# ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING LAB VIVA QUESTIONS Mention the difference between core and shell type transformers?

In core type, the windings surrounded the core considerably and in shell type the core surround the windings i.e winding is placed inside the core. What is the purpose of laminating the core in a transformer? To reduce the eddy current loss in the core of the transformer. Give the emf equation of a transformer and define each term? Emf induced in primary coil E1= 4.44fФmN1 volt emf induced in secondary coil E2 =4.44 fФmN2. Define voltage regulation of a transformer? When a transformer is loaded with a constant primary voltage, the secondary voltage decreases for lagging PF load, and increases for leading PF load because of its internal resistance and leakage reactance. The change in secondary terminal voltage from noload to full load expressed as a percentage of no load or full load voltage is termed as regulation. %regulation down=(V2noload-V2F.L)*100/V2noload %regulationup=(V2noload-V2F.L)*100/V2F.L Define all day efficiency of a transformer? It is computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain period, usually a day of 24 hrs. all day efficiency=output in kWh/input in kWh tor 24 hrs. Why transformers are rated in kVA? Copper loss of a transformer depends on current & iron loss on voltage. Hence total losses depends on Volt-Ampere and not on PF. That is why the rating of transformers are in kVA and not in kW. What are the typical uses of auto transformer? 1. To give small boost to a distribution cable to correct for the voltage drop. 2. As induction motor starter. What are the application of step-up & step-down transformer? Step-up transformers are used in generating stations. Normally the generated voltage will be either 11kV. This voltage (11kV) is stepped up to 110kV or 220kV or 400kV and transmitted through transmission lines(simply called as sending end voltage). Step-down transformers are used in receiving stations. The voltage are stepped down to 11kV or 22kV are stepped down to 3phase 400V by means of a distribution transformer and made available at consumer premises. The transformers used at generating stations are called Power transformers. How transformers are classified according to their construction? 1. core type 2.shell type. In core type, the winding (primary and secondary) surround the core and in shell type, the core surround the winding. What is prime mover? The basic source of mechanical power which drives the armature of the generator is called prime mover. What is core loss? What is its significance in electric machines?

How will you find the direction of emf using Fleming’s right hand rule? The thumb. two kinds of power losses occur on it.N--->speed in rpm.c.Ф--->flux per pole . convert alternating emf into unidirectional emf(mechanical rectifier). The direction of the emf induced in the conductor is in opposite to current. It is important in determining heating. Resulting is the production of circulating flux in core. How hysteresis and eddy current losses are are minimized? Hysteresis loss can be minimized by selecting materials for core such as silicon steel & steel alloys with low hysteresis co-efficient and electrical resistivity. As this emf always opposes the flow of current in motor operation it is called as back emf.c. voltages are induced in all possible path enclosing flux. What is back emf in d. machines & other A.motor? Either the field direction or direction of current through armature conductor is reversed. What is the function of no-voltage release coil in d. motor starter? As long as the supply voltage is on healthy condition the current . How will you find the direction of force produced using Fleming’s left hand rule? The thumb. Hysteresis and eddy current losses are called as core loss. How will you change the direction of rotation of d. rating & efficiency of transformers. How are armature windings are classified based on placement of coil inside the armature slots? Single and double layer winding. temperature rise.generator? E=(ФNZ/60)(P/A)V. the system of conductor come across alternate north and south pole magnetic fields causing an emf induced in the conductors.c.Z--->Total noof conductor. Eddy current losses are minimized by laminating the core. forefinger & middle finger of right hand are held so that these fingers are mutually perpendicular to each other. These circulating current do no useful work are known as eddy current and have power loss known as eddy current loss. p--->noof poles. forefinger & middle finger of left hand are held so that these fingers are mutually perpendicular to each other.C run magnetic devices.machines? Conduct electricity between rotating armature and fixed brushes.c.c. Write down the emf equation for d. Why commutator is employed in d.c machines is constructed with laminated steel sheets instead of solid steel sheets? Lamination highly reduces the eddy current loss and steel sheets provide low reluctance path to magnetic field. Why the armature core in d. What is eddy current loss? When a magnetic core carries a time varying flux. motor? As the motor armature rotates.When a magnetic material undergoes cyclic magnetization. then forefinger-field thumb-motion middlecurrent. then forefinger-field thumb-motion middle-current.

Why an induction motor never runs at its synchronous speed? If it runs at sy. when it is running? . extra resistance can be added in rotor circuit for improving PF with the help of three slip rings. Define critical field resistance of dc shunt generator? Critical field resistance is defined as the resistance of the field circuit which will cause the shunt generator just to build up its emf at a specified field. load circuit resistance may be less than its critical load resistance. so no rotor current.motor depends? N= (V-IaRa)/Ф so speed depends on air gap flux. Enumerate the factors on which speed of a d. When the supply voltage fails or becomes lower than a prescribed value then electromagnet may not have enough force to retain so handle will come back to OFF position due to spring force automatically.voltage applied to armature. Through these slip rings and brushes rotor winding can be connected to external circuit. Give the condition for maximum torque for 3phase induction motor. What are the conditions to be fulfilled by for a dc shunt generator to build back emf? The generator should have residual flux. initial flux setup by field may be opposite in direction to residual flux.c. the field winding should be connected in such a manner that the flux setup by field in same direction as residual flux. Why an induction motor is called as rotating transformer? The rotor receives same electrical power in exactly the same way as the secondary of a two winding transformer receiving its power from primary. What are two unwanted effects of armature reactions? Cross magnetizing effect & demagnetizing effect. Under What circumstances does a dc shunt generator fails to generate? Absence of residual flux. What are slip rings? The slip rings are made of copper alloys and are fixed aroud the shaft insulating it. load circuit resistance should be above critical resistance. That is why induction motor is called as rotating transformer.speed then there would be no relative speed between the two. What are the 2 types of 3phase induction motor? Squirrel cage and slip ring induction motor. Define armature reaction in dc machines? The interaction between the main flux and armature flux cause disturbance called as armature reaction. resistance of armature. Write two extra features of slip ring induction motor? Rotor has 3phase winding. shunt field circuit resistance may be higher than its critical field resistance.through the NVR coil produce enough magnetic force of attraction and retain the starter handle in ON position against spring force. the field resistance should be less than critical field resistance. What is the function of carbon brush used in dc generators? The function of the carbon brush is to collect current from commutator and supply to external load circuit and to load. hence no rotor emf. then no rotor torque to maintain rotation.

What are the principal advantages of rotating field type construction? Relatively small amount of power required for field system can easily supplied to rotating system using slip rings and brushes.impedance method of estimating voltage regulation is is considered as pessimistic method? Compared to other method.machines? They allow better ventilation. Why the sy. Why MMF method of estimating voltage regulation is considered as optimistic method? Compared to EMF method. Reference of OCC takes core saturation effect. final result is very close to actual value. Explain why single phase induction motor is not a self starting one? When motor fed supply from single phase. which doesn’t develops any torque. Why are alternators rated in KVA and not in KW? As load increases I2R loss also increases.torque i.By operating the two motors in cascade. Differentiate between “capacitor start” & “Capacitor start capacitor run” single phase induction motor? Capacitor start – capacitor is connected series with starting winding.generator is used because it allows better ventilation also better than smooth cylindrical type rotor. the value of voltage regulation obtained by this method is always higher than the actual value so it is called as pessimistic method. the alternator has only their apparent power in VA/KVA/MVA as their power rating. Further the OCC is referred twice and SCC is referred once while predetermining the voltage regulation for each load condition. more space is available in the stator part of the machine to provide more insulation. Write down the equation for frequency of emf induced in an Altenator. drills. State any 4 use of single phase induction motor? Fans. R2=Sx2. small pumps. name the two winding of single phase induction motor? Running and starting winding. List out the method for speed control of 3phase cage type induction motor? By changing supply frequency. compressors. as the current is directly related to apparent power delivered by generator. What are the advantages of salient type pole construction used in sy.The rotor resistance and reactance should be same for max. As this method require more effort. for hydro turbines used in hydroelectric plants.By changing noof poles. MMF method involves more noof complex calculation steps. stationary system of conductors can easily be braced to prevent deformation. to improve PF and to get more torque. the pole faces are so shaped radial air gap length increases from pole center to pole tips so flux distortion in air gap is sinusoidal so emf is also sinusoidal. What is the function of capacitor in single phase induction motor? To make phase difference between starting and running winding.e. its stator winding produces an alternating flux. hence this method is called as optiimistic method. Which type of sy. but it will be disconnected from supply when motor pick up its speed. Capacitor start capacitor runstarting winding and capacitor will not be disconnected from supply even though motor pickup its speed.generators are used in hydroelectric plants and why? As the speed of operation is low. it is easy to provide cooling system. salient pole type sy. wet grinders. . vacuum cleaner.

Define winding factor. hundreds of kW or MW. occurring in the 3 –phase winding which depends on I2 R.Number of poles. Name the various methods for predetermining the voltage regulation of 3-phase Alternator.· Salient pole alternator Why is the stator core of Alternator laminated? The stator core of Alternator is laminated to reduce eddy current loss.N-Speed in rpm How are alternators classified? According to type of field system · Stationary field system type. For Alternators of such power and voltage ratings conducting load test is not possible. Hence other indirect methods of testing are used and the performance like voltage regulation then can be predetermined at any desired load currents and power factors.Where P. Define the term voltage regulation of Alternator. What is the necessity for predetermination of voltage regulation? Most of the Alternators are manufactured with large power rating . the Alternators have only their apparent power in VA/kVA/MVA as their power rating.· Smooth cylindrical type Name the types of Alternator based on their rotor construction. and also with large voltage rating upto 33kV. Why are Alternators rated in kVA and not in kW? The continuous power rating of any machine is generally defined as the power the machine or apparatus can deliver for a continuous period so that the losses incurred in the machine gives rise to a steady temperature rise not exceeding the limit prescribed by the insulation class. Alternators can be classified into the following two types according to its rotor construction · Smooth cylindrical type alternator.F = (PN)/120 Hz. The voltage regulation of an Alternator is defined as the change in terminal voltage from noload to load condition expressed as a fraction or percentage of terminal voltage at load condition .· Potier / ZPF method What are the advantages and disadvantages of estimating the voltage regulation of an Alternator by EMF method? . The following are the three methods which are used to predetermine the voltage regulation of smooth cylindrical type Alternators · Synchronous impedance / EMF method · Ampere-turn / MMF method. The winding factor Kd is defined as the ratio of phasor addition of emf induced in all the coils belonging to each phase winding to their arithmetic addition. Rotating field system type According to shape of field system · Salient pole type. the square of the current delivered by the generator. As the current is directly related to apparent – power delivered by the generator . the speed and excitation conditions remaining same.Apart from the constant loss incurred in Alternators is the copper loss.

rotor conductors are stationary and they cut the revolving magnetic field and so an emf is induced in them by electromagnetic induction. the value of voltage regulation obtained by the synchronous impedance method is always higher than the actual value and therefore this method is called the pessimistic method. Why is the MMF method of estimating the voltage regulation considered as the optimistic method? Compared to the EMF method. Reference of OCC takes care of saturation effect. MMF method. the 1-phase Induction motors are classified as follows (i) Split-phase motor.· Cross field theory Name any four types of 1-phase induction motors. Further the OCC is referred twice and SCC is referred once while predetermining the voltage regulation for each load condition.(iv) Shaded pole motor. As this method require more effort. Based on the method of starting arrangement provided.(v) Repulsion start Induction run motor Why are centrifugal switches provided on many 1-phase Induction motors? Centrifugal switches are provided on many 1-phase Induction motors to disconnect the starting / auxiliary winding from the supply when the motor reaches about 70% of its synchronous speed.Advantages: · Simple no load tests (for obtaining OCC and SCC) are to be conducted · Calculation procedure is much simpler Disadvantages: · The value of voltage regulation obtained by this method is always higher than the actual value Why is the synchronous impedance method of estimating voltage regulation considered as pessimistic method? Compared to other methods. This induced emf produces a current if . In what way does the ampere-turn method differ from synchronous impedance method? The ampere-turn /MMF method is the converse of the EMF method in the sense that instead of having the phasor addition of various voltage drops/EMFs. Further the effect of saturation is also taken care of. generator is zero.(ii) Capacitor start motor. here the phasor addition of MMF required for the voltage drops are carried out. State the principle of 3 phase IM? While starting.(iii) Capacitor start and run motor. Hence this method is called optimistic method. involves more number of complex calculation steps. the final result is very close to the actual value. The two different theories are · Double revolving field theory. it has to be disconnected from parallel operation. Name the two different theories with which principle of 1-phase induction motors are explained. How is the direction of a capacitor start Induction motor be reversed? The direction of rotation can be reversed by interchanging the terminals of either the main winding or the starting winding.

When R2=X2 What are the effects of increasing rotor resistance on starting current and starting torque? The additional external resistance reduces the rotor current and hence the current drawn from the supply. (ii) By adding external resistance to the rotor circuit the starting current is reduced with the added advantage of improving starting torque. What are the losses occurring in an I M and on what factors do they depend? Magnetic losses Wi.The laminations are insulated from each other by thin coat of varnish. . When R2=SX2 What are the advantages of slip-ring I M over cage I M? (i) Rotor circuit is accessible for external connection. What happens if the air gap flux density in an induction motor increases? The increase in air gap flux increases iron loss and hence efficiency decreases. if the speed of induction motor is Ns then the relative speed between the rotating flux and the rotor will be zero and so no torque is produced. It reduces magnetic locking of the stator and rotor. State the condition at which the starting torque developed in a slip-ring induction motor is maximum. No.This is achieved by laminating the stator core. It improves the starting torque developed by improving the power factor in high proportion to the decrease in rotor current.Mechanical losses Wm For I M operating in normal condition (with constant voltage and frequency) magnetic and mechanical losses remain constant whereas electrical losses vary in square proportion to the current. State the advantages of skewing? It reduces humming and hence quite running of motor is achieved. (iii) Additional speed control methods can be employed with the accessibility in the rotor circuit.Electrical losses Wcu. Induction motor can run at synchronous speed ? True or false? Explain .stacked and revetted at right angles to the path of eddy current. What care should be taken at the time of construction to reduce eddy current losses in I M? Make the resistance of the core body as large as possible. This current opposes the cause by Lenz’s law and hence the rotor starts revolving in the same direction as that of the magnetic field. What is slip of an induction motor? The slip speed expressed as the ratio of synchronous speed is defined as slip.the circuit is closed. Percentage slip S=Ns-N/Ns*100 How the frequency of rotor emf is related to the slip in an I M? Frequency of rotor emf/current fr=Sfs State the condition at which the torque developed in a 3 phase induction motor is maximum.

This circle diagram is used to predict the performance of the machine at different loading conditions as well as mode of operation. State the characteristic features of synchronous motor.Name the tests to be conducted for predetermining the performance of 3-phase induction machine. What are V and inverted V curves of synchronous motor ? The variation of magnitude of line current with respect to the field current is called V curve . Synchronous motor operates due to magnetic locking taking place between stator and rotor magnetic fields. The speed of operation is always in synchronous with the supply frequency irrespective of load conditions c. The variation of power factor with respect to the field current is called inverted V curve.the loci of stator current phasor is found to fall on a circle. (a) No load test. How the synchronous motor can be used as s synchronous condenser? Synchronous motor is operated on over excitation so as to draw leading reactive current and power from the supply lines. the motor is not inherently self starting b. The motor does the job of capacitors and hence called as synchronous . This compensates the lagging current and power requirement of the load making the system power factor to become unity. a. Since the speed of rotating magnetic field is directly proportional to frequency the motor operates at constant speed. Name any two methods of starting a synchronous motors · By an extra 3 phase cage induction motor · By providing damper winding in pole phases · By operating the pilot excitor as a dc motor Why a synchronous motor is a constant speed motor? Synchronous motor work on the principle of force developed due to the magnetic attraction established between the rotating magnetic field and the main pole feed. (b) Blocked rotor test What is circle diagram of an I M? When an I M operates on constant voltage and constant frequency source. The motor is capable of operating at any power factor. In what way synchronous motor is different from other motors? All dc and ac motors work on the same principle.