Two Historically Notable Karaite Passover Haggadot

The Torah commands us to tell over the story of Exodus on the first night of Passover. The Karaite Haggadah uses the Biblical narrative to retell this story.

Table of Contents
Credits..............................................................................................................................................1 Introduction......................................................................................................................................1 A translation of the Egyptian version of the Karaite Passover Haggadah.......................................3 [Blessing after the Meal] ............................................................................................................8 A translation of the Russian version of the Karaite Passover Haggadah.......................................13 [Blessing after the Meal] ..........................................................................................................20

Credits
• • • • “Russian” Haggadah, by Shlomoh Firik: published in Odessa in 1901. “Egyptian” Haggadah: published in Jerusalem in 1973. Translated from Hebrew into English in 2000 by Nehemia Gordon. Original website: http://www.karaite-korner.org/haggadah.shtml.

Introduction
The Torah commands us to tell our children about the Exodus from Egypt and ordains that the first night of Passover is to be a “night of watching” (Ex 12,42). In earlier times the Israelites fulfilled these requirements by staying up all night eating the Passover sacrifice and re-telling the glorious story of our redemption from the oppressive hand of the Egyptians. Since the destruction of the Temple all that can be fulfilled is the telling of the story. “Haggadah”, which means “telling”, does just that – it tells the story of the Exodus. Unlike the Rabbis, the Karaites do not claim that their Haggadah is the required text which must be read in order to fulfill the requirement of commemorating our redemption from Egypt; such a text does not exist or it would have been commanded in the Torah. Instead, the Karaite Haggadah is one possible “telling” of the Biblical story (or to be precise two possible tellings, see below). Unlike the Rabbanite Haggadah, the Karaite Haggadah does not tell stories about Mishnaic Rabbis or delve into Midrashic corruptions of the Biblical narrative but instead uses Biblical quotations to tell the story of the Exodus, interspersed with short explanations and blessings. The Karaite Haggadah exists in two versions, the “Egyptian” and the “Russian” versions, each of which developed in the two great centers of late Karaism (Cairo and Crimea, respectively). Both versions are written entirely in Hebrew. The two versions have similarities but also diverge Page 1 of 22

drastically at some points. In general, the Russian version seems fuller while the Egyptian seems abridged. For example, the Egyptian will often quote a single verse dealing with the Exodus while the Russian will quote the entire Biblical passage. The “Blessing after the Meal”, which takes up about a third of the Haggadah in the Egyptian version and about a fourth in the Russian version, is identical in the two versions except that the Russian version omits the section from “These are the feasts” until “as he hath commanded us”. Despite all the differences there can be no doubt that the two versions derive from a single earlier version which evolved differently in these two great centers of Karaism. The Egyptian version presented below is based on the Hebrew text published in Jerusalem in 1973, while the Russian version is based on the Hebrew text published in Odessa in 1901. The full citations are as follows: “Order of the Haggadah of the Feast of Passover According to the Custom of the Karaite Jews”, The National Religious Council Publication, Jerusalem 1973. “Haggadah or Small Hallel for Passover Eve According to the Custom of the Karaites with a translation in the Russian Language, Each Item in its Place”, Shlomoh Firik, Odessa 1901. Most of the Karaite Haggadah consists of Biblical verses. The translation of the Biblical portions presented here are in general based on the King James Version with slight modifications. The divine name (YHVH), which the King James inaccurately translated as “LORD” (in capital letters), has been replaced with the Hebrew “YHWH”, representing the original Hebrew Yod-HeVav-He, the divine name of God. Non-Biblical portions were translated by Nehemia Gordon and are marked at the end of each passage as “(NB)”, that is, “Non-Biblical”. The non-Biblical sections have been bolded so as to distinguish them. In a number of instances the verse numbers in the English Bible are off by one or more from the verse numbers in the Hebrew. This usually takes place when the English Bible fails to count short sentences. When such a difference takes place the English Bible verse numbers are marked in square brackets. At several points the original text included instructions which were not to be read as part of the service. The original text put these in small print but we have placed them in square brackets.

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A translation of the Egyptian version of the Karaite Passover Haggadah
The translation below was made based on the Hebrew text in: “Order of the Haggadah of the Feast of Passover According to the Custom of the Karaite Jews”, The National Religious Council Publication, Jerusalem 1973 The translation of Biblical verses are based on the King James Version and non-Biblical sections (marked in bold and as “NB”) were translated by Nehemia Gordon. In the name of the Redeemer of Israel who responds to those who seek him (NB) Praise YHWH. I will praise YHWH with my whole heart, in the assembly of the upright, and in the congregation. The works of YHWH are great, sought out by all them that have pleasure therein. His work is honorable and glorious: and his righteousness endures forever. He has made his wonderful works to be remembered: YHWH is gracious and full of compassion. He has given meat to them that fear him: he will ever be mindful of his covenant. He has shown his people the power of his works, that he may give them the heritage of the heathen. The works of his hands are verity and judgment; all his commandments are sure. They stand fast forever and ever, and are done in truth and uprightness. He sent redemption to his people: he has commanded his covenant forever: holy and reverend is his name. The fear of YHWH is the beginning of wisdom: a good understanding have all they that do his commandments: his praise endures forever (Ps 111,1-10). I will remember the works of YHWH: surely I will remember your wonders of old. I will meditate also of all your work, and talk of your doings. Your way, O God, is in the sanctuary: who is so great a God as our God? You are the God that does wonders: you have declared your strength among the people. You have with your arm redeemed your people, the sons of Jacob and Joseph. Selah (Ps 77,12-16 [11-15]). You are YHWH the God, who chose Abram, and brought him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gave him the name of Abraham (Neh 9,7). And thus you informed, Abraham our father of the oppression of his seed in a land that was not their as it is written (NB): And he said to Abram, Know of a surety that your seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them, and they shall afflict them; four hundred years. And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance (Gen 15,13-14). Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham. And he increased his people greatly; and made them stronger than their enemies. He turned their heart to hate his people, to deal subtly with his servants (Ps 105,23-25). And thus the Egyptians dealt subtly with our fathers and oppressed them and enslaved Page 3 of 22

them and embittered their lives as it is written (NB): And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigor (Ex 1,14). And Pharaoh and Egypt issued two more decrees upon our forefathers. The first decree was through the midwives as it is written (NB): And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah. And he said, When you do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then you shall kill him: but if it be a daughter, then she shall live (Ex 1,15-16). A second decree was through his people as it is written (NB): And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born you shall cast into the river, and every daughter you shall save alive (Ex 1,22). And YHWH saved them from them and kept them alive as it is written (NB): And when I passed by you, and saw you polluted in your own blood, I said to you when you were in your blood, Live; yea, I said to you when you were in your blood, Live (Ez 16,6). For he remembered his holy promise, and Abraham his servant (Ps 105,42). And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect to them (Ex 2,24-25). For YHWH saw the suffering of our forefathers in Egypt and favored them and pitied them and sent them a savior and redeemer to redeem them and save them as it is written (NB): And YHWH said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows (Ex 3,7). Come now therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh, that you may bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt (Ex 3,10). He sent Moses his servant; and Aaron whom he had chosen. They showed his signs among them, and wonders in the land of Ham (Ps 105,26-27). Who sent tokens and wonders into the midst of you, O Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his servants (Ps 135,9). And they are the ten plagues with which YHWH smote Pharaoh and Egypt (NB) First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, blood; frogs; lice; swarms; pestilence; boils; hail; locusts; darkness; first-born, to smite and to kill as it is written (NB):

And it came to pass, that at midnight YHWH smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, Page 4 of 22

and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead (Ex 12,29-30). They are dead, they shall not live; they are deceased, they shall not rise: therefore have you visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish (Isa 26,14). Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, and not be written with the righteous. But I am poor and sorrowful: let your salvation, O God, set me up on high. I will praise the name of God with a song, and will magnify him with thanksgiving (Ps 69,29-31 [28-30]). Sing to YHWH, praise YHWH: for he has delivered the soul of the poor from the hand of evildoers (Jer 20,13). And thus YHWH our God commanded us through Moses our teacher to tell our children and our children’s children as it is written (NB): And that you may tell in the ears of your son, and of your son’s son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that you may know that I am YHWH (Ex 10,2). And you shalt speak and say before YHWH your God, A Syrian ready to perish was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there with a few, and became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous: And the Egyptians evil entreated us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage: And when we cried to YHWH God of our fathers, YHWH heard our voice, and looked on our affliction, and our labor, and our oppression: And YHWH brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders (Dt 26,5-8). How he had wrought his signs in Egypt, and his wonders in the field of Zoan. And had turned their rivers into blood; and their floods, that they could not drink. He sent divers sorts of flies among them, which devoured them; and frogs, which destroyed them. He gave also their increase to the caterpillar, and their labor to the locust. He destroyed their vines with hail, and their sycamore trees with frost. He gave up their cattle also to the hail, and their flocks to hot thunderbolts. He cast upon them the fierceness of his anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, by sending evil angels among them. He made a way to his anger; he spared not their soul from death, but gave their life over to the pestilence; And smote all the firstborn in Egypt; the chief of their strength in the tabernacles of Ham (Ps 78,43-51). He brought them forth also with silver and gold: and there was not one feeble person among their tribes (Ps 105,37). And he brought forth his people with joy, and his chosen with gladness (Ps 105,43). O bless our God, you people, and make the voice of his praise to be heard. Which holds our soul in life, and suffers not our feet to be moved (Ps 66,8-8). YHWH has done great things for us; whereof we are glad (Ps 126,3). And has redeemed us from our enemies: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 126,34). Blessed be YHWH, who has not given us as a prey to their teeth (Ps 124,6). Blessed be our God and the God of our fathers who performed miracles and gallantry and marvels for our forefathers in these days and at this time; And He saved them and redeemed them and delivered them from the domination of Pharaoh King of Egypt with signs and wonders, with a strong hand and an outstretched arm and He took them out with silver and gold, in joy and song, from suffering to respite, from slavery to freedom and led them upright; For YHWH chose them to be to him a chosen people from among the nations, and He made them great and raised them up high above and took great vengeance upon their enemies and He gave them his wonderful Torah as an inheritance and He gave them Holidays of happiness and joy. Blessed is He and exalted beyond all blessing and Page 5 of 22

praise (cf. Ezra 9,5) forever and for eternity, Selah (NB). Blessed is He who kept us alive and sustained us and made us survive until this time, Amen (NB). Let it be the will of YHWH our God that He cause to happen speedily, to us and all his people the house of Israel, all the good news and consolation spoken by all of his prophets and may He make us worthy to see the time of our salvation and may we all ascend to YHWH our God happy and with a good heart to rejoice in the joy of Jerusalem and the joy of the Temple of YHWH. And then shall we bring Passover sacrifices and offer burnt offerings and peace offerings and we will thank and praise the eternal Rock, the perfect God who chose us from all the nations and separated us from all the tongues. And we will sing and rejoice and say(NB): And my soul shall be joyful in YHWH: it shall rejoice in his salvation. All my bones shall say, YHWH, who is like to you, which delivers the poor from him that is too strong for him, yea, the poor and the needy from him that spoils him (Ps 35,9-10)? He also exalts the horn of his people, the praise of all his holy ones; even of the children of Israel, a people near to him. Praise YHWH (Ps 148,14). Praise YHWH. Praise, O servants of YHWH, praise the name of YHWH. Blessed be the name of YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. From the rising of the sun to the going down of the same YHWH’s name is to be praised. YHWH is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens. Who is like to YHWH our God, who dwells on high, Who comes down to behold the things that are in heaven, and in the earth! He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts the needy out of the dunghill; That he may set him with princes, even with the princes of his people. He makes the barren woman to keep house, and to be a joyful mother of children. Praise YHWH (Ps 113,1-9). When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language; Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion. The sea saw it, and fled: Jordan was driven back. The mountains skipped like rams, and the little hills like lambs. What ailed you, O sea, that you fled? Oh Jordan, that you were driven back? Oh mountains, that skipped like rams; and little hills, like lambs? Tremble, you earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob; Which turned the rock into a standing water, the flint into a fountain of waters (Ps 114,1-8). Not to us, O YHWH, not to us, but to your name give glory, for your mercy, and for your truth’s sake (Ps 115,1). He has made his wonderful works to be remembered: YHWH is gracious and full of compassion (Ps 111,4). From generation to generation they shall praise your works, and shall declare your mighty acts (Ps 145,4). So we your people and sheep of your pasture will give you thanks forever: we will shew forth your praise to all generations (Ps 79,13). But we will bless YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. Praise YHWH (Ps 115,18). You have commanded us to keep your precepts diligently (Ps 119,4). And Moses declared to the children of Israel the feasts of YHWH (Lev 23,44). These are the feasts of YHWH, even holy convocations, which you shall proclaim in their seasons (Lev 23,4). Seven days shall you eat unleavened bread; even the first day you shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. And in the first day there shall be an holy Page 6 of 22

convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you (Ex 12,15-16). In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even (Ex 12,18). It is a night of watching for YHWH to bring them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of watching for YHWH for all the children of Israel in their generations (Ex 12,42). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who has sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us with the days of holidays of joy and the times and holy convocations and this Feast of Unleavened Bread, Amen (NB). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe, who has kept us alive and sustained us and made us survive until this time in peace, Amen (NB). O give thanks to YHWH; for he is good: for his mercy endures forever. O give thanks to the God of gods: for his mercy endures forever. O give thanks to the Lord of lords: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 136,1-3). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe, who has blessed his people Israel with this Feast of Unleavened Bread and with the Holidays of joy and holy convocations, Amen (NB). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who gives us joy and happiness and creates the fruit of the vine, Amen (NB). [And all the participants shall taste (of the wine) and afterwards take unleavened bread and bitter herbs in your hand and say] Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who has sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us about eating unleavened bread and bitter herbs, Amen (NB). [And make the bread blessing and say] Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who has sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us to eat unleavened bread for seven days and who brings bread of affliction out of the earth, Amen (NB). [And when the Holiday falls out on the Sabbath say this blessing] And Moses declared to the children of Israel the feasts of YHWH (Lev 23,44). Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them, Concerning the feasts of YHWH, which you shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts. Six days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of rest, a holy convocation; you shall do no work therein: it is the Sabbath of YHWH in all your dwellings (Lev 23,2-3). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who sanctifies his people Israel from all the nations and blesses and makes great and sanctifies and chooses this day of the Sabbath, Amen (NB). [And take the cup of wine in your hand and make the blessing saying] Page 7 of 22

Time to sanctify (NB): Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made (Gen 2,1-3). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who blesses and sanctifies his people Israel with this Feast of Unleavened Bread and with Holidays of joy and holy convocations, Amen (NB). And bless our God king of the universe who created the vine and from its wine makes happy the hearts of men as it is written (NB): And wine that makes glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine, and bread which strengthens man’s heart (Ps 104,15). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who blesses and sanctifies the day of the Sabbath for his people Israel, Amen (NB). And bless our God king of the universe who gives us joy and happiness and creates the fruit of the vine, Amen (NB). [And all the participants shall taste (of the wine) and afterwards take unleavened bread and bitter herbs in your hand and say] Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who has sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us about eating unleavened bread and bitter herbs, Amen (NB). [And make the bread blessing and say] Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who has sanctified us with his commandments and commanded us to eat unleavened bread for seven days and who brings bread of affliction out of the earth, Amen (NB).

[Blessing after the Meal]
[When the holiday falls out on the Sabbath skip “YHWH is good to all” and say here “And the children of Israel shall keep”] YHWH is good to all: and his tender mercies are over all his works (Ps 145,9). Who remembered us in our low estate: for his mercy endures forever: And has redeemed us from our enemies: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 136,23-24). Blessed be he (NB) who gives food to all flesh: for his mercy endures forever. O give thanks to the God of heaven: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 136,23-26). Let your mercy, O YHWH, be upon us, according as we hope in you (Ps 33,22). Blessed be YHWH forevermore. Amen, and Amen (Ps 89,53 [52]). Blessed be you, YHWH God of Israel our father, forever and ever. Yours, O YHWH is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty: for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is yours; yours is the kingdom, O YHWH, and you are exalted as head above all. Both riches and honor come of you, and you reign over all; and in your hand is power and might; and in your hand it is to make great, and to give strength to all. Now therefore, our God, we thank you, and praise your Page 8 of 22

glorious name (1Chr 29,10-13). But we will bless YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. Praise YHWH (Ps 115,18). The eyes of all wait upon you; and you give them their meat in due season. You open your hand, and satisfy the desire of every living thing (Ps 145,15-16). Sate us with satisfaction and hunger distance from us and feed us our daily food and may your table be set for all. We live by your great tolerance and good kindness and we are sustained by the opening of your hand. For you are He who feeds and sustains and supports all and prepares food and sustenance for all your creatures that you created. Blessed are you YHWH who feeds all, Amen. Let us thank YHWH for his kindness and for his wonderful works to man (cf. Ps 107,8) (NB). For he satisfies the longing soul, and fills the hungry soul with goodness (Ps 107,9). They shall not be ashamed in the evil time: and in the days of famine they shall be satisfied (Ps 37,19). [And on the Sabbath and Holiday (i.e. when the holiday falls out on Sabbath) say this] And the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. It is a sign between me and the children of Israel forever: for in six days YHWH made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed (Ex 31,16-17). And Moses gathered all the congregation of the children of Israel together, and said to them, These are the words which YHWH has commanded, that you should do them. Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a Sabbath of rest to YHWH: whosoever does work therein shall be put to death. You shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the Sabbath day (Ex 35,1-3). You shall keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary: I am YHWH (Lev 19,30). You shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep my Sabbaths: I am YHWH your God (Lev 19,3). These are the feasts of YHWH, even holy convocations, which you shall proclaim in their seasons (Lev 23,4). And this day shall be to you for a memorial; and you shall keep it a feast to YHWH throughout your generations; you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever. Seven days shall you eat unleavened bread; even the first day you shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you. And you shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall you observe this day in your generations by an ordinance forever. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eats that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall you eat unleavened bread (Ex 12,14-20). Seven days you shalt eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to YHWH. Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with you, neither shall there be leaven seen with you in all your quarters. And you shalt shew your son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which YHWH did to me when I came forth out of Egypt. And it shall be for a sign to you upon your hand, and for a memorial between your eyes, that YHWH’s law may be in your mouth: for with a strong hand has YHWH brought you out of Egypt. You Page 9 of 22

shalt therefore keep this ordinance in its season from year to year (Ex 13,6-10). And when your son asks you in time to come, saying, What mean the testimonies, and the statutes, and the judgments, which YHWH our God has commanded you? Then you shalt say to your son, We were Pharaoh’s bondmen in Egypt; and YHWH brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand: And YHWH shewed signs and wonders, great and sore, upon Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his household, before our eyes: And he brought us out from thence, that he might bring us in, to give us the land which he swore to our fathers. And YHWH commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear YHWH our God, for our good always, that he might preserve us alive, as it is at this day. And it shall be our righteousness, if we observe to do all these commandments before YHWH our God, as he has commanded us (Dt 6,20-25). And you shall serve YHWH your God, and he shall bless your bread, and your water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of you (Ex 23,25). And houses full of all good things, which you did not filled, and dug wells, which you did not dig, vineyards and olive trees, which you did not plant; when you shalt have eaten and be full (Dt 6,11). When you have eaten and are full, then you shalt bless YHWH your God for the good land which he has given you (Dt 8,10). Bless YHWH, O house of Israel: bless YHWH, O house of Aaron: Bless YHWH, O house of Levi: you that fear YHWH, bless YHWH. Blessed be YHWH out of Zion, who dwells in Jerusalem. Praise YHWH (Ps 135,19-21). Praise YHWH. Praise, O servants of YHWH, praise the name of YHWH. Blessed be the name of YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. From the rising of the sun to the going down of the same YHWH’s name is to be praised. YHWH is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens. Who is like to YHWH our God, who dwells on high, Who humbles himself to behold the things that are in heaven, and in the earth! He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts the needy out of the dunghill; That he may set him with princes, even with the princes of his people. He makes the barren woman to keep house, and to be a joyful mother of children. Praise YHWH (Ps 113,1-9). When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language; Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion. The sea saw it, and fled: Jordan was driven back. The mountains skipped like rams, and the little hills like lambs. What ailed you, O sea, that you fled? Oh Jordan, that you were driven back? Oh mountains, that skipped like rams; and little hills, like lambs? Tremble, you earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob; Which turned the rock into standing water, the flint into a fountain of waters (114,1-8). Not to us, O YHWH, not to us, but to your name give glory, for your mercy, and for your truth’s sake. Wherefore should the heathen say, Where is now their God? But our God is in the heavens: he has done whatsoever he has pleased. Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. They have mouths, but they speak not: eyes have they, but they see not: They have ears, but they hear not: noses have they, but they smell not: They have hands, but they handle not: feet have they, but they walk not: neither speak they through their throat. They that make them are like to them; so is every one that trusts in them. O Israel, trust you in YHWH: he is their help and their shield. O house of Aaron, trust in YHWH: he is their help and their shield. You that fear YHWH, trust in YHWH: he is their help and their shield. YHWH has been mindful of us: he will bless us; he will bless the house of Israel; he will bless the house of Aaron. He will bless them that fear YHWH, both small and great. YHWH shall increase you more and more, you and your children. You are blessed of YHWH which made heaven and earth. The heaven, even the heavens, are Page 10 of 22

YHWH’s: but the earth has he given to the children of men. The dead praise not YHWH, neither any that go down into silence. But we will bless YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. Praise YHWH (Ps 115,1-18). I love YHWH, because he has heard my voice and my supplications. Because he has inclined his ear to me, therefore will I call upon him as long as I live. The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell seized hold upon me: I found trouble and sorrow. Then called I upon the name of YHWH; O YHWH, I beseech you, deliver my soul. Gracious is YHWH, and righteous; yea, our God is merciful. YHWH preserves the simple: I was brought low, and he helped me. Return to your rest, O my soul; for YHWH has dealt bountifully with you. For you have delivered my soul from death, my eyes from tears, and my feet from falling. I will walk before YHWH in the land of the living. I believed, therefore have I spoken: I was greatly afflicted: I said in my haste, All men are liars. What shall I render to YHWH for all his benefits toward me? I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of YHWH. I will pay my vows to YHWH now in the presence of all his people. Precious in the sight of YHWH is the death of his saints. O YHWH, truly I am your servant; I am your servant, and the son of your handmaid: you have loosed my bonds. I will offer to you the sacrifice of thanksgiving, and will call upon the name of YHWH. I will pay my vows to YHWH now in the presence of all his people. In the courts of YHWH’s house, in the midst of you, O Jerusalem. Praise YHWH (Ps 116,1-19). O praise YHWH, all you nations: praise him, all you people. For his merciful kindness is great toward us: and the truth of YHWH endures forever. Praise YHWH (Ps 117,1-2). O give thanks to YHWH; for he is good: because his mercy endures forever. Let Israel now say, that his mercy endures forever. Let the house of Aaron now say, that his mercy endures forever. Let them now that fear YHWH say, that his mercy endures forever. I called upon YHWH in distress: YHWH answered me, and set me in a large place. YHWH is on my side; I will not fear: what can man do to me? YHWH takes my part with them that help me: therefore shall I see my desire upon them that hate me. It is better to trust in YHWH than to put confidence in man. It is better to trust in YHWH than to put confidence in princes. All nations compassed me about: but in the name of YHWH will I destroy them. They compassed me about; yea, they compassed me about: but in the name of YHWH I will destroy them. They compassed me about like bees: they are quenched as the fire of thorns: for in the name of YHWH I will destroy them. You have thrust sore at me that I might fall: but YHWH helped me. YHWH is my strength and song, and is become my salvation. The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tabernacles of the righteous: the right hand of YHWH does valiantly. The right hand of YHWH is exalted: the right hand of YHWH does valiantly. I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of YHWH. YHWH has chastened me sore: but he has not given me over to death. Open to me the gates of righteousness: I will go into them, and I will praise YHWH: This gate of YHWH, into which the righteous shall enter. I will praise you: for you have heard me, and are become my salvation. The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner. This is YHWH’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes. This is the day which YHWH has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. Save now, I beseech you, O YHWH: O YHWH, I beseech you, send now prosperity. Blessed be he that comes in the name of YHWH: we have blessed you out of the house of YHWH. God is YHWH, who has shown us light: bind the sacrifice with cords, even to the horns of the altar. You are my God, and I will praise you: you are my God, I will exalt you. O give thanks to YHWH; Page 11 of 22

for he is good: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 118,1-29). YHWH will give strength to his people; YHWH will bless his people with peace (Ps 29,11). Blessed be YHWH forevermore. Amen, and Amen (Ps 89,53 [52]).

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A translation of the Russian version of the Karaite Passover Haggadah
The translation below was made based on the Hebrew text in: “Haggadah or Small Hallel for Passover Eve According to the Custom of the Karaites with a translation in the Russian Language, Each Item in its Place”, Shlomoh Firik, Odessa 1901 The translation of Biblical verses are based on the King James Version and non-Biblical sections (marked in bold and as “NB”) were translated by Nehemia Gordon. Paragraphs breaks had to be inserted at regular intervals because the Russian version was printed with only a few such breaks in the entire text, apparently to save on printing costs. I will go in the strength of YHWH God: I will make mention of your righteousness, even of yours alone (cf. Ps 71,16) (NB). I will make your name to be remembered in all generations: therefore shall the people praise you forever and ever (Ps 45,18 [17]). I will remember the works of YHWH: surely I will remember your wonders of old. I will meditate also of all your works, and talk of your doings. Your way, O God, is in the sanctuary: who is so great a God as our God? You are the God that does wonders: you have declared your strength among the people. You have with your arm redeemed your people, the sons of Jacob and Joseph. Selah (Ps 77,12-16 [11-15]). You are YHWH the God, who chose Abram, and brought him forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, and gave him the name of Abraham. And found his heart faithful before you, and made a covenant with him to give the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Jebusites, and the Girgashites, to give it, I say, to his seed, and have performed your words; for you are righteous: And saw the affliction of our fathers in Egypt, and heard their cry by the Red sea; And showed signs and wonders upon Pharaoh, and on all his servants, and on all the people of his land: for you knew that they dealt proudly against them. So did you get yourself a name, as it is this day (Neh 9,7-10). And thus you informed Abraham our father of the oppression of his seed in a land that was not theirs as it is written in your Torah (NB): And he said to Abram, Know of a surety that your seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years. And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance (Gen 15,13-14). And it is written (NB): In the same day YHWH made a covenant with Abram, saying, To your seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates (Gen 15,18). Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham. And he increased his people greatly; and made them stronger than their enemies. He turned their heart to hate his people, to deal subtly with his servants (Ps 105,23-25). Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Raamses. But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew. And they were grieved because of the children Page 13 of 22

of Israel. And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor: And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigor (Ex 1,11-14). And Pharaoh and Egypt issued two harsh decrees upon our forefathers. The first decree was through the midwives as it is written (NB): And the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, of which the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah. And he said, When you do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, and see them upon the stools; if it be a son, then you shall kill him: but if it be a daughter, then she shall live (Ex 1,15-16). And they did not accept his advice and decree as it is written (NB): But the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men children alive (Ex 1,17). The second decree he commanded to his entire people publicly and he released the blood of the Israelite children to kill them and drowned them in the Nile as it is written (NB): And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born you shall cast into the river, and every daughter you shall save alive (Ex 1,22). And concerning them the Scripture says (NB): And as for your birth, in the day you were born your navel was not cut, neither were you washed in water to supple you; you were not salted at all, nor swaddled at all. No eye pitied you, to do any of these to you, to have compassion upon you; but you were cast out in the open field, to the loathing of your person, in the day that you were born (Ez 16,4-5). And our God saw his violence and pitied us as the Scripture tells through his prophet (NB): And when I passed by you, and saw you polluted in your own blood, I said to you when you were in your blood, Live; yea, I said to you when you were in your blood, Live (Ez 16,6). Remember his marvelous works that he has done; his wonders, and the judgments of his mouth; O you seed of Abraham his servant, you children of Jacob his chosen. He is YHWH our God: his judgments are in all the earth. He has remembered his covenant forever, the word which he commanded to a thousand generations. Which covenant he made with Abraham, and his oath to Isaac; And confirmed the same to Jacob for a law, and to Israel for an everlasting covenant: Saying, To you will I give the land of Canaan, the lot of your inheritance: When they were but a few men in number; yea, very few, and strangers in it. When they went from one nation to another, from one kingdom to another people; He suffered no man to do them wrong: yea, he reproved kings for their sakes; Saying, Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm (Ps 105,5-14). And Joshua said to all the people, Thus saith YHWH God of Israel, Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the river in old time, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor: and they served other gods. And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the river, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac. And I gave to Isaac Jacob and Esau: and I gave to Esau mount Seir, to possess it; but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt. I sent Moses also and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt, according to that which I did among them: and afterward I brought you out (Jos 24,2-5). And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God had respect to them (Ex 2,2425). And YHWH said, I have surely seen the affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their sorrows; And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land to a good land and a large, to a land flowing with milk and honey; to the place of the Canaanites, and Page 14 of 22

the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites. Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come to me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. Come now therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh, that you may bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt. And Moses said to God, Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt? And he said, Certainly I will be with you; and this shall be a token to you, that I have sent you: When you have brought forth the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God upon this mountain (Ex 3,7-12). For I brought you up out of the land of Egypt, and redeemed you out of the house of servants; and I sent before you Moses, Aaron, and Maria (Mic 6,4). He sent Moses his servant; and Aaron whom he had chosen. They shewed his signs among them, and wonders in the land of Ham (Ps 105,26-27). As it is written in your Torah (NB): And I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty hand. And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that he will let you go (Ex 3,19-20). And it is written (NB): And I have also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered my covenant. Wherefore say to the children of Israel, I am YHWH, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments: And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God: and you shall know that I am YHWH your God, which brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. And I will bring you in to the land, concerning the which I did swear to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am YHWH (Ex 6,5-8). And you shall say to Pharaoh, Thus saith YHWH, Israel is my son, even my firstborn: And I say to you, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if you refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay your son, even your firstborn (Ex 4,22-23). But Pharaoh shall not hearken to you, that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments (Ex 7,4). And they were ten plagues with which YHWH smote Pharaoh and Egypt because of His people and in order to make known His name (NB). First, blood as it is written (NB): And Moses and Aaron did so, as YHWH commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood (Ex 7,20). Second, frogs as it is written (NB): And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt (Ex 8,2 [6]). Third, lice as it is written (NB): And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt (Ex 8,13 [17]). Fourth, swarms as it is written (NB): And YHWH did so; and there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies (Ex 8,21 [24]). Fifth, pestilence as it is written (NB): And YHWH did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one (Ex 9,6). Page 15 of 22

Sixth, boils as it is written (NB): And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast (Ex 9,10). Seventh, hail as it is written (NB): And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and YHWH sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and YHWH rained hail upon the land of Egypt (Ex 9,23). Eighth, locusts as it is written (NB): And Moses stretched forth his rod over the land of Egypt, and YHWH brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts (Ex 10,13). Ninth, darkness as it is written (NB): And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days (Ex 10,22): Tenth, first-born, to smite and to kill as it is written (NB): And it came to pass, that at midnight YHWH smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both you and the children of Israel; and go, serve YHWH, as you have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone; and bless me also (Ex 12,29-32). O bless our God, you people, and make the voice of his praise to be heard: Which holds our soul in life, and suffers not our feet to be moved (Ps 66,8-9). Therefore YHWH commanded us (NB): the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. Eat not of it neither raw, nor sodden at all with water, but roast with fire; his head with his legs, and with the pertinence thereof. And you shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remains of it until the morning you shall burn with fire. And thus shall you eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste: it is YHWH’s Passover. For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am YHWH. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where you are: and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. And this day shall be to you for a memorial; and you shall keep it a feast to YHWH throughout your generations; you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever. Seven days shall you eat unleavened bread; even the first day you shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you. And you shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall you observe this day in your generations by an ordinance forever. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for Page 16 of 22

whosoever eats that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall you eat unleavened bread (Ex 12,8-20). It is a night of watching for YHWH to bring them out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of watching for YHWH for all the children of Israel in their generations. And YHWH said to Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the Passover: There shall no stranger eat thereof: But every man’s servant that is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. A foreigner and a hired servant shall not eat thereof. In one house shall it be eaten; you shall not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall you break a bone thereof. All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. And when a stranger shall sojourn with you, and will keep the Passover to YHWH, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and to the stranger that sojourns among you (Ex 12,42-49). Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said to them, Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the Passover. And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. For YHWH will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he sees the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, YHWH will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in to your houses to smite you. And you shall observe this thing for an ordinance to you and to your sons forever. And it shall come to pass, when you are come to the land which YHWH will give you, according as he has promised, that you shall keep this service. And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say to you, What mean you by this service? That you shall say, It is the sacrifice of YHWH’s Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. And the people bowed the head and worshipped. And the children of Israel went away, and did as YHWH had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they (Ex 12,21-28). Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast to YHWH. Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days; and there shall no leavened bread be seen with you, neither shall there be leaven seen with you in all your quarters. And you shall shew your son in that day, saying, This is done because of that which YHWH did to me when I came forth out of Egypt. And it shall be for a sign to you upon your hand, and for a memorial between your eyes, that YHWH’s law may be in your mouth: for with a strong hand has YHWH brought you out of Egypt. You shall therefore keep this ordinance in its season from year to year (Ex 13,6-10). And when your son asks you in time to come, saying, What mean the testimonies, and the statutes, and the judgments, which YHWH our God has commanded you? Then you shall say to your son, We were Pharaoh’s bondmen in Egypt; and YHWH brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand: And YHWH shewed signs and wonders, great and sore, upon Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his household, before our eyes: And he brought us out from thence, that he might bring us in, to give us the land which he swore to our fathers. And YHWH commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear YHWH our God, for our good always, that he might preserve us alive, as it is at this day. And it shall be our righteousness, if we observe to do all these commandments Page 17 of 22

before YHWH our God, as he has commanded us (Dt 6,20-25). And that you may tell in the ears of your son, and of your son’s son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that you may know that I am YHWH (Ex 10,2). Which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. We will not hide them from their children, shewing to the generation to come the praises of YHWH, and his strength, and his wonderful works that he has done (Ps 78,3-4). Who smote the firstborn of Egypt, both of man and beast (Ps 135,8). To him that smote Egypt in their firstborn: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 136,10). Oh that men would praise YHWH for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men (107,8). Let them praise your great and terrible name; for it is holy (Ps 99,3). I will praise you, O YHWH, with my whole heart; I will shew forth all your marvelous works. I will be glad and rejoice in you: I will sing praise to your name, O you most High. When mine enemies are turned back, they shall fall and perish at your presence. For you have maintained my right and my cause; you sat in the throne judging right. You have rebuked the heathen, you have destroyed the wicked, you have put out their name forever and ever (Ps 9,2-6 [1-5]). Blessed be YHWH, who has not given us as a prey to their teeth (Ps 124,6). Blessed be the Lord, who daily loads us with benefits, even the God of our salvation. Selah. He that is our God is the God of salvation; and to the Lord YHWH belong the issues from death (Ps 68,20-21 [19-20]). Blessed be our God and the God of our fathers who performed miracles and gallantry and signs and marvels with our forefathers in these days and at this time; and who redeemed them from the harsh slavery of Egypt; And delivered them from the hard toil of their oppressors to freedom; And delivered them from the domination of Pharaoh King of Egypt to rest; with signs and wonders and war and with a strong hand and an outstretched arm and with mighty terror. And He took them out with silver and gold, in joy and happiness and song, from slavery to freedom and led them upright; For YHWH chose them to be to him a chosen people, and He took them and raised them up high above and took great vengeance and retribution upon their enemies. And he cast their oppressors into the depths and he performed a great salvation for them, Selah. And from there he took them and brought them to Sinai as a bride. And He gave them his wonderful Torah as an inheritance with statute and commandment and law and judgment. And He commanded them Holidays of happiness and joy. And therefore we should say Blessed is He and blessed is his name and exalted beyond all blessing and praise (cf. Ezra 9,5) forever and for eternity, Selah (NB). And also let us say, Blessed is our God who kept us alive and sustained us and made us survive in peace until this time, Amen (NB). Let it be the will of YHWH our God and God of our fathers, the great mighty and terrible God, that He will quicken and cause to happen speedily to us in our days and in your days and in the days of all his people the house of Israel, all the good news and pleasantries and consolation recorded, spoken, and written by every prophet and seer. And may He make us worthy to see the time of our success and to see our salvation and sprout of our Messiah. And then we shall ascend to Zion to YHWH our God in the days of the pilgrimages and at the times of the Feasts and Holidays rejoicing and enjoying to be happy in the happiness of Jerusalem our city. And in the perfection of joy of the Temple and Holy of Holies. And then shall we bring Passover sacrifices and burnt offerings and vows with meal-offerings and Page 18 of 22

libations. And we will thank and praise the eternal Rock, the God whose actions are called perfect and who brings speedily salvation for the perfect ones; who in the beginning sanctified us from all the peoples and in the end chose us from all the nations and therefore shall we sing and rejoice and be happy and glad and sing with might (NB): And my soul shall be joyful in YHWH: it shall rejoice in his salvation. All my bones shall say, YHWH, who is like to you, who delivers the poor from him that is too strong for him, yea, the poor and the needy from him that spoils him (Ps 35,9-10). And it is written (NB): Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, your King comes to you: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass (Zech 9,9). Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that brings good tidings, that publishes peace! O Judah, keep your solemn feasts, perform your vows: for the wicked shall no more pass through you; he is utterly cut off (Nahum 2,1 [1,15]). Your people also shall be all righteous: they shall inherit the land forever, the branch of my planting, the work of my hands, that I may be glorified. A little one shall become a thousand, and a small one a strong nation: I YHWH will hasten it in his time (Isa 60,21-22). [And take the cup in you hand and make the blessing and say] O give thanks to YHWH; for he is good: for his mercy endures forever. O give thanks to the God of gods: for his mercy endures forever. O give thanks to the Lord of lords: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 136,1-3). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe, who has blessed his people Israel with this Feast of Unleavened Bread and with the Holidays of joy and holy convocations, Amen (NB). And Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who gives us joy and happiness and creates the fruit of the vine, Amen (NB). [And when the holiday falls out on the Sabbath say this blessing] Time to sanctify (NB): Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made (Gen 2,1-3). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who blesses and sanctifies his people Israel with this Feast of Unleavened Bread and with Holidays of joy and holy convocations, Amen (NB). And blessed be our God king of the universe who created the vine and from its wine makes happy the hearts of men as it is written (NB): And wine that makes glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine, and bread which strengthens man’s heart (Ps 104,15). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who blesses and sanctifies the day of the Sabbath for his people Israel, Amen (NB). And bless our God king of the universe who gives us joy and happiness and creates the fruit of the vine, Amen (NB).

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[Before eating unleavened bread say these two blessings] Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who brings bread of affliction out of the ground, Amen (NB). Blessed are you YHWH our God, king of the universe who sanctified us with his commandments and commanded about eating unleavened bread and bitter herbs, Amen (NB).

[Blessing after the Meal]
YHWH is good to all: and his tender mercies are over all his works (Ps 145,9). Who remembered us in our low estate: for his mercy endures forever: And has redeemed us from our enemies: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 136,23-24). Blessed be he (NB) who gives food to all flesh: for his mercy endures forever. O give thanks to the God of heaven: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 136,23-26). Let your mercy, O YHWH, be upon us, according as we hope in you (Ps 33,22). Blessed be YHWH forevermore. Amen, and Amen (Ps 89,53 [52]). Blessed be you, YHWH God of Israel our father, forever and ever. Yours, O YHWH is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty: for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is yours; yours is the kingdom, O YHWH, and you are exalted as head above all. Both riches and honor come of you, and you reign over all; and in your hand is power and might; and in your hand it is to make great, and to give strength to all. Now therefore, our God, we thank you, and praise your glorious name (1Chr 29,10-13). But we will bless YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. Praise YHWH (Ps 115,18). The eyes of all wait upon you; and you give them their meat in due season. You open your hand, and satisfy the desire of every living thing (Ps 145,15-16). Sate us with satisfaction and hunger distance from us and feed us our daily food and may your table be set for all. We live by your great tolerance and good kindness and we are sustained by the opening of your hand. For you are He who feeds and sustains and supports all and prepares food and sustenance for all your creatures that you created. Blessed are you YHWH who feeds all, Amen. Let us thank YHWH for his kindness and for his wonderful works to man (cf. Ps 107,8) (NB). For he satisfies the longing soul, and fills the hungry soul with goodness (Ps 107,9). They shall not be ashamed in the evil time: and in the days of famine they shall be satisfied (Ps 37,19). [And on the Sabbath and Holiday (i.e. when the holiday falls out on Sabbath) say this] And the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant. It is a sign between me and the children of Israel forever: for in six days YHWH made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed (Ex 31,16-17). And Moses gathered all the congregation of the children of Israel together, and said to them, These are the words which YHWH has commanded, that you should do them. Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a Sabbath of rest to YHWH: whosoever does work therein shall be put to death. You shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations upon the Sabbath day (Ex 35,1-3). You shall keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary: I am YHWH (Lev 19,30). You shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep my Sabbaths: I am YHWH your God (Lev 19,3). Page 20 of 22

[And on Holiday] And you shall serve YHWH your God, and he shall bless your bread, and your water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of you (Ex 23,25). And houses full of all good things, which you did not filled, and dug wells, which you did not dig, vineyards and olive trees, which you did not plant; when you shall have eaten and be full (Dt 6,11). When you have eaten and are full, then you shall bless YHWH your God for the good land which he has given you (Dt 8,10). Bless YHWH, O house of Israel: bless YHWH, O house of Aaron: Bless YHWH, O house of Levi: you that fear YHWH, bless YHWH. Blessed be YHWH out of Zion, who dwells in Jerusalem. Praise you YHWH (Ps 135,19-21). Praise you YHWH. Praise, O you servants of YHWH, praise the name of YHWH. Blessed be the name of YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. From the rising of the sun to the going down of the same YHWH’s name is to be praised. YHWH is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens. Who is like to YHWH our God, who dwells on high, Who humbles himself to behold the things that are in heaven, and in the earth! He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts the needy out of the dunghill; That he may set him with princes, even with the princes of his people. He makes the barren woman to keep house, and to be a joyful mother of children. Praise you YHWH (Ps 113,1-9). When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language; Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion. The sea saw it, and fled: Jordan was driven back. The mountains skipped like rams, and the little hills like lambs. What ailed you, O sea, that you fled? Oh Jordan, that was driven back? Oh mountains, that skipped like rams; and you little hills, like lambs? Tremble, you earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob; Which turned the rock into standing water, the flint into a fountain of waters (114,1-8). Not to us, O YHWH, not to us, but to your name give glory, for your mercy, and for your truth’s sake. Wherefore should the heathen say, Where is now their God? But our God is in the heavens: he has done whatsoever he has pleased. Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. They have mouths, but they speak not: eyes have they, but they see not: They have ears, but they hear not: noses have they, but they smell not: They have hands, but they handle not: feet have they, but they walk not: neither speak they through their throat. They that make them are like to them; so is every one that trusts in them. O Israel, trust you in YHWH: he is their help and their shield. O house of Aaron, trust in YHWH: he is their help and their shield. You that fear YHWH, trust in YHWH: he is their help and their shield. YHWH has been mindful of us: he will bless us; he will bless the house of Israel; he will bless the house of Aaron. He will bless them that fear YHWH, both small and great. YHWH shall increase you more and more, you and your children. You are blessed of YHWH which made heaven and earth. The heaven, even the heavens, are YHWH’s: but the earth has he given to the children of men. The dead praise not YHWH, neither any that go down into silence. But we will bless YHWH from this time forth and forevermore. Praise YHWH (Ps 115,1-18). I love YHWH, because he has heard my voice and my supplications. Because he has inclined his ear to me, therefore will I call upon him as long as I live. The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell seized hold upon me: I found trouble and sorrow. Then called I upon the name of YHWH; O YHWH, I beseech you, deliver my soul. Gracious is YHWH, and righteous; Page 21 of 22

yea, our God is merciful. YHWH preserves the simple: I was brought low, and he helped me. Return to your rest, O my soul; for YHWH has dealt bountifully with you. For you have delivered my soul from death, mine eyes from tears, and my feet from falling. I will walk before YHWH in the land of the living. I believed, therefore have I spoken: I was greatly afflicted: I said in my haste, All men are liars. What shall I render to YHWH for all his benefits toward me? I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of YHWH. I will pay my vows to YHWH now in the presence of all his people. Precious in the sight of YHWH is the death of his saints. O YHWH, truly I am your servant; I am your servant, and the son of your handmaid: you have loosed my bonds. I will offer to you the sacrifice of thanksgiving, and will call upon the name of YHWH. I will pay my vows to YHWH now in the presence of all his people. In the courts of YHWH’s house, in the midst of you, O Jerusalem. Praise you YHWH (Ps 116,1-19). O praise YHWH, all you nations: praise him, all you people. For his merciful kindness is great toward us: and the truth of YHWH endures forever. Praise you YHWH (Ps 117,1-2). O give thanks to YHWH; for he is good: because his mercy endures forever. Let Israel now say, that his mercy endures forever. Let the house of Aaron now say, that his mercy endures forever. Let them now that fear YHWH say, that his mercy endures forever. I called upon YHWH in distress: YHWH answered me, and set me in a large place. YHWH is on my side; I will not fear: what can man do to me? YHWH takes my part with them that help me: therefore shall I see my desire upon them that hate me. It is better to trust in YHWH than to put confidence in man. It is better to trust in YHWH than to put confidence in princes. All nations compassed me about: but in the name of YHWH will I destroy them. They compassed me about; yea, they compassed me about: but in the name of YHWH I will destroy them. They compassed me about like bees: they are quenched as the fire of thorns: for in the name of YHWH I will destroy them. You have thrust sore at me that I might fall: but YHWH helped me. YHWH is my strength and song, and is become my salvation. The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the tabernacles of the righteous: the right hand of YHWH does valiantly. The right hand of YHWH is exalted: the right hand of YHWH does valiantly. I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of YHWH. YHWH has chastened me sore: but he has not given me over to death. Open to me the gates of righteousness: I will go into them, and I will praise YHWH: This gate of YHWH, into which the righteous shall enter. I will praise you: for you have heard me, and are become my salvation. The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner. This is YHWH’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes. This is the day which YHWH has made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. Save now, I beseech you, O YHWH: O YHWH, I beseech you, send now prosperity. Blessed be he that comes in the name of YHWH: we have blessed you from the house of YHWH. YHWH is God, and has shewed us light: bind the sacrifice with cords, even to the horns of the altar. You are my God, and I will praise you: you are my God, I will exalt you. O give thanks to YHWH; for he is good: for his mercy endures forever (Ps 118,1-29). YHWH will give strength to his people; YHWH will bless his people with peace (Ps 29,11). Blessed be YHWH forevermore. Amen, and Amen (Ps 89,53 [52]).

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