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(a) General form (b) Contracted form after imposing boundary condition Uniform Rod We know that for the structure shown in the figure ,the stress is constant at every section .Hence strain is constant. The property strain is constant leads to the conclusion that the displacement field is linear. In the figure (a), there are two degrees of freedom. Hence the polynomial describing the displacement field must have two generalised constants A1 and A2 . We saw this field as u = A1 +A2x Upon evaluation of the stiffness matrix we found that it is the same one obtained from the structural mechanics concept. Therefore the above polynomial is the exact representation of the displacement field for a two noded uniform axial member. Now let us consider a two noded uniformly varying axial element as shown in the figure.

(a) General form (b) Contracted form after applying boundary condition Fig. 121. Uniformly varying axial element. In Fig. 121.(a),there are two degrees of freedom one at each node. The suitable polynomial is U = A1 + A2 Here A1 and A2 are generalized coordinates and not areas as shown in Fig. 121.(a) The corresponding stiffness matrix is K = E(A1 + A2)/2l 1 -1 following values A1 = 1 cm2 A2 = 3cm2 L = 1cm F1 = 1000KN Since there is only one element k =K assume that element axis and global axis coincide, we get after deleting first row and first column K =2E R = Kr 1000/E = 2u2 u2 = 500/E units -1 1

In the above A1 and A2. Let us find the stress for this case shown in Fig. 121.(b) with the

122(a) is divided in to three elements. A constant strain situation in an axial element gives rise to a linear displacement field which we have assumed for the element. Instead of three elements.Now assuming the shape function in terms of natural coordinates we get U = N1u1 +N2u2 = N2u2 Since u1 = 0 U = (1-(x/l) u1 + (x/l) u2 ε = (du/dx) (1/l) 500/E = 500/E Stress = Eε = 500E/E = 500 The solution indicates that the stress is constant throughout and is equal in 500KN/cm2. Fig. the same results will be obtained by performing the finite element analysis of the system shown in Fig. Whatever results we get from strength of materials approach. 121(b). we infer that the stress is continuously varying.2 and 3. On the other hand we can assume a polynomial displacement field having very many generalized coordinates instead of two for the element shown in Fig 121(a). the strain in the elements becomes almost constant. Then the result will improve. The equivalent system is shown in the magnitude of the stress differs in the three elements 1. As an example. We can subdivide or dicretize it into very many smaller elements as shown in Fig 122. It is not constant. The question is . we require infinite elements in the case of uniformly varying element.is it the correct answer? Obviously looking at Fig.6. that is treating the system as a single element. Since the stress varies continuously the strain also to vary. This we have seen in section 10. This shows that the assumed linear displacement field is only approximate. For getting the exact answer. This is not so when the given system has constant area of cross section. How to improve the solution then? One way is instead of assuming one element for the entire system. 122(a). that is when the elements are made smaller and smaller. Now the question is . Our knowledge of the convergence requirements confirms this inference. Thus we have seen in the case of approximate displacement field we can improve the answer by resorting to finer divisions.This is an improvement over the first consideration. the elements can be increased further.

The degrees of freedom for the element can be increased beyond two only if there are additional nodes. 123. These nodes are known as internal nodes whose only purpose is to increase the flexibility of the element. These additional nodes are placed as shown in Fig. This is known as third order element. Element 1 and 3 are exact. 123 We have provided two additional nodes in the element as shown in Fig. these additional nodes are known as internal nodes. it has changed in to cubic polynomial. The corresponding displacement field becomes U = A1+A2x +A3x2 +A4x3 From the linear polynomial. Note that we have not reduced the size of the element.can we arbitrarily increase the generalized coordinates as we please? We know the requirement that as many generalized coordinates should be present as there are degrees of freedom. Therefore additional node is not going to improve the flexibility of the system whereas in element 2. Therefore theoretically in irregular cross section axial element. Another point to be noted is that nodes 1 and 3 serve as connection purpose. we have infinite number of generalized coordinates approaching the true flexibility of the system If the element has got only one internal node then it is known as quadratic element . We may also note the sequence of the numbered first and then the internal nodes The structure shown in Fig. 124 consists of three elements. Elements in which additional nodes are present more than the minimum are known as Higher order elements In axial elements.there are two additional nodes. Why do we call them internal nodes? The two exterior nodes 1 and 2 are known as primary nodes. However for computational convenience they are placed equidistant from each other. These additional nodes can be placed in any member.

Using the isoparametric concept.-4r]*(1/2)*(2/l) u3 u2 Now k = ∫ BTdB dv Where dv = Adx = [1/2(1-r)A1+1/2(1+r)A2]dx Dv = [1/2(1-r)A1+1/2(1+r)A2]l/2 dr .(2r+1).Example.(1-r2)] u3 u2 ε = du/dx = (du/dr)(dr/dx) u1 ε = [(2r-1).r/2(1+r). set up the element stiffness matrix for the three noded axial element shown in Fig. 125 Solution Using the element and simple natural coordinate system we can express the cross sectional area of the element as A = [1/2(1-r) ½(1+r)] A1 A2 Isoparametric concept requires X = N1x1 + N2x2 + N3x3 The alternative form is R = (x –x3)/(l/2) Dr=dx/(l/2) Now we know u = N1u1 + N2u2 + N3u3 u1 u = [r/2(1-r).

1 K =∫ BTdB[1/2(1-r)A1+1/2(1+r)A2]l/2 dr -1 Substituting for B in Eq. (5) and observing d = E upon carefully integrating we get 11 K = E/6l A1 1 -12 1 3 -4 -12 -4 +A2 16 3 1 -4 1 11 -12 -4 -12 16 Particular cases: (a) When A2 = 2A1 17 K = E/6l A1 3 -20 3 25 -28 -20 -28 48 (b) When A2 = A1=A (for uniform element with three nodes) 7 K = 2AE /6l 1 -8 1 7 -8 -8 -8 16 .

namely. TRIANGULAR ELEMENT . It does not improve the answer. In two dimensional structure. rectangular and quadrilateral elements. An infinite number of such nodes leads to the exact flexibility of the element because each node corresponds to a degree of freedom which in turn represents for one generalized coordinate in the polynomial of the displacement field. There are two types of uniaxial elements. (1) Uniform cross-section element (2) Tapering uniaxial element In the case of uniform cross-section element. Which of the two ways better? No conclusive answer is available at this stage even through higher order elements are used in the system in the places of holes. advanced texts may be referred. etc. along with the simple elements. For two-dimensional structures. the presence of internal node does not have any effect over the flexibility of the element.TWO DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS There is a presence of internal node in an uniaxial element. Infinite number of degrees of freedom means the polynomial represents the true displacement field of the element.. (a) By having more number of simple elements (b) By having fewer numbers of higher order elements. the system flexibility can be improved in two ways. In this primer let us learn about the triangular and rectangular elements. in tapering element presence of internal node has significant influence in unproving the flexibility of the element. On the other hand. we use triangular. For convenience the internal nodes are placed at equidistance. cut outs. For further aspects on this aspect.

However it is unwritten law wherever possible we must avoid the usage of internal node as far as possible. However.even through theoretically we can have any number of internal nodes. We could have placed three nodes internally. for a complete quadratic model. the best place would be at the centre of each side as shown in the figure. and internal nodes. A lagrangian shape function can be constructed as follows : . The three nodes placed on the sides are known as Secondary External Nodes. there are six terms to be considered as shown below. The L1 coordinate for nodes 1.and 2 are (1. Where to place the remaining three nodes ? According to experts opinion. the Pascal triangle consideration plays an important role. However in triangular element for given size.1/2. experts in this field are of the opinion that the vertices and mid-points are convenient points for function evaluation. the criterion of the completeness or balanced polynomial of the Pascal’s triangle plays an important role. In any element involving primary.0) respectively. the sixth requirement where the Pascal triangle is shown. In the Pascal triangle. This means an higher order quadratic model must have six nodes in all. SHAPE FUNCTIONS FOR THE QUADRATIC MODEL: Node(1). Let us consider section. secondary. the sequence of numbering should be in the same order as mentioned. of which three are the nodes at the vertices.4. Secondly.In the case of uniaxial element. we can have arbitrarily any number of internal nodes. U = A1+A2x +A3y+A4x2+A5xy+A6y2 Similarly for v displacement six terms will be there.

1/2. Node(4).4 and 2 are (1.5 and 6.(s-s4)(s-s2) N1 = -------------------------(s1 –s4)(s1-s2) where s4 =1/2 s2 =0 s1 =1 (s-1/2)(s-0) N1 = -------------------------.0). The same is shown in the figure Similarly by cylic rotation we can obtain for other primary nodes as N2 = L2(2L2 -1) N3 = L3(2L3 -1) Now let us find the shape functios for the secondary nodes 4. As before L1 coordinates for nodes 1. Now (s-s1) (s-s2) N4 = .= s(2s-1) (1 –1/2)(1-0) Let s =L1 = area coordinate of the system N1 = L1(2L1 -1) It can be seen that the value of this function at all other nodes except node 1 is zero.

4 and 2 L1+L2+L3 = 1 L1+L2+0 = 1 = (s-s1)/(-1/4) L3 = 0 along this line L2 = (1-L1) N3 = L1L2 Similarly N5 = 4 L2L3 N6 = 4 L3L1 .(s4-s1) (s4-s2) s1 = 1 s2 = 0 s4 = ½ (s-s1) (s-s2) N4 = (1-1/2) (1/2-0) N4 = 4s(1-s) S = L1 N4 = 4L1(1-L1) Along the line containing the nodes 1.

SHAPE FUNCTIONS FOR THE CUBIC MODEL Consideration of the Pascal triangle for a cubic model in the section shows that for the cubic model. the nodes should be placed on the sides in some orderly fashion so that shape functions can be easily evaluated. As far possible. We could accommodate all on the boundaries without dificulty. CONSTRUCTION OF SHAPE FUNCTIONS: . ten terms have to be considered as follows: U = A1+A2x +A3y+A4x2+A5xy+A6y2+A7x3+ A8x2y+ A9xy2 + A10y3 Similarly v displacement will have 10 generalized coordinates A11 through A20. In this model it is possible to place only nine nodes on the sides as shown in the figure. Ten terms in the polynomial means ten nodes will have to be present in the model. The remaining one node at the convenient point as shown in the figure. Cubic model In the case of quadratic model there was no difficulty.

4.5 and 2 then (s-s4) (s-s5) (s-s2) N1 = (s1-s4) (s1-s5)(s1-s2) s1 = 1 s2 = 0 s4 = 2/3 s5 = 1/3 Substituting the above (s-2/3) (s-1/3) (s-0) N1 = (1-2/3) (1-1/3)(1-0) (3s –2)(3s-1)s = 2 s =L1 (3L1 –2)(3L1-1)L1 N1 = 2 It can be verified that this is the shape function for node 1 Similarly (3L2 –2)(3L2-1)L2 N2 = 2 (3L3 –2)(3L3-1)L3 N3 = 2 .Node 1: Consider the line having nodes1.

10 and 7 (s-s10) (s-s7) S1 = (s4-s10) (s4-s7) s4 =2/3 s10 =1/3 s7 = 0 L1ordinates (s-1/3) (s-0) S1 = (2/3-1/3) (2/3-0) Let s= L1 (3L1-1)L1 = ( 3s –1)s 2 S1 = ---------------------2 Similarly consider line having nodes 4 and 9 Then (s-s9) S2 = -------------(s4 –s9) where s9 = 0 s4 = 1/3 .Node 4: Consider the line having nodes 4.

three lines are intersecting.= 3s (1/3 –0) Let s = L2 Therefore S2 =3L2 3L23L1(3L1 -1) Now N4 =S1 x S2= --------------------------------2 9L1L2(3L1 -1) N4 = -----------------2 It may be verified that this function gives a function equal to one at node 4 zero at all other nodes.(s-0) S2 = -----------. For any one line shape function can be found and then multiplied as shown below. Along similar lines shape functions for all other side nodes can be constructed. Consider line 1.7 and consider L1 coordinates along thin line (s-s4) (s-s7) S1 = (s10-s4) (s10-s7) where .10. Node 10: (internal node) At node 10.

This element belongs to the Lagrangian Family. The displacement field for this element is = -3s(3s-2) . 106.5. Rectangular Elements – Lagrangian Family we have seen in example 12.6. how to construct shape functions for a simple four noded rectangular element. 14.s4 = 2/3 s10 =1/3 s7 = 0 (s-2/3) (s-0) S1 = (1/3-2/3) (1/3-0) s =L1 S1 = -3L1(3L1-2) Similarly S2 = -3L2(3L2-2) S3 = -3L3(3L3-2) N10 = -3*3*3*(3L1-2) (3L2-2) (3L3-2) L1 L2 L3 = -27(3L1-2) (3L2-2) (3L3-2) L1 L2 L3 At the node 10 (3L1-2) = -1 (3L2-2) = -1 (3L3-2) = -1 N10 = 27 L1 L2 L3 It must be verified that this is the shape function for node 10. Fig .

u = A1+A2x+A3y+A4xy This satisfies all the criteria for convergence. Fig. 132. Let us see how the pattern is in the Pascal triangle 1 1 x y xy It may be seen that all the elements bounded by arrows (diamond) are included in the displacement field As a second example let us see the rectangular element shows in Fig. Lagrangian element (quadratic model) Shape function for any node can be found as the product of two Lagrangian shape functions in two mutually perpendicular directions at that node. The u and v displacement fields will each consists of nine generalized coordinates and the corresponding polynomial variables will be as shown below 1 x x2 xy y y2 . 132.

Hence there will be sixteen generalized coordinates. 133 there are sixteen nodes. there are sixteen polynomial variables in general the Pascal triangle for Lagrangian elements will be as shown in Fig.x3 x4 x3y x2y xy2 y3 x2y2 xy3 y4 We may note that in the diamond there are nine terms As a third example let us see the element shown in Fig. Within the diamond shown in the Pascal triangle. The disadvantages are: (a) In general internal nodes in the element is not preferable as far as possible (b) Poor convergence properties of the higher order polynomials . 134. 134. 133 1 x x2 x x 4 3 y xy y2 xy xy 2 2 2 xy xy 3 2 y3 xy 3 y4 In Fig. xn xy n n yn Fig. General Pascal triangle for Lagrangian elements The advantage of Lagrangian elements is that we can very easily generate shape functions for any nodes in the element.

‘SERENDIPITY’ FAMILY: In general it is easy to evaluate the function if the nodes are present on the sides. The Pascal triangle requirement is similar to what we have seen in the case of Lagrangian linear element. In the direction of arrows there are eight terms which are balanced.(c) It will be noticed that the expressions of shape function will contain some very higher order terms while omitting some lower ones. Linear element-Serendipity Type (a) Linear element. The geometric isotropy is obtained as shown in the Pascal triangle. There are eight nodes and there will be eight generalised coordinates in the u and v displacement field. The nodes are on the corners. Let us see below four elements. RECTANGULAR ELEMENTS. (c) Cubic Model. There is no internal node in this element. In this element also there is no internal node. (b) Quadratic element. On the boundary the displacement field varies quadratically. . It is usually most convenient to make the functions dependent on nodal values placed on the element boundary.

It may be noted that that the geometric invariance is preserved here.) 15 terms plus two terms from the quintic expansion give seventeen terms. This is shown in the figure . The Pascal triangle expansion is shown below.Here there are twelve nodes. (b) In quadratic model all the terms upto quadratic . All the elements in the fourth order expension (ie. In this model a central node is added so that all terms of a complete fourth order expansion would be available.. ie. It may be seen that there are twelve terms shown by the arrows in the Pascal triangle.. (d) Quartic model. Summary. six terms plus two terms from the succeeding cubic expansion. (a) In linear model we have considered all the terms plus one term from the quadratic expansion. .

these elements are very efficient from computational point of view. . It is therefore befitting to call these family of elements as “ Serendipity Elements” after the famous princes of Serendip noted for their chance discoveries.. A certain ability and ingenuity is required on the part of the analyst to evolve these functions. The shape functions have been originally derived by inspection. (d) In quadratic model all the terms upto quartic ..ie. of things they were not in quest of ’. the disadvantage is generation of shape functions for these elements is not a straight forward procedure. Because of this . The primary advantage of Serendipity elements is the absence of internal nodes (except quartic elements where one internal node is present) in the various elements.the faculty of making happily chance finds. ten terms plus two terms from the succeeding fourth order expansion.(c) In cubic model all the terms upto cubic . It becomes more and more difficult as we progress further to higher elements. Horace Walpole coined the word from the title of the fairy tale “ The three princes of Serendipity ” whose heroes ‘were always making discoveries by accident and sagacity. fifteen terms plus two terms from the succeeding fifth order expansion. Chamber’s dictionary gives meaning as follows: Serendipity. However. ie. Advanced texts may be referred for further understanding of this aspect. The extra nodes placed on the sides other than the primirary nodes are called Secondary External Nodes.

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