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something means to not allow it: my

parents - mefrom playing the game I smoking is
- in the bUilding I he's been -from driving I the
government has - hunting
can't be bothered if you can't be bothered
something, you don't want to make the to
do it. The past form is couldn't be bothered. If you
bother to do something, you make the effort to
1. b,oJPped to watch it nowI }\reyou
etm1tr'!ouf?' NOTCan't be bothered.' I Icouldn't
be bothered to cook I he didn't bother to phone us
I a lot of people don't bother voting I don't bother
coming to collect me - I'll get the bus
come outwhen a film or book comes out, it becomes
to - on cable I - on OVO I
her newbook is week
commercial if something is commercial, it is
produced just to make money. The adverb is
commercially: atypical-filmfrom Hollywood I
Idon't like their music - it's too - I a - TV channel
(run as a paidfor by agovernment) I
thefilm was 'aJlr;j5 I the restaurant
isn't make
disturbing if someth it is Ip'5ettirtg,
or makes you feel 9nX1ous or worried. The verb
is also an adjective1.!.t9"l.jnd
it abit - I a - crime I some crerpr;-
photographs I a - experience I it disturbs
me that governments aren't doing more to help I
Iwas very disturbed to hear about the murder
dull if something is dull, it is noun is; it's quite - I. a at eY- IIfound
it incredibly - I it was .e dry dull (extremely dull)
I there's never a - moment here (there's always
something interesting happening) I Ihated the
dullness ofthe landscape
gripping if something is gripping, it is extremely
exciting. The verb is.Jl!i.e: Gripped is also an
adjective: a - novel I a - story I thefilm's
absolutely - I a really - ending I the story really
grips you I we were all gripped by the TV reports
heavyyou can say that something is heavy if it is very
serious or upsetting: it's agood book, but quite-
I don't want to read anything too - on holiday I I
found the book - going at times (difficult to read)
hilarious something that is hilarious is extremel
funny. The adverb is hilariously: it was absolutely-
I some - jokes I he's - when he's in the right mood
I it was hilariouslyfunny
over-the-top if it is so
that it seemssmyWe can shorten the
word to OTT (oh-tee-tee): it was completely - I I
nepJP,itli>iMt's a bit - I Ifind her a bit OTT sometimes
turn over in British English, ifyou turn over when
you are watching TV, you change to a different
channel. In American English,you say change I
switch channels: Istarted watching it, but then I
turned over I can we - to BBC1? I we turned over
p 0 w tch.thefootball
u iRing if something is uplifting, it makes you feel
happy and full of hope. There is a formal verb,
uplift: a really - story I an - experience I Ifelt
uplifted by his talk
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ambiguous if something is ambiguous, its meaning is
not clear. The noun is ambiguity, and the adverb is
ambiguously: his later paintings are qUite - I some
is a bit - I Ithink she was being
demlerately - I there's a lot ofambiguity in what
he said I I worded it carefully to avoid ambiguity I
it was worded ambiguously
atmospheric if it creates
a mood of mystery or noun is
atmosphere: a really - painting I - music I the
decor's qUite - I keep the lights low to create a
spooky atmosphere
bankruptcy bankruptcy is a situation when someone
does not have enough money to pay all their
debts. The adjective is bankrupt: he laterfell into
- I the couple nowface - I she was close to - I the
number ofbankruptcies has risen I the company
went bankrupt last year I they have been declared
Virtually bankrupt
if something is conventional, it is
done in the usual way, and is not new or different
in any way. The adverb is conventionally. The
opposite is unconventional: a - portrait I a -
novel I his qUite - I a - education I
a highly - iJP(JnngingJlllhe was
conventionally I an unconventional aj/jiiOa"EFir
to art
corrupted if a person becomes corrupted, a place or
person has a bad influence on them and makes
them do dishonest or immoral things. The verb is
corrupt: he was - by the criminals he was mixing
yyj!.htY2Jjng prisoners can become - by older
he was - by wealth I they say that power
corrugts I he was trying to corrupt her
is a feeling that you have no hope.
Despair is also a verb: I he killed
himselfin - I she was in the deptlis of- I losing
the business drove him to - I it was a very difficult
time, but we never despaired I Inever despaired of
finding him again
dominant if a person or thing is dominant, they have
more power or influence than others. The noun
is dominance: - partner in the relationship
I a - I the company has a - position
in the world market I the political and economic
dominance of the USA
friction if there is friction between people, there is
unfriendliness or disagreement between them:
there was - between the two sisters I the usual
frictions between parents and teenagers I money
was a source of- between them
fulfil if you fulfil your desires, you achieve what you
wanted to achieve: his struggle to - his desires I at
last he had -led his childhood dream I Ihope one
day Iwill- my ambitions
heated a heated discussion or argument is one in
which people are angry or upset: a - discussion
between the two sisters I having a - argument I
a - debate on the punishment ofcriminals I the
discussJpn was qUite - at times
impression'\fYou get an impression about
something, you get a feeling about it, or form an
opinion about it: Iget the - someone's died I Igot
the distinct - (the very strong impression) that
we weren't welcome I Idon't want you to get the
wrong - I it left me with the - that she's not very
happy I what was yourfirst - of her?
intimate something that is intimate is about a
person's private life. The noun is intimacy and the
adverb is intimately: an - painting I an -friend
of the artist I did they have an - relationship
(a sexual relationship)? I the newspaper published
- details of his private life I things he only talked
about in the intimacy of the home I they know
each other intimately (they know personal details
about each other)
lap your lap is the top part of your legs when you are
sitting down: the cat on Mr Clarke's - I Can Isit on
your -? I he climbed on to his dad's -
loosely if you copy or explain something loosely,
you don't do it in a careful or exact way. The
adjective is loose: it's - based on afifteenth
century work I it can be - interpreted as an
autobiography I a loose translation I a loose
interpretation of the work
obstacle an obstacle is a problem or difficulty that
stops you from going somewhere or doing
something: lack ofmoney is aserious - I an - to
communication I what were the major -s you
encountered? I she's had to overcome a lot of-s
along the way I they are calling on the government
to remove -s tofree trade
open to interpretation if something is open to
interpretation, you can understand it in several
different ways. Your own interpretation of
something is the way you understand it. The
verb is interpret: Ithink the book's - I what'syour
interpretation ofthe novel? I that's one possible
interpretation I it's difficult to interpret dreams
accurately I howdoyou interpret his behaviour?
ordeal an ordeal is a very difficult or painful
experience: a terrifying - I giving evidence in court
was a terrible - I she had to face the - of another
operation I they went through a terrible -I the
children are still recovering from their-
parallel a parallel between two things is a
similarity between them. Parallel lines are next
to each other and stay the same distance apart
as they continue. Parallel is also an adjective:
parallels between the two works I there are some
parallels here with his earlier works I you can
draw parallels between the two novels I a shape
with two parallel lines I the road runs parallel to
the river
perspective your perspective is the way you see or
understand a situation: the story is" seenfrom the
monster's - I my illness has given me a new- on
life I try to see things from a broader - I let's put
things into - (understand their context) I you need
to keep a sense of- (understand that something is
perhaps not as serious as it seems)
pointedly if you do something pointedly, you do it
deliberately to show people that you are angry,
upset or worried. The adjective is pointed: he's-
looking awayfrom us I she looked at her watch
-: I 'I don't want to go,' he said - I he made some
pointed remarks about me OWing him money
represent to represent something means to be a
symbol of it. The noun is representation: the lilies
- female purity / the different colours - different
feelings / rain is represented by blue patches on the
map / asymbolic representation ofdeath
resolve if you resolve a problem,you find a solution
to it. The noun is resolution: in the end, everything
was -d / the matter hasn't beenfully -d / they
want to - things quickly / lets hope things can
be -d peacefully / everyone is hopingfor a qUick
resolution ofthe conflict / we believe we have
achieved asatisfactory resolution to the problem
been reversed if things have been reversed, they have
been changed around so they are opposite to how
they were before. Reverse can also be used as an
active verb: the positions ofthe characters have - /
their roles have - / to reverse the order ofthe songs
/ they want the court to reverse its decision
sombre if something is sombre, it is serious and
sad. You can also say that a person is sombre,
or in a sombre mood. The American spelling
is somber. The adverb is sombrely: rather a -
painting / the - mood of his early work / he
seemed a bit - / she was in a - mood / there was
a - silence / the funeral was a - occasion / he
nodded sombrely
strike the way something strikes you is the feeling
you get about it, or the opinion you form about
it. Strike is often used in the passive: it strikes you
as a conventional portrait / doesn't his behaviour
- you as odd? / thefirst thing that struck me was
howfew people were there / Iwas struck by how
cheerful she seemed (J noticed it)
symbolic if something is symbolic, it uses pictures
or shapes to represent ideas or feelings. A
symbol is something that represents an idea
or feeling. Symbolise is the verb. Symbolism
is the use of symbois: it's full of - meaning /
theflowers are - of life (they represent it)
/ a highly - act (With an important meaning) /
the dove is traditionally the symbol of peace / a
dove is often used to symbolise peace / the event
symbolises the country's strugglefor democracy /
trying to analyse the symbolism in the painting
tension tension is a feeling of excitement or fear,
or a feeling of distrust between people. The
adjective is tense: a lot of - in the piece / the -
builds throughout thefilm / there is mounting
- between the two communities / growing -
along the border between the two countries / the
atmosphere in the city is still tense / a tense day
waitingfor the results
textile textiles are fabrics made from cotton, wool,
etc.: a - designer / a - mill (afactory that makes
textiles) the - industry
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accused ifyou are accused of a crime, the police say
officiallythattheythinkyou did it.The accused is the
person who is accused of a crime. The verb is accuse:
he was - ofacrime / both men are - ofmurder / he
was wrongly - ofthe theft / he stands - (is accused)
ofkidnapping / the police want more time to question
the accused / he accused me oflying / the police have
accused him ofhiding evidence
breakthrough a breakthrough is an important discovery:
the police made an initial- / scientists have made a
major - in cancer treatment / asignificant - infuel
technology / an important scientific -
disguise if you wear a disguise,you wear different
clothes and change the way you look so that
people won't recognise you. Disguise is also a verb:
he wears a - / she put on a different - / he travelled
in - (wearing a disguise) / no one saw through his-
/ she disguised herself as a police officer
element the elements of something are the parts
that form it: all the stories contain the same
elements / one ofthe key elements (most important
parts) of the government's policy / her looks are a
vital- of her success
fatal if something is fatal, it causes someone to die. A
fatal mistake is one that causes something to fail
completely. The adverb is fatally: the monsters -
flaw / a - accident / a - illness / a - dose ofthe drug
/ his injuries proved - (werefatal) / going back to the
scene ofthe crime was his - error / a - mistake / two
people werefatally wounded / fatally injured
feature to feature something means to include it.
A feature is something that is included: the plot
-s the same character types / thefilm -s several
top actors / the new model-s an improved engine
design / what are the -s ofa classic crime movie? /
a car with a lot ofspecial-s
get away with if you get away with a crime,you are
not caught and punished for it: it's difficult to - a
crime / to - murder / he'll never - it!
initial an initial idea or action is one at the beginning
of a situation, which later changes. The adverb is
initially: the police made an - breakthrough / the
- stages ofthe illness / his - reaction was positive
/ initially, Ididn't enjoy thejob / the company was
quite successful initially
resist if you resist something, you stop yourself
from doing something even though you want to.
To resist something also means to stop it from
happening: he has to - the temptation tojoin
theforces ofdarkness / Ican never - chocolate / I
couldn't - having a look inside / it's difficult to-
an offer like that / the bank has -ed increasing its
charges / some people try to - change
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affluent an affluent place is one where rich people
live. You can also describe a person as affluent.
The noun is affluence: an - part ofthe city / an -
society / - businessmen / an area that is knownfor
its affluence
date back if something dates back to a time in the
past, that is the time it started or was built: the
buildings - to the tenth century / the church dates
back 500years / it dates back along way / these
problems - to the 1960s
deprived a place that is deprived is one where very
poor people live. You can also say that a person is
deprived. The noun is deprivation: one ofthe most
- areas in the country / a - inner city school / -
children / the city has high levels ofdeprivation
dominate if something dominates, it is bigger or
more important than other things. This verb
is often used in the passive. The adjective is
dominant: the church -s the town square / the
town is -d by ahuge power station / the economy
. -d the election campaign / the company has a
dominant position in the market
erect to erect something means to build it: high-rise
blocks were -ed after the Second World War / they
have -ed asecurityfence / trying to - a tent
glimpse if you get a glimpse of something,you see
it for a very short time. Glimpse is also a verb: I
caught a - ofthe church / we got a - ofthe sea /
people queued upfor a - ofthe star / I-d a man
walking past the house
grand if something is grand, it is big and impressive.
The noun is grandeur: the houses looked very
- / a- public bUilding / he's got - plans / the
century grandeur ofthe palace
hideous something that is hideous is extremely ugly
or horrible. The adverb is hideously: a - modern
bUilding / she looks - in that dress / hisface was
hideously deformed / they're hideously expensive
(extremely expensive) ,
high-rise a high-rise bUilding is very tall, with a lot of
different levels: - blocks offlats / - office bUildings
knock down to knock a bUilding down means to
destroy it. A more formal word is demolish: the
old school is going to be knocked down / they're
knocking down some ofthe old high-rise blocks /
Ithink it's time they knocked it down
landmark a landmark is a famous building or
monument that a lot of people recognise. A
landmark is also an event that stands out as being
very important: one ofthe city's mostfamous-s
/ the Statue of Liberty and other well-known -s /
the revolution was a - in French history / this is a-
decision by the court
renovate to renovate something old means to repair
it and make it look new again. Renovated is the
adjective. The noun is renovation: plans to -
the old theatre / the church has been completely
-d / the newly -d town hall / the building
has undergone extensive renovation / amajor
renovation project
run-down a building that is run-down is not in good
condition because it is old and hasn't been looked
after well. You can also say that an area is
run-down: some - bUildings / the school is rather - /
a - inner city area / some parts ofthe city are very-
soar if prices soar, they increase qUickly by a large
amount. The adjective is soaring: prices are -ing in
the area / unemployment has -ed to 15% / profits
have -ed dramatically / inflation looks set to - in
the coming months / a period of-ing house prices
steer clear if you steer clear of something, you avoid
it: I'd - ofthat area after dark / he tried to - of the
reporters / Itry to - ofprocessedfood (not eat it)
stunning something that is stunning is very
beautiful. You can also describe a very attractive
person as stunning. The adverb is stunningly:
a - building / a - painting / a - dress / a - view
from the hotel window / she's absolutely - / a -Iy
beautiful woman
tomb a tomb is a place where a dead person is
buried, especially when this is covered by a stone
structure: the - ofthe last emperor / the queen's-
/ there arefive people buried in the -
up-and-coming something that is up-and-coming
is likely to become more popular or successful
soon: an - area ofthe city / an - politician / an -
young singer
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fast when you fast, you do not eat anything for a
period of time, often for religious reasons. Fasting
is the act of not eating, and a fast is a period of
time when you don't eat: during this time people
-ed / Muslims - during Ramadan / a period of-ing
/ after two weeks he broke his - (ate again)
foam foam is a mass of small white bubbles. The
adjective is foamy: shaving - / a layer of- on top
ofthe coffee / the waves broke in a mass of white -
/ -y water (covered infoam)
join in if you join in with something,you take part in
it, along with other people: wejoined in thefun /
Come and -1 / everyonejoined in the celebrations
leading up to the period leading up to something
is the period just before it. The verb is lead up to:
the period - Lent / the events - the murder / in the
weeks that led up to the attack / during the months
that led up to his death
ornate somethingthat is ornate has a lot of complicated
decoration. The adverb is ornately: avery - costume /
an - building / avery - gate / -Iydecorated
pastry pastry is a type of food you make by mixing
flour, butter and water together. You roll the
mixture flat, then fill it with fruit, meat, etc.: a-
full ofcream or custard / fish wrapped in - / a meat
pie made with puff- (very light pastry) / Idon't
know howto make -
plague the plague was a very serious disease in
the past, that spread quickly to a lot of people. A
plague of a modern disease is a serious outbreak
that affects a lot of people. A plague of things is
also a large number of bad things that happen
at the same time: dressed in a - doctor costume /
thousands died in the Great Plague / a - ofcholera
/ the town is sufferingfrom a - ofrats / a - of
violence in the city
shoot up if prices shoot up, they increase qUickly by a
large amount. The past tense and past participle is
shot up: prices really - during the carnival/interest
rates have shot up in recent months / inflation shot
up to 6% last year
shower with if someone is showered with something,
other people throw it over them. You can also say
that you shower someone with gifts, if you give
them a lot of gifts: the couple are showered with
confetti / they showered her with presents
spectacular if something is spectacular, it is
extremely impressive to look at or watch: a - show
/ the dancing was absolutely - / a - viewofthe
mountains / - scenery
spray if you spray water or something else into the
air, you throw it into the air so that it falls over a
wide area: - confetti everywhere / afountain -ing
water into the air / they - water on to the crops /
-ing chemicals to kill the insects / they -ed us with
stick to if you stick to something, you continue to do
it or use it, rather than changing to something
different. The past tense and past participle is
stuck to: the locals - traditional costumes / let's.-
the original plan / Ialwaysfind it hard to - adiet /
he stuck to his principles
upload ifyou upload photos or documents, you put
them on to the Internet: I've -ed loads ofphotos on
to my website / I'll - afew more pictures / students
can -their old essays on to the site
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armour armour is a metal stJit of clothes that soldiers
wore in the past to protect themselves: they wear
- and try to knock each other offtheir horses /
asuit of- / a knight in - / he was her knight in
shining - (a man who came to her rescue)
burst a burst of something is a sudden large amount
of it: they're subjected to -s ofheat / ashort - of
activity / asudden - ofenthusiasm
dread if you are dreading something, you are not
looking forward to it at all: I'm -ing my exams /
I'm absolutely -ing my interviewtomorrow/ I've
started to - meeting him
drought a drought is a long period of time without any
rain, when the ground becomes very dry: there's a
terrible - / the worst - the country has ever seen /
asevere - / the - is affecting the whole country
float if something floats, it sits on the top of water
and doesn't sink. You can also say that something
floats in air: they'rejust -ing along / some leaves
-ing on the water / she was -ing on her back in the
pool/the balloons -ed across the sky
forthcoming a forthcoming event is due to happen
soon: discussing their - trip / the - general election
/ their - wedding
hang if something hangs, it is fixed to something at
the top, but the bottom part can move freely. The
past tense and past participle is hung: they hung
from the tower before dropping again / there were
flags -ingfrom the windows / their coats hung on
hooks behind the door
launch if you launch something such as a campaign
or an investigation, you start it. Launch is also a
noun: we're -ing acampaign to stop the park /
they're -ing amajor newcampaign against
racism / the police have -ed an investigation / that
song -ed her career as asinger / the newspaper -ed
an attack on the prime minister (criticised him/her)
/ after the launch ofthe newsafety campaign
plunge if something pl't\nges, it falls a long way down
from a high position: they -d 20 metres down into
total darkness / the car -d offa cliff / they ran to
the pool and -d (dived) into the water
promote ifyou promote something,you support or
encourage it: which speaker is -ing something? / a
newcampaign to - recycling / an effort to - trade
between the two countries
pulse your pulse is the regular movement of blood
around your body, which you can feel in your wrist
or neck: it'll really setyour - racing / the nurse took
my - (felt it) / Icould stillfeel afaint - in her neck
/ the average - rate is about 70 beats per minute /
my - started to race
race if something races, it goes very fast: it'll setyour
pulse racing / my heart was racing / the engine was
racing / different thoughts were racing through my
head / my heart began to-
relate if you relate something, you tell it to someone:
which speaker is relating an experience? / he -d the
story to us / try to - thefacts accurately
restriction a restriction is a rule which limits or
controls something. The verb is restrict: there are
no height -s on the boats / speed -s on the roads
/ there are strict -s on the sale ofalcohol/the
government is planning to impose tough new -s on
immigration / the -s have now been lifted (ended) /
anewlaw to restrict the sale ofguns
slide a slide is a tall piece of equipment that you sit
or lie on and move down. Slide is also a verb, with
the past tense and past participle slid: a park with
ten -s andfour pools / children were playing on the
- / Mum, can Igo on the -? / you climb to the top
and then - down / we slid across the ice
spin around if something spins around, it moves
round and round in circles: all that -ning around
made me dizzy / the helicopter blades started to - /
my head was -ning (J couldn't think clearly)
splashed if you get splashed, water comes on to your
body. The verb is splash: Look - you got - there / I
got - when the bus went past / the children were
splashing each other in the pool
spoil things if you spoil things, you make an event
not enjoyable. Spoil is also a verb: stop moaning-
you'll - / Ihope the rain doesn't - / don't spoil the
fun / he spoiled the party by getting drunk
steeply if something falls steeply, it drops down
quickly by a large amount. You can also say that
something rises steeply. The adjective is steep: it
falls really - / the roadfalls - down into the Village
/ wages havefallen - (decreased bya large amount)
/ the plane rose - / prices have risen - (increased by
a large amount) / a steepfall ininflation
strain if there is a strain on something, there is a
problem because there is too much demand for it.
Strain is also a verb: water parks put a - on water
resources / the holiday put a real- on ourfinances
/ aflu epidemic would place a considerable - on
the health service / the whole education system
is under considerable - / the extra costs are likely
to strain ourfinances / the incident has strained
relations between the two countries
strapped if someone or something is strapped into
place, they are held there securely. The verb is
strap, and strap is also a noun: the riders are-
into seats / they had weapons - to their belts /
is everyone - in? (wearing their seat belt) / we-
everything in place / a watch with a leather strap
subjected to if you are subjected to something,
someone does it to you. The verb is subject
someone to: they're - bursts ofheat / she was - six
hours ofquestioning / her husband subjected her to
years ofabuse
sustainable if something is sustainable, it can
continue for a long time without causing
problems, or without harming the environment.
The noun is sustainability: we want local '
government to investigate - alternatives / the
country needs - economic growth / - agriculture
/ the - use ofnatural resources / is thisform of
development enVironmentally -? / he doubts the
sustainability of the scheme
tame if something is tame, it is not very eXciting: it
looked quite - / Ifound some ofthe rides a bit - /
it's too -for most kids
trial a trial is a test in which people try a new product
to see how good it is. Trial is also a verb: I've taken
part in the -s / the drug is undergoing clinical-s
(it is being tested on people) / the company is
carrying out -s on the newcar / the newsystem is
being -led in a hospital in London
upside down if something is upside down, the top
is facing downwards and the bottom is facing
upwards:you go - and everything / the bus landed
- on the other side ofthe road / turn thejar - and
give it a shake
PAGES 20-21
.' a part of your body bleeds, blood comes out
of it: my leg was -ing I she was -ing quite badly I
he could - to death
clip a clip is a small piece of metal or plastic that
holds something in position. Clip is also
haveyou got a- to keep thesepapers I a
paper - I a bulldog - (a large clipfor holding a lot
ofpapers together) I - the papers together
drill a drill is a tool that you use for making holes in
wood, metal etc. Drill is also an electric -I a
hand - (not electric) I it's easierijyou use a -1- a
hole in the wall
file afile is a folded piece of card that you keep papers
in. Some files have clips fg! the papers
securely in place. ! verb: clip the papers
into the - I I've got the original letter in my - I a
box - (in the shape ofasmall box) I alever-arch -
(a largefilefor holding alot ofpapers) I he -d the
documents away
hook a hook is a curved piece of wood or metal that
. you hang a coat or other piece of clothing on: he
o tUJfJ.9. hisC9pt. on the - behind the door I acoa-,r l
something over,yoUl,.
accidentally and it falls: you knocked over a vase I
mind .. '.,.t.*"k, nock that drink over I ofthe
lant patsl,,/ilg,CJt knocked over
it is not
is loosen: ascrewonyour glasses has
- I the door handle was - I the tap had worked -
(gradually become loose) Iyou'll need to -n that
needle a needle is a thin pointed piece of metal that
you put a thread through and use for i"
things: a - and thread I aseWing - I a m lrig - I
/ couldn't see well enough to thread a - (put thread
through it)
/-:M-1F/ r.jf roll e,rrJ1{;
.pad is a piece of thick materiaI that you use to
tect something. The adjective is padded: knee
-s I elbow-s Iyou can't playfootball without shin
- ofcotton wool I a -ded head protector
wood or plastiC that you use
or aftacRtng wet clothes to a line to dry. Peg is
also a verb: aclothes -I she was -ging washing
"'''Pfff'a pfn is a piece of sharp metal that you use
for holding things together. Pin is also a verb: a
drawing - (forfiXing pieces ofpaper to a wall) I a
safety - (for holding a bandage in place) I we stuck
a - in the map to decide where to go I she -ned the
you press it and move
something across its surface: - some salt into the

were pressing against myfeet in apainful way)
screw a screw is a small pointed piece of metal that
you push and turn round to fix pieces of wood
together. Screw is also a verb: some ofthe -s were
loose Iyou need to tighten that - a bit more I the
-ed to the wall
smashes, it breaks into a lot of
very small pieces: the bottle -ed I I'm sorry, I've -ed
f4 glass I they threatened to - his
a part of your bodyis sore, it is feet
it's really - I I've got a - leg
something is sticky, it stays on other surfaces
easily, rather than falling off. The verb is stick, and
the past tense and past participle are stuck: it's
blue and - I there's some - stuffon thefloor I his
fingers were - withjam I stick the posters on the
1'''JJ!IY''ith tape
is a piece of metal curved round and
round, which will go back to its original shape: a
bed with broken -s I the -s have gone (broken) in
M ..
is a mark that is difficult to remove.
::Ji.:1;:::stain is also a verb, and the adjective is stained: a
coffee - on his shirt I blood -s I grass -s I some -s
are difficult to remove I wash that out qUickly or
it'll -I his clothes were -ed with blood
vase a vase is a container for putting flowers in: a
flower - I a beautiful china - I she arranged the
j}owfJJ:.ln a - I a - offresh rCWll
jltv'1feoatv,rfl is a piece of metal sell-?
I electrical- I copper - I there were -s (electrical
wires) all over thefloor
PAGES 22-23
acquire something means to get it, for
example by buying it. The noun is acquisition: He
-d a number ofvaluable paintings I she -d the
property last year 1/ -d the necessary ingredients
from the local supermarket I the way in which
children - language I to - knowledge I the
acquisition oflanguage I my recent acquisition
(something/got recently) i'" 'J"f
bin a bin is a container for putting ':', in. To bin
something means to put it in a om: recovering
thingsfrom -s I a rubbish - I a litter - I a
wastepaper - I she threwthe wrapper into the - I
don't chuck it in the - 1/ don't want it, soyou might
as well - it
cautious if someone is cautious, they are careful to
avoid danger or problems. The adverb
The noun is caution: he's very - I a - drive/Pi s
about investing such alarge sum I the police decided
to adopt a- approach I she held out her hand -Iy I
the animals should be approached with caution
commander a commander is an officer in charge of a
group of people, for example in the army. The verb
is command: a tank - in the British army I an air
force - I a police - I the group was commandedby
Captain Wells
to evict someone means to force them to leave
""""'ffleir home, usually because they have not paid
their rent. The noun the council came
to - the old man I she was from herflat I
hundreds offamilies nowface eviction
','I!> get rid of something means to throw it
""l' away, sell it or destroy it because you don't need
it: old comics which / don't read but can't - II think
we should - that old sofa I using chemicals to -
guarantee a guarantee is a formal promise to repair
or replace a product that breaks or does not work
properly. Guarantee is also a verb: it's agood idea
to keep the - I a three-year - I all our products
come with a one-year - I it's still under - (the
guarantee still applies to it) I all our cars arefully
-dfor 12 months I the wood is all -d against rot
(guaranteed that it won't rot)
hazard a hazard is something that might be dangerous.
The adjective is hazardous: it had become ahealth
- I afire - (something that couldcause afire) I an
occupational- (one thatyouface as part ofajob) I
the chemicals pose a- to human health Ifirefighters
face alot of-s I -ous chemicals I a-ousjob
impulse an impulse is a sudden strong feeling that you
want to do something: an - purchase (something
you bought as an impulse) 1/ bought it on - (as an
impulse) I have asudden - to laugh I myfirst - was
to hit him 1/ resisted the - to walk out
infestation of rats, insects, etc. is a
arge num'ber of them in a place. The verb is infest:
the neighbours complained about rat -s I an - of
the house was infested with rats
wora you use to
sbmething is: things that others had seen as -
rubbish I they sold a - 20 tickets I it's - speculation
I it's a - coincidence
navy a navy is an armed force that fights at sea.
The adjective is naval: a - commander I hejoined
the - when he was 16 I he spent 25years in the -
I she served in the American -I a - helicopter I a
naval battle I a naval officer
leaflet is a printed sheet of paper that gives
r: ':'''you Information about -
a large number of people means to give them
leaflets: a - about a local gym I a - advertising a
newrestaurant I an information - I delivering -s I
p -peveryone in the town
are different kinds of things that
don't belong together and don't have a particular
purpose. You can also describe these things as
odds and ends: various - screws, nails and pins I a
few - pieces ofpaper I there werejust afew odds
and ends in the drawer
you have an obsession with something,
yl>t1 afJolft i'1!t@1 d0,ill! a-td1t\nJe,ibirqe and cannot
thange your behaviour. You can also say that you
are obsessed with something. The adjective is
obsessive: Perhaps it was the trauma that caused
his - I she seemed to have an - with cleaning I
revisingfor exams can become an - I behaviour
that was bordering on - J she's obsessed with losing
weight I an obsessive desire to keepfit
optimistic ifyou are optimistic, you believe that
good things will happen in the future. The noun
is optimism. A person who is optimistic is an
optimist: I'm very - I areyou - about thefuture?
I I'm - that scientists will come up with an answer
1/ don't share her optimism I a mood ofcautious
optimism in the country I he's a real optimist
pessimistic If you are pessimistic, you believe that
bad things will happen in the future. The noun
is pessimism. A person who is pessimistic is a
pessimist: he's - I I'm - about my chances of
passing I a - outlook on life I amood ofgeneral
pessimism I I'm a bit ofa pessimist
pile is an arrangement of things on top of
each other. You can also say that things are piled:
he sorted the rubbish into -s I a - ofbooks I she
arranged the letters in neat -s I there were some
old clothes -d in the corner
practically practically means almost: he managed to
acquire - every record by Elvis Presley I they go out
- every night I it's - impossible I we've -finished
'g,omething that is preceding another
ingcomes before it. The verb is precede: a
number ofcoins - the introduction ofthe Euro I in
the weeks - the attack I the meal was preceded by
afew short speeches
purchase a purchase is something that you have
bought; when you make a purchase,you buy
something. Purchase is also a verb: an impulse-I
Iwent home with my -s I they put pressure on us
to make a - I the'receipt shows the date of - I it's
cheaper to - goods online
recover to recover something means to get it back
after it was taken away, thrown away or almost
destroyed: he would - thingsfrom bins / police
have -ed the stolenjewellery / families trying to -
from the debris oftheir homes
settle somewhere, you go to live there
he -d in Britain after the war / they
-djust north ofLondon
i trauma is a very horrible and upsetting
:'fience that affects you for a long time.
Someone who i upset for a long
time as a result of a trauma: the - of what he lost
when he left Poland / the - ofher mother's death
/ leaVing their home was a major - / a lot ofthe
children have suffered -s / the accident left him
deeply -tised
veteran a veteran is someone who fought in a war:
a Polish war - / a - ofthe Second World War / a
Vietnam - / a- ofseveral election campaigns
(someone who has taken part in them)
is a solid substance that is used to make
e.IetJjit Hair wax is a soft substance that you put
on your hair to hold it in shape: some old candle-
on the table / ajar ofhair-
Grilf4fn'l@,t'il1.'if someone is well-intentioned, they
plan to do something good or helpful}211t don}"
to.QoJ,lYou can also say that someone has
good intentions: he's very - / it's hard to be cross
with her because she's so - / I have good intentions,
but never seem tofind the time to do things
PAGES 24-25
crack a line you can see on something
made glass that shows it is damaged.
Something that has a crack on it is cracked. Crack
is also a verb: she held up a-ed vase / thejug was
badly -ed / an old mug with a- in it / some veryfine
(thin) - in the - (very thin) / the dish
I took it out ofthe oven
falls apart, it breaks because
, it is old or not well made: my shoes werefalling
apart / an old book that wasfalling apart / their
relationshipfell apart (failed)
freeze when something freezes, it becomes hard
because it is so cold. The past tense is froze and
the past participle is frozen. You can say that it's
freezing when the weather or temperature is very
cold: it'sfreezing in here / it'sfreezing outside / the
water in the lake had started to - / afrozen river /
frozen vegetables
can say that something is funny if it seems
You can also
something that seems strange: it makes a - noise
when I change gears / what's that - smell? / it's -
that he hasn't phoned / funnily enough, she had
met my brother the week before
leak if something leaks, water comes out of it. Leak is
also a noun: wrap some tape around the pipe so it
doesn't - / the roof's -ing again / water was -ing
into the shed / there's a - in the kettle
'missing if something is missing, it is not in a place when
it should be there. You can also say that a person is
missing ifyou cannotiind them: some stuffis broken
and - / my keys have gone - / there's abutton -from
my shirt / police are stilliookingfor the - child
obliged ifyou are obliged to do something,you have
to do it. The noun is obligation: we're not - to
accept returns ofthis kind / Ifelt - to payfor the
meal/we have an obligation to help the children /
customers are under no obligation to buy anything
are resigned to something,you accept
, it because you know that you cannot change it. The
noun is resignation: she seems - to the situation /
he was - to thefact that he would probably lose his
job / she greeted the news with resignation
something made of cloth is ripped, it has a
fang hole in it. Rip is a verb, and also a noun: look-
it's - / wearing - jeans / his clothes were - to shreds
(badly ripped) / I've - myjeans / she - the letter
open / there's a rip in the sheet
sarcastic ifyou are sarcastic, you say the opposite of
what you mean, in order fo be funny. The noun
is sarcasm. The adverb is sarcastically: I think
he's being - / he said something - / he made a -
comment / there was a touch ofsarcasm in his
voice / 'Brilliant,' she said sarcastically.
sample a sample is a product in a shop that people
can look at and try before they buy something: it
wasn't the same as the - I'd seen in the shop / some
-s ofnewperfumes
something is scratched, there is a small
cut or mark on the surface. Scratch is a verb and
also a noun: the CD's - / howdid the table get -? /
mindyou don't scratch the car / there was ascratch
on the windscreen
PACiES 26-27
bankrupt if a company is bankrupt, it does not have
enough money to pay all its debts and so cannot
continue to exist. Bankrupt is also a verb: a lot of
companies have gone - recently / the company was
declared -last year / the business is almost - / the
losses nearly bankrupted the business
booming if the economy is booming, it is growing
quickly and is very successful. A boom is a period
when the economy is very successful: the economy's
- / business is - at the moment / the country is
experiencing an economic boom/ aboom in house
prices / the post-war boom / the boomyears
boost to boost something means to improve it or
increase it. Boost is also a noun: Their policies have
-ed our standing in the world / this could help to-
profits / an attempt to - tourism in the area / this
win has -ed the team's confidence / this should
provide a boostfor the economy / a boostfor her
cut back on to cut back on something means to
reduce it. The noun is cutback: they've done a lot to
- bureaucracy / the bank is cutting back on staff / a
cutback infundingfor schools / the company may
have to make cutbacks
combat to combat a problem means to do things to
try and stop it. Combat is fighting in a war: they've
done little to - rising crime / newmeasures to-
inflation / adetermination to - terrorism / he was
killed in combat / troops engaged in hand-to-hand
controversial if something is controversial, people
disagree about it. The noun is controversy: the
government has done afew - things / a highly-
policy / a - politician / the proposals have caused
alot ofcontroversy / some recent controversies in
the media
desperate if someone is desperate, they are in a very
difficult situation and want or need something
very badly. The adverb is desperately. The noun
is desperation: the hungrier p ~ o p l e are, the more
- they are / companies are -for staff / we were
getting - / he's - to get ajob / they're in - need of
help / the people desperately needfood / people are
headingfor the cities in desperation
difference if something makes a difference, it changes
a situation to make it better: the government's
made a huge - since they came to power / it's made
abig - to my life / an opportunity to make a real- in
the world / what - will it make? / just halfan hour
ofexercise a day could make all the - / it makes
no - to me
fees fees are an amount of money that you have to
pay for something: they've put up tuition - / school
- / the entrance - are qUite high / she couldn't pay
her medical-
make ends meet if you make ends meet, you just
manage to buy everything that you needto live,
even though you have very little money: people are
struggling to - / we earn barely enough to - / some
months it's difficult to -
non-existent if something is non-existent, it doesn't
exist at all: crime is almost - here / the traffic was
virtually - / security seemed to be-
pace the pace of something is how fast it moves or
seems to move: the - oflife is sofast here / the
- ofchange is speeding up / the project is now
gathering - (speeding up) / walking at a brisk-
permit a permit is an official document that gives
you permission to do something: tofill informs to
get a work - / applyfor a residency - / you need a
travel- / my - has expired (is out ofdate)
recession if there is a recession, there is less business
activity in a country, so people make less money
and some people lose their jobs: there's a - at the
moment / an economic - / this could turn into a
deep - / the country is in - / the economy could
sink into - / get the country out of- again
soft you can say that someone is soft if they are not
strict enough: they're - on drugs / he's too - with
his kids / community service is seen as a - option
shortage if there is a shortage of something, there
is not enough of it: there are a lot of water -s /
a desperate - ofmedical supplies / a serious - of
teachers / the drought led to a - offood / many
companies arefacing staff-s
shoot up if something shoots up, it increases very
qUickly. The past tense and past participle is shot
up: inflation has shot up over the last year / prices
have continued to - up / unemployment has really
shot up / the price ofpetrol has shot up to over
1.50 a litre
stable if something is stable, it is not likely to change
suddenly. The noun is stability: it's made society
less - / a - economic situation / a - environment
for bringing up children / the ladderfelt quite -
(not likely tofall) / a period ofeconomic stability
standing your standing is your reputation, based on
what other people think of you: the policies have
boosted the government's - / winning the contract
helped to improve her - with her colleagues / the
scandal will damage his - in the party
tuition tuition is the work of teaching something:
they've put up -fees / he paysfor private - / maths
- / he gave us some extra -
undermine to undermine something means to
weaken it or make it less effective: their policies
are undermining national unity / a scandal that
threatens to - the government's authority /
criticising her will- her confidence / his position in
the government has been seriously-d
PAGES 28-29
abuse abuse is a bad or wrong use of something, or
cruel treatment of a person. Abuse is also a verb:
the problem ofdrug and alcohol- / the - ofpower
/ a horrific case ofchild - / he suffered racial-
(cruel treatment because ofhis race) / a lot ofthese
kids abuse alcohol/she was abused by herfather
as a child
assault to assault someone means to attack them
violently. Assault is also a noun: we sawsomeone
being -ed / he was accused of -ing a student / she
was savagely -ed / charged with sexual assault
(attacking someone in a sexual way)
backing backing is support that you give to
something. The verb is back: the scheme has
European - / he has the unanimous - ofhis
party / they have won -from a major company
/ the project has received nofinancial- / the
government has refused to back the scheme
breakdown if there is a breakdown, something stops
working properly. The verb is break down: the
problem offamily - / a - in communication / we
had a - on the motorway (the car stopped working)
/ the car's broken down / his marriage broke down
last year
capture to capture something on film means to film
it: The attack was -d on [CTV / it was all-d onfilm
/ a passer-by -d the moment on his mobile
case a legal case is a matter that is decided by a
court: she won her - against her employers / he
lost his - in court / the - will be heard in court
tomorrow / a divorce - / a rape - / she brought a
- against her employer / there was no evidence, so
they had to drop the-
carry out to carry out work means to do it: the work
will be carried out bya Britishfirm / we need to -
more research / the police will- an investigation /
they carried out a survey
claim if you claim that something-is true,you say
that it is true, although other people might
disagree. Claim is also a noun: she is -ing victory
after the court ruled in herfavour / he still-s that
he is innocent / he tried to - that he was acting in
selfdefence / the company made somefalse claims
about its products
conduct to conduct an investigation means to do it:
the police are now-ing investigations / who will -
the enquiry? / to - asurvey ofattitudes to climate
damages ifyou get damages, the court orders
someone to give you money because you have
suffered in some way: he won - of30,000/ the
court awarded her substantial - / she's claiming -
for the injuries she suffered / he got halfa million
dollars in-
be denied if you are denied something,you are not
allowed to have it. You can also use deny as an
active verb: she claimed she was denied promotion
/ they were denied access to the building / they
d ~ n i e d him his right to a lawyer / should doctors
deny treatment to patients who are obese?
excessive if something is excessive, it is more than is
necessary. The adverb is excessively: the amount
seems a bit - / some people see the charges as - /
excessively high taxes
gender someone's gender is whether they are
male or female: the company was accused of-
discrimination / discrimination on the grounds of-
/ are there - differences in attitudes to work? / it's
important to combat - stereotypes
go against to go against something means to do
something that is the opposite of that thing: the
recent increase in population goes against the
general trend / accepting the money would - my
principles / it goes against everything Ibelieve in
growing something that is growing is increasing. The
verb is grow. The noun is growth: there is - concern
about the number of teenagers sleeping rough
/ the - popularity ofsmall cars / the number of
people working part-time has grown / agrowth in
sales ofpersonal computers
initiative an initiative is an important new plan: the
government will launch a new - aimed at getting
young people offthe streets / a new - for peace /
the government has announced a neweducation-
/ most people welcome the government's -
injustice injustice is a situation in which someone
is treated unfairly. The adjective is unjust:
campaigning against social- / ,t was a terrible -
/ a victim of - / he suffered the - ofbeing sent to
prisonfor a crime he didn't commit / the system is
clearly unjust
strain if there is a strain on something, there are
difficulties because there is too much demand
for something. Strain is also a verb: an ageing
population puts -s on the pension system / there is
considerable - on the health service / this will- the
water resources
tribunal a tribunal is a type of court that can make
decisions about one type of case: the - ruled in
herfavour / an employment - / an independent
complaints - / planning to set up a war crimes - /
he will appear before the disciplinary - next week
uphold to uphold a decision means to decide
officially that an earlier decision was right. The
opposite is overturn: her claim was upheld in court
/ his conviction was upheld by the court ofappeal /
the decision was later overturned
vulnerable if someone is vulnerable, they can be hurt
or upset easily. The noun is vulnerability: more help
for - teenagers / many teenagers are - to drugs /
old people are - to crime / children who are - to
abuse / J'mfeeling a bit - at the moment / Icould
sense her vulnerability
PAGES 30-31
aid aid is money or other things that are given to
people who are suffering: a lot of - has been
given to Africa / the country relies on foreign
- / send emergencyfood - / fresh appeals for
humanitarian -
awareness if there is awareness about a problem,
people know about it. The adjective is aware: it's
agreat way ofraising - about poverty (making
sure people know about it) / to increase public - of
the problem / there is growing - ofenvironmental
problems / most people are not aware ofthe issue
bleak if a situation is bleak, it seems very bad, with
no hope of improving: Sachs paints a - picture of
the state of the pianet / thefuture looks -for the
company / rather a - outlook
contribute to contribute something means to give
it, when other people are also giving things. The
thing that you give is your contribution: ask local
businesses to - gifts / they offered to - to the
rebuildingfund / he -d over 3,000/ he made
agenerous contribution to the campaign / a
contribution of250
crop a crop is a plant such as wheat or corn that is
grown by farmers: betterfarming techniques will
increase - yields / they grow a variety of -s / a
staple - (that provides most ofsomeone'sfood) / a
cash - (that someone grows to sell)
donor a donor is someone who gives money to help
an organisation or charity. The verb is donate.
The money someone gives is a donation: 50
comesfrom -s / -s have given over 30,000/
an anonymous - / the - countries (the countries
who give money) / they donated 2,000/ made a
generous donation to thefund
lethal something that is lethal can kill someone: a -
disease / a - dose ofmorphine / a - weapon / a -
combination ofdrugs and alcohol
measure a measure is something that a government
or organisation does to help solve a problem:
we need to implement a combination of-s / the
government has promised to take -s to tackle crime
/ the company is introducing newsafety -s / tough
new -s to combat speeding
pressure group a pressure group is a group that tries
to influence people's opinions or achieve political
change: an environmental- / an anti-smoking - /
they set up a - to campaignfor change
raise to raise something means to tell people about
it or make them think about it more: he also-s
an alarm that this could be our last chance / a
campaign to - awareness ofAIDS (tell people more
about it) / he didn't - the subject ofmoney (he
didn't talk about it)
reverse to reverse something means to change
it to the opposite: these measures could - the
downward spiral/an attempt to - the decline in
tourism / the High Court -d the decision
root the root of a problem is its main or original
cause: the - cause ofthe problems are all
interconnected / bad diet lies at the - ofa lot of
health problems / the war has religion at its-
scarce if something is scarce, there is not very much
of it. The adverb is scarcely: a booming population
puts more strain on already - resources / food was
always - in the winter / money was - / there were
scarcely anyjobs (almost none)
soil soil is the earth in which plants grow:fertilisers to
improve the - / agoodfertile - / struggling to grow
crops in poor -s / a sandy - / a clay-
summarise to summarise something means to
briefly give the main facts about it. The noun is
summary: the book -s the state ofthe planet / can
you briefly - what he said? / a briefsummary ofhis
argument / Ithink that's afair summary
supply a supply of something is an amount that is
available for people to use. Supplies are also things
that you need: these countries need clean water
supplies / the electricity - was cut off / a plentiful-
ofmedicine / in urgent need ofmedical supplies /
essential supplies were sent in by air
PAGES 36-37
breath your breath is how qUickly you are breathing
in and out: it took me ten minutes to get my - back
(start breathing normally again) / she gets out of-
just walking up the stairs (has difficulty breathing) /
he sometimes gets short of- (unable to breathe
easily) / Iwas gaspingfor - by the time Ireached
the top (breathing veryfast)
bump into if you bump into something, you knock
it accidentally: I'm always bumping into things /
Ibumped my knee on the table / mindyou don't
bumpyour head
chill out if you chill out,you relax: Ijust - at home /
chilling out infront ofthe tv / - by the pool
comic a comic is a magazine for children that tells
stories through cartoon pictures: Iwent to a-fair /
reading some ofmyoid -s / bought a-for the kids /
he collects old -s
coordination your coordination is how well you
can move different parts of your body together.
Someone who has good coordination is
coordinated. Someone who has poor coordination
is uncoordinated: improveyour hand-eye - / you
needgood - / he lacks - / howcoordinated areyou? /
I'm totally uncoordinated
fair a fair is an event where people sell a particular
type of thing: acomic - / we went to an antiques-
/ bought itfrom acraft - / we're holding abook -
fiddle with if you fiddle with something, you move
it or touch it. Fiddle is also a noun: it gives you
something to - / Ifiddled with the controls / he
fiddled with his pen while he spoke / Ihad a - the
switches and got it working
figure a woman's figure is the shape of her body: she's
got alovely - / she lost her - after she had children /
struggling to keep her - / Jneed to watch my-
(be careful not to put on weight)
fitness your fitness is how strong you are, and how able
you are to run around and do sport. The adjective
is fit: howcanyou imprQveyour -? / ahigh level of
physical- / exercise helps to maintainyour - / trying
to build up my - / he's incrediblyfit / trying to getfit
flexibility your fleXibility is your ability to bend
and move your body. The adjective is flexible:
doing yoga really helpsyour - / improveyour - /
maintainyour - / we need more - in the workplace
(the ability to make changes eaSily) / I'm notfleXible
enough to touch my toes / employees need to be
fleXible these days (able to make changes easily)
get into if you get into something, you start doing it
or haVing it: when didyoufirst - tennis? / he wants
to - politics / Idon't want to - debt / he started
getting into trouble at school
keep up if you keep up,you go as fast as other people
or do as much as them: Icouldn't - with the others
in the class / she was walking qUickly, and Jwas
struggling to - / come on - try to -!
knitting knitting is making things from wool, using
two long needles. The verb is knit: Ilike sewing
and - / she was doing her - while she spoke / she's
knitted loads ofjumpers / a hand-knitted sweater
master class a master class is a lesson in music or a
sport, given by someone very famous: a - with a
top Russianfencer / aviolin - / invited to attend a - /
a - given by afamous pianist
self-conscious if you are self-conscious, you feel
embarrassed about what you look like, or what
other people think of you. The adverb is self-
consciously: I'm always - when Idance / Ifelt a
bit - / it makes me - when everyone looks at me /
he's starting to get - about his weight / she smiled
rather selfconsciously
sewing sewing is making things by joining bits of
cloth together with thread. The verb is sew: Ilike -
and knitting / doing some - / a - needle / I'll have
to sew the pocket back on
shape your shape is howfit and healthy you are: I'm
really out of- (not veryfit) / Iwanted to get in -
(becomefitter) / an exercise machine to helpyou
keep in - / he's in much better - now
stamina stamina is strength that allows you to
continue doing something for a long time: you
need a lot of- to do marathon running / Ihaven't
got the - to walk thatfar / help to build upyour - /
he's got a lot of mental -
take up if you take something up, you start it: Itook
up SWimming lastyear / I've decided to - gardening /
when didyoufirst take it up?
thread a thread is a long, thin piece of cotton, silk or
wool that is used to make cloth or sew pieces of
cloth together. Thread is also a verb: make patterns
with the - on the cloth / you'll need aneedle and - /
a loose - in my skirt / some strong cotton - / to - a
needle (put thread in it)
volunteer a volunteer is someone who does ajob
Willingly or without being paid. Volunteer is also
a verb: Idid some - work last summer / the shop
is run by -s / a team of -s / Ineed some -s to help
with the clearing up / they're lookingfor -s / he -ed
to drive us
wander if you wander round a place, you walk around
slowly, without going in any particular direction.
Wander is also a noun: Ilike -ing roundflea
markets / we -ed through the old town / the kids
had -ed off / we were just -ing aimlessly / we went
for a - round the shops
whatsoever you use this word to emphasise that you
mean none at all: he does no exercise - / Ihave no
doubt - / she said nothing - / there were none -
PAGES 38-39
barthe bar is the piece of metal along the top of a
goalpost: his shot hit the - / it was just over the - /
he was denied agoal by the -
close if a game or match is close, the two players or
teams are very equal: it was areally - game / a-
match that could have gone either way / he came a
- second / Ithink the election will be pretty-
dive if someone dives in a game such as football, they
fall oyer and pretend someone has pushed them
or hurt them. Dive is also a noun: the defender
didn't touch him - he -d / he was given ayellow
cardfor diving / the temptation to - in the penalty
box / it was a clear - Qf
disallow to disallow something mean to refuse to
allow it because someone has broken a rule: the
referee -ed the goal/they had agoal-ed in the
second half PJ. Jet()!,tCr.:;fr,
dubious if something is dubious, it is probably not
right: the referee gave some - decisions / that
seems a bit - to me / some ofthe information was
highly - 1Jt) i&.l(;.;!,l
exclude to exclude someone or something means to
not include them. The noun is exclusion: no one
should be -dfrom sR/J.:/J.lOqt information was -d
from the report / an attempt to - the pressfrom
the event / Ifelt a bit -d / he's been -dfrom school
(told to leave) / the exclusion ofsome vital data /
her exclusionfrom school
double fault a double fault in tennis is when you
serve two balls wrongly, one after the other: I
regularly serve -s / that's his third - ofthe match
fix to fix a game or match means to arrange the
result.}ll a di.?,[lonest way: the game was -ed / they
are match -ing / they claim that the
election was -ed '4J!.'AI
forehand aforehand in tennis is a1f'1dt in which the
your hand is facing the ball. The
is backhand: Ihit agreat - / he's got a very
strong - / a brilliant - volley / she's playing to her
opponent's backhand
foul to foul someone in a game such as football
means to do something to them that is against
the rules. Foul is qk"ied the striker /
he was cffi.for a foul/that
aifFaPJrif!(very obvious) -!
&_, . .
,fre Ict a In a game such as football IS a
chance to kickthe ball freely from a particular
tionJhe referee gave a - / they've been
i a a - just outside the box / Messi's going to
take the - / they scoredfrom a -
greedy if someone is greedy, they don't want to share
things with anyone else. A greedy player is one
who doesn't pass players: he's a
really - player / the temptatIon to be - with the
ball / he should've passed it - that was a bit - /
she's quite - when it comes to chocolate
moral a moral issue or choice is one that is based on
ideas of what is right and wrong: it shows children
the importance of - choices / abortion is a- issue /
you have a - obligation to do / a- (Illt',
he has very high - standards oj - values
penalty a such as football is afree
shot towards mtgoal because the other team has
broken a rule: the goalkeeper.saved a - / the referee
awarded a- / he scoredfrom a- / he missed the.::. /
the defender gave away a - / Ronaldo wasfouled
OJl?JfJ.'i.d gota-
pos1:"the post in a game such as football is one ofthe
sides ofthe goal: they hit the - twice / it was just
wide of the - / he beat the goalkeeper at thefar
- (the onefurthest from the ball) / ashot to the
sack to sack someone means to send them away
from their job because they have done something
wrong. Sack is also a noun: they -ed the manager /
he was -edfor sfJ8lina, (" he got the - from his last
job / they're give her the -
save to save a shot in a game such as football means
to stop it from going into the goal. Save is also
a noun: the goalkeeper -d the shot / he -d the
penalty / shejust managed to - it / the shot was
-d on the line by one of the defenders / that was a
great save!
send off to send a game such as
football means to orar them to leave the field
because they have broken a rule: he got sent offfor
hitting another JJ!h'iJf5Ste sent him off /
thqP asending-offoffince (/ '
serve in a game such as tennis means
to start the game by hitting the ball to your
opponent. Serve is also a noun: Ird adoublefault /
it's Federer to - next / she's -d brilliantly in this
match / afantastic -/ hisfirst -was out / she's
to return Serena Williams' -
snoot in try to
sconhhe noun is sFlbf': fie tacflea'fhe striker before
he could - / he shotjust wide / she shotfrom the
halfway line / that was agreat shot / the keeper saved

:> to su bstitute a player in a game such as
football means to with a different
player. The noun is sUbstitution. The new player
who comes into the game is called a
he was -d when he got injured / the decision to -
Rooney / Manchester United are going to make a
substitution / he came on as a-just after halftime /
tackle to tackle someone in a game such as football
means to try to take the ball off them. Tackle is
also a noun: he -d the strikerjust outside the box
tackling - /
penblisedjor a - (With
b',il",lot offorce) / he sklppe'd past the -s Nllli.lmel"'t,'
thrash to thrash someone in a game means to defeat
them by a large amount. The noun is thrashing: we
got -ed 6-0 / they absolutely -ed us / they suffered
a 9-0 -ing
well-meaning if someone is well-meaning, they try
to be helpful or do the they don't
succeed: some - schools insist on non-competitive
sports / things can sometimes be made worse by-
parents / she's very -
PAGES 40-41
drown if someone drowns, they die from being under
waterlhenoun is drowning: she -ed in the sea /
I'm -ing / a tragic -ing in the local
swimming pool
fanatic afanatic is someone who likes something
very much. The adjective is fanatical: he's a sport
- / she's a real health - / afitness - / a -al cyclist /
he's -al about health andfitness

6'''1=601 a'fool is a stupid person. If you make afool
you rself, you make you rself look stupid: I'm
ofmaking a - of myself / she was trying to make a
- of me / don't be a - / what a -I've been
hairline a hairline fracture or crack is a very thin crack
in something: he had a -fracture in his /
afew - cracks in the wall
knock means to make
them unconigclous.To knock yourself out means
to have an accident and become unconscious: she

fell and knocked herselfout / d'/j/ow to the head
which knocked him out / he was knocked out in
the second round ofthefight / some
, me out (made mefeel ,
a part?fyour body that joins
a muscle to a.Qone: ItQ(.frth.e..-,. s in my knee / a torn
- in my g/rff/tf/'l:/"j'
paralysed if someone is paralysed, they can no longer
move thei r body: she was -from the waist down /
the accident left him - / she was partially - / I was
- with
pass out if you pass become unconscious: I
passed out with the I passed out with
/ it nearly made me -
put off if you put something off, you aelay doing it
because you do not reallywant to do it: I've been
putting offgoing to the dentist for ages / don't put
it off until tomorrow / he's been putting offmaking
reluctant if you are reluctant to do something, you do
not really want to do it. The adverb is reluctantly.
The noun is reluctance: he's a bit - to drive me
round there / Ifelt rather - to askfor more money
/ he agreed, rather reluctantly / a reluctance tojoin
the others
s.. p.,.'t.ain It you ur knee, ankle.,lIvristetc.,
. .
you hurt It and amagwtheJoJnt"bytwlsting It
Sprain is alsoa my knee / I
think I've -ed my ankle / sUlJeflingfrom a -ed wrist /
qXJen't broken it - it's only a -
ankle,you hurt it by turning it
suddenly. We use the word twist when the injury
than a sprain: I-ed my ankle / Ifell
and -ed my knee
waist your waist is the part of your body around
your middle, where the top of your trousers is;
she was the - down / the men
were all1'trfppe'ctto the your - I,/fudl\
/ ayoung woman with a slim - / a leather EJeff
around her-
PAGES 42-43
bay a bay is an area on the coast where the sea
curves inwards: a little - you could scramble down
to / go swimming in the - / asheltered - / looking
out across the -
chilly if the weather is chilly, it is quite cold. The noun
is chilliness: it was a bit - in the evenings / a - day /
the evenings were quite - / it's starting to get - / a
- reply (unfriendly) / aslight chilliness in the air
cliff a cliff is a high, steep area of rock at the edge
of the sea: a hotel on top ofthe -s / high -s /
limestone -s / they tried to climb the - / walking
along the clifftop
cut off if a place is cut off, it is difficult to reach, for
example because it is not near good roads or
railways, or because of bad weather: the place was
a bit - (far awayfrom towns and cities) / the village
gets - by snowin winter / some houses were - by
deserted if a place is deserted, there is no one in it:
the beaches were - / the town looked completely-
. / walking through the - streets / a - village
dump if a place is a dump, it is very dirty, untidy or
in a bad condition: the place was a bit ofa - / his
flat was a real- / what a -I / a rubbish - (where
rubbish is taken and left)
facilities the facilities in a place are the buildings and
equipment the place has, and the services it offers:
the - on the camp site were incredible / a hotel
with excellent - / it's got fantastic sports - / there
were no leisure - / the toilet - were very poor
filthy if something is filthy, it is extremely dirty. The
noun is filth: everything got - / a - T-shirt / his
clothes looked - / the house was absolutely - /
everything was covered in filth
full blast if you playa radio or music player at full
blast,you play it as loud as you can: they played
music at - all night / had the TVon at - / the radio
was playing at -
greasy if something is greasy, it is covered in oil. The
noun is grease: thefood was a bit - / - chips /-
hair / thefood was swimming in grease (covered in
grease) / his hands were covered in grease
muddy if something is muddy, it is covered in mud:
the camp site was really - / - boots / my clothes
had got - / thefloor was all -
overlooking if something is overlooking a place, it is
above the place and has a view over it. The verb
is overlook: on top ofthe cliffs, - the ocean / a
balcony - the beach / the room overlooks a car park
overwhelming if something is overwhelming, it
has a very strong effect on your feelings, so you
are unable to express exactly howyou feel. The
verb is overwhelm: it was all a bit - / Ifound the
experience absolutely - / Iwas overwhelmed by a
feeling ofsadness / we were totally overwhelmed
by people's support
restless if you are restless,you feel slightly bored and
want to do something different or go somewhere
new. The noun is restlessness: Igot a bit - after a
couple ofdays / beginning tofeel- / the kids are
starting to get slightly - / afeeling ofrestlessness
scramble if you scramble somewhere,you climb
there, using your hands to help you. Scramble
is also a noun:you can - down to the bay /
scrambling over the rocks / we -d up the cliff /
a bit ofa scramble down to the beach
self-catering if accommodation is self-catering, it has
a kitchen so that you can prepare your own food: a
- apartment / - accommodation / a - holiday
site a site is a place where something happens. Site
is also a verb: a camp - / a bUilding - / a landfill-
(for burying rubbish in the ground) / the - ofthe
accident / the place where the newtheatre will be
spoil to spOil something means to make it less good
or less enjoyable: bad weather can really - a
holiday / he always -s thefun / the newbuildings-
the view / I-ed the meat by cooking itfor too long
spotless if something is spotless, it is completely
clean. The adverb is spotlessly: the whole place was
- / a - white shirt / the house looked absolutely - /
spotlessly clean
stunning if something is stunning, it is extremely
beautiful. The adverb is stunningly: we had-
viewsfrom our window / some - newdesigns / she
looked absolutely - / she's stunningly beautiful
superficial if something is superficial, it only concerns
the surface of something and not the part in the
middle or the most important part. The adverb
is superficially: a rather - discussion / sometimes
Ifelt it was a bit - / his knowledge is quite - / a -
burn (only on the surface ofyour skin) / a - society
(concerned only about things you can see, not
serious ideas) / the wood was only damaged -Iy
tent a tent is a small shelter that you stay in when
you are camping: we stayed in a - / a three-person
- / a niceflat place where we could pitch our - / it
took ages to put up the - / we took down the - and
left / the - blewdown in the night
unbearably unbearably means in a way that is
extremely unpleasant. The adjective is unbearable:
the weather was - hot / he was - arrogant / the
pain was unbearable / the heat made it unbearable
welcoming if someone is welcoming, they are very
friendly to you when you arrive somewhere: the
people were incredibly - / she gave a - smile / a
hotel with a - atmosphere
winding if a road is winding, it has a lot of turns
and bends in it. The verb is wind:you had to walk
along a - track to the village / a - river / a narrow
- footpath / the road winds up to the village / we
wound our way through the narrowstreets
PAGES 44-45
bear if something doesn't bear thinking about, it is so
horrible or shocking that you don't want to think
about it: he could've died - it doesn't - thinking
confirmation a confirmation is a letter or email which
states officially that something you reserved by
phone will be kept for you. The verb is confirm: did
you receive a - by email? / a - of the booking / a-
letter / we will confirm the reservation in writing
deposit a deposit is an amount of money that you
pay in advance for something. Sometimes the
deposit is part of the total amount you will pay,
<J and sometimes it is extra money that you get
back when you finish using something: they're not
going to give us our - back / you pay an initial- of
100, then pay the rest when the goods arrive /
I've put down the - on a newcar / there's a 30
returnable - / the - is refundable
framed if something is framed, it has a frame around
it. The verb and noun are frame: a - photo / some
- certificates / areyou going to get it -? / it's been
very nicely - / a mirror with a thick woodenframe
procedure a procedure is a set of actions that you
follow in order to do something correctly: that's
our normal- / the usual- for making reservations /
you didn'tfollow the correct - / the company's
standard -sfor taking on newstaff
reservation if you make a reservation,you ask a hotel
to keep a room for you, a restaurant to keep a table
for you, etc. The verb is reserve: we have no record
ofany - / I'd like to make a - / do you have a -? / a
- in the name ofSmith / Icancelled the - / I'd like
to reserve a tablefor tomorrow evening / I'm sorry,
these seats are reserved
suffocate if you suffocate, you die because you
cannot breathe. The noun is suffocation:you
could've -d whileyou were sleeping / he nearly -d /
he tried to - his victims (kill them by stopping them
breathing) / the newrestrictions are suffocating
trade (preventing itfrom developing) / she died of
PAGES 46-47
bland iffood is bland, it is not nice because it doesn't
have enough flavour: Idon't know howyou eat
that - rubbish / thefood was incredibly - / Ifound
it too-
dash if you dash,you leave or go somewhere quickly
because you are in a hurry. Dash is also a noun:
gotta - now / I-ed down to the shops / I'll just -
home quickly / we could make a dash for the car
gaze if you gaze at something, you look at it for a
long time. Gaze is also a noun: Iwas gaZing out of
the window / lying on his bed gaZing at the ceiling
/ she was gazing into space / my gaze wasfixed on
the letter / he lowered his gaze (looked down)
get over if you get over something, you start to feel
better after it: it took me a couple ofdays to - the
jetlag / I'mjust getting over theflu / he's upset noVY,
but he'll soon - it / I've got over it completely now
hook up with if you hook up with someone,you meet
them and become friends with them or start to
have a relationship with them: I've hooked up with
aguyfrom London / we'lI- with them again in
New York / ourfirm has hooked up with another
small company (agreed to work with)
heritage your heritage is your culture and family
background:you appreciateyourown - / it's
important to protect our national- / bUildings that
are part ofour - / the country's rich cultural- /
trying to preserve their Scottish -
humid if the weather is humid, it is very hot, with
a wet heat rather than a dry heat. The noun is
humidity: it's unbelievably hot anti - / a very - day /
high -ity levels / an increase in -ity
integration integration is the process in which people
gradually become involved in a new society or
group. The verb is integrate: - into a newculture /
the country's - into the EU / policies that encourage
social- / infavour ofgreater - / they soon became
integrated into the local community / they've
integrated very well
miles miles means by a very large amount: Hong
Kong is - better / it's -funnier than thefirst film /
that's - too big / it was - too expensive
moan a moan is a complaint about something. Moan
is also a verb: we have a - about things together /
Idon't want to listen toyour -sf / stop -ingf /
everyone -ed about thefood
orientate if you orientate yourself, you begin to
feel familiar with the place where you are or the
situation you are in. You can also say that you
orient yourself: I'm starting to - myselfnow / I
tried to - myselfby looking at the map / it took him
afew months to orient himself in the newjob
phase a phase is one stage in the development of
something: you go throughfour distinct -s / the
first - ofthe project / the second - ofthe bUilding
work / adifficult - in the country's history
pride pride is afeeling of pleasure and satisfaction
you get when you have done something well. Pride
yourself on something is averb.The adjective is proud:
people seem to take - in what they do / she showed us
her award with great - / see the - in her parents'faces /
he prides himselfon the qualityofhis work / we're very
proudofyou / I'm particularly proudofthis painting
put someone down if you put someone down, you
criticise them when other people are there. The
. noun is put-down:you might put people down
when they speak their own language / her parents
are always putting her down / I'mfed up with his
constant put-downs
resistance resistance to something is a refusal to
accept it. The verb is resist: - to a newculture /
there's considerable - to the proposals / the plans
met with a lot of- from local people / they put up
qUite a bit of - / trying to resist change / he resisted
the pressure to resign
roots a person's roots are the place, culture and
family that they come from. The roots of a plant
are the part that hold the plant in the ground:you
can get cut offfromyour - / feeling the need to go
back to her - / returning to his Irish - / digging the
plants up by the-
settle down if a situation settles down, it becomes
calmer: things have settled down a bit now / the
situation seems to have settled down
slave away if you slave away, you work very hard for
a long time: I've been slaving away at my desk /
slaving away over a hot cooker / slaving away at
a report
swing if you swing, your feelings or opinions
change. Swing is also a noun: some people-
from one extreme to the other / her mood could -
from joy to despair within a matter of minutes /
public opinion has swung to the left (become more
left-Wing) / mood SWings / a big swing in public
symptom a symptom is something that shows
that an illness or problem exists. The adjective
is symptomatic: it's a - ofthe resistance phase /
what are the -s offood poisoning? / physical and
psychological-s / people displayingflu-like -s /
not everyone with the disease will develop -s /
recognise the -s ofoverwork / the demonstrations
are a - ofan underlying problem / the rise in
unemployment is -atic ofthe general decline in the
transformation a transformation is a complete
change. The verb is transform: the - phase / an
amazing - / the bUilding's -from a school to a
community centre / the party has undergone
a complete - / the whole house has been
undergo if you undergo something,you experience
it: we're -ing a big change / the bUilding has -ne
some renovations / you may need to - surgery / she
underwent an emergency operation
PAGES 48-49
breeze a breeze is a gentle wind. The adjective is
breezy: there was only a slight - / agentle - /
a cool- / there was a warm - blowing across
the beach / the leaves rustled in the - / a breezy
drought a drought is a situation in which there
has been very little rain and the ground is very
dry: there's a terrible - / a severe - / a period of
prolonged - / we had a -last summer / the-
has mainly affected the south ofthe country /
restrictions on water use during the-
earthquake when there is an earthquake, the ground
shakes: peoplefelt the - miles away / a big - / the
town was destroyed bya massive - / the - has left
thousands ofpeople homeless / hundreds were
injured in the - / living in an - zone
ease off if something eases off, it becomes less
severe: the rain's eased off a bit now / the pain was
beginning to - / the snow's eased offslightly
exaggerate if you exaggerate, you describe
.something in a way that makes it seem bigger,
worse, more important etc. than it really is. The
noun is exaggeration: maybe I'm exaggerating
a bit / don't -! / he tends to - a bit / she was
exaggerating wildly / it's important not to-
the importance ofthis meeting / it was a wild
exaggeration / he's prone to exaggeration (he often
famine a famine is a situation in which there is a
serious lack of food and a lot of people die: crop
failures led to a - / a terrible - / the drought caused
a devastating - / millions ofpeople are nowfacing
- / a series of measures to relieve the -
flood a flood is a situation in which there is a large
amount of water from rivers or the sea over the
land. Flood is also a verb. The adjective is flooded:
thousands ofhomes have been affected by the - /
the worst -for 50years / a devastating - / the rain
has caused -s in many parts ofthe country / the-
is finally beginning to subside / the - waters are still
rising / fears that the river could - / thousands of
homes are now -ed
fog fog is a thick cloud that forms close to the
ground. The adjective is foggy: thick - / hopefully
the - will lift soon / a dense - had descended on the
area / we couldn't see anything through the - / a
foggy morning
hail hail is small pieces of ice that fall from the air like
rain. Hail is also a verb. Each piece of ice is called a
hailstone: we had some rain and -later in the day /
it was starting to - / the -stones were as big as
golf balls
lightning lightning is a bright flash of light you see in
the sky during a storm. Lightning is also a verb: we
saw this incredibleforked - / a suddenflash of - / -
forked across the sky / the plane was struck by - / it
was beginning to thunder and -
melt if something melts, it becomes soft or turns to
liqUid after being frozen and hard: the snow had
all -ed by the morning / my ice cream's -ing! / -
the butter in a small saucepan
mist mist is a light cloud close to the ground. The
adjective is misty: we couldn't see much because
of the - / afine - / a heavy - / the Village was
shrouded in - (covered by mist) / the - should clear
later / a -y morning
pull over if you pull over,you drive to the side of the
road and stop your car: we pulled over to the side of
the road / she signalled to us to - / we pulled over
and got out ofthe car
shade shade is slight darkness in a place that is
sheltered from the sun. Shade is also a verb. The
adjective is shaded: we sat in the - / a small patch
of - / in the - ofa large tree / plants that grow well
in the - / the temperature was 42 degrees in the
- / a big tree would -the garden too much / she
shaded her eyes / a -dgarden
spit if it spits, it rains very gently: it's only -ting now /
it's starting to-
thunder thunder is the loud noise that you hear in
the sky during a storm. Thunder is also a verb: a
faint rumble of - / the - was getting louder / a loud
crash of - / a sudden clap of - / the - rolled and
roared all around us / didyou hear it - earlier?
PAGES 50-51
ageing someone who is ageing is quite old and
becoming older. The verb is age: looking after her
- parents / Britain's - population / an -film star /
when Isaw her again, she'd aged a lot
aim if something is aimed at achieving something,
it is intended to try and achieve that thing. Aim
is also a noun: experiments which are -ed at
combating illnesses / new policies -ed at reducing
the number ofroad accidents / what's the - of
this research? / they came to power with the - of
reducing poverty and unemployment
amidst amidst something means with that thing
happening all around. Amidst people means with
people around you: herfamily made an emotional
appeal- growingfearsfor her safety / he resigned
- allegations ofcorruption / liVing - hisfamily
associated if one thing is associated with another,
the two things are connected in some way. The
verb is associate: some of the problems that are-
<J with this new treatment / jobs that are - with the
car industry / people don't usually associate science
with art
board the board of a company is the group of people
who control it and make important decisions. A
board member is a member of a company's board:
the idea was rejected by - members / it will be
discussed by the - members / he's on the - ofthe
bank / two people have resignedfrom the-
breeder a breeder is someone who keeps animals
and produces and sells young animals. The verb is
breed. Abreed is one particular type of an animal: a
successful animal- / a dog - / horse -s / they breed
cattle on thefarm / a very popular breed ofdog
civilised if something is civilised, it belongs to an
advanced and well-organised society and so
shows culture and good standards of behaviour: a
- society / it all seemed very - / a - drink outside in
the garden / let's talk about this in a - way
contest to contest something means to say officially
that you do not agree with it or think it is wrong:
the will is being -ed / they plan to - the decision
dare a dare is something difficult or dangerous that
you do because someone has challenged you to do
it. Dare is also a verb: Itried eating themfor a - /
he challenged me to a - / go on, 1- you! (J challenge
you) / 1- you to call him now / I-n't ask him .
(J don't have the courage)
deem if something is deemed to have a particular
quality, people consider that it has that quality:
it wasn't -ed suitablefor ayoung woman /
precautions that were -ed necessary / his actions
were -ed to be illegal
estate your estate is the money and property that is
left after you die: he left his entire - to charity /
his son will inherit his - / she left an - valued at
15 million
fund to fund something means to pay for it. Afund
is an amount of money that has been collected
for a particular purpose: the scheme is -ed by the
government / it's jointly - by three schools / should
the government - more scientific research? / the
rebuilding - / an appeal-for earthquake victims /
they're setting up a campaign-
halt to halt something means to stop it. Halt is also a
noun: they want to - the experiments / work on the
new bridge has been -ed by protestors / the search
for survivors has now -ed / the train came to a
sudden - / the economy sel?ms to be grinding to a-
harassment harassment is unpleasant or threatening
behaviour towards someone. The verb is harass:
he accused the police of - / she was subjected to
sexual- / they have complained of being harassed
by the police / stop harassing me!
inheritance an inheritance is money that you get
from someone after they die. The verb is inherit: he
received a small -from hisfather / she is struggling
to win back her righiful- / she accusedhim of
trying to steal her - / he left them an - ofover 30
million / she'll come into her - when she's 21 (she
will receive it) / who will inherit thefarm when
you die?
insight an insight is a clear way of understanding
something: thefilm prOVides invaluable -s into
their lives / his writing lacks - / she' got a lot of-
into this problem / the book gives a real- into the
causes ofthe war
intimidation intimidation is behaviour in which you
try to frighten someone to make them do what
you want. The verb is intimidate: - oflaboratory
staff/ they enduredyears of- / using various -
tactics / they tried to intimidate him into confessing /
an attempt to intimidate voters
invaluable if something is invaluable, it is extremely
useful: the book prOVides - insights / an - tool /
some - experience / the Internet is -for students
laboratory a laboratory is a place where scientific
experiments are carried out: a science - / a
research - / - staff / - equipment / - tests / the
work is all carried out in a-
pull out to pull out of something means to stop
being involved in it: they are threatening to - of
the project / trying to - of the agreement / he has
beenforced to - ofthe tournament due to injury
resume to resume means to start again. The noun is
resumption: the talks will - next week / work on
the bridge is due to - soon / she hopes to - work
next month / the resumption ofpeace talks
rightful rightful means according to what is right
legally or morally. The adverb is Nghtfully:
struggling to win back her - inheritance / the -
heir to the throne / the - owner ofthe house / the
money is rightfully mine
subsidy a subsidy is an amount of money that a
government pays in order to keep the price of
goods lower. The verb is subsidise: an agricultural
- / subsidiesfrom the European Union / small
producers are given massive subsidies / the
government pays huge subsidies tofarmers / the
industry is still heavily subsidised
taboo a taboo is a strong custom that tells people it is
wrong to do something or talk about something:
acultural- has been broken / there's a - about
discussing religion in Britain / the -s surrounding
sexuality / adesire to break down old -s
violate to violate a rule, law or tradition means to
break it. The noun is violation: hefelt that his
privacy was being -d / countries that - human
rights / the company has -d international laws /
a blatant violation ofthe peace agreement /
wholesale violation ofhuman rights
vivisection vivisection is scientific experiments that
are carried out on live animals: - is morally wrong
/ people who are opposed to - / anti-- campaigners
will a will is a document that says what you want to
happen to your money and property when you die:
the - is being contested / we don't know what's in
her - yet / the - wasn't signed, so it wasn't valid /
it's agood idea to draw up a - / he changed his-
just before he died
PAGES 52-53
bush a bush is a plant that looks like a small tree: I
heard something moving in the -es / afruit - /
rose -es
curl if something curls, it forms a curved or twisted
shape. The adjective is curled or curly: the leaves
are -ing up / areyou going to - your hair? / the cat
was lying -ed up by thefire / an old photograph
that's -ed at the edges / she's got lovely thick -y
fiddly if something is fiddly, it is difficult because
there are very small objects you have to handle: a
- job / they're too small and - / it's really - getting
the top back on
flower to flower means to produce flowers: the
almond trees don't usually - this early / it -s in
the autumn / they hope that democracy will-
(be successful)
gather to gather things means to collect them: -ing
mushrooms in thefields / we've -ed quite a lot of
information / the police are still -ing evidence / he
hastily -ed his things together and left
invasive if something is invasive, it spreads quickly
and is difficult to stop. The verb is invade: some
weeds are incredibly - / an - cancer / - diseases /
the cancer cells can invade other parts of the body
nod to nod means to move your head up and down
to show that you agree. Nod is also a noun: she
gave a smile and -ded / I-ded politely / he said
nothing, butjust -ded / she gave a brief - of
rot to rot means to decay through natural processes.
Rot is also a noun: the old wood had -ted / when
the soil's too wet, it -s the roots / eating too much
sugar will - your teeth / a lot ofrot in the wood /
the house wasfull ofdamp and -
seed a seed is a part of a plant that you put in the
ground to grow a new plant: sunflower -s / a
packet ofgrass - / the -s haven't germinatedyet
(started to grow) / some of the vegetables have
gone to - (produced seeds)
stem a stem is a long thin part of a plant on which
leaves and flowers grow: you'1/ need to cut the-s
a bit / roses with long -s / beautifulflowers with
slender -s
settle to settle your stomach means to stop it feeling
uncomfortable and likely to make you sick: a drink
to - your stomach / my stomach has -d now
significance the significance of something is
its meaning or importance. The adjective is
significant. The verb is signify: do these plants
have cultural-? / the ceremony has great - / the
enormous - ofthese election results / it's suddenly
taken on a new - / Iwouldn't attach any - to it
/ don't underestimate the - ofthis event / a very
Significant development / his most significant
achievement / symbols which Signify peace
water to water plants means to put water on them:
I've been -ing them every day / don't forget to -
the tomatoes / they need -ing twice a day
weed a weed is a wild plant that grows in a field or
garden where it is not wanted. Weed is aIso a verb,
meaning to clear weeds: the garden'sful/ of-s /
perennial-s (which remain in a place and don't die
in the winter) / trying to keep the -s under control /
need to - the vegetable patch / theflower garden
needs -ing
PAGES 54-55
break into to break into a place means to enter it
using force. The noun is break-in: the house had
been broken into / someone broke into my car and
stole my radio / a series of break-ins in the area
bribery bribery is the crime of offering a person in
authority money so that they will do something
for you. The verb is bribe, and a bribe is the money
that you offer: charged with - and corruption /
- is widespread / everyone bribes the officials /
attempting to bribe a police officer / paying bribes
to police officers / he's accused ofaccepting bribes
blackmail blackmail is the crime of threatening to tell
someone's secrets unless they pay you money or
do something for you. Blackmail is also a verb: he's
accused of- / she tried to - a politician / she was
-ed into accepting the offer
bombing a bombing is the crime in which someone
leaves a bomb in a place and allows it to explode: a
- in the city centre / two men have been charged with
the - / a- campaign / a wave of-s in recent weeks
,burglary a burglary is a crime in which someone
enters a bUilding and steals something. Someone
who does this is a burglar. The verb is burgle:
there have been a lot of burglaries in the area /
an attempted - / when did the - take place? / the
police have arrested two burglars / we got back and
found the house had been burgled
captive if someone is held captive, they are kept
as a prisoner. Captive is also a noun: he held his
girlfriend - / he's been held - for ayear / they were
taken - by rebels / - animals / theyfinally released
their -s
come up to come up to someone means to come
towards them: three lads came up to me / agirl
came up and started talking to me / a man came
up to me and asked mefor money
come forward to come forward means to offer to
help someone: people are too scared to - / the
police want people to - with information / we
askedfor volunteers but no one cameforward
device a device is a bomb: the - went offin a
shopping centre / an explosive -/ a nuclear - / the
- had been left in a bus station
disappear if someone disappears, they become
lost and people cannot find them. The noun is
disappearance: shejust -ed / the girls -ed while
they were walking homefrom school/report the
disappearance to the police
drag to drag someone means to pull them roughly:
he -ged her to his car / she was -ged into some
bushes / she -ged me round the shops all afternoon
(forced me to go with her) / lfinally managed to-
myselfout of bed (get up with difficulty)
broad daylight if it is broad daylight, it is during the
day and light: it was - when the robbery took place /
it happened in -
fraud fraud is the crime of telling lies or deceiving
people in order to gain money for yourself. The
adjective is fraudulent. Someone who commits
fraud is a fraudster: a victim of - / he was sent to
prisonfor tax - / credit card - / identity - (using
someone else's identity to get money) / she made a
-ulent insurance claim / -ulent business activities /
a convicted -ster
get hold of to get hold of something means to
manage to get it: someone must have got hold
of my bank details / it's relatively easy to - this
go off to go off means to explode: the device went
off near the station / the bomb could - offat
any minute / I was worried the gun might -
accidentally / Icould hearfireworks going off
grab to grab something means to take hold of it
roughly. Grab is also a noun: this guy -bed my bag /
she -bed hold ofmy arm / he -bed me by the
throat / he made a-for my purse (tried to grab it)
insured if you are insured, you have paid money to an
insurance company, and they will give you money
if something you own is stolen, damaged, etc. The
noun is insurance and the verb is insure: wereyou-?
/ I'm not - against accidental damage / the car's-
against theft / the house wasn't properly - /
it's agood idea to take out travel insurance / an
insurance policy / an insurance company / haveyou
kidnapping a kidnapping is a crime in which
someone is taken and held as a prisoner. The verb
is kidnap. Someone who commits this crime is a
kidnapper: there's been a - in Somalia / two men
have been charged in connection with the - / two
British tourists have been kidnapped / she never
spoke to her kidnappers
theft theft is the crime of stealing something.
Someone who does this is a thief: he's accused of
- / sent to prisonfor the - oftwo paintings / he's
been charged with car - / she's got a history of
petty - (stealing small items) / the police are still
lookingfor the thieves
riot a riot is a violent protest by a large number of
people. Someone who takes part in a riot is a
rioter: a - in the capital/high prices led tofood-s
in the cities / rising unemployment has sparked-s
/ the army were called in to put down the - / police
used tear gas on the -ers
robbery a robbery is a crime in which someone uses
force to steal money or property. The verb is rob and
someone who does this is a robber: astreet - / a
bank - / he's been charged with armed - / he denied
taking part in the - / she was robbed in the street at
knifepoint / masked robbers held up the bank
seize to seize someone or something means to get
hold of them roughly: he -d her in a pub / he-d
me by the arm / she -d my hand / she -d the bag
snatch to snatch something means to steal it from
someone: I had my bag -ed / someone -ed my
purse / a child was -edfrom a shopping centre
suspiciously if someone is behaving suspiciously,
they are behaving in a strange way that makes
you think they are doing something illegal. The
adjective is suspicious. The noun is suspicion and
the verb is suspect: see a man acting - / a- large
suitcase / ifyou see anything suspicious, call the
police / asuspicious-looking man / behaving in a
suspicious manner / I have the suspicion that he
knows something / our suspicions turned out to be
unfounded (not true) / the police suspect him offraud
overdrawn if you go overdrawn at the bank, you spend
more money than you have in your account: I'd
gone 1000 - / the account was already - by 200
stab to stab someone means to attack them by
pushing a knife into them. The noun is stabbing:
she was -bed outside her school/he was -bed to
death / there have been three -bings sofar this
vanish to vanish means to disappear: when Ilooked
round, she'd -ed / the boat had -ed without trace /
he seemed to - into thin air
PAGES 56-57
appalling if something is appalling, it is extremely
bad and shocking. The verb is appal and there is
also an adjective appalled: re-offending rates are - /
they live in - conditions / the decision to release
him will appal a lot of people / Iwas absolutely
appalled at howbadly they behaved
community service community service is a
punishment in which someone has to do work
that helps other people: offenders should do - /
sentenced to three months' - / - shouldn't be seen
as a soft option
fine a fine is an amount of money that you pay
as a punishment. Fine is also a verb: get a-for
speeding / a parking - / Ihad to pay a - of300 /
he was -d 250
inmate an inmate is someone who is in prison:-s
should work while they are in prison / a prison with
700 -s / an - of Parkhurst Prison
life you can describe a particular way of living as
a life: they lead a - ofluxury / help people to
lead independent lives / after the operation,you
should be able to lead a normal- / they moved to
Australia to start a new-
offender an offender is someone who has committed
a crime:young -s going to prisonfor thefirst time /
longer sentencesfor persistent -s (people who
continue to commit crimes) / a sex - (who has
committed a sex crime)
rehabilitation rehabilitation is the process by which
someone is helped to live a normal life again after
they have been in prison or been ill. The verb is
rehabilitate: we should pay more attention to - /
a - centre / the - ofoffenders / a newscheme to
rehabilitateyoung offenders
system a system is a set of ideas or methods that you
use: the current - isn't working / a modernfiling - /
the person who designed the - / time to reform the
judicial- / a new- for dealing withyoung offenders
vicious circle a vicious circle is a situation in which
one problem causes another problem, which
then makes the first problem worse: we need to
break the - ofcrime, prison and more crime / a - of
poverty and ill health
worldwide if something is worldwide, it happens
allover the world: it's attracted - attention / a -
problem / they export goods -
PAGES 58-59
confiscation confiscation is taking away
from someone officially. The verb is confiscate:
they're angry about the - ofpersonal property / he
nowfaces - ofhis house / the police confiscated his
curfew a curfew is a rule or law which says that
people must stay indoors after a particular time
at night: they've imposed a - / the government
declared a - / the whole town has been placed
under - / a-foryoung people / the - was lifted
detention detention is keeping someone locked
up. The verb is detain: the indefinite - ofterror
suspects / seven days' - / he was kept in - / he
has been detained by the police / detainedfor
dictator a dictator is a ruler who has complete power
in a country: an evil- / afascist - / an attempt to
get away with murder if someone gets away
with murder, they are not punished for doing
something wrong. If someone gets away with a
crime, they are not caught and punished for it:
that child gets away with murder! / I'd steal the
money if I thought I could get away with it / you'll
never get away with this!
hysterical if someone is hysterical, they are very upset
and cannot control what they say or do. Hysterical
language or behaviour is very extreme and
unreasonable: a - use oflanguage / a - reaction to
the crisis / some - media coverage / she became -
and started screaming
indefinite if something is indefinite, it has no fixed
end. The adverb is indefinitely: the - detention of
terror suspects / an - strike / the paintings are on -
. loan to the gallery / most prisoners can't be locked
up -Iy
interrogateto interrogate someone means to ask
them questions for a long time in order to get
information. The noun is interrogation: he was -d
several times / -d by the police / he was taken to
the police stationfor interrogation / a senior police
officer conducted the interrogation / he refused to
say anything under interrogation
imposeto impose something means to introduce it
officially and force people to accept it. The noun
is imposition: they've -d a curfew / - a ban on the
sale ofalcohol / - newrestrictions on trade / the
court can - afine / the imposition ofa curfew
lay down the lawto lay down the law means to tell
someone very firmly what they must do:from now
on, I'll be laying down the law / he can't come in
here andjust -
piotto plot means to make secret plans against
a person or government. Plot is also a noun:
he's accused of-ting against the state / -ting to
overthrow the government / -ting a murder / an
assassination - / a - to kidnap the President
put up with to put up with something means to
accept it in a patient way: I don't know why they-
it / Iwon't - this behaviour any longer
monitorto monitor something means to watch it
regularly over a long period of time: his phone calls
were -ed / a machine to - your heart rate / we'll
- his progress / the government has said it will
continue to - the situation
opposed to if you are opposed to something, you do
not think it should happen: they're - the detention
ofterror suspects / people who are - abortion /
they're - the war
oppressed if someone is oppressed, they are treated
in a cruel or unfair way. The noun is oppression: a
poor - victim / - ethnic minorities / the - people
ofthe world / they suffered political oppression /
victims ofoppression
smuggle to smuggle something into or out of a
place means to take it there secretly because it
is against the law or against rules. The noun is
smuggling: he -s girlfriends into the house / gangs
that - illegal immigrants into the country / it's
quite easy to - guns across the border / found gUilty
ofdrug smuggling
spark to spark something means to cause it: the event
that -ed this explosion ofanger / the announcement
has -ed Widespread demonstrations / an electrical
fault which -ed afire at thefactory
storm outto storm out means to leave a room angrily:
he stormed out ofthe room / she stormed out and
slammed the door / he stormed out ofthe meeting
subversive if something is subversive, it is intended to
damage the power or influence of a government:
he was arrested on suspicion of - activities / -
surveillance surveillance is watching a person or
place carefully to see if they are involved in crime:
he's under constant - / the building is kept under
24 hour - / he was put under close - / a police -
torture to torture someone means to hurt them,
especially in order to get information from them.
Torture is also a noun: he claims he was -d / they
were brutally -d / prisoners who were subjected to
- / - victims
vowto vow that you will do something means to
promise that you will do it. Vow is also a noun: -ed
never to subject him to strict discipline / she -ed
to continue herfightfor justice / he made a - that
he wouldfind the truth / she broke her - / a - of
silence / marriage -s
PAGES 64-65
carry on to carryon means to continue:you'll end up
running the company if things -like this / - the
good work / we carried on workingfor another hour
draining if something is draining, it is very tiring. You
can also say that you feel drained: I'mfinding it
emotionally - / working with young children is - /
Ifelt completely drained
freak you can use the word freak to say that someone
is obsessed with something: my boss is a complete
control- / she's a real health - / afitness -
hang if you get the hang of something, you learn how
to do it: I'm slowly getting the - ofeverything / you'll
soon get the - ofit / I'll never get the - ofthis
hand in to hand something in means to give it to
someone in authority: Ihanded in my notice last
week / can you handyour homework in now? /
Ihanded in my resignation
menial if work is menial, it is boring and does not
need any skill: the work is pretty - most ofthe time
/ doing - jobs / afew - tasks
merger a merger is the joining together of two
organisations to form one larger one. The verb is
merge: a - between the two companies / people
who aren't infavourofthe proposed - / they're
planning to merge with an American bank
notice if you give in your notice, you tell your
employer officially that you are going to leave your
job: Ihanded in my -last week / Ihaven't given in
my - yet / Ihave to givefour weeks' -
qualification a qualification is a piece of paper that
shows you have passed an exam or completed a
training course. Someone who has qualifications is
qualified: he's got excellent -s / good academic -s /
medical-s / you gain a - at the end ofthe course /
he's not qualified enough to get thejob / some very
well-qualified candidates
raise a raise is an increase in the amount of money
that you earn. This is also called a rise in British
English: Igot a -last month / they offered me
a - / a - of100 a week / unions are callingfor
a 5% pay rise
redundant if you are made redundant,you are told
that your employer no longer has ajob for you.
The noun is redundancy: Igot made -last month
/ over 500 workers are being made - / many of the
staffare nowfacing redundancy / there have been
nearly 300 redundancies at thefactory
rewarding if something is rewarding, it makes you
feel happy and satisfied: I'mfinding it very - /
an extremely - job / the work is immensely-
stimulating if something is stimulating, it is very
interesting. The noun is stimulation: it's really - /
a- discussion / the school proVides a - environment /
young children need a lot ofstimulation
stretch to stretch someone means to make them
use all their skills and abilities: Ifeel I'm really -ing
myself / a school which really -es the students / the
work doesn't really - me
workload a workload is the amount of work that
a person has to do: I'm struggling to cope with
my - / I've got a heavy - / trying to reduce my - /
haVing an assistant would ease her - / my - keeps
work out if something works out well, it happens
or develops in a satisfactory way: if things don't-
withyour newjob,you can always leave / Ihope
things -foryou / it worked out OK in the end
undervalued if something is undervalued, people do
not realise how important or valuable it is. The
verb is undervalue: she left because shefelt - /
good employee relations are often - / it's important
not to undervalue these assets
PAGES 66-67
blessed if you are blessed with something, you are
lucky because you have it: Ifeel truly - / we're-
with good health
conscious if you are conscious of somethi ng, you
are aware of it and notice it or think about it.
The adverb is consciously: I'm very - ofbeingfair
to everyone / I'm - that everyone should have the
same opportunities / Imade a - effort to make
themfeel welcome / Iwasn't doing it consciously
get through if you get through a difficult experience,
you come to the end of it successfuIly: Inever
thought I'd - it / Idon't know how Igot through
that first month
interfere to interfere means to become involved
in a situation when your help or advice is not
wanted. The noun is interference. Someone who is
interfering interferes a lot: my manager -d a lot /
don't -! / Iwish he wouldn't - in my affairs / Ireally
resent his interference / she's so interfering!
live up to to live up to expectations means to be
as good as people expected: herjob didn't -
expectations / the hotel didn't - the promises in the
holiday brochure
logistics logistics are all the practical things you need
to do in a particular order so that something can
be successful: we get trainingfor things like - /
the - ofrunning a company / we haven't thought
about the - of the dayyet
mind your mind is your thoughts: it never really
crossed my - to quit completely (I never thought
about it) / an idea came into my - / George sprang
to - as a possible candidate (I thought about him
immediately) / thanks, I'll bear that in - (I'll think
about it) / the money was preying on my - (I was
worrying about it)
misunderstood if a person is misunderstood, other
people don't like them because they have a
<J false idea of what the person is like. The verb is
misunderstand: Ithink she's just - / most teenagers
think they are - / it's easy to misunderstand her
recognise to recognise something means to
realise that it is good or important. The noun is
recognition: his work has been publicly -d / her
struggle to get her work -d / she wasn't -d as an
artist during her lifetime / he's finally achieved
recognition as an author
manual manual work is work in which you use your
hands. The adverb is manually: Iknew Iwould
enjoy doing - work / a - job / some simple - tasks /
- workers / - tools (not electric or electronic) / you
can set the timings-Iy
name after to name someone or something after a
person means to give them that person's name: a
road has been namedafter me / he was namedafter
hisfather / she was named Dora after hergrandmother
peacekeeping peacekeeping is preventing other people
from fighting each other: nowadays the army's more
about - / aUnited Nations -force / a- mission
push around to push someone around means to treat
them unfairly: Iwas pushed around a bit at work /
Iwon't let anyone push me around
rank someone's rank is their position in an
organisation: hopefully I'll achieve a high - / an
army officer ofhigh - / she was lower in - than
most of herfriends / he rose to the - ofcaptain
retirement retirement is when someone stops
working because of their age. The verb is retire:
when Ireach - age / she's lookingforward to her - /
he's really enjoying - / planning to retire next year /
will you retire when you're sixty?
role someone's role is the job that they do or the
way they contribute to a situation: women are
often better than men in those -s / it's the - of
ajournalist to ask difficult questions / parents
have an important - in their children's education
/ the prime minister will playa crucial- in the
negotiations / he'll be involved in a managerial-
set foot ifyou set foot somewhere, you go there: Inever
- on the beach / 1'1/ never - in that house again!
stock to stock a place means to fill it with things. To
restock a place means to fill it again: Ispent my
time re-ing the bar / we've -ed thefridge withfood
stuck if you are stuck in a place,you cannot leave:
we were - inside / I'm going to be - in London all
summer / the van got - in the mud (was unable
to move)
suck up to suck up to someone means to behave very
nicely towards them because you want something
from them: other people would - the boss / she
spent aI/ her time sucking up to the teachers
suntan if you have a suntan, your skin has turned
brown in the sun. The adjective is suntanned: a
good way to get a - / she's got afantastic - / -
lotion/ his suntanned back
tray a tray is a flat piece of plastic or metal that you
use for carrying drinks, plates, etc.: carrying -s in the
bar / she brought the drinks out on a - / balancing
glasses ofwine on a - / a - ofthings to eat
PAGES 68-69
affordabilitythe affordability of something is how
easily people can afford to pay for it. The adjective
is affordable: the - ofdegree courses / the main
thing people take into account when planning a
holiday is - / affordable houses / working women
need affordable childcare
appeal the appeal of something is the quality it
has that makes people like it. The adjective is
appealing: the UK is worried it will lose its - / a
movie with a lot of - / the sport has great - / as
a tourist destination, the town holds no - / his
manner is very -ing / a very -ing design
autonomy autonomy is the power to make your own
decisions. The adjective is autonomous: aI/OWing
universities to have much greater - / the region is
demanding more - / an autonomous region / an
autonomous organisation
bureaucrat a bureaucrat is someone who works as
part of an official system. An official system with
a lot of complicated rules is called a bureaucracy:
stories about unelected -s in Brussels / agovernment
- / trying to reduce the amount ofbureaucracy
compatible if different machines or systems are
compatible, they can work with each other. The
noun is compatibility: making quality control
standards more - / the program's not - with my
system / check the compatibility beforeyou buy a
credit a credit is a part of a university course that
you have passed: -s were sometimes awarded to
students based on the number ofhours they'd done
/ Ineed six -s this year
decentralise to centralise control of something means
to control it all from one place. To decentralise
control means to allow different places to control
things in different ways: some countries have
started decentralising the curricula / parties that
want to - government / planning to - the business /
they want to centralise the education system
earplugs earplugs are small pieces of plastic that
you put into your ears to keep out noise: a new EU
initiativeforcing footbaII supporters to wear - /
Ihad - in, so Icouldn't hear anything
influence to influence someone or something
means to affect the way they behave or develop.
Influence is also a noun: the Bologna Process is
influenCing education systems in other countries
/ myfather -d me a lot / don't let this - your
decision / he has a lot of - in the media / trying
to use his - with government ministers / she has
considerable - over him
implementation the implementation of something
is how it is used and made to work. The verb is
implement: the - ofthe policy / effective - ofthe
proposals / the local authority will monitor - of the
plan / the policies will be implemented immediately
/ theyfailed to implement the decision
knock-on effect a knock-on effect is an indirect effect
of something: it's starting to have a - elsewhere /
the closure will have a - on jobs elsewhere
outcome an outcome is a result at the end of a
process or activity: credits will nowbe based on
learning -s / the - ofthe election / a successful- /
actions which will achieve the desired-
outline to outline something means to describe the
main facts about it, without giving all the details.
Outline is also a noun: I'd like to begin by outlining
the proposal/he -d the government's policies
/ briefly - the plan / she gave a brief- ofthe
company's history / a broad - ofthe proposals
outrage outrage is a very strolJg feeling of anger.
Outrage is also a verb. The adjective is outrageous:
it's caused - in Greece and France / it was greeted
with - / there's been Widespread public - / felt a
sense of - / a lot ofpeople were -d by the proposals
/ that's -oust / an -ous idea
overviewan overview is a description of the main parts
of something: an - ofuniversity education / it gives
an - ofAmerican history / abrief-ofthe problem
restructure to restructure something means to
organise it in a new way: many universities have
started restructuring departments / plans to -local
government / the company's been completely-d
standardisation standardisation is the prQcess of
making different things the same or similar. The
verb is standardise:for traditionalists, the idea of
any kind of- is hard to bear / the - ofexams / the
need to standardise selection procedures
summarise to summarise something means to
explain it very briefly. The noun is summary: can
you - the ideas in afew words? / to -, this is an
excellent school / a briefsummary ofthe proposal /
he gave a summary oftheir researchfindings
PAGES 70-71
bunch a bunch of people is a group of people: going
clubbing with a - offriends / they're a really nice-
/ a bit ofa mixed-
cosy if a place is cosy, it is warm, comfortable and
relaxing: a -little restaurant / a - sitting room /
it's lovely and - in here / warm and - by thefire /
a - chat
deadline the deadline for something is the time or
date by which you must do it: the -for this report
is tomorrow / the - is Monday / working to a very
tight - / they've set a - ofnext Tuesday / we're
going to struggle to meet the - / worried we'll miss
the - / the - has already passed
fancy-dress a fancy-dress event is one in which
people wear costumes for fun. You can also say
that someone goes in fancy dress: a - party / -
hire / everyone was in fancy dress / areyou going
in fancy dress?
freshen up tofreshen up means to wash your
hands andface so that youfeel cleaner and more
. comfortable: we'll have time to - / to - before
dinner / wouldyou like to - ?
get-together a get-together is a party or informal
social occasion. You can also say that people get
together: we have a big - / an informal- / afamily
- / we usually get together at Christmas
resign to resign means to say officially that you are
leaving your job. The noun is resignation: I'm going
to try and persuade her not to - / he's -ingfrom
his job / he may beforced to - as prime minister
/ she threatened to - / I've handed in my -ation /
he's announced his -ationfrom the government /
protesters have calledfor her -ation
rip-off if something is a rip-off, it is more expensive
than it should be. You can also say that someone
rips you off: that place is such a - / it was a
complete - / - prices / Ithink we got ripped off /
dishonest tradesmen who rip people off
spree a spree is a time when you do a lot of
something in a short period of time: go on a big
shopping - / a spending - / a massive buying - /
they went on a crime - / a drinking-
the safe side to be on the safe side means to do
something so that there is no risk that things will
go wrong: I'll phone and book a table,just to be on
- / we'd better leave by ten, to be on -
theme a theme is a general subject: haVing a - party
(where people wearfancy dress that fits a theme)
/ a - park (With rides and games all on the same
theme) / justice is the main - ofthe book / one of
the central-s ofhis sp.eech
PAGES 72-73
ashamed if you feel ashamed, you feel gUilty and
embarrassed about something. The noun is
shame, and shame is also a verb: it made themfeel
- to comefrom Texas / Iwas deeply - / slightly-
of my behaviour / I've done nothing to be - of / it
makes me - to be British / afeeling ofshame / to
hangyour head in shame / behaviour which has
shamed ourfamily
broadcast to broadcast something means to put it on
radio or TV. Broadcast is also a nOUFl: his comments
were - all around Britain / the match will be -live
/ a programme that was - on BBCllast night /
we'll be -ing livefrom the United States / a radio
broadcast / a news broadcast / the prime minister
will make a special broadcast later today
burst out to burst out crying or laughing means to
start crying or laughing suddenly. You can also
say that you burst into laughter or tears. The past
tense and past participle are also burst: she-
crying / I-laughing / she kept bursting into tears
/ the audience burst into applause / he burst into
loud laughter
casual if something is casual, you do it without
thinking about it or planning it before: they made
a - remark about George Bush / a - comment / it
was just a - conversation / a - meeting with some
friends / give a - glance at something / - sex (not
as part ofa serious relationship)
chain a chain of shops or businesses is a group of
them that are all owned by the same person or
company: the owner ofa - ofshops / a - ofclothes
stores / a large hotel- / the big supermarket-s
at ease if you are at ease,you feel relaxed: he was-
with them / Ifelt completely - / we tried to make
himfeel - / he seemed ill - (not relaxed) / they tried
to put me - (make mefeel relaxed)
fellowyour fellow students or workers are the
people you study or work with: he was talking
to some - businessmen / Iget on well with
my - students / his - countrymen / her - office
frown on to frown on something means to
disapprove of it: public displays ofaffection are
frowned on / long lunch breaks are definitely
frowned on / people who still- divorce
globalised something that is globalised
happens in the same way all over the world.
The noun is globalisation: our - 24-hour news
culture / the - economy / the globalisation
of world trade / people who are opposed to
interrupt to interrupt someone means to stop
them when they are talking or doing something.
The noun is interruption: after a minute or two,
she -ed me / don't - when I'm speaking / Ihate
being -ed when I'm working / I'm sorry to -, but
couldyou look at this? / there were constant
interruptions / Iignored the interruption and
carried on
jewelleryjewellery is things such as rings, necklaces
and bracelets that you wear on your body: shops
that sell cheap - / Inever wear - / she wears a lot
of- / buying expensive -
light-hearted if something is light-hearted, it is
not very serious. The adverb is light-heartedly:
a - speech / a-film / a -look at education / he
seemed in a - mood / laughing andjoking -Iy
mean to mean to do something means to intend to
do it: it was -t to be ajoke / I-t it as a compliment
/ Ididn't - to upset anyone / Ididn't - any harm /
I-t to phone him, but Iforgot
on air if someone is on air, their voice or picture is
being broadcast on radio or TV. If they are off the
air, their voice or picture is not being broadcast: he
didn't realise he was - / we go - in five minutes /
luckily, the remarks were made off the air
pregnant if a woman is pregnant, a baby is growing
in her body: she wasn't actually - / Iwas eight
months - at the time / she looked - / Igot - by
protocol protocol is a set of rules for how to behave:
small violations of - / diplomatic - / they didn't
follow standard medical- / a breach of - /
public eye if you are in the public eye, you are well
known and people recognise you and write
about you in newspapers, magazines, etc.:
people who are in the - / the disadvantages of
being in the -
remark a remark is something that you say. Remark
is also a verb: they made a casual- about George
Bush / he made afew tactless -s / accused of
making racist -s / Ithinkyou should withdraw
that - / Idecided to ignore his -s / everyone -ed
that she was looking well / we all-ed on the
increased security
share the shares in a company are the parts into
which its ownership is divided. The share price
is the price of the company's shares: to buy-s
in a company / agood time to sell your -s / the
company's - price crashed / the - price has gone
down tojust 15p / - prices have risen in recent
slapto slap someone means to hit them with the
front part of your hand. Slap is also a noun: she
-ped him in theface / Iwanted to - her hard / I
-ped him on the leg / he -ped me on the back
(hit me in afriendly way on the back) / she needs
to give that child a -I / we got a - if we behaved
split up if a couple split up, they end their
relationship. The past tense and past participle
are also split up. The noun is split: Ididn't know
they'd - / my parents - last year / she's - with her
boyfriend / they've got on much better since the
unnoticed if something is unnoticed, people do
not notice it: the remark would have passed -
in previous times / his strange behaviour went
completely - / their work is largely -
unpatriotic if something is unpatriotic, it criticises
your country. The opposite is patriotic: they saw
the remarks as - / - behaviour / the party members
arefiercely patriotic / using patriotic language
PAGES 74-75
break upto break something up means to stop it:
the police had to come and break it up / trying to
- thefight / I'm sorry to - the party / the meeting
broke up atfour0 'clock / the partyfi naIly broke up
at midnight
chat up to chat someone up means to talk to them
because you want to have a relationship with
them: he kept trying to chat me up / he spent the
evening chatting Beth up / we got chatted up bya
couple of waiters
drag to drag someone somewhere means to take
them there when they do not really want to go:
myfriend -ged me along to the party / trying to -
him awayfrom the pub / they -ged me off to the
cinema / we managed to - him out ofbed
engagement an engagement is a formal agreement
to get married. The adjective is engaged: a party
to celebrate our - / they'vejust armounced their-
/ she broke offthe - / we're getting engaged / she's
engaged to Frank
fiancee your fiance (male) or fiancee (female) is the
person you are engaged to be married to: I'm his
fiancee / haveyou met herfiance?
form someone's form is how well they are playing
or performing at a particular time: it's just a
temporary loss of- / he's in top - at the moment
/ the team are in good - / hoping to maintain her
current - / they need to return to - before thefinal
next month
fancy to fancy someone means to find them
attractive and want to have a relationship with
them: they'vefancied each otherfor ages / doyou
- him? / she's agoodfriend, but' don't - her
fortune a fortune is a very large amount of money:
it cost a -! / I've spent a - today! / that ring must
be worth a - / you'll pay a -for a meal there / he
inherited a large -from his grandfather
get lost to get lost means to go away: 'had to tell
him to - / , wish he's just - / why don't youjust -?
get off with to get off with someone means to start
a relationship with them: she got off with someone
at the party / doyou think he wants to - withyou?
/ she's spent all evening trying to - with him
gorgeous if something is gorgeous, it is extremely
tasty. You can also say that something is
gorgeous if it is extremely beautiful. The adverb
is gorgeously: the aubergine dip is - / some - ice
cream / thankyou - that was absolutely - / those
flowers are - / you look - in that dress / it was -Iy
rich and creamy
host the host at a party is the person who has invited
. all the guests. A woman is called a hostess: 'didn't
know the - / he's a very good - (he looks after his
guests well) / trying to be the perfect -ess
leave out to leave someone or something out means
to not include them: 'feel a bit left out / we
tried not to leave anyone out / she left out afew
important details / afew names had been left out
marquee a marquee is a large tent that you use for a
party: they set up a - in the garden / we're going to
hire a - / the reception was held in a - on the lawn
/ sitting under a large-
out of hand if something gets out of hand, it
becomes very difficult to control: it got a bit - /
things were starting to get-
overhear to overhear a conversation means to hear
it when you are not taking part in it: , couldn't
help -ing / , -d them talking about it / , -d him
saying he was going to leave / , don't want anyone
to - this
patch a patch is a short period of time: we're going
through a bad - at the moment / we've had a
difficult - recently / the business has hit a bad - /
going through a rough-
polish to polish something means to rub it to make
it shine. Polish is also a noun: the Chinese used
to - their teeth with it / -ing his shoes / to - the
furniture / a -edfloor / beautifully -ed shoes / the
bestfurniture - / black shoe-
sneak to sneak somewhere means to go there quietly
or secretly: , got bored and decided to - out / we
-ed in through the back door / let's - round the
back / we -ed off home
stuffy if a room is stuffy, it is too warm and there is
no fresh air in it. The noun is stuffiness: it was so
- in there / it's getting a bit -in here / a really-
classroom / 'can't bear the stuffiness in there
turn out to turn out in a particular way means to end
in that way: he turned out to be a complete bore
(we discovered in the end that he was a bore) / it
turned out to be a mistake / I'm sure it'll - OK in the
end / we'll wait and see how things - / as it turned
out, we didn't need any extra help
turn up to turn up means to come to a place: hardly
anyone turned up / he turned up'half an hour late /
you don't have to book -you can just - / she didn't
- for workyesterday
versatile if something is versatile, it can be used in
a lot of different ways. The noun is versatility:
aubergines are so - / the smaller machines are
quite - / an incredibly - actor (able to playa lot
ofdifferent roles) / amazed at his versatility in the
waste waste is not using something in a proper or
useful way. Waste is also a verb: thefood all went
to waste (wasn't eaten) / what a - ! it's a terrible
- ofresources / a drive to improve efficiency and
reduce - / that's a - ofmoney (not agood use of
money) / talking to him would be a - oftime / I'm
not going to - my time talking toyou / why doyou
- so much money on cheap clothes?
PAGES 76-77
bald if a tyre is bald, it is no longer safe because it has
become smooth: one of the tyres is almost - / the
front tyres are completely-
boot the boot of a car is the part at the back where
you can put luggage and other things: there's
plenty ofroom in the - / putyour bags in the - /
get the suitcases out ofthe - / it'llfit in the - of
your car / quite a big -
brake the brakes on a car are the parts that you use
to slow it down and stop it. Brake is also a verb:
the -sfeel a bit weird to me / the -sfailed (stopped
working) / , slammed on the -s / 'left the hand- on
/ , had to brake sharply
bumpa bumpisan uneven partofa road.Aroad
that has a lot of bumps is bumpy: 'drove over a -
/ loads of -s in the road / a -y road / thejourney
was quite-y
cover if your insurance covers something, you will
receive money or help if that thing happens
to you. Cover is also a noun: the insurance-s
everything / it doesn't - mechanicalfaults / I'm not
-edfor accidental damage / I'm -ed to drive any
vehicle / you need insurance - / make sureyou have
adequate insurance -
dent a dent is a part of something that has been
banged inwards. Dent is also a verb. The adjective
is dented: there's a - in the passenger door / afew
-s in the bonnet / , hit agatepost and -ed thefront
ofthe car / the bonnet was badly -ed
fare a fare is an amount of money that you pay for
transport: the taxi - to the hotel/an increase in
train -s / the bus -s are qUite cheap / trying to keep
-s low / complaints about high -s
fuel fuel is something such as petrol or oil that is
used to make something work: the car's very
--efficient / try to use less - / we ran out of - / very
good - consumption (the amount offuel a car uses)
/ the - tank / domestic - bills
GPS GPS is a system for finding out where you are,
by using satellites. It stands for global positioning
system: it's got - / , used the - to get here / ,
wouldn't manage without-
scar a scar is a permanent mark on someone's skin from
an injury. Scar is also a verb. The adjective is scarred:
he's got a - on hisface / a long - / an unsightly - / it
won't leave a - / he still bears the -s ofhis accident /
, don't think it'll - / hisface was badly -red
take out to take out a financial agreement means to
get it: he should - extrq insurance / we'll have to -
a loan / we could - an advertisement in the local
tank the tank is the part of the car where you put
petrol or other fuel: 'fi"ed the - with petrol/we've
got afull- / the -'s nearly empty
tyre a tyre is a thick rubber cover that goes around
the wheel of a car or bicycle: we got aflat - / , had
to buy two new-s / one ofthe -s was a bit worn /
that -'s nearly bald
wear if something wears, it becomes thinner
or weaker because it has been used a lot.
The adjective is worn: one of thefront tyres is
beginning to - / thefront tyres had worn smooth /
two ofthe tyres are a bit worn
windscreen the windscreen is the glass part at the
front and back of a car, that you look through as
you are drivi ng: the - is cracked / wash the - / the
front - / the rear - / you'll have to replace the -
wing the Wings of a car are the parts at the side that
cover the wheels: someone knocked the - mirror
off / a dent in the nearside - (on the side that
is nearest to the edge ofthe road whenyou are
driving) / the offSide - (on the side that is furthest
from the edge ofthe road whenyou are driving)
PAGES 78-79
blister a blister is a swollen area on your skin that is
full of clear liqUid and is caused by rubbing the
skin too much. The adjective is blistered: , got
terrible -s / -s on myfeet / a nasty - on my left
heel/myfeet were badly -ed
breathtaking if something is breathtaking, it is
extremely beautiful. The adverb is breathtakingly:
Lake Baikal was simply - / it was absolutely - / the
scenery was -Iy beautiful
claustrophobic if you feel c1austrophobic,you feel
scared because you are in a small space. The
noun is claustrophobia: 'get really - in lifts / 'was
starting tofeel- / the room was small and - / she
suffersfrom claustrophobia
desolate if a place is desolate, it is completely empty:
we drove through some incredibly - scenery / a
rather -landscape / walking through the - streets
disrepair disrepair is a condition in which something
is damaged or broken: it'sfallen into - / the whole
place was in a state of-
embark to embark on ajourney or activity means to
begin it. To embark also means to get on to a ship:
, decided to - on the journey / she's about to - on
a degree course / when shefirst -ed on her singing
career / we're -ing on a Caribbean cruise / the
passengers were given the signal to -
faith faith is a strong belief or trust in a god or
something else. Afaith is also a religion: she's had
a crisis of - / his - in God / , have complete - in you
/ he has enormous - in the authorities / her blind-
in people (being unable to see theirfaults) / people
have lost - in the government / we put our - in the
doctors / it's restored my - in human nature / the
Muslim - / people ofmany -s (religions)
heart if you know something by heart, you know all
the words of it perfectly: , know the lyrics by - / we
had to learn poems by-
legend a legend is a very old story about famous
people in the past: according to -, the bones ofa
saint are buried there / ancient Greek -s / the - of
Robin Hood / some local-s / - has it that his ghost
still appears here twice ayear
peak the peak of something is the time when it is
biggest or most successful. Peak is also a verb: its
- years were in the 1960s / inflation reached a - of
15% last year / share prices have risen to an all-time
- / the - periodfor tourism / the price ofpetrol has
fallen from its - of1.20 a litre / ayoung tennis
player who hasn't reached his - yet / Federer is at
his - now / interest rates -ed at 16%
perspective perspective is a sensible way of looking
at a situation and judging how important or
serious it is. A perspective is also one particular
point ofview:you need to put things into - (realise
that things are not as bad or serious as you think)
/ try to keep a sense of - / , thinkyou've got things
out of - (you think they are more serious than
they really are) / from my -, things are going quite
well / liVing in another country gives you a different
- on life
pilgrimages a pilgrimage is a religious journey to
a place. Someone who does this is a pilgrim: ,
decided to make a pilgrimage to the cathedral of
Santiago de Compostela / the annual pilgrimage
to Mecca / pilgrims have been walking this pathfor
hundreds ofyears
remarkable if something is remarkable, it is unusual
and impressive. The adverb is remarkably: we met
some - people / a-journey / she made a - recovery
/ it's a - achievement / he's qUite -for an 18-year-
old / he did remarkably well in his exams / she still
seems remarkablyfit and healthy
remote an area that is remote is far away from
towns and cities: a - area / a - Village / it's
extremely - where they live / 'wouldn't want to
live somewhere so -
row a row is an angry argument. Row is also a verb:
we had the occasional- / a - about money /
we had a blaZing - (extremely angry) / a huge-
between two ofthe guests / a - with his parents /
they're always -ing
spiritual if something is spiritual, it relates to your
mind and feelings rather than your body: it was a
truly - journey / a deeply - experience
stretch a stretch of land or water is a piece or area of
it: the world's longest - ofrailway / a narrow- of
water / an empty - ofroad / a vast - ofocean / a
beautiful- ofbeach
untouched if something is untouched, it has not
been damaged or spoiled: it's almost - by the
modern world / an area of- countryside / the area
is still relatively-
vast something that is vast is extremely big: a -
area ofincredible natural beauty / a-forest / a -
expanse ofdesert / a - amount offood / - numbers
of people / the - majority ofpeople
word a word is something that you say to someone:
let me giveyou a - ofadvice / I'll giveyou a - of
warning / afew-s of praise /, giveyou my-
(I promiseyou) / it's my - against his (we are giVing
different accounts of what happened) / you can
take my -for it (you can believe me) I'll put in a
good -foryou (say something in yourfavour)
worthwhile if something is worthwhile, it is worth
the time or money that you have spent on it:
that made the whole thing - / a - meeting / a-
investment / a very - charity / it might be - tofind
out afew more details / , don't think it's - buying a
lot ofrevision gUides
PAGES 80-81
appeal to appeal means to ask people in authority
to consider a decision again. Appeal is also a
noun: canyou - against thefine? / he's going to
- against the verdict / he's been given leave to -
(permission to appeal) to the High Court / she's
planning to lodge an - / he won his appeal/you
might loseyour-
creep if you creep, you move slowly and quietly so
that people will not see or hear you. The past tense
and past participle is crept: Itried to - out / Icrept
downstairs / Icrept qUietly into bed / someone
crept up behind me
crossing a crossing is a place where people can cross
something safely. A crossing is also ajourney
across a stretch of water: people stop at pedestrian
-s / a zebra - (a place with striped lines on the
road, where people can cross) / a level- (where
a road goes over a railway line) we stopped at a
border - / there's a - point down riverfrom here
/ the - was a bit rough (the sea was rough during
flash to flash a light means to shine it for a short
time. To flash someone means to flash a light at
them. Flash is also a noun: Igot -ed by a speed
camera / peoplejust - their lights / the warning
light was -ing / lightning -ed across the sky / a - of
bright light / blinding - oflight (extremely bright) /
a - oflightning in the sky
handbrake the handbrake in a car is the brake that
you use to stop the car moving when it is parked:
leave the - off / put the - on
indicate to indicate in a car means to put on a
light to show which direction you are going to
move in. The light you put on is an indicator: I
always - before changing lanes / I-d left / put the
indicator on
infuriating if something is infuriating, it is extremely
annoying. The verb is infuriate. There is also an
adjective infuriated: it's really -! it was absolutely
- / sometimes he infuriates me! Iwas absolutely
infuriated with her!
lane the lanes on a large road are the parts that
it is divided into, for cars to drive in: everyone
was swerving in and out of -s / in thefast - on
the motorway / driving along in the inside - (the
one closest to the side ofthe road) / in the
outside - (the onefurthest from the side of
the road)
let to let someone go somewhere means to allow
them to go there: Iwaitedfor someone to - me
out (allow me to leave) / open the door to - her in
/ they wouldn't - me through the door / open the
window to - somefresh air in
overtake to overtake means to go past another
vehicle when you are driving: - on the inside /
you're not allowed to - here / a van overtook us
over-the-top if something is over-the-top, it is too
extreme: it's so -! / the way she behaved was
completely -
pavement the pavement is the path by the side of a
road, where people can walk. The usual American
word is sidewalk: Inever park on the - / walking
along the - / a narrow - / a car mounted the-
(drove on to it) / sidewalk cafes
pedestrian a pedestrian is someone who is walking in
a town or City. To pedestrianise an area means to
make it into an area where cars and other vehicles
are not allowed: people usually stopfor -s / a -
bridge / a - precinct (an areajustfor pedestrians,
not cars) / a - crossing (where pedestrians can cross
the road) / plans to -ise the town centre
slam to slam something means to hit or push it with
a lot of force: Ihad to - on my brakes / he -med
the papers down on to the desk / Isaid goodbye
and -med the phone down / the car -med into a
telegraph pole
spill to spill something means to accidentally let
it fall out of a container. The noun is spillage: be
careful not to - your coffee / I-ed milk all over
thefloor / Inearly -ed my wine / he'd -edfood ajl
down his shirt / there were afew -ages
speed limit the speed limit is the fastest speed that
you are allowed to drive: Iwas only doing three
miles over the - / Ialways stick to the - / try to
keep to the - / you were breaking the - / he was
over the-
swerve to swerve means to change direction
suddenly when you are driving, cycling, etc.:
everyone was swerving in and out oflanes / I-d to
avoid a cat / a lorry -d across the road in front of
me / I-d offthe road
towto tow a vehicle means to pull it behind another
vehicle. Tow is also a noun: Ihad my car -ed away
(taken away) / he -ed me to the nearest garage /
Ihad to be -ed home / Iasked if he could give me
a tow / we had the caravan in tow (being towed
behind our car)
traffic warden a traffic warden is an official who
checks that cars are not parked illegally: didn't you
see the -? / be careful- there are -s about / a -
gave me a parking ticket
PAGES 82-83
asthma asthma is a medical condition that makes
it difficult to breath. The adjective is asthmatic
and someone who suffers from asthma is an
asthmatic: 1sufferfrom - / 1used to get really bad
- / severe - / drugs used to treat - / an - attack /
she's -tic / it's much worsefor -tics
bandage a bandage is a long piece of cloth that you
wrap around a part of your body that is injured.
Bandage is also a verb: we put a - on it /1 wrapped
the - round his arm / he had a - on his hand / the-
is too tight / we -d his arm
break out if something breaks out, it starts. The noun
is outbreak: spots were breaking out all round his
mouth / sweat was breaking out on hisface / when
did thefire break out? / war broke out in July / the
outbreak of war
breath your breath is the air that goes in and out of
your body through your nose and mouth. Breathe
is the verb: he was a bit short of - / people who
~ u f f e r from bad - (with an unpleasant smell) / his
- smelled ofalcohol/take a deep - and start again
/ she was -ing in short shallow -s / howlong can
you holdyour - for (stop breathing)?
bruise a bruise is a dark mark on your skin where
you have hit it. Bruise is also a verb: hejust had a
few cuts and -s / a nasty - on herface / she only
suffered afew minor -s / a dark - on one cheek /
my leg was badly bruised / 1- quite easily
bug a bug is a minor illness that spreads from person
to person: there's a - going round / 1hope 1don't
catch the - / he's got a - / she's gone down with a -
(is ill with one) / aflu - / a stomach - / it's a nasty-
chronic if an illness is chronic, it is serious and lasts
for a long time without getting better. The adverb
is chronically: asthma can be a - condition / - back
pain / -ally ill patients
crutches crutches are two long sticks that fit under
your arms and help you to walk when you have
hurt your leg: he's on - because he's broken his leg /
he's still walking with - / 1don't need to use - now
eczema eczema is a medical condition that makes
your skin red and itchy: a lot ofyoung children get-
/ people who sufferfrom - / aflare up ofmy -
(a time when it suddenly gets worse) / treatments
fumes fumes are smoke or gas with an unpleasant
smell: asthma is made worse by smoke and - /
chemicals which give offna-sty - / petrol- / a
cloud of toxic - / he was overcome by - (made
unconscious by them)
go round if something such as an illness goes round,
it spreads between people: there's a bug going
round / there are all sorts ofrumours going around
/ there's a story going round the school
inhaler an inhaler is a device that you use for
breathing medicine into your body. To inhale
means to breathe in: she takes her - with her
everywhere / an -for asthma / 1had to use my - /
1inhaled deeply / he had inhaled some ofthefumes
insomnia insomnia is a medical condition in which
you are unable to sleep. Someone who has
insomnia is an insomniac: a lot ofpeople suffer
from - / the drug can cause - / treatmentsfor - /
I've been an -cforyears
overnight overnight means during the night or all
through the night: they kept him in hospital- / we
decided to travel- / areyou going to stay -? / don't
leave the TVon - / the -ferry
pass out to pass out means to become unconscious:
shejust passed out / afew people passed outfrom
the heat / 1nearly passed out
pick up to pick something up means to get it: 1think
1must have picked up abug / 1picked up an infection /
1picked up afew things at the supermarket (bought
them) / 1picked up afew useful tips (learned them)
/ he picked up third prize (won it)
postpone to postpone something means to delay-it
until a later time or day. The noun is postponement:
we'll have to - the trip / the match has been -d /
the meeting's been -d until next Thursday / they've
announced the -ment ofall today's matches
regards regards are greetings that you send to
someone: send her my - / give my - toyourfamily
/ Kind -, Alice (at the end ofa letter)
rough if you feel rough,you feel slightly ill: I'mfeeling
a bit - / he looks really - today
spell a spell is a short period of time: she had a dizzy
- / there should be some sunny -s later / some dry
-s (without rain) / a cold - / a hot - / he had a brief
- in the army
stitches if you have stitches, a doctor uses thread to
join parts of your skin together after they have
been injured: 1think it might need - / she had
to have 15 - / who put the - in? / when areyou
having the - out? (when is the doctor going to
remove them) / dissolvable -
swell up if part of your body swells up, it becomes
bigger. The adjective is swollen. The noun is
swelling: his lips started -ing up / my ankle had
swollen up / herface was a bit swollen / a large
swelling on his neck
PAGES 84-85
contagious if something such as an illness is
contagious, it spreads from person to person: is
it -? / you're -for about three days (other people
can catch the illnessfrom you) / fear is - / his good
humour was -
deposit to deposit money means to put it in a
bank. To deposit something also means to put it
somewhere. Deposit is also a noun: he -ed money
in my bank account / she -ed the bags by thefront
door / make a deposit of200 intoyour account /
a cash deposit
grant to grant something means to allow someone
to have it: 1will- you three wishes / they didn't -
permissionfor the bUilding / theyfinally -ed my
request / the court has -ed him leave to appeal
irritable if you are irritable,you are likely to get
annoyed quite easily. The adverb is irritably. The
noun is irritability: it's making me really - / she's
a bit - this morning / feeling incredibly - / she
answered irritably / tiredness can cause irritability
organ an organ is one of the parts of your body that
does a particular job, for example your stomach
or your heart: the various muscles and -s in the
body / your internal-s / the digestive -s / the sex
-s / willing to donateyour -s (allow them to be
used afteryour death) / an - donor (someone who
allows their organs to be used) / an - transplant
outward outward means easy for other people to
see: the - signs ofcheerfulness / there were no
- signs that he was ill / his - appearance hadn't
poke to poke something means to push it with your
finger or a stick. Poke is also a noun: it hurts every
time 1- myself / he -d my arm / I-d the rabbit, but
it didn't move / mindyou don't - someone in the
eye with that / can you give thefire a -?
refer to refer someone to a person or organisation
means to send them there for help: the doctor
-red me to a consultant / 1was -red to an asthma
specialist / the case has been -red to the appeal
court / the matter's been -red to our customer
services department
relieve to relieve something means to make it better.
The noun is relief: agood way to - stress / this
should help - the pain / ways to - the pressure at
work / effective methods of pain relief
snore to snore means to breathe noisily while you
are asleep: 1always - when I'm asleep / 1could hear
him snoring
stick to stick something somewhere means to put
it there: he asked me to - out my tongue (put it
outside my mouth) / 1stuck my head out ofthe
window / - it in the ovenfor afew minutes / 1stuck
my keys in my bag
stroke a stroke is a serious medical condition in which
blood cannot get to your brain. When someone
has had a stroke, often they cannot speak very well
and cannot move some parts of their body:you're
at risk ofhaVing a - / he suffered a massive - (a very
serious one) / she had a minor - last year / - victims
surgery surgery is a medical operation to repair a part
of your body. The adjective is surgical: it happened
while 1was undergoing - / have - on my arm / you
may needfurther - / she had to have emergency-
/ heart - / brain - / keyhole - (in which only asmall
opening is made through your skin) / cosmetic -
(to improveyour appearance) a surgical procedure
to remove the lump / pioneering newsurgical
terminal if an illness is terminql, it cannot be cured
and you will die from it: I'm afraid it's - / he's got
- cancer
therapist a therapist is someone who helps with a
physical or mental problem by giving treatment or
talking about problems. The treatment they give is
therapy: you should go to see a - / aspeech - / he's
had some therapy / cancer therapy / alternative
transplant an organ transplant is an operation in
which a new organ is put into someone's body.
Transplant is also a verb: to donate a kidneyfor - /
he needs a heart - / a - operation / the new heart
is ready to be -ed
PAGES 86-87
acknowledge to acknowledge something means to
accept that it is true. The noun is acknowledgement:
she -s that there are some opportunistic practitioners
/ 1do - the needfor some changes / she refused to
- her gUilt / Ifully- that 1made mistakes / we were
forced to - the truth / 1want an -ment that mistakes
were made
array an array of things is a large number of them:
we have a wide - of modern hospitals / they've
got a huge - ofdifferent wines / a wonderful- of
vegetables / we werefaced with a beWildering - of
electronic devices
beneficiary a beneficiary is someone who benefits
from something: the main beneficiaries ofthe
industry / the main - ofthe deal/I was the sole
- ofher will (the only person who received money
from her will after she died)
boast to boast something good means to have it.
To boast also means to tell other people about
things you have or things you can do, in a way
that is too proud. Boast is also a noun: we - some
ofthe best doctors in the world / the area -s some
wonderful beaches / Ihope he's not going to - about
his exam results / one ofhis most annoying -s
cutting edge if something is cutting edge, it uses
the most modern technology: using - medical
techniques / - technology / a - operation
detract to detract from something means to make it
seem less good or less important: this should not -
from the reality ofthe change that is happening /
we mustn't let this -from our other achievements
ensure to ensure that something happens means to
make certain that it happens:you should - that
you do research beforeyou go abroad / you must-
that all the clips are done up securely / precautions
to - the safety ofall passengers
gamble to gamble means to do something that
involves risk. It also means to risk money in an
attempt to win more money. A gamble is a risk
that you take. Gambling is risking money in an
attempt to win more money: ifyou go abroadfor
treatment you are gambling withyour health / he's
gambling that the product will be popular / I've
never been tempted to - on horse races / deciding
to go ahead with the event was a - / it was a big
..:. / he took a - and it paid off (was successful) /
people who disapprove ofgambling
impoverished if someone is impoverished, they are
extremely poor: an - third world country / an -
student / an - industrial area
negligence negligence is not being careful enough,
with the result that something is damaged or
someone is injured. The adjective is negligent: a
lawyer specialising in medical- cases / he was guilty
ofprofessional- / charged with gross - (very serious
negligence) / they're threatening to sue himfor - / the
hospital wasfound to be negligent / grossly negligent
opt to opt to do something means to choose to do it:
more people are -ing to go abroadfor treatment / I
-edfor treatment at my local hospital
outsource to outsource work means to arrange for
someone outside your company or organisation
to do it. The noun is outsourcing: hospitals - their
record keeping / it's much cheaper to - the work /
the benefits ofoutsourcing
overseas overseas means in or to a different country:
travelling -for medical treatment / he works - a lot
/ some ofthe difficulties ofliving - / - investments
pioneering if something is pioneering, it is being
done for the first time, using new techniques. The
verb is pioneer: a - newsurgical technique / a -
experiment / some - research / the technique was
pioneered by an American surgeon
practitioner a practitioner is someone who works
as a doctor or a lawyer. To practise medicine or
law means to work as a doctor or lawyer: there
are some opportunistic -s / a medical- / a - of
hypnotherapy / legal-s / the qualfficationsyou
need to practise medicine / he's not qualffied to
practise law in this country
rank how someone ranks is how good or bad they are
compared with other people. The noun is ranking:
he -s among the top six surgeons in the world /
a tennis player who -s ninth in the world / it -s
as one ofthe best schools in the country / she still
stands as number one in the world -ings
recuperation recuperation is the process of becoming
healthy and strong again after an illness. The verb is
recuperate: aholiday resortfor - afteryour operation
/ I need a period of- / she's still recuperatingfrom
her illness / recuperatingfrom heart surgery
regulatory a regulatory organisation controls an
activity using rules. The verb is regulate: the-
environment is not very rigorous / the - authority
/ agovernment - agency / the government body
that regulates the banking industry / the use of
these drugs is strictly regulated
replacement a replacement is something that takes
the place of another thing. The verb is replace: a
hip - (an artfficial hip used to replace someone's
real hip) / she's had two knee -s / some ofthe
furniture requires - / the sales manager's leaving,
so we'll have tofind a-for him / a - TV / she's had
both hips replaced / who's going to replace her
when she leaves?
rigorous if something is rigorous, it is careful and
thorough. The adverb is rigorously: the regulatory
environment is not very - / - safety checks / all
products have to meet our - quality standards / it's
all -Iy checked
scam a scam is a dishonest scheme for making
money. Scam is also a verb: be careful to avoid -s
/ a money-making - / a credit-card - / Irealised I'd
been -med (tricked using a scam)
stand you can say that you stand to do something if
that thing is likely to happen to you: alot ofcountries
- to benefit / he -s to lose a lot ofmoney / we - to
gain a lotfrom the merger /1- to win 10,000
PAGES 92-93
bother if you don't bother to do something, you don't
do it because it seems too much effort: he decided
not to - graduating / Ididn't even - to open it / a
lot ofpeople didn't - voting / you don't need to-
bribe a bribe is money or a present that you offer to
someone so that they will do something for you.
Bribe is also a verb. The crime of offering bribes is
bribery: he'd been taking -sfor years / a200 - /
he admitted paying -s to tax officials / he accepted
over 5000 in -s / trying to - a police officer / he
was charged with -ry
call it aday to call it a day means to stop doing
something: we decided to - / it's getting dark-Iet's-
commute to commute means to travel regularly to
and from a place where you work. Commute is also
a noun. Someone who does this is a commuter:
they were commuting between London and
Cambridge / Ilive in Cambridge and - to London /
fed up with commuting every day / the daily - to
work / a train full of -rs
convict to convict someone means to decide in a
court that they are gUilty of a crime. The noun is
conviction: he was -ed ofcorruption / there wasn't
enough evidencefor thejury to - him / if -ed, she
faces up to ten years in jail/wrongly -ed of murder
/ he's got three previous convictionsfor burglary /
not enough evidence to get a conviction
counsellor a counsellor is someone whose job is to
talk to people who have problems and give them
help and advice: she retrained as a - / a marriage
gUidance - / a debt - / agrief - / she's seeing a - /
you should talk to a -
falling-out a falling-out is a disagreement. The verb is
fall out: she had a - with herfather / we had a bit
ofa - / a serious - / haveyoufallen out with him? /
we'vefallen out / theyfell out over the business
flick through to flick through a book or magazine
means to turn the pages qUickly, looking at some
of the pages but not reading everything: Iwas just
flicking through it / flicking through magazines
at the hairdresser's / IqUicklyflicked through the
glance to glance at something means to look at it
qUickly. Glance is also a noun: Iwas just glancing
at it / I-d at my watch / I-d over my shoulder / we
exchanged -s (looked at each other) / Ihad a qUick
- at the letter / he shot an angry - at me (looked at
me angrily)
kick out to kick someone out of a place means to tell
them to leave: he got kicked out ofschool/they
kicked us out at just after midnight / the landlord's
trying to kick us out
knock out to knock someone out of a competition
means to make them leave the competition by
defeating them: they were knocked out ofthe cup
/ he was knocked out in the quarter-finals / they
knocked us out last year
overreact to overreact means to be more annoyed or
upset about something than is really necessary. The
noun is overreaction: someone insulted him and he
-ed / Ithinkyou're -ing / it was a complete -ion
patch a patch can be a period of time: they'd been
through a rough - / we've hit a bad - / our
marriage went through a rocky - (a very difficult
period) / all businesses have difficult -es
rough if something is rough, it is difficult, and there
are a lot of problems: they'd been through a - patch
/ I'm having a bit ofa - time at work / had a - day /
we had a - night last night (With not much sleep)
run a good or bad run is a period of time when things
go well or badly for you: his team had been on a
terrible - / we've had a bad - of results recently /
a - ofbad luck / a ten-match unbeaten - / they've
been on a winning -
upbringingyour upbringing is the way your parents
looked after you and taught you to behave: she
had quite an interesting - / a very strict - / a
sheltered - (With not much experience ofthe world)
/ Ihad a typical middle-class-
PAGES 94-95
boundary a boundary is a limit that tells you which
activities or types of behaviour are acceptable
and which are not: it's agood idea to set children
boundaries / give them strict boundaries / Iknew
I'd overstepped the - / I've always kept within the
boundaries / teenagers like to cross the boundaries
compromise to compromise means to end an
argument by accepting that you cannot have
everything that you want. Compromise is also a
noun: there may be some middle ground whereyou
can - / she refused to - / can we - on the price?
/ Ihad to make some -s / it seemed a sensible - /
maybe we can work out a - / wefinally reached a-
defensive if someone is defensive, they are angry
because they think that someone is criticising
them: don't be so - / saying (never'will make people
-/ he got a bit - / she was really - about it
disruptive if something is disruptive, it causes
difficulties and prevents things from happening
normally. The verb is disrupt. The noun is
disruption: arguments can be - at work / a -
student / it was very - / working shifts can be
extremely - tofamily life / train services have been
disrupted by the bad weather / pupils who disrupt
the class / there's been considerable disruption
due to the storms / it caused a lot ofdisruption /
disruptions to train services
face if you lose face,you lose people's respect and
seem weak or foolish. If you save face, you keep
people's respect: don't continue arguingjustfor
the sake of not losing - / trying not to lose - / an
attempt to save-
f1ashpoint a flash point is a situation in which there
might be serious problems such as arguments or
violence: know the -s / one possible - is when the
demonstrators reach the Houses of Parliament / the
situation had reached a -
gesture a gesture is a movement of your body that
communicates a meaning. Gesture is also a verb:
-s andfacial expressions can provide warning
signs / he made a rude - / she waved her arms in
a dramatic - / a - ofimpatience / she -d to us,
inviting us in / he -d towards thefield
get your own way if you get your own way, you get
what you want: she cries ifshe doesn't get her own
way / Ialways get my own way in the end
grace grace is kind and polite behaviour: accept the
offer with good - / they took their defeat with bad
- / at least she had the - to admit she was wrong
ground the ground you cover in a discussion is the
subjects and ideas you discuss: don't go over old
- / there may be some middle - whereyou can
compromise / we covered quite alot of - / we
seemed to go over the same -lots of times
irrational if something is irrational, it is not sensible
and is done without any good reason. The adverb
is irrationally: an - shouting match / -fears / his
behaviour seemed a bit - / Iknow I'm being - / he
was behaving -Iy
laid-back if someone is laid-back, they are very calm
and relaxed: she's very - / I'm quite - about it / a -
approach to parenting
lighten up to lighten up means to become more relaxed
and less worried: Ithinkyou should - up / Hey, - up!
move on to move on means to go to the next place,
start doing the next thing, or start discussing the
next subject: let's - / shall we - on to the next
question? / we'll go to Paris, then - to Lyon / Ifelt it
was timefor me to - / things have moved on since
the 1970s (changed and developed)
put off to put something off means to delay it until a
later time: try to - sensitive topics until later in the
day / Icouldn't put the decision off any longer / I
was trying to - telling him
resort to resort to something means to do it because
other things have not been successful. Resort is
also a noun: don't - to personal abuse / we may
have to - to taking legal action / Iwould never - to
violence / we'd only do this as a last - (if everything
else hasfailed)
sake for the sake of something means for that purpose.
For the sake of a person means for that person's
benefit: don't continue arguingjustfor the - ofnot
losingface / do itfor the - ofyourheaIth / laws that
are necessaryfor the - ofthe whole community / Ionly
did itforyour - / let's not argue,for the children's-
set out to set out to do something means to intend
to do it or try to do it. The past tense and past
participle are also set out: he may be setting out
to blockyour ideas / I'm setting out to win this
competition / Inever - to hurt you
slob a slob is someone who is extremely lazy and
untidy. Slob is also a verb: stop being such a -I /
he's a real- / teenagers whojust - around all day /
-bing around the house in myoIdjeans
steer to steer through a situation means to control or
influence the way things happen, so that you avoid
bad things and get the results that you want: try
to - through these confrontations / you don't need
to - clear ofthem altogether (avoid them) / try to-
children towarJs making the right choices / Itried
to - the conversation awayfrom the trip / he tried
to - the party in the right direction
tantrum a tantrum is when a young child behaves in
a very angry and unreasonable way: has a - while
her parents are shopping / he used to have terrible
-s / howto deal with -s
toddler a toddler is a young child who is learning to
walk: conflicts with -s / a support groupfor parents
underlying underlying reasons or problems exist, but
are not very obvious and are not stated directly.
The verb is underlie: what - message is he giving?
/ the - reasonsfor the violence / the - causes of
crime / an - health problem / the principle that
underlies all our decisions
vain if someone is vain, they are very proud and think
that they are very attractive or special in some
way. The noun is vanity: he's very - / she's really-
about her looks / products designed to appeal to
female vanity
PAC; ES 96-97
ashes someone's ashes are what remains when their
body has been cremated after their death. Ash is
what remains after something has burned: his -
were scattered at sea / the - ofthefire / cigarette ash
blossom blossom is the flowers on a tree. One
blossom is one single flower: thefive -s / fruit trees
covered in - / the cherry trees are in - / beautiful
pink - / the apple - is out (theflowers are open)
bury to bury someone means to put their body in the
ground after they die. The noun is burial: doyou
want to be buried or cremated? / she's buried in
the local cemetery / we buried him last week / the
burial will take place next Tuesday
cemetery a cemetery is a place where the bodies of
dead people are buried: she's buried in a small- /
visit the - where he's buried / a small private-
coffin a coffin is a box in which the body of a dead
person is buried or cremated: the - is carried into
the church / she was carried in a white - / the-
was lowered into the ground
condolences condolences are things you say to
someone to show sympathy when a person has
died: please send my - / give my - toyourfamily /
I'd like to express my sincere - / please accept my-
cremate to cremate someone means to burn their
body after they have died. The noun is cremation:
do you want to be buried or -d? / there will be a
short service before the cremation
dawn dawn is the beginning of the day, when it
starts to get light. Dawn is also a verb: the party
continues until- / we left at - / - was breaking as
we got up / we got up at the crack of - (just as it
was beginning) / the day was just dawning / the
next morning -ed bright and sunny
dignitary a dignitary is an important official: speeches
by the mayor and other dignitaries / some local
dignitaries / agroup of visiting dignitaries
draining if something is draining, it makes you feel
extremely tired. The verb is drain. There is also an
adjective, drained: the experience was emotionally - /
a wedding can befinancially - / the experience had
drained me / Ifelt physically and emotionally drained
elaborate if something is elaborate, it is very
complicated. The adverb is elaborately: weddings
are - affairs / an - pattern / an - excuse / it all
seemed quite - / some -Iy carved wooden pillars
feasting feasting is eating and drinking a lot to
celebrate a special occasion. The verb is feast. The
celebration is a feast: the parties and - continue
/ three days of - / wefeasted onfine food / a
magnificentfeast / they hold a specialfeast to
grave someone's grave is the place where their body
is buried: we visit her - every weekend / police have
found a body in a shallow - / afreshly-dug - /
a mass - (With a large number ofbodies)
leave leave is a period of time when you do not have
to go to work: maternity - (for new mothers) /
paternity - (for newfathers) / paid - / unpaid - /
three weeks' - / we get six weeks' annual- /
I'm haVing afew days'leave next week
lengthy if something is lengthy, it is very long,
and perhaps seems too long: - speeches / a -
discussion / - negotiations / afairly - report / some
- delays / a - period ofeconomic recession
maternity maternity means designed to help women
who are pregnant or have just had a baby. Paternity
means designed to help men who have just become
fathers: we rushed to the - ward / she took ayear of
- leave / - pay / - clothes / paternity leave
mourner a mourner is someone who goes to a
funeral. To mourn means to feel very sad because
someone has died: there were 3,000 -s at the
funeral/children who are mourning theirfather /
he's mourningfor his wife / mourning the loss ofa
closefriend / thefamily is still in mourning (feeling
sad because someone has died)
scan a scan is a medical test which uses special
eqUipment to make a picture of the inside of
someone's body. Scan is also a verb. The machine
that is used is a scanner: she had a - yesterday /
an ultrasound - / a brain - / the problem showed
up in a routine - / they - you in your 20th week of
pregnancy / machines that - your luggage / a very
sophisticated -ner
scatter to scatter something means to throw it so
that it spreads over a large area: his ashes were
-ed at sea / - grass seed on the ground / there were
clothes -ed all over thefloor
straightforward if something is straightforward, it
is simple, with no problems or difficulties: it was
a - birth / afairly - decorating job / it should be
relatively - to set everything up
toast a toast is an occasion when people drink
together to celebrate something or to wish people
luck. Toast is also a verb: I'd like to propose a - to the
bride and groom / we drank a - to the team / we all
-ed the happy couple
PAGES 98-99
authorised if you are authorised to do something,
you have the official right or power to do it. You
can also say that something is authorised if
someone has given permission for it to happen.
The verb is authorise. The noun is authorisation:
I'm not - to make that decision / the payment
hasn't been - / he - me to sign the cheque / no
leave can be taken without authorisation
cash flow cash flow is the rate at which a person or
business earns money and spends it: I've got -
problems / measures to improve - / an increase in -
commission commission is an extra amount of
money that you pay to "an organisation when you
use a service that it proVides: there's 2% - on all
transactions / they charge 5% - / had to pay25 in - /
afixed -
credit rating a credit rating is financial information
about someone that banks and other organisations
use when they are deciding whether to lend
money to the person: have a bad - / agood - /
howto checkyour - / making late payments can
damage your-
exceed to exceed a number or amount means to be
higher than it: - your overdraft limit / charged with
-ing the speed limit / profits -ed 20 million
laundering money laundering is putting money from
crime into legal business accounts in order to hide
the fact that is has been earned illegally. The verb
is launder: accused ofmoney - / different ways of
- the proceeds ofcrime / they used the business to
launder the drugs money
mix-up a miX-Up is a mistake which causes confusion.
The verb is mix up: I'm afraid there's been a - / our
bags got lost due to a - at the airport / a - over
dates / a - between different departments / the
two parcels got mixed up
proof proof is evidence that shows that something
is true or real. The verb is prove: we need - of
your address / - ofidentity / there was no real
- ofhis involvement / the documents provided
prove that he knewabout the deal/it was
impossible to prove that he was the murderer /
determined to prove her innocence / in the end I
was proved right
record a record is information about something that
is written down and kept. Record is also a verb:
according to our -s,your account is overdrawn / the
company'sfinancial-s / his medical-s / keep a -
ofeverythingyou spend / I'll have to check my-s
/ we've got detailed -s going back 20years / I-ed
the day and time ofthe accident
strengthen to strengthen something means to make
it stronger: - the currency / measures to - the
economy / - the bridge / exercises to - his muscles /
the defeat only served to - my resolve
transaction a transaction is a business deal in
which someone buys or sells something, or
uses a service: there's 2% commission on all-s
/ afinancial- / business -s / a cash - (in which
someone pays using cash)
trial a trial is a process of testing something to find
out whether it works well. Trial is also a verb:
a three-month - period / the newdrug is still
undergoing -s / we're using it on a - basis / they're
haVing a - separation (being apartfor a while, to
find out if they want to get divorced) / the new
treatment will be trialled next year
withdrawto withdraw money from a bank means
to take it out. The noun is withdrawal: Ineed to
- some moneyfrom my account / Iwithdrew50
cash / you're charged every timeyou make a -al at
the cash machine / make a -al of100
write off to write off a debt means to accept that
a person does not have to pay it back: - a debt /
callingfor western governments to - third world
debts / the bank has written off millions ofdollars
in unpaid mortgages
PAGES 100-101
branch a branch is a part of a tree that grows out
from the trunk: a bird can only sit on one - / the
topmost - ofthe tree (the highest one) / we cut off
some ofthe overhanging -es / adead - had blown
offthe tree
chuckle to chuckle means to laugh quietly. Chuckle is
also a noun: the old man -d / she -d softly / he was
still chuckling about it / I-d to myself / we had a
little - about it
cling to cling to something means to hold it tightly.
The past tense and past participle are clung: he
was -ing on to the enormous rope / Iclung to the
edge ofmy seat / he clung on to my hand / Iclung
tightly to the papers / we clung together
courtyard a courtyard is a square area that is
surrounded by bUildings: they left the bundle of
wood in the - / the main - ofthe castle/ a door
opening out on to a central-
crammed if something is crammed with things, it is
full of them. The verb is cram: the bag was - with
precious things / the place was - with tourists /
bags -full offood / Icrammed all the clothes into
my suitcase
descend to descend means to go or come down. The
noun is descent: an enormous rope -edfrom the
sky / the plane began to - / I-ed the stairs / a path
which -s steeply into the valley below/ their descent
ofthe mountain / the plane began its descent
dignity dignity is the ability to behave in a calm
and controlled way even when you are in a very
difficult situation. The adjective is dignified: wants
to preserve his - / they behaved with great - / she
faced her illness with enormous - / Imanaged to
maintain my - / an illness that robs you ofyour
- / Imaintained adignified silence / managed to
remain dignified
dissuade to dissuade someone means to persuade
them not to do something. The noun is dissuasion:
she couldn't - her husband / Itried to - himfrom
leaving / a campaign to - young peoplefrom binge
drinking / using dissuasion rather than outright
flowto flow means to move along smoothly and
continuously. Flow is also a noun: the water that
-s in the river / where the River Thames -s into the
sea / the traffic was -ing quite well / investment
continued to - into the country / a steadyflow of
refugees into the area / a constant - ofgoods into
the country
frugal if you are frugal, you spend very little money
and only buy things that are really necessary. The
adverb is frugally. The noun is frugality: lead a -
life / their - existence / we need to be a bit more - /
we spent our money -Iy / the benefits of -ity
glisten to glisten means to shine brightly. The
adjective is glistening: the golden walls were -ing
in the sunlight / hisface was -ing with sweat / the
-ing dome ofthe mosque
go on if something goes on, it happens: something
strange was going on / Iwonder what's going on /
there's always plenty going on in the town / do you
think anything went on between them?
inch an inch is a measurement of length, equal to
about 2.54 centimetres. To inch forward means
to move forward very slowly: half an - ofrain / a
narrowledge only about eight -es wide / a six--
ruler / we were only -es awayfrom hitting the lorry
/ every - ofthe wall was covered in posters and
postcards / the queue -edforward
lump a lump is a piece of something: a - ofsilver
rolled out / a - ofcoal / a solid - ofconcrete / a big
- ofcheese / a huge - ofclay / go to the doctor if
youfind a - (a hard part underyour skin, caused by
an illness)
. mansion a mansion is a very big house: why don't we
build a big -? / a luxurious country - / they live in
an old Victorian-
march a march is a walk in which people walk
together at the same speed, like soldiers. March is
also a verb: a long - startsfrom the veryfirst step /
we set offon a long - / a protest - / we -edfor ten
hours aday / we -ed south / protesters -ed to the
Houses of Parliament
peer to peer means to look very carefully: -ing out, he
sawan old man/ -ing through the window / she
was -ing intently at the prices
penniless if you are penniless, you are extremely poor:
we're - / he died - / the holiday's left me -
reluctantly ifyou do something reluctantly, you do
it even though you do not really want to. The
adjective is reluctant. The noun is reluctance: the
woodcutter - agreed / he came with us, rather - /
Iwas a bit reluctant to talk about it / she seemed
reluctant to take thejob / Ifelt reluctant to askfor
more money / Icouldn't understand his reluctance
to go on the trip
rope a rope is a long piece of very thick materiaI,
made by twisting a lot of threads together. You use
it for tying or pulling things. Rope is also a verb:
an enormous - descendedfrom the sky / tied them
together with - / fixed a - to the car and towed it
away / the cases were -d to the roof ofthe bus
stable a stable is a building where horses are kept.
Stable is also a verb: an ambitious horse will never
return to its old - / leave the horses in the - / her
pony's -d (kept in a stable) at a nearbyfarm
stern if someone's stern, they are very serious and
slightly angry. The adverb is sternly. The noun is
sternness: the old man'sface became - / she gave
me a - look / speaking in a - voice / a - warning /
he looked at me -Iy / there was a -ness in his voice
that Ihadn't heard before
string a string on a musical instrument is a long
thread of wire or nylon which you use to make
sounds. You can call an instrument with strings a
stringed instrument: one - makes no music / the
-s on my violin / buy some newguitar-s
thatched cottage a thatched cottage is a small house
with a roof made of straw or reeds. A roof made
of this material is a thatch: she proposed bUilding
a - / live in a - / a beautiful little - / the thatch
usher to usher someone somewhere means to lead
them there politely. A person who does this as
ajob is an usher: he was -ed into a magnificent
palace / she -ed me to my seat / the waiter -ed us
to our table / he -ed us into the kitchen / one of the
-s took us to our table
PACiES 102-103
bet to bet means to risk money on the result of
something. You can also say that you bet something
is true when you feel fairly certain that it is true.
Bet is also a noun: he - 50 on a horse / tempted to
- on the result of the election / 1- it was a nice to
have a break / I've got a - on the result ofthefinal
/ the US are agood - to win (very likely to win) /
my - is that they'll offer him thejob (J feel certain
about this)
gamble to gamble means to risk money in the hope
o(winning more money. To gamble also means
to do something that has risks and will only be
successful if certain things happen. Gamble is also
a noun. Someone who risks money regularly is a
gambler: Idon't - at casinos / people are gambling
with their lives / we w e r ~ gambling that he'd be
back in time / Iknew it was a bit ofa - / calling an
early election was a huge political- / his - paid off
(was successful) / asupport groupfor compulsive
jackpot the jackpot is a very large amount of money
that someone wins in a game or lottery. You can
say that someone has hit the jackpot when they
are suddenly very lucky or successful: the - is 30
million euros / hoping that I'd win the - / he hit the
- when he got that job / Iseem to have hit the-I
lottery a lottery is a game in which people buy
tickets with numbers on, and if their numbers are
chosen, they win money. You can also say that a
situation is a lottery if it depends completely on
chance or luck: Iwon 10 on the - / Ido the - every
week / the national- / a - ticket / finding a decent
restaurant is a bit ofa - / healthcare provision is a -
odds the odds are the numbers that show how
much moneyyou will win if a bet wins. The odds
of something happening are how likely it is to
happen: he's thefavourite to win, at - of2 to 1 / the
bookmakers are offering - of3 to 1 on aConservative
victory / what are the - offinding the wreckage? /
the - are in ourfavour (we are likely to be successful)
/ the - are against us / she recovered against all the -
stake a stake is an amount of money that you risk
when you make a bet. The stakes are things you
risk losing if something fails. You can say that
something is at stake if you risk losing it: we play
with very small-s / a10 - / the company is taking
a risk, and the -s are high (they risk losing a lot) /
the chairman has raised the -s by threatening to
resign / there's a lot at - in this election
anti-social someone who is antisocial does not enjoy
meeting other people or taking part in social
events. Anti-social behaviour shows that you
are not thinking about the feelings or needs of
other people: Idon't think there's anything - in
that / don't be so -I / it's a bit - not to go / graffiti,
vandalism and other types of- behaviour
catch a catch is a difficulty or problem that is not very
obvious: there's just one - / it sounds brilliant - so
what's the -?/ there must be a -
compulsive if something is compulsive,you cannot
stop yourself from doing it. The adverb is
compulsively. The noun is compulsion: - gambling
is not something we should approve of / he's a
-liar / her - need to be in control/he gambles
compulsively / her compulsion to overeat / Ifelt a
compulsion to tell the truth
counter argument a counter argument is a set of
reasons and ideas that you use to oppose another
set of reasons and ideas that someone has put
forward: what -s do you think she will give?! I
couldn't think ofagood -
downplay to downplay something means to make
it seem less bad or serious than it really is: the
marketing oflotteries -s the odds against winning /
trying to - the problem
mortgage a mortgage is money that you borrow
from a bank in order to buy a house. To mortgage
a house means to borrow money from a bank
and promise to give your house to the bank if you
cannot pay the money back: there was no money
left to pay the - / a200,000 - / young couples
with big -s / we took out a -last year / when we
eventually pay offthe - / the monthly - payments /
they -d their house tofinance the business
paycheck a paycheck (American) or pay cheque
(British) is a cheque that an employer gives to an
employee for work they have done: Isometimes
gambled away my whole - / my weekly - / Igot a
nice big pay cheque at the end of the month
remote a remote chance or possibility is one that is
very unlikely to happen. The adverb is remotely:
you only havea very - chance of winning / I
suppose it's a - possibility / it doesn't sound even
remotely likely
schooling your schooling is your education. The verb
is school: debating should be part ofeveryone's - /
ten years ofcompulsory - / he had noformal- / I
was schooled in Manchester / well schooled in the
art ofconversation
PAGES 104-105
blend to blend things means to mix them together.
Ablend is a mixture of different things: - the
mixture until it's smooth / - the butter and sugar
together / they can - the coloursfor you / the
different instruments - together really well / a
delicious - offlavours / the perfect - ofsun, sea
and sand
crush to crush something means to press it very hard
so that it becomes flat or breaks into small pieces:
- the almonds / add some -ed garlic / his leg was
-ed / he was -ed to death / your car will be taken
flesh flesh is the part of an animal that you can eat
as meat. The flesh of a fruit is the soft part that
you can eat. A person's flesh is their skin: the-
should come awayfrom the bones / a small rabbit
with not much - on it / cut the avocado in half and
scoop out the - / the - on her cheek was soft and
smooth / only a - wound (only affecting the skin)
lid a lid is a cover for a container: put a - on the pan
/ keep the - on while the potatoes are cooking / I
lifted the - / a tight-fitting - / a saucepan - / the
dustbin -
peel to peel fruit or vegetables means to take the
skin off. The peel of a fruit or vegetable is its skin.
The peelings of a vegetable are the bits of peel
that you have cut off: - the potatoes / to - an
orange / they're difficult to - / a piece oforange - /
some potato -ings
pinch a pinch of something is a small amount of it
that you can hold between your thumb and one
finger: add a - ofsalt / a - ofchopped parsley
roughly roughly means approximately, but not
exactly. The adjective is rough: use - a cupful/you
need - 50 grams of rice per person / he's - the same
age as me / that's only a rough estimate
slice to slice something means to cut it into thin
pieces. Slice is also a noun: - the courgettes / thinly
-d apple / a loaf of-d bread / a thick - ofbread / a
few thin -s oftomato / Icut a - ofcheese
soak to soak something means to leave it in water or
other liquid for a period of time: - the chickpeas
overnight / leave them to -for afew hours / -
them in cold waterfor two hours / Icould spend
hours -ing in the bath / Igot absolutely -ed (very
wetfrom the rain)
sprinkle to sprinkle something means to shake
a small amount of it over something else. A
sprinkling is a small amount of something that
you sprinkle: - some almonds on top ofthe cake /-
the cake with sugar / asprinkling ofchopped parsley
squeeze to squeeze something means to press it
firmly. Squeeze is also a noun: - some lemonjuice
over the salad / freshly -ed orangejuice / - some
toothpaste out ofthe tube / he -d my handgently /
Imanaged to - past (get through a very small space)
/ give her hand a - / a - oflemonjuice / we all got
in, but it was a bit ofa - (there wasn't much room)
steam steam is the hot wet substance that rises from
water when it boils. To steam food means to cook
it in steam: - thefish / -ed vegetables / a pot of
-ing soup / the windows were all -ed up (covered in
steam) / - coming out ofthe kettle
stock stock is a liquid made by boiling meat or bones,
which you use in cooking: soup made with chicken
- / beef - / halfa litre offish - / a - cube
texture the texture of something is what it feels like
when you touch it or eat it: it's got a woody - / a
lovely smooth creamy - / thick cloth with a rough-
/ skin with a lovely soft -
PAGES 106-107
authenticity if something has authenticity, it is real
and not false. The adjective is authentic: Italians
worry aboutfood - more than British people /
question the - ofthe document / have doubts
about its - / a certificate of - / authentic Greek
food / I'm not sure the letters are authentic
distinguish to distinguish between things means
to recognise the differences between them. A
distinction is a difference between things: she
wasn't good at -ing between different kinds of
fish / can you - a real masterpiecefrom afake? /
there isn't much distinction between them / a clear
distinction between art and entertainment / draw
a distinction between a cold and theflu
establish to establish something means to start it
or state officially thatit exists: the law -es the
official ingredients ofpizza / to - a newsystemfor
customer complaints / plans to - a newuniversity
/ the company was -ed in 1967 / we need to - the
facts (find out thefacts)
explosion an explosion of something is a sudden
very big increase in it. The verb is explode: an -
ofinterest in Japanesefood / an - ofactivity / a
population - / an - in the number ofstudents / an
- in oil prices / the populated exploded
fake if something is fake, it is not real, but is made
to look like something else. Fake is also a noun
and a verb: they use - olive oil / a - passport / -
documents / a-fur coat / a - smile / the painting
was a - / someone had -d my signature
flare up to flare up means to suddenly begin or
become worse. The noun is flare..up: an argument
flared up between a waiter and a customer / my
eczema'sflared up / troubleflared up between rival
supporters / an old injury that'sflared up again / the
fire flared up when Iput the dry sticks on it / aflare-
up ofviolence / a really badflare-up ofmy asthma
full-blown if something is full-blown, it is fully
formed or fully developed: he had created a
- feature film / a - crisis / - AIDS / a - war / a
disagreement which turned into a - row
fusion afusion of different things is a combination of
them which havejoined together to form something
new. The verb is fuse: an odd - ofAsianfoods / a- of
traditional and contemporary styles / aperfect - of
flavours / his musicfuses classical music withjazz
fuss a fuss is behaviour in which you worry or get
upset about something when it is not really
necessary. Fuss is also a verb: they don't want to
make a - / Idon't know what all the - was about
/ it was a lot of - about nothing / Ijust wanted
to get through customs with the minimum of- /
spent hours -ing about what to wear
inspect to inspect something means to look at it
carefully to see if it is' acceptable. The noun is
inspection: they proceeded to - thefish / the goods
are -ed carefully before they leave thefactory /-
the carfor signs ofdamage / a thorough -ion ofthe
bUilding / we carry out regular safety -ions / the
accounts are availablefor -ion
mutter to mutter means to say something very
qUietly. Mutter and muttering are both nouns: he
would - something under his breath / he was -ing
to himself / she was -ing something about health
and safety / Ihada bit ofa - to myself / took no
notice ofhis -ings
originate to originate from somewhere means to
come from there or begin there: oils which -from
abroad / the idea -d in America / customs which-d
with thefirst settlers / myfamily -dfrom Ireland
oven an oven is a large piece of eqUipment that you
heat up and cook food in: it has to be baked on the
floor ofa wood-fired - / agas - / bake it in a hot-
for 40 minutes / warm gently in a low - (not very
hot) / don'tforget to turn the - off / preheat the-
to 200 degrees
poison a poison is a substance that will make you
ill or kill you if you eat it or drink it. To poison
someone means to make them ill or kill them by
giving them poison. The adjective is poisonous:
we were slightly concerned that we had been -ed
/ he killed his victims by -ing them / she -ed him
with arsenic / accused ofgiving them - / acake
laced with - (containing it) / poisonous plants / a
poisonous snake
pull out to pull something out means to remove it:
no hairs were being pulled out ofthefood / Ihad
to have a tooth pulled out / opened her bag and
pulled out a phone
scene a scene is a situation in which people argue in
a noisy and angry way in a public place: she told
him not to make a - / Ididn't want her to cause a -
/ there was a terrible - between the two ofthem
settle to settle something means to end it. To settle a
bill means to pay it: we werejust settling the bill /
- the argument / - the claim out ofcourt (Without
a court case) / find a way to - the dispute / the
conflict hasfinally been -d / OK, that's ..:.d (decided)
substitute a substitute is something that is used
instead of something else. Substitute is also a
verb: oil that has been mixed with cheap -s /
you can useyogurt as a-for cream / asugar - /
vitamin supplements are no -for a healthy diet /
he was brought on at halftime as a - (to replace
another player) / you can - honeyfor sugar (use
honey instead ofsugar) / the goalkeeper was -d
(replaced by another player)
tide a tide of something is a large amount of
something that happens at the same time, or a
strong movement or tendency which develops:
can we stop the - offoreignfusions? / a - of
criticism / the - ofpublic opinion / the rising -
of unemployment / an attempt to stem the - of
economic decline
tough if food is tough, it is hard and difficult to eat:
a - overdone steak / the meat was really - / cut off
the - outer leaves
trademark a trademark is a name or design that
belongs to one organisation and is used on its
products: the Thai select' - / the Nike - / their-
green vans
uphold to uphold something means to show that
you support it or want to defend it: - standards
/ - workers'rights / - the law / determined to-
traditionalfamily values
yeast yeast is a living substance that is used in making
bread to make the bread rise and become light: the
dough must use natural- / fresh - / dried -
PAGES 108-109
alleged if something is alleged, it is claimed to be
true although it is not known for certain. The verb
is allege: it's - that he would introduce acockroach
into hisfood / police are still questioning the - thief
/ the prosecution -s that he stole over 50,000
from the company
allocate to allocate things means to decide which
person to give them to or what to use them for.
The noun is allocation: seating is -d on afirst-
come,first-served basis / each person was -d 40 to
spend / - more money to education / - the budget
for each department / the allocation of tickets
announce to announce something means to
tell people about it officially. The noun is
announcement: the government has -d a new
series of measures to tackle thefood crisis / he's
-d his resignation / they've -d that they're getting
married next year / I'd like to make an -ment / an
official-ment about the date ofthe election / we're
expecting agovernment -ment tomorrow
back to back something means to support it. The
noun is backing: he criticised the United Nations
for -ing traditionalfarming methods / you know I'll
- you all the way (support you completely) / Ihave
thefull -ing of myfamily / getfinancial-ingfrom
the government
bid a bid is an attempt to do something: a - to tackle
rising obesity rates / launch ahostile takeover - (an
attempt to take over acompany) / he made a-for
freedom / appeared on TVin a- to win public support
confess to confess means to admit that you have
done something wrong. The noun is confession: a
.majorfastfood chain has -ed to using wheat and
dairy products toflavour its French fries / he -ed
to the murder / I- that Ididn't behave particularly
well / Imust -I didn't expect it to take this long /
he made afull -ion / methods used by the police
to get -ions
convince to convince someone means to make them
believe that something is true. The adjectives
are convinced and convincing: he -d me that it
was agood idea / he managed to - thejury of
his innocence / Ibecame -d that he was hiding
something / I'm not entirely -d / a very convincing
encounter to encounter something means to
experience it. Encounter is also a noun: the idea
has -edfierce opposition / we -ed afew problems
/ United Nations forces -ed some resistance / some
violent -s with the police / a close - with a snake /
ourfirst - (thefirst time we met)
fierce if something is fierce, it is strong or involves
strong feelings. The adverb is fiercely: the idea
has encountered - opposition / there will be-
competitionfor places in thefinal / she came infor
some - criticism / he's -Iy loyal to hisfriends / a -Iy
competitive market
GM GM foods are foods that contain products
whose genes have been changed. GM stands for
genetically modified: -foods / - crops / -freefood
heavily heavily means very or by a large amount.
The adjective is heavy: GMfoods are - restricted /
they're - involved in politics / - armed soldiers / she
was - influenced by American singers / she smokes
qUite - / it was raining qUite - / a heavy reliance on
fossil fuels / a heavy smoker / heavy rain
hygiene hygiene is keeping things clean in order to
prevent illnesses. The adjective is hygienic: poor
food - / his personal- is terrible! / good dental-
/ very high standards of - / the kitchen didn't look
very hygienic
induce to induce someone to do something means
to persuade them to do it. To induce something
means to make it happen: attempts to - under-
sixteens to eatfastfood / nothing would - me to
work there again / overeating can - vomiting /
they can give drugs to -labour (start the process in
which a woman gives birth)
inform to inform someone of something means to
tell them about it. Someone who is informed has
all the information about something: he -ed us of
his plans / Iregret to - you that your application
has been unsuccessful/I am delighted to - you that
you have been awarded a prize / please keep me -ed
ofany developments / it's important that patients
arefully -ed / they seem very well -ed / able to
make an -ed choice (With all the information)
outbreak an outbreak of something is an occasion
when it starts suddenly. The verb is break out: an
- offood poisoning / aserious - ofcholera / the-
of war / -s of violence on the streets / the day that
war broke out
plead to plead in a court means to say whether you
are gUilty or not gUilty of a crime. The noun is plea:
he will be -ing not gUilty / how doyou - - gUilty
or not guilty? / he entered a plea ofnot guilty /
decided to change her plea
publicity publicity is attention that is given to
something in newspapers and magazines. The
verb is publicise: negative - could do a lot of
damage / a lot of- about his visit / the event
attracted a lot of - / we got a lot offree - / the
concert generated a lot ofgood -for the band /
they spent a lot ofmoney on publicising the tour
PAGES 110-111
chase up to chase something up means to find out
whether it has been dealt with yet: I'm phoning to
- an order / 1'11- the sales department / canyou
chase John up about this?
enquire to enquire about something means to ask for
information about it. The noun is enquiry. These
. words can also be spelled inquire and inquiry: I'm
just calling to - about some prices / I'm phoning
to - whetheryou have any rooms available / we've
had over 500 enquiries about thejob / I'll make a
few enquiries and see what I canfind out / a major
police inquiry is being carried out / launch a murder
inquiry .
flagship flagship means the biggest and most
important: we're opening a new- store in Tokyo /
one ofour - products
overdue if something is overdue, it has not been
done by the expected time: an - payment onyour
account / my library books are - (I should have
returned them) / it's a week - / these reforms are
pass on to pass something on means to give it to
someone else after someone hqs given it to you:
I'm phoning to - on a message / canyou pass this
on to Gemma?
temper a temper is a tendency to become very angry
suddenly: she's got aterrible - / he's got a violent
- after afew drinks / Imanaged to control my -
/ sheflew into a - / he went offin a - / -s were
beginning toflare (people werebeginning to get
warehouse a warehouse is a large building where
goods are stored before they are sold: the goods
haven't left the - yet / they're still in the - / a-full
PAGES 112-113
acquaintance an acquaintance is someone you know
slightly. You can also say that you are acquainted
with someone: a wide circle offriends and -s / a
casual- / some business -s / I'm not personally
acquainted with him / I'd like to get acquainted
with her
blue-collar blue-collar work is work that involves
physical strength and using your hands. Work in
an office is called white-collar work: - work / -
workers / a - union
break even to break even means to make no profit
and no loss. The noun is breakeven: eventually we
broke even / the business is breaking even at the
moment / I'll be glad when we reach a breakeven
capital capital is money that you invest or use to
start a business: we raised the - we needed / the
business was set up usingforeign - / we don't have
~ much - / they've sunk alot of- into the business /
selling property to release -
entrepreneur an entrepreneur is someone who
sets up and runs a business. The adjective is
entrepreneurial: afamous - / asuccessful- / help
for budding -s / his -ial skills
excel to excel means to do something very well: he
-led at thejob / she -led at university / he -s at
all sports
float to float a company means to start to sell its
shares on the stock market. The noun is flotation:
we -ed the company on the stock exchange /
theflotation on the stock market is scheduledfor
December / a30 millionflotation
foot the foot of something is the bottom part of it:
sitting at the - ofthe Tatra Mountains / the - of
the stairs / the - ofthe page / the - ofthe statue
hostile if something in business is hostile, it is done
to a company that does not want it. Something
that is hostile is also unfriendly or opposed to
something. The noun is hostility: we were the
subject ofa - takeover bid / travelling through -
territory (belonging to the opposing side in a war)
/ most people were - to the idea / alarge - crowd
hadgathered outside / her speech provoked a -
reaction / widespread hostility to the idea / alot
ofhostility towards the president / an outbreak of
hostilities (war)
inquisitive if you are inquisitive, you ask a lot of
questions about things. The adverb is inquisitively.
The noun is inquisitiveness: they are very - / an
- child / she looked at me -Iy / Ifound his -ness
ladder a ladder is a piece of equipment you can climb
up to reach high places. A ladder is also a system
with different levels that you can make progress
through to reach a senior position: he climbed the
corporate - and became UK sales manager / people
at the bottom ofthe social - / keen to get on the
first rung ofthe housing-
locksmith a locksmith is someone whose job is to fix
locks on doors and windows: initialljl, he trained as
a - / I had to call a -
lookout ifyou are on the lookout for something,you
are trying to find it: they're constantly on the-
for newideas / we were warned to be on the - for
network to network means to talk to a lot of people
in order to meet people who will be useful for
your work. A network is a group of people or
organisations that work together or are connected
in some way: they're always -ing / it's important to
- / I've got agood - ofcontacts
observer an observer is someone who watches
something carefully. The verb is observe: they're
keen -s / an acute - ofhuman nature / the
elections will be monitored by independent -s
/ they observe changes / you can learn a lot by
observing people / it'll be interesting to observe
what happens
performance someone's performance is how
well they do something. The verb is perform:
they're alwaysfocused on improving their - / the
goalkeeper gave a brilliant - / his disappointing -
in the exams / adefinite improvement on his last
- / the team all performed brilliantly / she didn't
perform very well in that task
plough to plough money into something means to
invest money in it: we -ed all the money back into
the business / he -ed the profits into a newventure
/ they -ed all their savings into the business
portfolio a portfolio is a collection of investments
that someone has made, or a collection of things
they can offer or use in business: he built up a
substantial - / a - ofshares / a - ofclients / a -
property a property is a feature or quality that some-
thing has: by exploiting the geothermal properties
ofan underground lake / the chemical properties of
hydrogen / plants with healing properties
renewable if something is renewable, it can be
replaced so that it never runs out. Renewables are
renewable forms of energy: it provides - energyfor
the whole area / - resources / woodfrom - sources
/ the increasing use of-s
stiff stiff can mean difficult or severe: wefaced some
- competition / - opposition to the government
/ drink drivers willface - newpenalties / a- jail
stock exchange a stock exchange is a place where
shares in companies are bought and sold: we
floated the company on the - / lost alot ofmoney
on the - / the New York - / the London - closed 15
points lower / the - fell by 15% / the - rose slightly
takeover a takeover is when one company takes
control of another. The verb is take over: a hostile
- bid / the - ofHBGS by Lloyds / the company is
vulnerable to a - / they've taken over two oftheir
main rivals
turnover a company's turnover is the amount of
business it does: we have an annual- ofthree
million dollars / - rose by 6% last year / - has
doubled in the last threeyears / aslightfall in -
venture a venture is a new business activity: he
ploughed the profits into a new- / this could be
aprofitable - / asuccessful business - / embark
on ajoint - (involving more than one person or
PAGES 114-115
adopt to adopt something means to start using it.
The noun is adoption: many countries are -ing
similarformats / the decision to - the euro / voted
to - the proposals / they've -ed a moreflexible
approach / the -ion ofnewpolicies
alert to alert someone means to tell them or warn
them about something. Alert is also a noun:
a website that -s users to special offers / we
immediately -ed the police / afire - / aflood -
branch out to branch out means to start doing
something different or new: we want to - into
other areas / supermarkets that have branched out
into clothing / Ineed to - and try something new
complex if something is complex, it is very
complicated. The noun is complexity: the - and
changing nature ofour society / a very - problem
/ a highly - system / it's quite - / it looks very - /
overwhelmed by the sheer -ity ofthe problems
concept a concept is an idea. The adjective is
conceptual: these are relatively new-sfor people
liVing here / start with afew basic -s / the broad
- of/mental illness' / Idon't have aclear - of what
we want to achieve / Ifound it difficult to grasp
the - (understand it) / a -ualframework for the
deal a deal is an agreement in business or politics: a
two-year sponsorship - / can we do a -1 / he cut
a - with the main opposition party (agreed one)
/ we're close to clinching the - (agreeing it) / OK-
you've got a-I / that wasn't part of the -
devastate to devastate something means to damage
it very badly. To devastate a person means to upset
them very badly. The adjectives are devastating
and devastated. The noun is devastation: the
country has been -d by war / losses which have-d
the economy / Iwas absolutely devastated when
he died / adevastating blowfor this community /
the devastating effects ofthe war / the widespread
devastation caused by the storm / ascene of
complete devastation
device a device is a machine or tool: a - that allows
you to sharefiles / an ingenious little - / some
sophisticated -s / a-for measuring electricalflow
/ it's fitted with aspecial anti-locking - / all our
vehicles have the latest hi-tech safety -s
expansion expansion is when something increases
in size. The verb is expand: they present their
businesses and plansfor - / planning a massive - /
the company is setfor amajor - / the company's -
plans / the business expanded dramatically in the
first twoyears / plans to expandfurther
fuel fuel is a substance such as coal or petrol that can
be burned to produce energy: high - costsforced
. him to close down / rising - bills / oil is quite an
expensive - / fossil-s / the development ofbio-s
(fuels madefrom plants) / new --efficient vehicles
instability if there is instability, a situation is likely
to change suddenly. The adjective is unstable:
political- / things that can cause economic - / I
was worried about her emotional- / an unstable
economy / the situation is still unstable / she seems
abit unstable at the moment
negotiation negotiation is an official discussion
between groups who want different things
and are trying to reach an agreement. The verb
is negotiate: there is no - on the amount /
ongoing -s between the two countries / peace -s
/ resolving problems through - / the details are
still under - / they can negotiate what percentage
ofthe company they will own / both sides seem
Willing to negotiate / refused to negotiate with
niche a niche is an opportunity to sell a special
product to a small group of people. Niche is
also an adjective: it's a - market / a - product /
managed to exploit a - in the market / he spotted a
- in thefashion market
overwhelmingly overwhelmingly means to a very
great extent. The adjective is overwhelming:
reality TV is - positive / they voted - in support of
the idea / the overwhelming majority ofstudents
/ managed to succeed against overwhelming odds
/ overwhelming evidence that he was guilty / the
idea won overwhelming support
pitch to pitch something means to talk about it and
try to persuade people to buy it. Pitch is also a
noun: they - their ideas to the panel/there were
three ofthem -ingfor the contract / asales - / I
only had ten minutes to make my-
plunge to plunge means to decrease qUickly by a
large amount. Plunge is also a noun: profits have
-d / share prices have -d / temperatures -d to
minus 15 / a - in house prices
reflect to reflect something means to show it or be a
sign of it. The noun is reflection: they directly - the
needs of the Afghan economy / his speech didn't-
the views ofthe government / the election result-s
public anger over the recent scandals / a clear -ion
ofhis intentions / their behaviour is a -ion on their
parents / asad -ion on modern society
saturated if the market is saturated, there are more
products available for sale than people want to
buy. The verb is saturate: the market's - / aflood of
cheap imports will saturate the market
scrutiny scrutiny is the careful examination of
something. The verb is scrutinise: the plans come
under - from local experts / their accounts have
come under intense - / the government's proposals
are being subjected to close - / to scrutinise the
documents carefully
stake someone's stake in a business is the share
that they own. Someone who owns a stake is a
stakeholder: buy a- in the company / they own a
30% - in the company / increase their - / amajority
- / he nowhas acontrolling - (enough shares to
control the company) / abig -holder in the company
strategy a strategy is a planned series of actions
in order to achieve something. The adjective is
strategic: planning and marketing strategies / a
successful business - / an effective -for economic
recovery / draw up a long-term - / strategic
planning / it was astrategic decision
sustain to sustain something means to make it
continue: it will be difficult to - itself / measures
designed to - economic growth / the nutrients
necessary to -life
would-be would-be means hoping to become
something: agroup of- entrepreneurs / a - actor
/ - pop stars
be was/were lent
become became let
begin began
bet bet
bite Ibart/ bit
blow lbl;)ul blew Ibtu:1 made made
break broke meant meant
bring brought Ibr):t/ met met
build IbIldl built IbIltl paid Ipexdl paid
burn burned/burnt proved proven/proved
buy bought Ib):tl put put
catch caught /k):t/ read Ired/ read /redl
choose chose Itjauzl rode ridden
came rang Irre.rjl rung Irf\rjl
ran Ir;enl run
said Isedl said
saw Is):1 seen
drew Idru:1 sold sold
sent sent
drank/dr;erjk/ set set
drove shot shot
ate leltl showed shown
shut shut
felt /feltl
sang sung ISf\rj/
fought /f):tl
sank sunk ISf\rjk/
found /faundl
sat sat
slept slept
flew /flu:j
slid slid
spoke spoken
spelled/spelt spelt
spent spent
spoiled/spoilt spoiled/spoilt
spread spread
stood stood
grew /gru:/
stole stolen
stuck /stf\k/ stuck
hung /hArjl
struck /strf\k/ struck
heard Ih3:dl
swore sworn
swum Iswf\m/
taken Itelkan/
knew /nju:j
thrown /8raunl
led Iled/
woken /wauk-;;,nl
worn /w):n/
written /ntan/