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Models of Administration

USES OF MODELS:

Comparative

Public

Models are used in studying public administration due to the following reasons:
1. To study the social cultural political and economic factors that influence comparative studies. 2. By using the concepts of models we characterized public administration as a series of actions or behaviors that involved in meeting the changing environmental demands. 3. To conceptualize administrative activity in a systematic way with particular attention to the goal of political system. 4. To deal implicitly or explicitly for effective operation of administrative system. 5. These are presented in such a way as to employ their general relevance for the study of public administration. From the above characteristics, it is clear the use of models is to organize information and facts that constitute the entire study. Models are replacing our frame word of the study up to some extents models are universal framework of analysis of similar problems under study.

Now lets study, the different models:


1.

Webers Bureaucratic Model:


Max Webers model is the most popular model which suites for the ideal type of bureaucracy, capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency and most rational form of administration his ideas are based on legal rational authorities because of its technical superiority over others. He had integrated bureaucracy into a larger scheme of the three ideal types of authority. It is legal in sense i.e. it is based on style of authority, which is legitimated through legal processes. It is rational in sense because it is controlled on the basis of knowledge. He was firmly committed to the parliamentary democracy and was a supporter of strong leadership. He expected the leaders to protect the mass against its own irrationality and the individual against mob psychology.

Some characteristics of his model

1. Written rules and regulations should be there to control and fixed the official jurisdictions 2. There should be a clear division of labor with authority and responsibility, clearly designated, maximizing specializing and expertise. 3. The arrangement of positions in hierarchy of authority. 4. Officials should be appointed on the basis of qualification. 5. Work should be viewed as a vocation and full time occupation. 6. There should be uniformity and impersonality regardless of persons.

Criticism:
Highly developed model. Broadly applicable conceptual scheme. Provides clear and precise guidelines. Such ideal type can never exist at all. Doesnt explain dynamic empirical situation. It abandons moral arguments of legitimacy entirely. Weber defined his rational form of administration with the term bureaucracy. Humans can't be rational perfectly. Traditional values are not rational. Market operates on choices, one cant choose rationally because when we choose we dont know what is it and if it can be cheapest with lowest prices. Model was based on capitalist society so other economic systems are totally ignored. It cant be applied to economies based on other economic system. 2.

Downs Model:

Anthony Downs explained the life cycle of bureaus by specifying the four ways in which bureaus are created. He refers to the routinisation of charisma as one of the type of bureau_ genesis. According to him

1. Bureaucracy is the result of common consequences if routinisation of charisma. 2. Creation of bureaucracy is by social groups for the performance of specific functions. 3. Bureaus is due to the splitting of the existing ones 4. Bureaus are a result of entrepreneurship of few zealots. Dawns models central hypothesis is that bureaucrats are motivated by self interest. He emphasized on the importance of career interests as determinants of administrative process. He states in his theory of law of counter control, The greater the effort made by top level official top control the behavior of subordinate officials, the greater the efforts made by those subordinates to evade or counter act such control

Criticism:
Useful in comparing the origin of civil bureaucracies. Useful in comparison of employees behavior.

3.Riggs Ecological Model:


Riggs developed a model which can be used in cross cultural analysis. He was primarily concerned with conceptualizing on the interaction between administrative system and the environment. His main focus was developing institutional societies. He was most prominent model builder by developing prismatic sala model. He also gave a series of overlapping and inter related models extending Suttons two ideal models of Agraria and Industria to illustrate the relationship between societal structures and whole cultures. He set forth his major model in a lengthy way entitled Agraria and Industria towards a typology of public administration. He argued that the system like Agraria and Industria could be constructed at various transitional stages between the two with similar categories illustrating the interdependence of Administrative Systems and societies. His imperial research was mainly in south Asia after examining various societies, he observed that in some societies the political structure fulfill only one function, whereas in other societies political structures fulfill several functions. He argues that we can

imagine a purely hypothetical society in which single structure would perform all the functions necessary for the survival. Let us call it a fuse model as well as a white light fused. According to him there are three types of societies: a. The fused society: Here there is no specialization of rules. b. Refractive Society: Here is a high level of structural differentiation. c. The Prismatic Society: In prismatic society, there is a high degree of formalism, discrepancies between norms and realties, overlapping and heterogeneity exists. In such societies there is a big gap that exists between the formally prescribed norms and effectively practiced actions.

Criticism:
Valuable in understanding the pathology of public administration as may be useful for diagnosis of administrative malfunctions. It focuses/ applicable on all types of societies/economies- highly developed. Lacks dynamic qualities- he has not analyzed the process of refraction from a development perspective. Didnt work out implications fully on public administration. Too broad and abstract. Cultural factors like economic, social and political are difficult to follow. Ignores certain variables. Unique circumstances of each country have profound effects on administrative behavior. The primary focus is social factors. Many other important factors are ignored. Established unique vocabulary (Jargons) that has no application to other models. He views transition process of non-western societies keeping in view the transition process of western societies which is improper and dangerous. 4.

Dorseys Information Energy model:

Dorseys present the equilibrium theory of model building depending upon the inputs and outputs as the basis of analysis. He argued that it is useful in the analysis of social and political system in general as well as for a better understanding of administrative system. His model is generally known as information energy-model. His model is based on the synthesis of concepts of general system theory of communication and cybernetics and of energy and energy conversion. His model conceptualizes individuals, groups, organizations and societies as complete information, energy converter. As we know energy is the ability to effect some change in form, time of space in physical relationships, i.e. to do some work and energy conversion is conversely is the manifestation of this capacity or the process of effecting such changes. So information can be viewed as energy in certain forms of configurations. A system converts input such as demands and intelligent through various conversion processes of screening, selecting and channelizing into outputs so high levels of information of input storage and processing permits a high energy output. An administrative system produces output in various forms such as regulation of services for subsystems and systems forming parts of its environment. He presented some general hypothesis which help to explain the administrative problems of developing countries. In terms of non availability of surplus information and energy, his basic hypothesis is that,

A societys degree of development is a measure of information and energy surplus.

Criticism:
This model has complex variables This model is problematic in operations so scholars havent used it. It failed in explaining the bureaucratic changes. 5.

The Developmental Model:


The developmental model is based on the idea that which has its origin in the desire of wealthier countries to aid poorer countries and more especially in the obvious needs of the newly emerging national states to transform their colonial bureaucracies into more responsible instruments of social change Developmental administration is totally different from administrative development. Developmental administration is related to goal oriented

administrative system. As per Edward Wander, The concept of development administration refers to the process of guiding an organization towards the achievement of progressive political, economic and social objectives that are authoritatively determined in one manner or another.

The concept dimensions

of

development

administration

has

two

important

1. It is concerned with the process through which a public administrative system directs socio-economic and political change in society. 2. It studies the dynamics of change within the administrative system. The system enhances its capability to with stand undesirable change coming from the environment and to direct desired change.

So development administration has come to mean the study and practice of induced socio-economic change in the developing countries. The image is transformational, directive and cross cultural.

In the field of development administration two swings came in perspectives have occurred during the last three decades. 1. Pragmatic values and goal orientation 2. Social and economical orientation.

Criticism:
Cross cultural study is possible by help of this model. Socio-economic change in the developing countries could be studied and practiced.