Lotus Effect: Surfaces with RoughnessInduced Superhydrophobicity, Self-Cleaning and Low Adhesion

Prof. Bharat Bhushan

(Collaborators – Dr. Y. C. Jung, Prof. Mike Nosonovsky and Prof. Kerstin Koch)
Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics

© B. Bhushan
Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 1

Micro/nanoscale studies
Bio/nanotribology Bio/nanomechanics Biomimetics • • • •

Materials/Device Studies

Materials sci., biomedical eng., physics & physical chem.

Materials/coatings SAM/PFPE/Ionic liquids Biomolecular films CNTs

AFM/STM Microtriboapparatus Nanoindentor • Micro/nanofabrication

Numerical modeling and simulation

• • • • • • •

MEMS/NEMS BioMEMS/NEMS Superhydrophobic surfaces Reversible adhesion Beauty care products Probe-based data storage Aging Mech. of Li-Ion Batt. 2

Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics

Biomimetics – Lessons from Nature • Biomimetics means mimicking biology or nature. It is derived from a Greek word “biomimesis.” Other words used include bionics, biomimicry and biognosis. Biomimetics involves taking ideas from nature and implementing them in an application. Nature has gone through evolution over 3.8 billion years. It has evolved objects with high performance. Biological materials have hierarchical structure, made of commonly found materials.

• •

It is estimated that the 100 largest biomimetic products had generated $1.5 billion over 2005-08. The annual sales are expected to continue to increase dramatically.

M. Nosonovsky and B. Bhushan (2008), Multiscale Dissipative Mechanisms and Hierarchical Surfaces: Friction, Superhydrophobicity, and Biomimetics, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany; B. Bhushan (2007), Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, second ed., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany; B. Bhushan, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 367, 1445-1486 (2009).
Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 3

& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 4 . A 367.Background Biomimetics. R.examples from nature B. Bhushan. Phil Trans. 1631 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Soc.

g.Superhydrophobicity – definition and its importance • A surface is superhydrophobic if it has a water contact angle above 150 . Superhydrophobic surfaces can be achieved either by selecting low surface energy materials/coatings or by introducing roughness. e. called “Lotus Effect”. windshields. e. superhydrophobic surface can be used for energy conservation and energy conversion. Water droplets roll off the surface and take contaminants with them. The self cleaning surfaces are of interest in various applications. self cleaning windows. roof tiles. superhydrophobic surfaces are desirable. • These surfaces are water repellent. textiles. exterior paints for buildings. navigation-ships and utensils. solar panels and reduction of drag in fluid flow. These surfaces with low contact angle hysteresis (less than 10º) also have a self cleaning effect.. in micro/nanochannels. condensation of water vapor from environment forms meniscus bridges at asperity contacts which lead to an intrinsic attractive force. Therefore. • When two hydrophilic surfaces come into contact. Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Also. This may lead to high adhesion and stiction. g.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 5 .

Bhushan.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 6 . Springer-Verlag. 2007 Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. Heidelberg. second ed.Examples of commercial MEMS with stiction issues Microfabricated commercial MEMS components B.

• Fabricate and characterize biomimetic structures for fluid drag reduction Study drag reduction efficiency on the surfaces in laminar and turbulent flows. Approach • Use numerical model to develop optimized roughness distribution for a given contact angle. nano.and hierarchical structured surfaces Study the effect of micro-.Objective and Approach Objective • Develop roughness-induced superhydrophobic surfaces by mimicing lotus effect.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 7 . Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. nano. adhesion and friction) • Fabricate and characterize micro-. • Study superhydrophobic and hydrophilic leaves to understand mechanism responsible for hydrophobicity Fully characterize the surface of the leaves (contact angle. roughness.and hierarchical structures on contact angle and ability to form air pockets for superhydrophobicity.

isunet.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 8 .htm Wenzel’s equation: cos θ = R f cos θ o Increase in fLA and reduction in Rf decrease H Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio.Roughness optimization model for superhydrophobic and self cleaning surfaces Complete wetting Composite interface For fluid flow. another property of interest Contact angle hysteresis ( H) α : Tilt angle θ H = θadv − θrec ≈ R f 1 − f LA (cosθ rec0 − cosθadv0 ) 2( R f cosθ0 + 1) Droplet of liquid in contact with a smooth and rough surface Cassie-Baxter equation: cos θ = R f fSL cos θ 0 − f LA for high contact angle (θ 180 ) = R f cos θ 0 − f LA ( R f cos θ 0 + 1) http://lotus-shower.edu/the_lotus_effect.

M. resulting into high static contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis. Ultramicroscopy 107. 84. Condensation and accumulation of nanodroplets and surface inhomogeneity (with hydrophilic spots) may destroy the composite interface. Microstructure resists capillary waves present at the liquid-air interface. Microelectronic Eng. 969 (2007) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. 382 (2007). Nosonovsky and B. • Capillary waves may lead to destabilization of the composite interface. Hierarchical structure is required to resist these scale-dependent mechanisms and enlarges the liquid-air interface. Nanostructure prevents nanodroplets from filling the valleys between asperities and pin the droplet.Need for hierarchical structure for stability of air pockets • Composite interface is metastable.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 9 . Bhushan.

ABCNEWS. Hydrophobic leaves Hydrophilic leaves • Fagus sylvatica and magnolia grandiflora • Rather flat tabular cells with a 2-D thin wax film (not continuous) on the surface Hydrophilic leaves (Neinhuis and Barthlott. 709 (2006). Z. 1/26/05. 1/27/05. Superhydrophobic leaves • Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and colocasia esculenta • The leaf surface consists of microbumps formed by convex papilla epidermal cells covered with a 3-D epicuticular wax (crystalline tubules composed of a mixture of secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol and nonacosanediols) on surface which creates nanobumps. Phys. 225010 (2008) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Bhushan and Y. Bhushan.: Condens. B. Jung. C. C. Burton and B. • Combination of hierarchical structure of the rough surface and wax creates a superhydrophobic surface.Characterization of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic leaves Many leaves exhibit superhydrophobic and hydrophilic properties.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 10 . Characterize these to understand the mechanisms. Ultramicroscopy 106. Nanotechnology 17. J. 2758 (2006). Matter 20. Jung. B. Bhushan and Y. Wagner et al.. 1997. 2003) NY Times.com.

& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 11 .Rolling off liquid droplet over superhydrophobic Lotus leaf with self cleaning ability Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio.

• Superhydrophobic and self cleaning leaf surfaces have an intrinsic hierarchical structure. Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 12 .Summary Contributions of bumps and wax • A 3-D epicuticular wax exists on superhydrophobic leaves and a very thin wax layer (not continuous) exists on hydrophilic leaves. • The lotus leaf surface consists of microbumps formed by convex papilla epidermal cells covered with a 3-D wax tubules composed of a mixture of secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol and nonacosanediols on surface which creates nanobumps.

& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 13 .57. C. C. 127 (2008). Bhushan. which relates pressure inside the droplet to its curvature. Phys. A droplet with a large radius (R) w. Bhushan. The maximum droop of the droplet ( 2 P − D)2 δ≈ R Transition from Cassie-Baxter regime to Wenzel regime If δ ≥ H • Geometry (P and H) and radius R govern transition. J. Jung. 229. Scripta Mater. and B.Microsc. Jung. J. B. 225010 (2008) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Y. Y. Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel Regime Transition criteria for patterned surfaces • The curvature of a droplet is governed by Laplace eq.to pitch (P) would be in Cassie-Baxter regime. C.Fabrication and characterization of micropatterned silicon Transition for Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime depends upon the roughness spacing and radius of droplet. and B. Jung. Bhushan and Y.r. It is of interest to understand the role of roughness and radius of the droplet. 1057(2007). Matter 20.: Condens.

M. 969 (2007). Nosonovsky and B. 23. C. 2. and Y. -tetrahydroperfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PF3) (SAM) B. Langmuir 24. Langmuir 24.5. 225009 (2008). J. and B. 26. R. Jung. 4. Sci. Ultramicroscopy 107. Matter 20. Jung. C. J. B. 45. Mater.: Condens. 35. 1. Nosonovsky. Y.Optical profiler surface height maps of patterned Si with PF3 • Different surface structures with flat-top cylindrical pillars: Series 1: Diameter (5 µm) and height (10 µm) pillars with different pitch values (7. 127 (2008).: Condens. M. and 75 µm) Series 2: Diameter (14 µm) and height (30 µm) pillars with different pitch values (21. Bhushan and Y. 25. 168. and 210 µm) • Materials Sample – Single-crystal silicon (Si) Hydrophobic coating – 1. 2633 (2007). Scripta Mater. 6262 (2008). Bhushan. Bhushan. 229.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 14 . Soc. 643 (2007). Microsc.5. Ultramicroscopy 107. 1033 (2007). Phys. Bhushan. C. Eng. 57. 126. 225010 (2008). 1525 (2008) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. J. Interf.:R 58. 12. J. -2. 7. 37. Phys. 70. Nano Letters 7. 1057 (2007). Jung. 105. 60. 162 (2007) .5. Matter 20. 10.

contact angle hysteresis.Static contact angle. and tilt angle on patterned Si surfaces with PF3 Droplet size = 1 mm in radius • For the selected droplet. Ultramicroscopy 107. C. Jung. and Y. C.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 15 . 229. Jung. Bhushan. Matter 20. 1033 (2007).: Condens. 127 (2008). B. Microsc. J. Bhushan and Y. Y. 225010 (2008) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Phys. J. the transition occurs from Cassie-Baxter regime to Wenzel regime at certain pitch values for a given pillar height. and B. Bhushan. C. B. Jung.

Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. for a droplet on the order of 1 mm or larger.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 16 . For example. • Nanoasperities should have a small pitch to handle nanodroplets. a value of H on the order of 30 µm. d on the order of 100 nm can be easily fabricated. less than 1 mm down to few nm radius.Ideal surfaces Structure of ideal hierarchical surface • As stated earlier. D on the order of 15 µm and P on the order of 130 µm is optimum. The values of h on the order of 10 nm. • Proposed transition criteria can be used to calculate geometrical parameters for a given droplet radius. hierarchical surface is needed to develop composite interface with high stability.

Langmuir 25. 367. 1386 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Lett. Phys. 093101 (2008).. 1799 (2008). Soft Matter 4. Bhushan et al. 1631 (2009). Soc. Ultramicroscopy 109. 1029 (2009).& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 17 . 93.. Soft Matter 5. Appl. Trans. 1659 (2009). R. Phil. A.Fabrication and characterization of hierarchical surfaces Study the effect of hierarchical structure on superhydrophobicity • Fabrication of microstructure Replication of Lotus leaf and micropatterned silicon surface using an epoxy resin and then cover with the wax material B. Koch et al.

367.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 18 . Phil.Fabrication of nanostructure and hierarchical structure Recrystallization of wax tubules • • Nanostructure Self assembly of the Lotus wax deposited by thermal evaporation Expose to a solvent in vapor phase for the mobility of wax molecules Hierarchical structure Lotus and micropatterned epoxy replicas and covered with the tubules of Lotus wax B. Phys. Soft Matter 4. 093101 (2008). Soc. Trans. Ultramicroscopy 109.. R. Soft Matter 5. Bhushan et al. 1799 (2008). Appl. Koch et al. Lett. Langmuir 25. A.. 1386 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. 1029 (2009). 1659 (2009). 93. 1631 (2009).

Jung and W. • The tubular diameter varies between 100 and 150 nm and their length varies between 1500 and 2000 nm. Soft Matter 5. • Tubules are hollow structures and randomly orientated on the surface. Bhushan.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 19 . Koch. Y.8 µg/mm2) After seven days with ethanol vapor (50° C) • Nanostructure is formed by tubules of Lotus wax. Barthlott.Nanostructures of nonacosan-ol wax tubules Tubules of Lotus wax (0. C. K. 1386 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. B. • The created nanostructures are comparable to the wax crystal morphology found on superhydrophobic Lotus leaf.

tilt angle and adhesive force on various structures • Nano. • Compared to a Lotus leaf. Jung and W. contact angle hysteresis. hierarchical structure showed higher static contact angle and lower contact angle hysteresis.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 20 . Y. K. C. Soft Matter 5.and hierarchical structures with tubular wax led to high static contact angle of 167º and 173º and low hysteresis angle on the order of 6º and 1º. B. 1386 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Koch.Static contact angle. Bhushan. Barthlott.

resulting from geometrical scale effects. Koch. Langmuir 25. . • As the impact pressure of the droplet is high. B. most of particles on nanostructure were removed by water droplets. all particles which are sitting at the bottom of the cavities between the pillars on hierarchical structure were removed by the water droplets.Self-cleaning efficiency of various surfaces • As the impact pressure of the droplet is zero or low. Bhushan. Jung and K. Y. 3240 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. C.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 21 .

& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 22 . Therefore. it is necessary to perform durability studies on surfaces in order to identify fabrication techniques and materials. hydrophobic surfaces should have mechanical strength and chemical stability. • Study the durability of biomimetic structured surfaces on waterfall/jet and wear and friction tests Lotus inspired hierarchical structures CNT-composite hierarchical structures Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio.Fabrication of mechanically durable CNT-composite hierarchical structure • Since many applications operate in long-term exposure to various liquids and are exposed to rough operating conditions.

Fabrication of nanostructure and hierarchical structure • Nanostructure Deposition of the CNT composite using a spray method Mixture of CNT. 4155 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. CNT diameter varied between 10 and 30 nm. ACS Nano 3. C. epoxy. 23 . and an aspect ratio varied between 160 and 200. Jung and B. and acetone Hierarchical structure Micropatterned epoxy replicas and covered with CNT composite • • • Y. Bhushan.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics CNT were well dispersed and embedded on flat and microstructured surfaces.

Y. Bhushan.Durability of the surfaces with CNT in waterfall/jet tests • Superhydrophobic CNT composite structures showed good stability of wetting properties not only from long-term exposure to water but also high water pressure. 4155 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 24 . Jung and B. C. ACS Nano 3.

Jung and B. ACS Nano (in press) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. a portion of the wax nanostructured area started to be damaged.Durability of the surfaces with Lotus wax in waterfall/jet tests • During increasing the exposure time and pressure. Y. Bhushan. C. resulting in increasing contact angle hysteresis.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 25 .

& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 26 . Jung and B. C. 4155 (2009) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio.Wear tests on the surfaces with CNT and Lotus wax using AFM • With increasing the normal load to 10 µN. • As the normal load of 100 nN was applied on the nanostructure with Lotus wax. it was found that the wear depth on the nanostructure with CNT was not significantly changed. ACS Nano 3. indicating that the wax nanostructure has weak mechanical strength at even small load. the change in the morphology of the structured surface was observed. Bhushan. Y.

it is of interest to study the effect of biomimetic structures on drag reduction in fluid flow. • Study the effect of biomimetic structure on drag reduction in fluid flow Lotus inspired hierarchical structures Another model surface from nature for a low drag surface is shark skin which is covered by very small individual tooth-like scales. Therefore. These grooved scales reduce vortices formation present on a smooth surface.Fabrication of biomimetic structures for fluid drag reduction • To reduce pressure drop and volume loss in micro/nanochannels used in micro/nanofluidics. resulting in water moving efficiently over their surface. Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. it is desirable to minimize the drag force in the solid-liquid interface. ribbed with longitudinal grooves.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 27 .

: Condens. J. Phys. Matter 22. Bhushan. C. 035104 (2010) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Jung and B.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 28 .• Fabrication of hierarchical structure Replication of micropatterned silicon surface using an epoxy resin and then cover with Lotus wax • Fabrication of shark skin Replication of shark skin surface using an epoxy resin • Fabrication of the flow channel for the measurement of pressure drop Y.

the largest drop is in the case of shark skin replica.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 29 . J. Jung and B. • Drag reduction in turbulent flow with various structures is higher than that in laminar flow. 035104 (2010) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Bhushan. Matter 22. Phys.To observe the fluid drag reduction in the channel using water flow • Hierarchical structure with highest static contact angle and lowest contact angle hysteresis provided the highest propensity of reduction of pressure in water flow.: Condens. Y. C. In turbulent flow.

which implies the boundary slip increases with increasing hydrophobicity of solid surfaces. Bhushan. Jung and B. Phys. respectively.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 30 . C. Matter 22. 035104 (2010) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. J. Y.: Condens.Slip length on the surfaces with different wettabilities Slip length in the channel: 5ηQL H b= − 2 3 ∆pWH • The microstructure and shark skin replica had slip lengths of 56 and 35 µm. but nanostructure and hierarchical structures show higher slip lengths of 91 and 103 µm.

Matter 22.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 31 . • The structures on the surfaces may cause air to move around them. Y. J. hierarchical structure.To investigate the effect of air flow in the channel and compare them to the water drag reduction • Unlike the result of water flow in the channel. and shark skin replica became higher than that of hydrophilic flat surfaces and nanostructure with increasing Reynolds number. the pressure drop of microstructure. Bhushan. 035104 (2010) Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Jung and B. Phys. resulting in forming vortices and large fluid drag in air flow. C.: Condens.

& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 32 • • • • • • . The created hierarchical surface shows a high static contact angle of 173 and low hysteresis angle of 1 which were superior to natural plant leaves including Lotus. for drag reduction. Drag reduction efficiency on biomimetic structured surfaces has been investigated through pressure drop measurement in the channels using laminar and turbulent flows and increases with increasing hydrophobicity. This condition should be achieved by high fLA and relatively low value of Rf. a surface should have high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis. air pocket formation can change a hydrophilic surface to a hydrophobic surface. whereas an increase on a hydrophobic surface increases contact angle. However. which provide flexibility in fabrication of variety of hierarchical structures. Hierarchical structures are produced using replication of micropattern and self assembly of hydrophobic alkanes and waxes. Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. For fluid flow applications. Mechanically durable CNT-composite hierarchical structures are produced using spray method and show good stability of wetting properties from long-term exposure and high water pressure as well as high mechanical strength and wear resistance. The transition occurs from Cassie-Baxter regime to Wenzel regime below a certain radius of droplet and/or above a certain pitch value.Summary • Increasing roughness on a hydrophilic surface decreases the contact angle. and have superior resistance to the dynamic effects and maintanin stable composite solid-air-liquid interface for superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces.

Trans. Bhushan (2010). Soc. Nosonovsky and B. and Y.and Nanopatterned Polymers for Superhydrophobicity. Barthlott (2009). “Diversity of Structure. 643-648 Y. Niemietz. Morphology. Eng. 093101 B. M. K. C. Bhushan (2007). (2009). Bhushan. Jung and B. Jung. “Fabrication and Characterization of the hierarchical Structure for Superhydrophobicity. Self-Cleaning. C.” Mater. 225009 M. Jung and B. Microsc. 137-178 Y. “Wetting. Heidelberg. Bhushan (2006). Phys.& Nanotechnology and Biomimetics 33 . 1659-1666 K. Bhushan (2008). Jung and B. Koch. 57. R. Jung (2007). Bhushan (2008). Koch (2009).:R 58. 225010 M. and W. Jung and B. 229. Jung (2008). 035104. Bhushan (2007). Koch (2009).” Ultramicroscopy 107. 14.” Soft Matter 4. 3240-3248 B.” Langmuir 25. 1943-1963 K. “Wetting Behavior During Evaporation and Condensation of Water Microdroplets on Superhydrophobic Patterned Surfaces.” J. “Mechanically Durable CNT-Composite Hierarchical Structures with Superhydrophobicity. 9208-9218 Y. A. Bhushan. and W. Y. “Wetting Behavior of Water and Oil Droplets in Three Phase Interfaces for Hydrophobicity/philicity and Oleophobicity/philicity. “Micro. Barthlott. 1033-1041 B. “Fabrication of artificial Lotus leaves and significance of hierarchical structure for superhydrophobicity and low adhesion.: Condens. Jung (2009). Matter 20. C. Bhushan (2009). Bhushan (2005). C. “Multiscale friction mechanisms and hierarchical surfaces in nano. Sci. “Towards optimization of patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. B. 270-280 Y. “Roughness optimization for biomimetic surperhydrophobic surfaces. Bhushan (2007). “Hierarchical roughness optimization for biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces. and W. (2008).” J. Nosonovsky and B. A 367. Nosonovsky and B.” Microsyst. Jung. Koch. “Roughness-induced superhydrophobicity: a way to design non-adhesive surfaces. Germany K. 84. 1057-1060 M. Nosonovsky and B.” Soft Matter 4.” Ultramicroscopy 107. and Y. Adhesion and Friction Properties of Micro. 1631-1672 Y. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://www.” Nano Letters 7. and Wetting of Plant Surfaces (invited). Koch (2009). Lett. C. “Biomimetic Structures for Fluid Drag Reduction in Laminar and Turbulent Flows.” Microelectronic Eng. Jung.” Langmuir 24. Nosonovsky and B. B. R. Bhushan (2008). Bhushan (2007). 1029-1034 B. 54. 4970-4980 B. Nosonovsky. 127-140 B. C. C.” ACS Nano 3. Opin.” Langmuir 25. 2758-2772 Y. C. Interface 4. C. 2633-2637 M.and nanoscale characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces. Jung and B. 162-193 Y. “Dynamic Effects of Bouncing Water Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces. C.” Nanotechnology 17. Phys: Condens.osu. and K.” Appl. C.and hierarchical structures for superhydrophobicity. Bhushan.References M. nano.mecheng.” Langmuir 24. B. “Hierarchical Roughness Makes Superhydrophobic Surfaces Stable. Bhushan (2009). “Superhydrophobic surfaces and emerging applications: non-adhesion.” Ultramicroscopy 109. Matter 22. 14165-14173. Bhushan. Sci. “Contact angle. Colloid Interface Sci. Multiscale Dissipative Mechanisms and Hierarchical Surfaces: Friction.” J. Barthlott. Jung. and Y. Bhushan. Technol. K. C. Koch. 1799-1804 B. C. Jung (2007). Phys. 535-549 B. C. and Biomimetics.edu/nlbb/ Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio. Phys. 93. and K.” Prog. Nosonovsky and B. Koch. K. Superhydrophobicity. Bhushan. Y. C. M.” Nanotechnology 17. Jung and B.” Scripta Mater. “Nanostructures for Superhydrophobicity and Low Adhesion.” Curr. “Multifunctional Surface Structures of Plants and Their Occurrence in Various Environments: An Inspiration for Biomimetics (invited). “Self-Cleaning Efficiency of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces. Bhushan (2009). Bhushan (2008). Bhushan (2007). Bhushan. 6262 B. Nosonovsky and B. and K.” Langmuir 25. Bhushan and Y. self-cleaning and low adhesion. C.and bio-tribology. Soc. Bhushan and Y.Matter 20.” Soft Matter 5. Jung (2006). C. Jung and B. Y. Nosonovsky and B. Bhushan. Y. 1525-1533 M. green engineering. Jung (2008). 969-979 M. Koch. and Low-Drag. “Lotus-like Biomimetic Hierarchical Structures Developed by Self-assembly of Tubular Plant Waxes.” Phil.” Langmuir 25. 382-386 M. “Micro-. “Patterned Non-Adhesive Surfaces: Superhydrophobicity and Wetting Regime Transitions. “Wetting Transition of Water Droplets on Superhydrophobic Patterned Surfaces. Bhushan (2009).: Condens. Bhushan (2008). Springer-Verlag. “Biomimetic Hierarchical Structure for Self-Cleaning.” J. Bhushan and Y. energy. “Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Multiscale Approach.” J. Y. Bhushan. 11. Adhesion and Friction of Superhydrophobic and Hydrophilic Leaves and Fabricated Micro/nanopatterned surfaces. C. “Dynamic Effects Induced Transition of Droplets on Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surfaces. “Wetting Study of Patterned Surfaces for Superhydrophobicity. 1386-1393 B. Bhushan. Jung and B. Koch. Mater. Jung (2008). C. 4155-4163. Nosonovsky and B. and Y.

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