Projectiles. from rifled guns. having facilitated and completed their construction. Prest. ranged 9153 A 3-lb. H. will or. and.. with a velocity of 1000 feet per second. the accuracy of the firing a longer range with the same elevation. ships. Bidder. therefore. when firing at masses of troops. the range. *The ]• bursting charge of the 110-pounder Armstrong 8-in. Jour. at 37^° of elevation. fired from an Armstrong gun. ranged 9688 yards. which the initial velocity of 1000 feet could command. Thus. so as to be able to fire all . "The night.' " Maj.:]: kinda of ordnance are required for breaching that 13-lb. Aug. from the same pieces. ranged' 10015 yards. shell is 8 lbs. confine the ranges of projectiles used for military purposes perhaps. Aug. L. warrant every that can be made to improve this new and (considering both land and sea service) most useful branch of ordnance. shells. Benjamin Robins made the following often-quoted prediction. one hundred years ago: "I shall. was a very material element to be able to lower the elevation. to 3000 yards. increased. in special cases. C. so as to cause. to any naval arsenal or maritime estabIt lishment. Owen. practical object of attaining exceedingly long ranges must be for attacking any and fortified place. shot. embrasures in the strongest . by that means. of laying a gun upon an object at a long range. or : was 1860. 1862. 1862.. with a comparatively small expenditure of ammunition. also the disturbing influence of the wind. rifled 517 dis- guns on shipboard. of moderate strength. etc. it would be 1620 yards the latter velocity giving the same accuracy. if not absolute very considerable annoyance. day keeping out of the reach of the enemy and to drop shots and shells with ruin.

2d. near or across ships. certain conditions of riuccess are common to all rifled ordnance.. with safety. 5th.: — 518 While Ordnance. ezoellence of any one kind of arms. Ac. Fire shrapnell or built-up shells over boats with safety. 1861). the small increase of accuracy due to improved balance of shot can hardly compensate for the inaccuracy due to an unstable plat- form . rifling is to diminish. service. Eesistance of the air. 9th. Be able. Tire a shot of large diameter (from 8 to 10 inches or more). the kinds of work special provisions to be done are so various." * Commander Scott Royal " specifies U. construction. Service Inst. —The object of (640). Position of the centre of gravity before or behind the centre of figure.* is tection is As far as iron-clad warfare concerned.the proadequate. at the necessarily short ranges of iron-clad warfare (253). because a high velocity gives a low trajectory 609.be required for some It is would appear each. fire-arms. Fire . and ricochet straight and evenly. because. Object ing causes 1st. 10th. to use the smashing round ball at close quarters. elongated molten iron shells. — is weight of the shot into the square of the velocity 2d. Be simple in its Be not liable to Give a flat trajectory. and especially the features of the most generally useful rifled gun and projectiles for small casemates and where the armament will certainly be limited. proposed to consider. the deviations of ordinary shot. then should. effects which histories relate to and will faU but little short of the wonderfu have been formerly produced by the first inventors of the following requirements of naval guns {Jowr." Tth. of Eifling.. velocity . injury from blows or weather. 6th. as far as possible. 4th. because the penetration^ balls. 8th. 3d. 3d. due to the follow- Want of uniformity in figure and weight around the longi- tudinal axis of the shot passing through the centre of gravity. 2d. 3d. Fire canister. A naval gun 1st. Have projectiles which deflect little. the require- ments of each turrets. Fire elongated powder shells. (smashing as the is better done by spherical (See 193) . Deo. that to . if. is obviously the most important consideration 1st. briefly the principles of rifling.

side. is and therefore.* 610. spherical shot is 67'1 rott or . Armstrong shot=3 Inches. : " " : ball=4. if a 12. rifled projectile is from 32 inches. In addition to tliese 519 tlie causes of inaccuracy. impression made by the shot from Parrott guns on the Crow's Nest. that the axis is in the vertical plane of cannon are of the most clumsy construction.5 20. following are : and cannot be modified by rifling The action of wind. in this case. Blunt. when a piece la elevated for a long range.-lb. The resistance of the air is assumed to be as the squares of the diameters of the projectiles. common horizontality of the axis of the trunnions. The cross- that of the Parto 38-5 square Armstrong 100-lb. the former will be less retarded.25. inches. G. that the resistance opposed to the ball projectile . 611. From which it appears. ball be moving with the same velocity. and thus to receive the least practicable retardation of velocity." for azimuth. W. Armstrong projectile and a resistance of the air as the ball. is which acts against the Armstrong and this comparison. the only opinion he will have will be. that at the distance of 4 or 5 miles the chance would be If any one will look at the in favor of hitting a target of 50 feet square every time.— Rifling and Projectiles. sectional area of a 100-lb. the direction of these deviations so rapidly shifted its from side to that the shot has no time to go far out of course either way. II. The diameter of the la-lb. and will consequently range farther than the ball. nearly as 4 * "We Our have no at. As an elongated bolt can be steadied by this rotation. or i Therefore the resistances will be as 9 2*25. the resistance of the air being assumed sights for in applying a telescope — to vary as the squares of their diameters. intended for a long range. " If an elongated shot and a ball of equal weight be fired with the same initial I velocity and angle of elevation. By rotating the projectile around is its longitudinal axis. for the diameter of the elongated projectile being smaller than that of the ball. the elongated shot will not oppose so great a surface to the For instance. the rotation of the earth.! or. more than twice that though rough (for . 12-lb. there the point aimed " no certainty. that the sighting for the direction in altitude is better than that Telescopes for this purpose should have semi-object glasses and lenses. There is no difficulty and quadrant to our guns. I. levels for adjusting the trunnions. a given weight of projectile can be put into such a form as to oppose the least practicable cross-sectional area to the air. with such adjustments for collimation. and the want of to all projectiles.

let A B be B C. a shot projected in the direction of Now. it will fly off to side. if the shot leaves the the figure. 290. but be it is formed as shown at Fia. lbs. left would be a its curve to the it of D G. Civil Engineers. which is about the initial velocity of rifled cannon projectiles. Royal U. its —"If the material of the shot be not homogeneous. or the other. shot will be resisted by a force of 432 103 127 lbs... " f Appendix to Construction of Artillery. as projected on a horizontal plane. . At a velocity of 1200 feet a sebond. 612.* 613. or form be not symmetrical. and that path. If.— 520 to 1. 291). is sufficiently accurate to account for the results obtained in practice. the shot rotates on the obliquity of the axis and the form of the point of the elongated shot are not considered). and one is not determined by any specific direc- tion. "In Fig. lbs. Service Inst. la-lb. * See also Competitive Trials of 1861 (592). Longridge of Symmetbt. Woolwich. 1860. the resistance of the air causes the projectile to deviate from the true line of flight. if the centre of gravity be behind the centre of Lastly. 20-lb. Prof. the arrow. evident that the resistance of the air will cause the shot to deflect in the direction its DE (Fig. Jour. Owen. the shot will turn over. Ordnance. " " « 40-lb. 290. Again." Maj. however. o/ArtiUery. if the front end be not symmetrical. 79 Therefore range as well as accuracy are greatly promoted by rifling. gun with a rotation arising from striking or rubbing against the inside of the chase. Aug. it according to the acci- dental circumstances under which leaves the gun. " " " " " " lbs. Accuracy." Inst. 1862. Want —The specific effect of rotating the shot :f is thus stated by Mr. An Armstrong loo-lb.

brought back from stated E towards the axis D G. The path of the projectile is of a much more complex form. the deviation will be a uniformly increasing to it. greatest deviation. and the aggregate deviation from the line of axis of the gun. at the as to its direction on the direction of the deflecting application.Rifling and Peojectiles. deviating to the right. and if projected on a vertical plane at right angles to tlie axis A C. increasing the distance FlO. at e or any part of is its path. increasing uniformly with the distance from the gun. and depending force. moment of its first If A be the gun (Fig. it generally and believed. D G as E was to the and its that. 292) seen projected on a horizontal plane. But the line AB is not absolutely a it is a curve of double curvature. of each of these cycbidal number curves depends upon the amount of the deflecting force. axis. that this retrograde motion goes on. and whatever be the direction of the deflecting force at the first exit of the shot. the shot in The formula to. or to the is left. in a vertical direcline of flight will downwards. until the shot reaches a point F. as far to the right of left. would consist of a series of eycloidal curves (Fig. one at right angles straight line . 521 and the shot is is the extent of lateral deviation is limited. at a distance . Now. according as the twist or right handed. 292. a-nd the of them is equal to the number of revolutions made by its flight. 293). the general projection of the be a line A B. c 1 of the shot from A C by the length A a of The length one of these cycloidar curves at each revolution. and the deflecting force acts on the shot as tion it leaves the muzzle. left of A C. for calculating these curves is given in the note before referred as calculated for and Table 104 gives the results the several guns therein mentioned. being the dis- tance E F y. 293. This. in fact. and results in a deviation. If the deflecting force acts in the opposite direction. the shot will be deflected to the right of A C. the shot travels in a spiral around the axis D G. however. not the case. B A Fig.

which would have given a deviation of 10 yards to a non^rifled shot. Ordnance." . projected under the same circumstances. and for a deflecting force.522 of 1000 yards.

the tendency to move the axis in the direction A C. it is any fluid pressing equally against it in obvious that the only effect of the fluid to dimin- and flnally to destroy the velocity. Conybeare. as the twist is slower. C. body be every revolving." Mr. drooped below the trajectory. the centre of gravity be behind the centre of the figure. then. the axis will move in the direction D. and vice versd. but that its flight. an excellent means of illustrating to the axis of this instrument. at if the velocity of motion be greater is F than at G. then. no tendency deviate exists (243). the tail that when the centre of gravity was near drooped . if the weight be behind the revolving disk. and this explained the imthe range of the Wliitworth projectiles. that is to say. If. 523 If a weight be attached in rotation." . " The velocity of this horizontal deviation of the axis is smaller If. rapidly in direction. Now rifled shot in the case of an elongated both these actions take place. 617. as the rotative velocity is greater. 616. when It the centre of gravity was in tlio centre of the length of the projectile. for instance. But if the fluid press with a greater on the side B. by tapering in the last case. the centre of gravity be forward. than on C. the axis will when deviate in the same direction as the rotation. 1860. without changing the posi- tion of the axis force A (Fig. the rear. the advantages of a rapid twist are manifest. on the other hand. the shot will deviate to the right. ish. but must be borne is in mind due that the deviation here sought to be counteracted solely to the centre of gravity being placed before or . with a right-handed twist. —" The next cause of If a is devia- from the friction of the shot against the air. tlie deviation will be to the rota- and these deviations is will be greater as the velocity of tion less . the axis of such projectile remained coin- cident with the line of trajectory throughout was obvious that the resist- ance of the air would be at a minimum provement that was effected in them in the rear as well as in the Inst. " Construction of Artillery. left . is The Buoh pressure of the air projectile always greatest in its flight . 294). tion is Feiotion against the Air. behind the to centre of the figure and if these centres coincide. front. Again. this. it Here. in a rifled shot. K.— Rifling and Projectiles.

e. the effect to roll the shot upwards. . As to the rate of twist. Captain Blakely says :* " Many experiments have been made.. tion of the twist. It is always in the direction of the twist. be a good deal affected by the nature of the greatest with a rough rifled surface. as the square of the rate of twist. whereas the opposite side is meeting . the actual result being a deviation in som3 intermediate direction A M. diameter of bore. so that the actual deviation is. " The deviation due to the friction. he could fire a bullet three-and-a-quarter diameters in length with one turn in 60 diameters he could use a bullet 2f diameters in length with one turn in YS calibres the bullet might be a little . in the direction F H. . greater. and shape of groove in degree of twist.— 524 on the under side. I Amongst may mention those of Mr. rifling. and in the other. others. also. Dove. being." 619. of precisely the same length. It will probably. gives a deviation to the side opposite to the direction of twist. the air. of Glasgow. of course. "The able in above considered. the difference of the two deviations. which greater as the twist is unavoid- all rifled shot. the side F always meeting the with the velocity due to the sum of the velocity of rotation and the falling velocity of the shot . 1861. Ordnance. in one case. may possibly vary as the square of the velocity of rotation. " The Swiss Government about the same time made similar experiments. March. the only difference being He found that. and i. as last described. who had a set of steel barrels rifled. weight. to some extent. more than If diameters in length. and sideways in the direction deviation is B K . the sum. with the velocity due to the difference of these two is con- sequently. if the centre of gravity be placed in advance of the centre of the figure. and consequently tiie axis is is moved in tlie direcair.. 630. with one turn in 50 diameters. . may therefore be. is 618. This counteracted by the gyroscopic deviation of the shot. Journal Boyal United Service * Inst. with a view to determine the exact length of bullet each degree of twist can steady. and determined on the use of a military rifle. Moreover.

. . the military service of this country is and weighs 520 grains. who use a small charge of gunpowder. * "As regarded the rate of twist. by Mr. the turn of the grooves should be to each other.Rifling and Projectiles. "We may also accept the theory acted upon by the Swiss. a man can use a charge of powit der which would disable heavier bullet velocity. having one turn in i6 diameters. The apparent discrepancy of these less results is explained by the very great charge of gunpowder used by the Swiss. so I need only briefly ref^r to them. "While General Jacob and Mr. "Whitworth. Mr. but the extremely short twist of one turn in 26 calibres. The bullet he wishes to introduce into 3 calibres in length. All the bullets I have referred to were and some tapering at both ends. field or Their bullets weighing than half as much as the En- Mr. him if he attempted to use with a he consequently obtains much greater initial 631. Whit- at that of the country."* solid. in all . measured in tenns of the calibre. The however. Dove were making experiments worth was making some own expense. of the Belgian artillery. with only one turn in 80 calibres. Whitworth's bullets. perhaps. that with greater initial velocity less turn will suffice. the most extensive series of experiments ever undertaken by an individual. according to Major CroquUlet. He found that a bullet 2^ calibres in length could be kept point foremost by firing it from a barrel with a twist of one in 67 at their calibres. they can be accurately ascertained from his published specifications. that. and the converse as proved by the Sardinians. not on the "We may fairly consider it proved by General Jacob. viz. in bore. on workmanship only. 525 yVo in. with a moderate initial velocity of bullet. not great. "With 80 grains of powder he can project this bullet from a rifle-barrel. Dove. " General Jacob made. and by Mr. is. and the rifle is very expen- depending for its accuracy development of any new principle. As he has taken out patents for any improvements he has made. even when the point was lighter than the base. tlirowing a bullet 2'4:i calibres long. one turn in 45 or 50 calibres is ample to give rotation to the longest rifle bullet required. initial velocity sive. to a distance of upwards of a mile with astonishing accuracy.

and was adopted in his pattern rifle. beyond a certain extent. had obtained the greatest results." Inst Civil Engineers. its object was to give a certain amount of rotation to the ball. jectiles or be driven out without taking the rifling. With reference to the rates of twist to length of bore. The ratio of twist to calibre. gave a similar formula. or rifle.' Rapid rotation could not be combined. ranged from 1 turn in 20 calibres to 1 turn in 136 calibres. with a high initial velocity. the ball would strip. for determining the proper twist of grooves. or httle more than one-tenth. and in connection with each other. 17 inches.' the Sardinian ' Hence. had adopted pro- made with projections to fit the grooves. with a velocity. . at high initial velocities. The initial velocity was. 1860. " Construction of ArtiUery. as their calibres. of the ball. * " Construction of Artillery. of the French artillery. effecting the same ends and in many cases a deficiency in one of the four ratios might be made up by an excess in another. provided the projectiles were similar. Colonel Theroux. Whitworth mentions the following facts :* "The rifle-twist in the 80-poTinder gun was one turn in 100 inches . except the rifled arms. unless the projectile was made with projections to fit the grooves. In the case of each parweight of powder to that of projectile weight of ticular gun. Mr. exceptionally low and a very rapid twist was required diameter or calibre. the following experi- ment was mentioned were prepared . — — to establish the necessary rotation in the balls. Whitworth." Mr. to the degree of rifling and in it was one turn in 60 inches was one turn in 40 inches. like General Jacob and Mr. as it left the muzzle. H (the helix or twist) =56 8 D. 1 turn in The second method was adopted in the Swiss Federation instead of one-tenth. projectile to cross-section ^rate of twist' For there were different means for together. Tiius. combined with a high initial The first mode was adopted in the Sardinia Bersaglierin rifle. consequently. and he believed such projectiles were destined to supersede those which were forced into the guns by the explosion of the powder. D being the be the best in General Jacob's experiments. the charge was only 54 grains. and its consequence. or in 26 calibres." Inst. The twist was. where. Without such projections. alike in diameter and bore. methods would secure equal accuracy. This rate of twist also found to was — — — — — . or by a slower twist. for firing elongated balls.l&60. accordingly. projectile 0'65 in diameter. in firing at a mark. the charge of powder was one-fourth the weight initial velocity. Omybeare. all four ratios. at a known distance but rifie-ball would have a much higher trajectory. rifle. and much less penetration. dif- all the conditions were identical. in the 12-pounder it the small 3-pounder. the powder to be consumed more effeotually. those experimenters who. 633. by discerning clearly the advantage of combining the accuracy of rapid rotation with high initial velocity. in the case of ttie twist. Civil Engineers. This produced so high an that 1 turn in 77 calibres suf- ficed to establish the requisite amount of rotation in the ball Each of these two . With respect adopted in the Whitworth guns. a flat trajectory and great penetration. This requieither by means of a rapid twist comsite amount of rotation might be obtained bined with a low initial velocity. and length of bore must be considered. and weighing 530 grains. enabling . : Two barrels.— 526 Ordnance. In this. than the Swiss. not a diameter and a half in length.

rotation This showed that It must bear a due proportion to the length of the barrel. while the barrel with four turns sent shot but very little A length of 10.about the same height on the target.Rifling and Projectiles. and the was found. inches was then cut only three turns. off the latter barrel. The inaccuracies of weight and figure are also likely to be less in proportion to the mass. is undoubtedly due. It One barrel had two turns. in some degree to its great size and weight." the less velocity less 633. the elevation remaining the same. The greater the specific gravity of a shot. Since elongated projectiles tend to turn over in the air axis —to rotate round their shortest of the projectile. G25. was desirable to have as much rotation as possible. be increased. them with an increased charge of powits elevation of 1° 20'. that. The its result was. and it was fired again with the increased charge. the velocity of rotation should increase with the length To accomplish this. fereace of twist in the rifling. Professor of . With a very long gun it was not advisable to have very rapid rotation. for this velocity will be diminished during flight by the friction of the air. it is the projectile should correspond with that of the bore of the piece. and firing they each carried the shot Mr. leaving higher upon the target. in proportion to their lengths. Whitworth then der. that to. Ohaeaoteb of Pbojectele — rrs Influence on Accueaot. fired and the barrel with two turns sent the shot considerably higher than with the small charge. it threw shot higher on the target than the other barrel. 527 other had four turns. fire. taking into consideration the length of the gun. and the deflecArtil- Major Owen. 624. —from the greater pressure of the twist of the rifling must the air below than above their points. (600-pounder) Armstrong shot (556). on placing them both at an them with 50 grains of powder. as the quick turn of the projectile was most it felt at the muzzle. essential that the axis of —In order to secure accuracy of tion of the projectile uncertain. of rotation will require. for otherwise the axis of rotation will be variable. The extraordinary accuracy of the 13"3-in.

for if they be either too far result for- ward or behind. there is "When loading any windage. Royal United Service Inst. and the other round the hind steady. on leaving the bore. part. unsteady motion must from the axis of the projectile being inclined to that of the bore.. 1861. as in the French elongated rifled shot. as is the case all rifled small arms having leaden bullets. December. August.. Commander Scott says upon to expanding shot is : — " The this subject. or there are two sets. one round the fore part.528 leiy at "Woolwich. no doubt. or with the rifled Armstrong shunt' gun. by placing the bearings at and that a violation random and in the wrong posishot. like the Armstrong or Prussian guns. to prove that the above principle is correct. the stable on leaving the bore. only results in giving an unsteady motion to the thereby causing inaccurate shooting. &c. bearings are over the centre of the shot. says Okdnance. L. the axis of the projectile will. upon this subject :* —" Should the axis of the shot on leaving the bore be unsteady. tion. as in the case of all muzzle- rifled pieces with hard projectiles having projections or slightly oblique if the buttons. and the results of practice shown. It is therefore indispensable that the bearings of the projectile should extend along the cylindrical part. " "When the whole length of the with almost cylindrical part of the shot bears against the grooves." 027. the friction along * Journal Royal United Service Inst. be tolerably With fit the Whitworth cannon. and there being such a very axis of tlie shot is practically trifling amount of windage. " Other cases might be stated. the projectile wiU have the 'wabbling' motion so frequently observed in experimental practice.. . the projectile fitting the bore tightly. 030. the axis of the bore and shot must coincide. movement of the axis of the projectile . there must be a but still.! "with reference difiiculty experienced in the expansion plans that of keeping the axis of the projectile coincident with the long axis of the piece. At low elevations. the projectile being made to the bore so accurately. of it. 1862. with breech-loading ordnance. or should be very near the centre of the shot. Thomas's ' gun. f Jour.

the latter will make but comparatively small impression. An illustration of this is found in the greater accuracy obtained at high as compared with that obtained at low elevation with the same gun." that. at 1033 yards. This to some of the shot striking less somewhat difference than the others. At high elevations. The compressed lead-coated shot is also likely to at be one thrown out of line by the greater compression of the lead point than at another.to 2 feet. with high charges. April. 34 . having noth- ing to raise must continue to rub along the bottom of the bore. with shell. which. while the former easily penetrates hard wood. 630. most. December. if the lead at the rear expands clear that the iron forepart of the shot. these leaded projectiles struck on their base.:]: But these projectiles were comparatively short. rifle projectiles front. Commander Scott says* that " the Southern Confederacy has pur- chased very many of its heavy guns from England. which are particularly heavy at the were found to have struck point foremost. the lead on its upper surface expanding the it. 1861. the shell keeps more fairly along the bottom of the bore. is another source of inaccuracy (6gi). ^ Royal United Service Inst. between hitting a and a bent shot. The stripping of soft-coated projectiles. it is . however.. and facilitate the equal expansion of the lead equally. f Jour. fire lead-coated At the cannonading against Eort Pickens.. is A . A further disadvantage of the expanding-shot is. 1862. familiar illustration of a similar effect straight afforded nail by the for. while He also breaching the tower at East- was observed some of the penetrated from 7 to 8 feet into the brickwork. which was heavier than the bourne. Report of General GiUmore." 628. however. others did not pass through difference fairly was probably owing more than from 1|. few exceptions.. but." The James base. Royal United Service Inst. : instances the foUowingf it —" In and did not explode. the position of the centre of gravity behind the centre of figure (615). 630.Rifling and Projectiles. in the breachiug of Fort Pulaski. * Jour.. 529 the bore tends to raise the rear of the shot.

and were so shaped as to carry round little or no air. In this respect they had a great advantage over polygonal and lead-coated shot. that although a solid cylinder of small diameter. or who had fired a lead-coated shot out of a many-grooved gun. Hence. it would be seen. to great length and the same time. 1860. had a. proportion to the weight. had been obliged to give a greater amount of rotation to the that or a circular form When shot than would have been necessary with fewer projections." ®3S. rapidly decrease the rate of rotation. for 'example. permitting the greatest velocity same time for keeping up the rotation His shot were cast so as to bear on three as perfectly as possible. was not adopted. 2d. grooves in the gun. over a hollow cylinder of large diameter. Range. as. in a lead-coated shot. a greater amount of initial rotation was required than if the shot were of a figure adapted to keep up the rotatory movement. prolongs the time of elevation. he "had for endeavored to obtain the form through the air. the large area in its small cross-sectional area. f Inst.* In making his shot (535). to a high initial velo- and. to a great weight of projectile in proportion to the resistance of the atmosphere —in other words. presented by the long projectile to the air below it.530 Okdnance. and in this way also contributes to long range. refers Commander Scott thus to this subject." As air. but So that the mechanically shot with few grooves would appear to be indispensable to these And the highest accuracy at long range. as regarded penetration of the f * "Construction of Artillery. those who had tried the polygonal form. with which a large quantity of air must be carried round in rotating. and the consequence was. lateral 631. to " the question of diameter of bore. This defect he had endeavored to and at the avoid by deviating as little as possible from a cylindrical form. —Long range At is due. to prevent stripping. and these must be most numerous and deep. in case of a high rotation. that the difference in range was not . act like the floats of a padd]e-wheel . Civil Eng. if the shot was j)olygonal. The The motion of a rifle shot due to the resistance of its surface. decided advantage. yet the hoUow cyUnder had the advantage in flotation. the atmosphere (6i6) depends upon the smoothness of projections formed on the shot to fit the rifling. fitted numerous ridges not only increase drift.. city . 1st.

and he had added the results. transverse section. in point of range. the rifled service guns had a positive nearly so considerable as might otherwise be supposed. Conybeare. " Con- C. Armstrong. Mr. which brings upon the gun in addition to that due to the 2d.* 634. because from their greater weight and smaller area of and mainBut it was a mistake to suppose. Sir W. for a given velocity of translation. At very high elevations. that least as up to about 10° long a range as . ." struction of Artillery.. projectile cannot be excessively in- The length of about 3 calibres has been found to give the best ranges. as to the advantages to be obtained by the employment of small bore guns and projectiles of great length. and it was now established that from 2} to 3 diameters would be the utmost amount of elongation adopted.' mere translation of the shot. they were less impeded by the tained their velocity during a longer time of flight. But." Inst. In order that this important point should be fully understood. to insure steadiness. save in exceptional cases. it * "By increasing the twist became practicable if to increase the elongation of the projectile to the extent of 1 diameters such a projectile was similarly grooved." Civil Bkgineers. such projectiles undoubtedly had longer range. 1st. the rifled cast-iron guns had at the wrought-iron breech-loaders with equal charges less and that at than 6° elevation. Mr. 531 633. as published in the newspapers." Inst. 1860. giving the results of his experiments. the friction of a very long projectile So that the length of the creased. the greater the proportion of weight to cross-sectional area of shot. Britten " considered there was a great deal of misconception. from rifled service guns. 1860. such a projectile must have a high velocity of rotation a considerable strain by means of a rapid twist. E. the greater the pressure And imposed upon the gun. over the larger projectiles which he had fired air. In the discussion of this subject before the Institution of Civil Engineers.: — — Rifling and Projectiles. elevation. he had prepared a Table (105). obtained with the Armstrong and the G35. " Construction of ArtiUery. Whitworth guns " It would be seen from these figures. that at low elevations they had any advantage. But the elongation of the projectile was limited by other considerations. in a foul gun is very great.

9 41 solid* 3700 3150 3560 3700 Rifled 68-pounder Ser vice 51. 95 cwt Rifled 32-pounder. lbs.9 955 Rifled i8-pounder. Powder Diam. Notob- 17 y: ' a 32. 4i 2100 3100 3600 56 cwt H 10 930 900 740 850 Similar Gun- 6. Cast Iron. Cast Iron. Mean Velocity per second. Cast Iron. .7 Smooth-Bore 68-pound der Service Gun. Field-Gun+. prepared by Mr. Kange.. 5 1820 900 8x6 10 Ditto. 6*41 I122 1016 Rifled 32-pounder Ser vice Gun. 5 Rifled 9-pounder Service 13.57 31. 7 second. Breech- « Field-Gun 2300 3780 Initial velocity about S-2 Ditto. published by authority. Degrees Yards. Large Gun.: I 6. 80 S 2600 349° 1300 feet per Large Gun.i 7 9 80 solid 10 solid Wliitwortli loader. t Flange Tables in Horse Guards Manual. Weight. 3030 3900 1250 z8. Bore. Cast Iron. Cast cwt Iron.7 90 74 Gun. 58 cwt 34 3900 solid 948 8-12 51.. Area. Weight.. 80 cwt 10 4400 * Service round shot. 95 cwt }. 37 it 920 31. Cast Iron. Capac'y. 3 Armstrong Breechloader. Charge of Projectile. Britten to suit rifled guns. —Ranges of Large and Small Rifled Projectiles.. 'I 14 6 oz. lbs. « 49 3f 10 3 3200 1600 r served. Ordnance. 95 cwt 68 0-30' I 340 640 i960 2040 Iz8o 939 5 14 1 3480 1200 714 923 '60Z f oz. 2000 I Gun. In.a 1 532 Table GY. Elevation.

work with the power applied than the eflfect " In order to in show the great of -the resistance of the air flight. 533 The velocity with Nor was this all. Britten's with the breech-loaders. in had a mean velocity of 955 feet per a range of 3700 yards and the 90-lb. the sectional area of the shell . The same gun. the feet mean velocity of the service solid 68-pounder shot was 2040 mean speed fell off to 714 feet per second at the range of 3480 yards. . with charges of |th the weight of the shot. from practice on board the It Excellent' gunnery ship. on leaving the gun. the 56-lb. would be seen. of 8 inches of powder. The mean velocity of his 49-lb. shells. even with smaller charges of powder. with a mean velocity of 920 per second. that the velocity of the Armstrong projectiles. 3560 yards.Rifling and Projectiles. In the oflBcial experiments. the time of flight of each shot was carefully recorded. that the 8-inch shells had the resistance of the air upon 51 square feet . was only 1080 feet per second. with a charge of ^th. of powder. was thus shown to . diminishing the velocity of large bodies during velocities. or ^^yth the weight of the had a mean velocity of 920 feet per second. shell. superiority in this respect. it of 3560 yards. shell. he thought might safely be asserted. was under 1300 it per second. lbs. lbs. but this was therefore probable. diameter. that the muzzle-loaders did more breech-loaders. second. threw a 90-lb. when rifled. fired from the 32-pounder with 7 rifled service gun. officially were given in the These figures ' were determined. that the initial velocity. was much greater than was the case reports of Mr. while the Armstrong and the Whitworth projectiles had a sectional area of only 28 and 21 . and that of the feet Whitworth shot. with full service charges. in a range of 1600 yards shell. that at 340 yards. which the rifled service guns projected their shot. it inches. must be very much more than was obtained by the breechloaders. at different ranges. When. This was remarkable. when it was remembered. of the the mean shot. 68-pounder service solid table. in this case. so that there was no difficulty in ascertaining the mean velocities at the different ranges. be 1120 feet per second. was stated. in a range therefore. with only 8 projectile.

* The following tables and diagrams. firing the hexagonal gun at 7°. Jour. (106) of resistances to bodies of different The following table forms.. Without attaching too great importance (0 mere range. that for horizontal fire up 2000 yards range. Effect projectile is of Foem upoit Range. than another gun which had one-fifth less range. for the at these different elevations. paring the range of the fluted 12-pounder gun at autliority to at 7°. and the errors in judging distance were of less importance. was obvious. the trajectory of the latter was flatter. 1860. this consideration of limited importance in the present inquiry. * "As to practical results. (now Lieut. with tho range of the hexagonal 12-pounder which was 3100 yards and upwards now considering the ranges as about equal . are of special interest. R. Service Inst. and as ironclad fighting must be done at so short a range that little velocity will is be lost whatever the shape of the projectile. 299.— 534 Ordnance. But as the shapes required for range and for armor punching are different (7 1 3).^ however. Major 0. the advantage of same elevation f I " " Construction of ArtiUery" Inst. to much heavier From these facts he inferred. moving with low from the results of velocities of 10 feet per second. which he was surprised to hear undervalued. by comcomparison. This perhaps would appear more plainly. as during a greater portion of its flight the hexagonal projectile was nearer the ground. —" The its retardation of a influenced by the form of both fore and hind part. his large-bore guns were in no respect inferior to the new small bores. it must he admitted to be a very good measure of what the gun could do. Aug. 'Whitworth did not now propose to carry out the But something ought to be said as to range. which was the service most required. art. as compared with another gun. 0. The shape of the projectile has an important influence upon its remaining velocity and range. the range of the fluted gun was 2495 yards. If at an elevation of 1°. 1862. while in many points they were far more serviceable. A. which to attain a like range required to be elevated to 9°. :j: but especially by the shape of the former. square inches respectively. page 152. R. H.) Boxer's Treatise on Artillery. Owen. .-Ool.. The gun which had the longer range and the flatter trajectory was more likely to hit a distant object. Mr. Royal U." 636. which was stated on good be 3000 yards and upwards. " The experimental resistances to 2 and 3 are about the same. and the range of the hexagonal gun was 310'7 yards. Extracted from Capt. 9°. 637. is constructed Dr.. and were fired with charges. Hutton's experiments with the ' whirling machine' invented by Robins.

^»— z. 119 144 s»— ( j i. vol. Hutton's remarks on these experiments will be found in his 36tli Tract." the section of a " coboid. these three forms. 638. 30G Fig. page ' 190. Table CVI. Experimental Theoretical Kesistance. 126 S3 »—> wt 4.times as much.' and contains the " results of made by Borda the last century.^^^^ 6. The resistances to which theoretically ought to be double of the two are experimentally first resistances. the section of a * Dr. " One of three different forms is generally employed for the head figures of an elongated projectile. 291 288 notwithstanding the sharp point of the the three last. Cone. perhaps From this table it appears that the ogival form expe- rienced the least resistance. convex side foremost.. with velocities of 3 to 25 feet a second. Hemisphere. .. Cone. 305 the section of a " cone. differ considerably "With high velocities the results might from the above. iii. in fact 2|. is The is represent sections of Fig.* " The next table (107) is taken from Piobert's experiments ' Cours d'Artilin lerie. Sphere 114 144 a» > ^> I 3. much more. ] Hemisphere. Disk 285 288 —> ^ ( 5.—> Rifling and Pbojectiles. base foremost . FoBU OF THE Bodies. and experiments care- fully executed can alone enable us to determine the jectile form of pro- which will attain the greatest range with a given initial velocity. 535 —Rbsistanou of Bodies to the Atmosphere. Resistance.." or a figure generated Fig. latter. angle with the axis 25° 4a' . 307 is by the revolu- tion of a conic section about its axis. flat side foremost 238 288 ^ .

which is termed by the French " ogival. and length from the hind part. apex foremost ^5 D D is 3. Sir Isaac Ifewton in his Priacipia gives a form of Fig. Demi-ellipse 43 4. projectiles its largest section is placed at f of the The shape of some of Mr. overtakes the round shot is at 800 to 1000 yards. Besistance. with 400 to 500 elongated projectiles hitherto used. yet the necessity of a high initial velocity obvious. 1. least resistance from the air. experience less resistance than a body of any other shape. —Resistance of Bodies to the Atmosphere. base foremost. . Ordnance. 308) which would. one which experiences the 307. 308. 309 will experi- ence the least resistance from the length is air. Whitworth's approach more nearly to this form than those of any the elongated bolt.— Although feet less velocity at starting. a. Velocity. Ogival 39 41 pointed arch.536 Table CYII. 305. be seen. Its five times its greatest diameter. body (Fig. Figs." as the 306. FOBM OF THE BaBE OF Resistance. bert says that the form Fig. Triangle. Triangle. Experimental Theoretical FfilBMB. it wiU Pio- very similar to the ogival. in passing through a fluid. The last most prohahly the best form." 639. is This form.

E. great as are the other advantages of high charges. or principle better. with heavier charges. therefore subject to a fall by gravity of If no disturbing cause arises. flat trajectory. 640. and subject only to the fall of 16 feet that requires 64: feet. &c." of a ball with such a velocity that where Supposing two trajectories. is so well known and admitted. arising from the greater velocity of projectile. by some modification of the and 590 a). a ship that is but 12 feet whereas a ship 48 feet high. armor. but. long range and without extraordinary provisions of little is advantage. second. of a ball two seconds. and there are few so low. to send shells through for instance. The second condition of high velocity * Journal Royal United Service is that the least Inst. 537 even at short range. the other. will be struck at any point in the trajectory of the ball. will be passed over by the ball having the lower velocity. that it travels the distance in one . high or more. 1862. such a way as not to displace the centre of gravity. It is absolutely necessary to penetration.. IST." is . " one. long range. says upon this subject :- " Greater accuracy with the same guns. 309. at known distances. Stafl'ord (590 643. Captain Fishbourne.. It is necessary to accuracy at . for reasons for ac- already considered curacy. as not to need proof or ex- planation . . The first condition of high velocity a light projectile. when. with high velocity . June. This does not necessarily mean a short projectile for the greatest stability jectile in the proper length may be preserved by hollowing the proadopted by Mr. 641.Rifling and Projectiles. the rifled gun is called upon Fig. they are small as compared with those of a the distances are unknown. and only within narrow it limits of distance would a ship 30 feet high be struck by in its trajectory..

of powder pressing on the Parrott velocities are. the power required must be very great.* in another way. 110-lb. 25-lb. Sir William Armstrong attempted to justify this retar- gun as follows " By holding back the projectile until the powder is thoroughly converted into gas. shot with 12 lbs. of powder pressing on the 7-in. May. that the rifle-grooves have to be cut the explosive force of the powder. The leading of the gun and the stripping of the shot show how great this strain must be. and elevation. shot same bore. Eoyal United Service Inst. June. and the areas of the shot pressed by the powder are. 1211 6-4-in. The range of an Armstrong 7-in. in. The service charge of the Armstrong 110-pounder lbs. that even 14 lbs. Service Inst. Journal Boyal " class. instead of reduced friction in- creasing the initial velocity. by said to have exceeded forty tons. on Projectiles and Rifled Guns. charge. The initial and 1244 feet." Gapt. you will get a higher pressure upon the projectile. Jour. respectively. and this is done with immense velocity. Michael Scott.— — — 538 possible Ordnance. Ill-lb... was 3387 yards against 3981 yards for the Jeffrey 100-lb. Armstrong shot slowly through the bore. gives less velocity than 10 lbs. and in the space of a few inches. U. by no means follows its was rather the contrary. Fishboume.) 643. Armstrong shot.. •j- . is upon the shot. 1864. for this has been reduced from 14 to 13 So much power is expended in planing 76 grooves in a hardened lead-coated projectile. recourse has been had to slow burning powder. having the lead considerably reduced in diameter so as to the bore . thus wasted is Power so much as to require worse than lost. power shall be expended in overcoming friction and changing the figure of the shot. from rifling is. while getting it out of the gun. of powder. the result 644. 38'5 and 32"1 sq. shot. 1862. "f that a shot moves more slowly are removed. Another evil arising in case of lead-covered projectiles of one by such as are used with the Armstrong gun. and impress a * * * Experiments have greater quantity of work upon it." Mr. 100-lb. facilitate the passage of shot through and It it was found that. dation of his projectile in the : — been made with lead-coated shot. because it strains the gun reduced charges. iecause the impediments in way The reduction of the lead covering might have so increased the windage that the full pressure of the powder was not exercised * "The pressure of forcing a mechanical means. (See Table 108. and as a consequence a low initial velocity has been obtained. thus decreasing the velocity reason. and in order to meet the difficulty and prevent such effects.

Table CVUI. Jeffeet.Rifling and Projectiles. Average range. with 2 lbs. lbs. . Average range. with 16 of powder. 639 —Compaeative 1 Ranges of Jefpert and Aemstrong Peojeotiles. 4139. of powder. 3981. Charge.

that the length of cartridge and projectile wiU not enter the chamber is must always be the same if longer. however smoothly the projectile It is. and by an additional nip at the muzzle. This must be done in the gun grooving the shot may the pressure of the gas has been reduced . Besides. it is And if use of important to increase the pressure upon a shot. by the use of plenty of powder. a defect of the Armstrong gun. This subject thus referred to :f by the Ordnance Select Committee. "Whitworth has suggested. an air space is left in the . may fit. 645. Civil Engineers. 1862 tions. and in the Whitworth 12-pounder cuss neither the retardation But the Committee disof the Whitworth shot by its wedging is Inst. . . of the rifling. be done elsewhere. which permits a steady accumulation of pressure is behind it. and instantly followed by a decrease of friction when the shot emerges into the wider part of the bore. The twist friction of the Whitworth shot. equal charge. as Mr. after by expansion. it would be better. powder-chamber (551). the Whitworth 12-pounder appears to give an initial velocity below that of the Armstrong gun." f Report of the Select Committee on Ordnance. 8° 55'.540 Okdnance." * " Construction of Artillery. simply wastes power and reduces velocity without any compensation. the more powder would appear to be a simpler and safer means than straining and abrading the gun by jamming a hard wedge through it.* to expend the power in increasing its rotation. July 30. This is probshot ably due to the retardation experienced by the Armstrong in passing through the contracted part of the bore immediately in front of it. 1863. however. If the shot must be retarded. 1860. There would not appear to be the pressure that a rifled much obtaining gun can stand. concurs to produce the same relative the Armstrong 12-ffounder the angle of rifling is In 4° 44'. continuing to retard the shot by the friction of many grooves. and equal length of gun. that is to say. A mechanical all fit offers the least friction and retardation difficulty in to the shot. " Under strictly comparable condi- equal weight of shot. 346. they if shorter. arising from the very rapid effect.

the point of time at which it ."* 648. April. and in case of the Armstrong gun has led to costly and nearly fruitless experiments with percussionfuzes. and leaden shot of the same shape and The leaden shot was it filled the bore at all. The rush of the gas past the projectile also tends to re- lieve fouling —to blow out the dirt that would otherwise accu- mulate. Civil Engineers. . although shot. Windage. Mr. until and was propelled without there being any necessarily its windage But. 647. nor the philosophy of increasing the pressure (as in the Armstrong gtm) at the very place where large guns fail.f * " Construction of Artillery. even when slow powder and accelerating charges are applied to reduce the initial pressure. —Windage He is the principal objection raised against mechanically fitted projectiles. the More time (652). fact. Supposing it impracti- cable to prevent windage. 541 in the grooves. purposely allowed)." in the f "The result of the more recent experience of the Edinburgh Reviao. fired. 1860. is than reducing the charge and the windage. strains the gun less for a given velocity. allowed powder to overcome the inertia of the shot. Whitworth's experiments it is show that not disadvantageous." Inst. 649. The entire stoppage of windage appears to prevent the this certain action of time-fuzes. rifled on his plan (in which a small amount of windage was size. have abandoned them age). * * * When the projectile is driven forwards to the muzzle of the piece. Whitworth and Commander Scott have is used them without inconvenience. specific gravity than that of the iron and it had no windage. by the expansion of gas generated by the explosion. In increasing the charge with windage. its was greater range was not nearly so good as that of the iron shot. an iron shot. (at least for the purpose of stopping wind- without impairing range or velocity. " from the same gun. 1864: French artillerists proves that the suppression of windage diminishes the accuracy of fire. expanded by the explosion. but what more important. as they have to be lighted after the shell leaves the gun . is The following statement of French experiments and practice regarding windage compiled from an article eatitled " Rifled Ordnance in England and France. stopped in any required degree by Mr.Rifling and Peojectiles. The windage may be the use of wads.

was treated in the following manner: The gun was bored. the explosion " A heavy gun of fifty French measure (corresponding to our tO-pounder). B. with 36 holes. After this extraordinary trial.— 542 Ordnance. and to. " * * * its Provided the projectile leaves the gun with . that this experiment was is made with compressed gunpowder the piece." W." Inst. claimed the original arrangement of a taUow-box in front of the powder. "Whitworth's lubricating 650. Mr. and " is wad* lias other advantages. . it was fortunate for the French army that they had guns not requiring to be sponged out after every round for it was the extraordinary rapidity of the flre of the rifled batteries of the French Guards which arrested the Austrian advance at a range which then appeared incredibly great. was taken at random from one of the batteries of troops quartered in that town. and enabled the Piedmontese to recover their groxmd. 1860. the experiment has been tried on the new French artillery in a still more striking manner. we learn from the report of the officers in command. and had a rifled it was inserted in the gun." Inst. The absence of windage is now thought by the French to increase the probability of some such accidental variation of pressure but when a portion of the gas generated by is allowed to escape by windage. that the gun had lost only ^ of a degree of precision required by the regulations of the French service. it formed The metallic cartridge fit shape to leaves the the bore. each of 6 centimetres in diameter. without reaUy diminishing the power of guns. having driven in the Piedmontese army for a distance of two or three miles. " On a recent occasion at Eennes. greatly augmented. or scraping the touch-hole. proper to add. |- Mr. and pierced them at a distance of 1093 yards. " Construction of Artillery. * * * — — . 0. now asserted by some of the operation. and it turned out that the initial velocity of the projectile was diminished But on the other hand. Whitworth. Adams. Sir William Armstrong. in his specification. 1860. E. it serves as it were to prepare the atmosphere for the ball. fired consecutively 1000 times without being washed or sponged out. therefore. which had already fired 280 shots at iron plates 4^ inches thick. which is but the result mainly due to the windage of be not only no evil." * "Mr. the accuracy of fire of the piece was scarcely 2 per cent. the inaccuracy caused by windage ceases in tie French and this is precisely what is obtained both and in the Whitworth guns. C. enclosed the tallow in a ball of hemp. It is . E. and the recoil. * * * . threatened to turn the left of the French position.. thus described by him :f was made of tin plate. that windage. like a In that state it was again flute. launch it on the straight line to its trajectory. When gun decides its direction. and tlie slightest variation of pressure from within or without at that instant causes deviation in its subsequent flight.. improves their accuracy. was reduced to 1 metre 40'. when the corps of General Benedek. but an essential condition of accurate and rapid firing. axis in line with that of the piece. as this gas travels four or five times faster than the projectile. which had averaged about seven metres before the It is. A gun. and without even once washing. " Construction of Artillery. fired. clearing. after experience of the artillerists to now freely admitted by French disadvantages of washing out the gun. and greatly reduces the stress of the explosion on the piece. highest French authorities." Another advantage of windage that the gun can be flred rapidly and often without sponging is thus illustrated by the same writer: "At the battle of Solferino.

The experiments are not yet complete enough. little velocity will whatever the shape of 633. 310). acted against the inside of the cartridge. of lubricating material. has 12 grooves yL inch deep.Rifling and Projectiles. by largely increasing the windage of the gun after the shot has started. for this rifling. Atwater. through which the fire from the friction fuze was flashed to the powder. ing paragraphs. by the use of the wad of had not been used previously to his adoptand their velocity is reduced : ing • it. and fouling due These causes are further considered in the followto lead coating. and since the be lost. A small hole was made in the rear of the cartridge case. viz. Mr. however. was then by a wad. different shapes. This result is . there- of acting against the sides of the gun. B. was distributed over the interior of the gun. At from the bottom of the chamber the lands are cut away in nate pairs to i inch below the bottom of the original grooves (Fig. This saved the gun . to warrant an extended inquiry. The shape of the . when the cartridge was withdrawn after the discharge. and 12 lands of equal width at the breech (Fig. sudden starting and compression of the shot. J. 65 1 Projectiles are retarded by other causes. and moreover. A 5'85-inch 12 calibres alter- (80-pounder) cast-iron hooped gun. has arrived at some sin- gular results. closed of obviating the necessity of sponging. constructed after preliminary experiments. rapid twist of the the wedging of the projectile due to a bad form of rifling (656). when the charge was fired. latter must be done at short range. the range of projec311). a lining within wliicli the charge was fore. which also strain the gun. The case was filled with powder It to within about half an inch of the open end. instead fired. which." . 543 The powder. Other conditions remaining the same. which had always been He believed this plan a great inconvenience in working guns. of Chicago. tiles from this bore is considerably increased. projectile also affects the air main- tenance of its velocity (637) but cleaving the and punching armor require the projectile. lubricating material. it brought away with it the fouling deposit. This obviated the necessity of sponging out. rifiing.

estabUshes that . (649. to the sudden and perfect combustion thus promoted some authorities attribute the bursting of guns. only 5 in number and tV inch deep. The strains imposed upon a gun in firing an elongated rifle- shot.) behind it. leaving an air space in the chamber of the gun in fact. and the grooves. 311. 653. had a very low twist (1 turn in 48 feet). rifled. for a 32-lb. at the point where he cuts the lands away. increased strains due to rifling. Decrease of friction would be better promoted by cutting Pie. even of with is all their ad- vantages of superior iron. off the chase altogether. figures and founding.* * "The argument that the smallness of the recoil of rifle-guns. strain. Bashley Britten has certainly obtained very good range and accuracy. combustion of the powder by the air entering at the side of the shot would also follow. 310. evidence of the Mr. Dahlgren 7|-inch rifles. The more Fid. Mr. reasons from the experiments of Captain pressure in front of the shot is Rodman. in addition to the strain due to the mere translation of the shot are various. Atwater . were reduced from 10 shell fired lbs.544 ascribed to various causes. and tolerable endurance from old unstrengthened cast iron guns. for a 50-lb. all of which is unsuitable for the heavy projectiles and high velocities required in iron-clad warfare. Ordnance. But the charges 6 lbs. that the air greater than the gas pressure note. — The failure tlie of unstrengthened cast-iron guns generally. perfect Atwater's rifling. ball to from the same gun.

hold of by the and to must be some- what elongated round tre it is therefore two or three times the weight of the ball. irrespective of the bursting strain due to the wedging of the projectile in such grooves as Whitworth's and Lancaster's. Taking Mr. but that the friction necessary to give was as stated above. in some remarks at the Whitworth shot was a source of great rotation United Service Institution (Journal. unless it can be hollowed without disturbing the cen- of gravity. more slowly. Mr... G55. although. that the wedging of the strain. Mr. : when is and the velocity on leaving the gun 1300 feet per second there is little friction. the shot weighs 80 lbs. — First. A be accurate. the pressure nearly in proportion to tbe weights of the projectiles (240). in time to disintegrate such guns. Royal U. he afterwards explained. Jour. or arranged on the sub-calibre principle (590). indeed. is . 1861). efficiency. June. a fallacy. the forces required to give translation and rotation. Longridge's obvi- ous meaning having been misapprehended." Captain FisKbourne. * "Construction of Artillery. Whitworth the amount of force expended on the rifling scarcely exceeds 2 per cent. The Ordnance Committee. Service Inst. 1860. I believe this has already. in their report experiments of 1861 (598). Civil Engineers. Whit- worth's large gun (80-pounder). by calculation. and therefore little tension on the gun. in many cases. or with the method of taking the grooves. or more properly the inner cylinder from the outer. place. which the thinnest and weakest place. for it is Uie it. are of the opinion that the liability of the gun to be burst from this cause is directly as the sine of the angle of the tliat " 5). The inertia of the shot tends to tear is away the land on the or to split the gun along the groove. its without otherwise impairing displaced creased. approxi mately. 1862. of the total force of the powder.— — Rifling and Projectiles. to be conveniently range farther than the round : laid ball. to rifling. by separating the chase from the breech. of Peojecttle. Twist oe Rifling. 35 . 545 on a guu is 654. rifling. March. "Weight rifled shot. and the pressure The heavy shot is behmd it is greatly in- This source of strain has nothing to do with the groov- ing.—The next source of strain is the twist of the rifling. intensity of the friction that prevents the gun from recoiling so great is that it with higher charges than those used for them now." Inst. Longridge finds* (1 in even with the rapid twist employed by Mr. the following will be. taken could not fail.

to give translation 306900 37^4-^tli / Force.^ : 546 Ordnance. Fie. 314. 312 " the shot is meant to revolve in the direction G Z. to give rotation Friction of sliot in grooves. For instance the inertia of a projectile rotated by the groove YlG. although remediable. assists the powder in enlarging the diameter of the gun. 657. 314. CA gun. illustrations are given by Captain Blakely. 312. in — Fig. all the all pressure on the half-side half-side C D will assist this motion. Whitworth. . while retaining an almost hexagonal form for his bullet. tends only to rotate the gun in the opposite direction . Royal United Service and. after the bursting of his second of power. will resist it fit. Wedgin& or the Peojectile. C D. on the and cause enormous friction and waste * * * Mr. 1861. abandoned this idea of a mechanical that part of the bore whose pressure * Jour. 313. talcen at pressure —— is 3012 6796 313696 Total force Or talcing tiie total force at 100.. Inst. Mean force. 313. Fig. The March." 636. source of strain from rifling due to the wedging of the projectUe in do not lie all grooves of which the bearing sides in the plane of the diameter of the gun. the force to give rotation 2.16. —Another most is serious. but the greater part of the pressure imposed by the shot in Fig. Fig. Illustrating the strain of rifling. The accompanying who remarks :* If. lbs. the friction of is the projectile increased by the same cause. planed away would be mischievous. In addition to this direct rupturing strain. in 1857.

* Mr. we resolve into forces. for the force bullet is applied to the by the surface M N in the direction R R T. pressure. ZJfiVP. have the same defect . the Ordnance Select Committee reported against Mr. * * * The would be the mechanical fit (Fig. Service Inst. Bashley Britten makes the following important :t statement " The repeated failures of the Lancaster gun. bore of his latest gun is 547 24-sided in section. it was always in front of the trunnions. induced the belief that cast-iron guns were not strong enough to be rified but the fact that whenever the Lancaster guns burst. The slightest inclination causes increased friction. Royal U. rotate. a line. 314. useful. G The bearing must be truly radial. The Lancaster oval shot is obviously calculated to jam in the bore. but where the force which we at may two suppose to act B. . the centre of one drawn perpendicular to the surface. * common form shown at O it D (Fig. is S.. has is G groove adopted by the French. but in December thej thought It might be so improved as to utilize the f Journal old brass guns for field use. of these bearing surfaces. which can only cause useless friction. as atVJT W. it will represent the force tending to make the shot effect the A glance wiU show how much less force would if same object worst of all applied at P in a parallel direction. involv- ing sacrifice of the enormous sums of public money which were lavished on that system. Fig. and surely simplifies the form to cut off the shoulder as at F F. Lancassystem. ter's * In October. found four times In the very surfaces. be R. March. whereas motion intended to be given in the direction All curled grooves. at G. . 1861. one surfaces of the C or J) must be useless. acting in the line into two G /. 313). 314). six of these sides only If from being bearing surfaces (Fig. in which it should be given. will be as great as the latter. as where the forces. can be resolved The form of reverse. and to be represented by if B E. 312). all the dis- advantages of the hexagonal bore. force applied in a direction JT 1" quite different from that iT Z. the H. the former.Rifling and Projectiles. and K. 1862. B and * * B F. R S. where not only part of the pressure t/"^ would prevent the bullet conditions from rotating." 658. would be so disadvanit tageously applied that. which alone is useful.

had a velocity of 1132'5 feet. to the Armstrong. The Whitworth 68 lb. the lighter natures . was rather more favorable on the whole. charge. that the Whitworth guu had tried and rejected in France. 1858. but which. he had decided on discontinuing experiments with this form of cannon. —charge 9 lbs. some went 510 yards . further than others that the gun was also tried without success at Copenhagen. they were guns of 65 cwt. 9 oz. and the employment of a rigid shot. have burst at Shoeburyness. 1863. velocity of 1199-4 feet.. than to the "Whitworth system of rifling and projectiles. shot . and that one tested at St. that at 5°. Two also of the heavy Lancaster guns. 8 and 12 lbs. viz. rifled been Captain Blakely said before the above Committee. was a clear proof to my mind that the cause of bursting was not the charge of powder. — ^had a velocity —had a * The Whitworth 68 lb. at any time liable to get (671. The Armstrong 6-grooved shunt informed by General Peel in December. shot from a 70-pounder. but was connected with the method of rifling. while guns which burst under proof charges always go in rear of them. out of 10 shots. These accidents have led to some doubt full charges. Lancaster guns employed against of Sebastopol burst. 660." The report also states that there are " remarka- ble irregularities in the ranges. 1863. The testimony before the Select Committee on Ordnance.. bored up from the 68-pounder gun of 95 cwt. 661. weight. lbs. : whether they can be used with safety with lbs. Petersburg." G39. 6^ oz.— 548 Ordnance. The friction of the with that of the shunt shot is Whitworth projectile* in comparison shown by their relative velocities. 9 lbs. burst at the U9th round with 5 lbs. explain. however. "that as all Mr Whitworth was three of his cast-iron polygonally bored guns had burst at an early stage of the ex- periments." Bepori of the Select Committee on Ordnance. are a which it is difficult at present to however accurate the gun evil. much of the extraordinary strain is attributed. nearly all 8-in. or the weight of the projectile. however." may prove in direc- most serious To the increasing twist formerly used in these guns. The Government Report on states that " three out of eight Rifled Cannon in 1858... all. of powder and a 35-lb. shot.) jammed in the gun.—charge 10 lbs. 9 oz. bored up. in connection with the long bearing of the projectile. tion. The Armstrong 3-grooved — — shunt shot of 68 of 1283-8 feet.

1314r'3 feet. 4.Rifling and Projectiles. gun forfeits one of 2. 663. And gun although the sides of the grooves in the 10-grooved shunt are not quite in the plane of the diameter. its principal claims to superiority. they are likely to rust. Eesults of Experiments made to Test the Strain ON THE Gun Due to Various Forms of Rifling. are obviously decisive as far as bursting pressure concerned. The rapid pitch of the is rifling. 664. "Whitworth's system of the fol- lowing reasons : 1. the painting and cleaning. for unfavorably upon Mr. The following experiments. John Anderson. The same result followed all trials of the had a mean velocity of two sys- tems of rifling. another source of strain upon the The Committee think projectiles to projectiles. through the agency of ribs or grooves in * The following quoted from British Artillery records. and 76 lbs. although favorable for the penetration of solid shot. is its superior en- durance obviously due only to the larger number of grooves and the greater amount of metal thus called into service. If the projectiles are accurately fitted. although necessary to the accuracy of long projectiles. gun. but only revolved. But they do not show the additional weakness of the Lancaster and Whitwdrth systems due to increased friction. the finish and fitting of the Armstrong guns and and be equal to those of the Whitworth guns and that these features would not in any case render the polygonal system preferable to other systems. calibre The comparatively small and long projectile greatly increase the strain on the gun. bt Me. and give trouble in loading without frequent If not accurately fitted. In July. shots of 74r lbs. . recently made at Woolwich. 3. to test the strain due to various forms of is rifling.. 549 6^ oz. 1861. because the experimental shot were not moved longitudinally in the rifling. the Ordnance Select Committee reported rifling. 8 oz. 663. and the shape of the projectile is unfavorable for shrapnel.* motion to the —" The is power required to give the rotatory projectile.

Mr. Britten uses a very low twist (1 turn in 48 feet the competitive experiments of 1861). 1860. rifled on the several plans shown on the accompanying and to prevent the risk of error from any exceptional defect of any description. The cylinder was fixed in the centre of a lever fulcrum. the gun. " The experiment consisted in fixing one end of the plug its repre- senting the projectile in a frame which was immovable. in But Mr." Inat. were made to fit the part representing the gun. and being of which arrived is a stronger metal than the cast-iron cylinders. of a The accompanying table shows the weight required to produce fracture on the several plans of will and the diagrams explain the exact form of the arrangement of rifling in the (See Table 109. . it. to shallow grooves* (5 grooves rifling old cast-iron guns. Britten attributes his success in part. given to lever. " Into these rifled cylinders there were correctly fitted corre- sponding plugs of steel representing the projectile . and therefore requires but * " Construction of Artilleiy. by the application of weights on the extremity rifling. these plugs steel. for the old 32- has an obvious influence upon the strain brought upon the gun. must necessarily cause an opposite straining in the gun is tending to open splitting. by preparing . " In order to ascertain this point." 660. it was resolved to continue the experiments untU a form of rifling was at. experiments in the all have been made Eoyal Gun Factories. several of each sort have been experimented with.) several systems. in which the steel plug would be broken before the cylinder was split open. of Civil Engineers. and capable of having a torsional motion it. to split the structure than a flat or perpendicular sur- but there were no precise data in regard to the position in which different plans stood with respect to each other.550 Ordnance. in jJ^-in. cylinders of cast-iron. Chaeactee of the Grooves. of equal strength and area these cylinders were bored and table. other end being within the cylinder. pounder). —The depth of the grooves deep. or else to break the metal mthout actually We can easily perceive that an inclined surface more apt face.

Commander Scott's . ^ Lancaster's • Oval 7 . Three ribs Commander Armstrong's Scott's . but only two ribs bearing Hexagon. . Two Two grooves. Breaking weight in tons at circumference. opposite to 1 each other j 322 3*3 Lynall Thomas's . Three grooves.. 3^4 .... 551 —Stbain- dite to Various Ejnds of Rifling. Nature of rifling. Whitworth 320 . Tabus CIX.Rifling and Projectiles... KiKD OF EiFLnre. Armstrong's Three-grooved shunt. opposite to "] each other 311 Experimental . 316 Experimental Decagon . 318 Commander Scott's. Three grooves Ten-grooved shunt . j grooves.

. either Fig. 319. with 76 grooves and a long lead covering.552 Ordnance. But with either a high would strip a soft metal shot. by f Recovered shot observed at "Woolwich. 317. shows evidences of slip. shallow grooves Fig.f So that the necessity Fig. for a considerable bearing surface. a small bearing siirface to rotate his shot. velocity or a sharp twist. or cut a hard bearing . 320. even the Armstrong 110-pounder shot.

321. so that the gun is not weakened by it at point of greatest powder pressure..^?»^' ^%!-f^. Studs in tbe middle of tbe shot instead of mEigs or exFiO. is number of grooves or by very deep ob- 666. allow the rifling to stop farther from the chamber. i^^^^ ^^. This feature is specially Fia 323.# . Fie. 322. .Rifling and Projectiles. 553 grooves.^^^^l.-^~away the panding material at the base. a great vious.

Another case cause of failure (656).. but they would greatly increase the wedging of the projectile — known and serious 669. going in. generally observed in groove 667. of Artillery. . this practice involves a more serious defect if carried Mr. shown from re-entering rifling ^ which were a source of weakness in it cast ' iron. Haddan.the form of angles.. and should be such as to weaken the cylinder in the least possible degree. Service Inst. realized in the Frencli angle of the side of the land with the bottom of the * has the usual relation to strength. the stud will have acquired a considerable velocity before it strikes * The rounded groove the square groove. would be one that would bear the same relation to the three-grooved to the specifies j^ rifle. The mechanical construction. especially in is of the centering system." Inst. 1860. Hadden " three very broad. and so leaves the windage c on the other side. strain A sharp angle iil a part subjected to practice. Civil Engineers. this. In going out. reason for rounding the groove.a 554 Ordnance. because " the rifling should be free FlS. and system. to prevent the violent shock of the projectile when its bearing edges strike the rifling. Conybeare recommends-]. 1861. But too far. Mar. Eoyal TJ. 325." two-grooved And Mr. considered and vibration is. that The form would best answer these conditions. and who understand the advantages of a radial bearing side. Figures or pro- 326 and 327 are exaggerated to illustrate jection a bears The stud and remains upon the side d of the groove. that the Lancaster oval did rifle. in railway and machine this reason the beginning of a fracture. others For Captain Parrott. is obviously better for firing wads and expanding sabots. nevertheless round the angles of their grooves." no These plans would certainly equalize the vibration. in Fig. shallow grooves with little or shoulder. than f" Construction J Jour. is mentioned by Mr. Scott's rifling. 668. the grooves are considerably In Commander for rounded an addi- tional reason (669). 325.

rifled in. 221. but lifts the shot into the centre of the gun features of —centres violent it. on Lancaster's system. 68 inches down. the rifling diminishes in diameter towards the muzzle. slides up the rounded groove without a blow." 67 1 . Kg.. But the stud. Fig. same service (200 rounds) was indented 0'025 grazed. . shot grazed along the minor axis by the bearing of a considerably indented 10 and from the bottom of the bore in front of the seat of the shot. was 16-lb. begins to take the rotation at an infinitely low velocity. but prove that quick powders do not strain a gun unneof Captaia this does not cessarily. to nip the ribs this necessarily increases the tension on the gun. the side e. the evident cause being the sudden taking of the rifling. Hence. A 9-pounder brass gun. the increasing twist is sometimes considered un- necessary. predicted One of the 300-pounders is said to have been seriously strained from this cause after five rounds. 226. when A more blow is given by the shunt shot the studs or bars strike the shallower part of the groove near the muzzle (552). June. —A projectile is usually started forrifling. whatever the quickness of the powder. This result was by Captain Fishbourne :* " For greater accuracy. and lightly 672. infinitely But it is equally true that a ball hegins to move at an low velocity. Rifling and Projectiles. This is one of the special Commander still Scott's system (535). iNCEEASiNa ward before its it Twist.. 1862. not only Fig. A similar smooth-bore after the in. Royal Eodman and others show TJ. 327. to which it must prematurely yield. 555 so that the blow will be violent and the commencement of the rotation instantaneous. 670. and usually commences whatever the pitch of the rifling. Service Inst. The experiments * Jour.

673. as the strain due to translation rises falls. it point of maximum pressure without being revolved at afterwards begin to acquire rotation. a strip or a stud. This portion of the shot must be well as short. if the shot is properly centred. to an appreciable degree. Then it begins to decline rapidly. The parabolic groove does not begin to rotate the shot. 1st. ]S"ow if the projectile can reach this all. At the same time. gun is not when the projectile but when it has moved several inches forward. for if it cannot obtain. that more gradually. suffered by the gun the time of maximum strain due to translating the projectile. thus increasing friction and soon ruining soft as figure. theoretical bearing. the portion of the shot : new angle intended to take the grooves must be short the Whitworth shot would wedge in grooves with increasing twist. the maximum is strain due to at rotating the projectile. by changing its more bearing on the grooves than a mere line. it will undoubtedly cut the grooves. 2d. the whether it is a soft metal ring.556 Ordnance. without increasing the pressure of the powdergas. including friction. and Parrott and lbs. the bore. length of bearing to the is only obtained by a constant moulding of the projectile of rifling. is infinitely short — a mere So line —and practically. until after the shot passes this point of maxi- mum pressure. and the Armstrong shot would strip at both ends. that the inaxiimiin pressure in a starts. that. with only three zinc or brass studs. any shock or blow. whatever the final angle of would be practicable to make the rifling quite parallel with the bore until the maximum strain due to translation that was over. and. But with the regular its twist. it would hardly be safe to conclude that long bearings will not prove indispensable to the heavy projectiles and high velocities that will soon be required in iron-clad warfare. projectiles made on the French plan. and to increase it may any up to required velocity. due to rotation the It Then. 674. without rifling. The greatest objection to the increasing twist is it cannot be used with a long bearing of projectile. In the absence of further experiments. Blakely projectiles up to 300 weight. Indeed. with narrow brass or .

if it is necessary. French shot (516). without abrading the grooves. various facts and by the advocates of the whether is respective systems. Chaeactee opinions are given would be injured by spherical shot. only by such rapid firing that there was no time to sponge out the More recently'. reduced in the original windage may be entirely stopped by wads. French artillerists have been convinced by various ex- periments. the to hold its position French army was. of the Peojeotile. 677. Undoubtedly the escape of gas around the projectile prevented fouling in these cases. centred upon may have any amount of windage without bounding the windage has no more to do with the straight passage of the shot.) 678. and without the use of the fine grooving that 673. Commander three points. Gas . in lodgments. allows its inertia to be overcome before the pressure reaches the maximum. 1000 consecutive rounds have been fired from a French field-gun without sponging. are rotated without being stripped. —As to the direct it is influ- ence of lead-coated shot upon straining the gun.Rifling and Projectiles. A large windage in the case of spherical shot injures the But a shot like that of Scott's (535) or the bore and wastes power. A greased . note. 557 copper rings or disks. in the shape of a thin annular space around the shot. realized. because has more time Thus. that windage not only prevents strain and delay from fouling. The first result of a soft coating. in the bore . whereas a safetyvalve. stopping the windage. in one instance. At the battle of Solferino. than the size of a tunnel has to do with the straight passage of a train on the rails within it. all the advantages of slow-burning powder are 676. upon the gun. but increases accuracy.which cannot escape without moving the shot. may accumulate to a bursting pressure before the shot moves at aU. But. without excessive friction. (649. or it may be sufficiently fitting up of the projectiles. A heavier charge—the burning of more powder after move the shot has begun to — will of course make up it the loss of velocity with a less strain to act. enabled guns. expanded or com- pressed into the grooves.

that the lead had been entirely sheared away by the rifling. Civil Engineers. M.558 Ordnance. the windage certainly increases. to be mutilated in handling. and hence gets more windage as the its safety-valve gets larger as the gu. The tioned " following objection to expanding projectiles men- The expansion of the lead at the rear of the projectile :f increases as the combustion of the powder becomes more perfect from the bore's warming and hence. \ Jour. the wet sponge appeared to be more efSoient than any other plan for removing the hard scale in the chamber. December. weakened by the same expansion. but this was * In experiments on board H. on the contrary. when the gun is weakened by being heated.. who has been successful than any one else in England. Service Inst. Whitworth's. that cuts off windage suddenly and not It is the soft-coated shot. like that used in the Armstrong gnn (551). so thoroughly cleans the gun that a close-fitting hard projec- not liable ease. " leading" of the is gun and other fouling due fit to soft- coated projectiles. projectiles. or like Mr. ship "Excellent" (1860) with the 110-pounder Armstrong gun. is loaded without loss of time. and needs the expanded or compressed into the groove of the gun. 1861. does not expand by the explosion. says of his system 4 — " All the hold of the was on the It five thin projections of soft lead. so that An iron shot. Some of these had been fired with such heavy charges of powder. gun expands. wad. Mr." 68S. and tile. without unnecessary iriction.* avoided by the mechanical of Commander without the wedging and strain due to the shape of the fitting projectiles. The Scott's. . 679." Inst. will always run home with As is the but the gun extra relief. 1860. is Whitworth and Lancaster mechanically ©81. neous closing of the windage. tV of an inch thick. On more expanding rifling the other hand. Bashley Britten. was impossible they could offer sufficient opposition to the egress of the shell to cause the shells gun to burst. Eoyal IT. with lead-coated. 680.n expands and becomes weaker. \ " Construction of Artillery. formed with the cartridge. bore warms. an increased strain is thrown upon it by the sharper driving out of the lead into the rifiing and more instanta.

. however on the whole. It does not stick to nor perceptibly wear the grooves of * The testimony before the Select Committee on Ordnance. ship. also. mechanical means. 1863.. mechanically-fitted pro- William Armstrong says. not to speak of impressing 76 grooves in operation. by tons. from fouling. in his evidence before the Select Committee on Ordnance." 683. whether made on the centering or the expanding prinSoft brass ciple. Jmrnal Royal U. But the chief strain due to lead coating is confined to the compressing system —the Armstrong service system. Rifling and Projectiles. 559 all The shot coiild never get locked in the bore. that prominent part shall bring all the other parts its up to their proper bearing. 2d. causing every groove to take proper share of strain that plan has also the obvious advantage of saving the bore from any possible injury irom or jam. Sir the subject of soft-coated vs. was. 1864.* it Forcing a projectile coated with hardened lead through a bore of smaller at the diameter. probably the best material for the bearing of a shot. friction . 685. compressing a lead covering soldered upon an iron shot. 1863: any part of it be —"I very greatly prefer using a soft metal or a projectile which shall most probably be self-adjusting. that it has the advantage of avoiding the possibility of there being any choke may all so say. that could happen. said to have exceeded forty Armstrong shot slowly through the bore. in An increased powder pressure due is to the detention of the shot by this stricture in the bore. so that if at all too prominent. produces the following results :t 1st. the necessity of accurate workman- and has the facility of construction which can be obtained from a tight-fitting projectile. and I think. May. "The pressure of is forcing a 25-lb. is quite difl'erent from upsetting a leaden bullet which simply changes figure the same bulk. also. On jectiles. Fishhoume." 684. if I in the bore. same A direct bursting pressure by the projectile itself And. Service Inst. or any other material lying It obviates. and very thin so that it cannot expand longitudinally. more favorable to the Armstrong than to the Whitworth system of Rifling and t Projectiles."— CopH.

Many Lord Clyde sent home some bullets which into the rifles at large. 687. It Lead-coated projectiles are liable to other kinds of inhas been remarked* that " they will decay from damp. It has been adopted for studs bj Sir William Armstrong in his later shunt guns. —The advanis tage of the mechanically fitted. however. down The lead had exfo- bullets were too and at Delhi several of our men were down while trying to force the bullets down the bore of their rifles. Lancaster states that if the lead " Inst.560 Ordnance. Mr. Service . liiability ot with brass. and by other imitators of the French system of projectiles. in naval The heavy projectiles required and sea-coast warfare are constantly liable to such falls sufficient to upset a soft and rough handling as would be quite coating and to j)revent a muzzle. in store are decaying and those of you are aware and the shot that and the lead exfoliating. and is hard enough to revolve a projectile without fine grooving. The shots were fired at the 2600 yards target with good results. for so Sir William's alleged reason many studs is to prevent the injury of the bore shot." 689. 1862.loading gun. to ascertain whether shot which strip. The Ordnance the shunt Select Committee have objected even to gun with 6 grooves because it requires. the Projectile to Injury. 24 zinc studs of three difierent sizes on the projectile. it the cast-iron Parrott gun after 1000 rounds (Table 91). according to Sir William Armstrong's system. is put on evenly * Jour. all. by modern chemical processes. by the con- tact of a rough cast-iron 688. jury. could qot be got liated.. sult of its entrance into either a breech-loading or It should be stated. would not be more difficult 686. were quite had been dented by several months' exercise would satisfactory. hard projectile in this regard too obvious to require discussion. some of which would probably be so injured by the falling or rough handling of the projectile that they wcmld not enter their respective grooves. that the re- experiments on board the Excellent. Royal U. Coating a hard projectile like Scott's or Whitworth's than coating them with zinc or lead.

June. Expanding which answer well with a small charge from a weak gun. you are then exposed to another source of inconvenience. the lead projectile given off from the on the discharge of the gun in the shape of an amber- colored cloud. Jour. Royal U. Service Inst. molten * " One of the most important things that has been very much overlooked is that of iron. " it Commander Scott says. and you pass one-eighth of is the weight of projectile as a charge.. The small round port. the molten you can pitch it against any thing. if have the full blow of the molten iron. and go to the charge of one-fourth.— — . 1862. and. The Armstrong gun will not throw it. the positive melting and remaining of the lead in the bore of the gun . June.* liable to injury in the shells is to fire molten Even if the heat of the molten metal does not loosen the lead the expansion of the shell vastly increases the strain in for- cing an Armstrong shell through the bore." 690. as in 561 some projectiles in a thin form. practically it wiH not do it. shell contains too tity ." •j- Com.. 691. and when it was although tliey had the engines and every thing ready." and that "if you exceed a charge of one-eighth. As to the stripping of soft-coated projectiles. and with small increments of powder. he loses accuracy and that. a very fearfully destructive weapon. The lead-coated projectile is also gun. attributed to the slipping of the lead. The molten iron will fill up the sheU and make it almost solid. if a stronger powder be used. 1862. Service Inst. Captain Fishbourne gives a tablef to show that at moderate velocities. they could not put the Iiist. as is well known to Adfire out. as already mentioned.. if Jour. Rifling and Projectiles. will stream over it it may stream into the .:]: has been found in practice by Sir William Armstrong although he has the lead so closely confined. that it cannot well escape — that. miral Halsted. Scott. I believe. EoycU U. the Armstrong projectile becomes This is less accurate just in proportion to its increase of velocity. that is the result of the experiment at Shoeburyness alluded to by Colonel Lefroy. unlike powder. that is. smaU a quantity to be effective. Service Jour. tried. the shot cuts its ])rojectiles also. April. if he uses a larger charge than about one-eighth the weight of the shot. so that will at first you iron. if way out across the grooves. 18G2. What we want is a large quanbut even the less quantity sufficed to set a vessel on fire . This will be found. Royal U. put into a strong. 36 . called lead fumes. One of the requirements of modern metal.

and the rifle-shell is the best for bombardment but between a mode of riUing that wiU admit of the use of the "round ball at close quarters. according to the respective plans named. if with a given displacement. Service Inst. when the present round shot are fired. Spherical shot are. is thus illustrated by Captain Fishbourne:f "Suppose the rectangle (Fig. is especially obvious in the case of iron-clads. is not. of spherical balls along the bore. and the cost of ammunition would be kept at its old rate by the latter plan. between the round ball and the elongated shell. The boimding surface of the bore jury. are expanded irregu- 693.562 gun and larly. April. . The amount of windage occasioned by the difierent systems of rifling. obtained for the decisive struggle and this is the first and the main point to secure. ."— (7om.) the 694." fired Ordnance. is a well-known cause of injury to the gun and the more the original is cut away by the rifling. generally. for the round most effective. as regards naval ordnance. 693. The question. The lands and The Parrott rifled The vnndage is stopped by & papier-mache sabot. In American is rified guns. for reasons already considered. in various British guns. and the simplicity essential in naval warfare entirely lost. the broadside power would be lessened. By adopting the former plan. however. Service Inst. 329 to 335) represent the quantities of this circle required to be left untouched in rifling. with a greater charge. good broadside guns throughout would be . and is far more easily handled and loaded at close quarters. •j- Jour. but only as respects their effect at distances too great to be correctly measured. gun fires spherical shot without difiiculty. * " The comparison so often made between round balls and rifled shot. about half the surface of the bore cut away by the rifling. more useful than rifle-bolts.. or to if produce any decisive result in actual warfare. 328) to represent the whole of the inner circle of the cylinder of the gun.— The importgdnce of obtaining as many kinds of service as possible from one gun. since. . a mixture of different sorts of weapons rendered necessary. is given in total Table 110. (See also Table 97. Firing Spherical Shot from Rifled Gnns. Scott. U. grooves are of nearly or exactly equal width. is seldom ever made as respects their comparative cost and their value at close quarters. then the smaller rectangles (Figs. of its use. in iron-clad warfare* (267-269). Eoyal IJ. the guns must be few is the protection adequate. and one that will noi admit ball is the . the greater is the inThe amount of this reduction of surface. June 1862. 1862.

177 . Table 02.Rifling and Projectiles.375 shot. Diameter of round 6. 6.. Diameter of bore 563 —WmrAGE op Round Shot in Rifled Guns.

698. 697. carry equal amounts of power. Royal U. expended on the armor neither shot breaks up. and latter a its friction upon the shot gives the rotation. This explanation. —no more. 696. Whatever power is employed in bringing either of the shots to a state of rest. and a shot of —the weights and striking velocities being the same —would * Jour. and the vtrrought-iron shot the least. is 1st. It has therefore been commonly said that the vsrroughtiron shot absorbs so much more power than the steel shot in changing its own figure. The charges.A 564 Ordnance. to increase the accuracy of smooth projectiles. and a steel shot. The competitive rifled gun was found by Captain and in the trials of 1861 (Table 103). before they fired at a Projectiles. shot. would demand grooving Parrott. The sabot takes the grooving. fired with high only accomplished by a great number of grooves. rotation of 693. provided that its When a shot breaks up. off' employed in changing the direction of some of the and in sending them through space after they have glanced is from the armor. a cast-iron shot. Service Inst.* may then be generally stated that the use of lead- coated projectiles. lead The steel shot.PnncUingr and practically equal weight. . with high charges.. Material for Armor . and must expend equal amounts of power But upon striking armor. 1862. June. does not appear to satisfy " Action and reaction are equal. of equal given velocity. Sir William groove Armstrong admits that spherical balls would injure his multirifling. the steel shot effect. 2d. is heavy lead-coated bolts. come produces the greatest local the armor. that it has less power left for destroying to rest. Even 76 grooves do not always prevent the slipping of the hardened lead covering of the Armstrong 110-lb. a part of power pieces. the wrought-iron shot. especially when low a wad or sabot was used to stop the windage. and no less. the gun too finely to fire spherical shot without injury. 699. however." the conditions of the case. — size wrought-iron shot. and suggests coating the balls with lead as a It remedy.

in consequence of this rebounding. a given power may be the result of a small force acting through a large space. : but capable of change of place 5th. that is But the wrought-iron and the lead shot will be mashed into a disk change of figure is to say. that very smaU