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Stealth technology also known as LOT (Low Observability Technology) is a technologies which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft, ships and missiles, in order to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared and other detection methods. From the late years of World War II to today’s computer enabled design changes, Stealth has been a major factor in the improvement of reconnaissance and attack aircraft. The term “Stealth" is thought to have been coined in 1966 by Charles E. "Chuck" Myers, a combat pilot and late an exec at Lockheed. When we think of Stealth today, immediately images of the B-2 bomber or the F-117A Nighthawk fighter comes to mind. "Stealth", a buzzword common in defense circles since the early 80s, only became a mainstream reference in the nineties, after the second Persian Gulf War in 1991.Nightenhanced images of the otherworldly-shapedF-117s taking off in the night and striking highvalue targets with scarcely believable precision and seeming invulnerability to thick air defenses were widely televised and etched in the memories of T V viewers worldwide. The subsequent exposure of stealth aircraft and their participation in numerous air operations in the 90s, in combination with the loss of at least one F-117 in Kosovo, has peeled off some of the mythical cloak surrounding stealth. However, a lot of misconceptions about the abilities and limitations of this technology still remain, even amongst people in posts of high professional responsibility. It is therefore useful to take a broad look at how stealth works, what it can and what it cannot do. This seminar will examine strictly the application of stealth in air assets. Different technologies and strategies for stealth are the province of land, naval and underwater fo First of all, although it is common to discuss the principles of stealth technology (only as relevant to a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum (radar emissions), stealth as a design practice applies a wide range of signatures. Ben Rich, the leader of the Lockheed team that designed the F-117, has stated: "A stealth aircraft has to be stealthy in six
disciplines: radar, infrared, visual, acoustic, smoke and contrail. If you don't do that, you flunk the course.
F-117 NIGHT HAWK That said, not all disciplines are equally important when discussing any given platform category. Underwater warfare will naturally hand dominance to the acoustic spectrum (though on acoustic sensors can and do exist. Land combat will emphasize visual, infra red and acoustic signatures. Radar and (to a lesser extent infrared bands dominate the scene of airspace surveillance, and so they have to be given higher priority when thinking the applications in air warfare.
Radar and infrared bands dominate the scene of airspace surveillance.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-II STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Stealth technology also known as LO technology (low observable technology) is a sub discipline of military electronic counter measures which covers a range of techniques used with aircraft. WHAT’S THE NEED FOR STEALTH It s a matter of fact that the rapid development of stealth technology occurred due to the pronounced improvement of the detection techniques like radar s as they were the most commonly used detection methods in the 1930s & 40s. Infrared. Ben Rich. There are some key strategies that triggered the development of the Stealth technology like the use of Radar Aided-Anti air craft systems and the use of Sonar’s for detecting the Submarines by the Ships etc. and other aspects. but also acoustic. the leader of the Lockheed team that designed the F117. acoustic. infrared and acoustic signatures. STEALTH PRINCIPLES Stealth technology ("Low Observability") is not a single technology. thermal. submarines. thus increasing the efficiency of the vehicles own counter measures and sensors. not all disciplines are equally important when discussing any given platform category. in order to make them less visible (ideally Invisible) to radar. Underwater warfare will naturally hand dominance to the acoustic spectrum. in particular radar cross section reductions. However.. 3 . but it is a combination of technologies that attempt to greatly reduce the distances at which a vehicle can be detected. and missiles. pretty much sums up stealth technology when he say: ³A stealth aircraft has to be stealthy in six disciplines: radar. infrared. visual. ships. sonar and other detection methods.. land combat will emphasize visual. and prevent/delay detection and identification. However. Stealth technologies aim at minimizing signature and signals. smoke and contrail.
When the test was completed. With the cold war ´ and the Soviet Union well under way in the early 1950s. Interest in the project quickly faded after the bomber crashed in the Mojave Desert in 1948. The idea was to create a plane that could cruise safely at very high altitudes. Since radar technology was developed during the Second World War. The Germans were responding to the success the Allies were having with the early radar sets. the aircraft had no body or tail. The aircraft was assigned to perform a normal test flight over the Pacific. The radar crew was shocked to see the aircraft suddenly appear almost overhead because they had seen no evidence of it on the radar screen. Northrop Aircraft developed an experimental bomber called the YB-49 Flying Wing. The Germans developed a radar absorbing paint. pointing the slim wing edge Directly at the base radar station. The United States first stealth development was totally accidental and quickly forgotten. it became imperative that the U. it was simply a large flying wing. a new plane was designed. In order to plug this intelligence gap. Should learn about military developments deep inside the country. but it was also very important in the battle for the Atlantic. Old bombers were converted to spy planes. It might be surprising to learn. it should not be surprising to learn that the first attempts at stealth technology occurred during this period also. CHAPTER-III HISTORY OF STEALTH In the late 1930’s and 1940’s Radar technology was commonly used for detecting aircrafts. As the name implies. And that still remains so as Stealth technologies touching new heights day by day in the other side AntiStealth Technologies are also in full momentum to outdate the Stealth technologies. it could be used on submarines. While this Ferrite-based paint was much too heavy for aircraft.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Thus the rapid development was the need of time to reduce causalities. who worked on the project. not the Allies. The plane was very unstable in flight and this stability problem was listed as the cause of the crash. well out of the reach of any existing 4 . Not only was their radar very effective at spotting incoming enemy bombers. they turned and headed for home. Shortly after the war. however. that it was the Ger mans. but they soon proved to be very vulnerable to attack. Thus stating the need of STEALTH TECHNOLOGY.S.
and it was highly successful. After much effort they were successful in building an aircraft that could evade the enemy RADAR’s called the F-117A nicknamed as the Nighthawk developed by Lockheed Martin in 1983.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY fighter. This highly secret facility became known as the Skunk Works´ and has been on the leading edge of stealth technology since the early.´ The task of making this plane a reality fell upon the Advanced Development Projects team at Lockheed in California. The design specification required that consideration is given to minimize the delectability by enemy radar. T he aircraft they developed became known as the U. F-117 A Nickname as NIGHT HAWK 5 . This was a small team of highly qualified and highly motivated engineers and pilots.
radio. 6 . (The operation was partially successful with half of the ill-fated Soviet sub and crew being brought up from the ocean bottom. Draft: 1. The HMB-1 had a claw to retrieve the USSR submarine. and the HMB-1 which actually submerged under the Gosimir Explorer. the Gosimer Explorer which was basically a ship capable of deep Sea mining. Thus Signature can be concluded as any activity or radiation or the characteristic of the body that helps to revile its presence at a particular point.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY There is a boat the Skunk Works developed shortly after the F117A. especially the characteristic electronic emissions given off by a certain type of vehicle. In May 1999. the Sea Shadow was reactivated by the Navy for a year program in order to “research future ship engineering concepts and to serve as host vessel for companies to demonstrate advanced naval technologies. It is called the "Sea Shadow" and was built in months and operated secretly in the late for $200 million dollars. Width: 68 ft. The Sea Shadow was first unveiled on April." The Sea Shadow is currently operation out of San Francisco Bay. which was operated by the drill on the Gosimir Explorer. The CIA project. or unit. The barge used for the program was the Hughes Mining Barge (HMB-1) a vessel was originally built for a secret CIA project in the yearly’s. it has since come out. was an attempt to recover a Soviet nuclear sub that sank off the coast of Hawaii in 1968.Any unique indicator of the presence of certain materiel or troops. The project included two ships. ft. radar.) The Sea Shadow's stats are: Length: 160 ft. SEA SHADOW RADAR PRINCIPLES STEALTH TECHNOLOGY THE TERM “SIGNATURE” OF A VEHICLE: Signature . and had been in mothballs for years.Displacement: 60 tons (full load).
Missiles.Submarines. Land Vehicles. Thus signature can be rightly called as Observability of an object and stealth vehicles can be called as low-observable vehicles or low-signature vehicles. This signature is called by different names in different contexts. Laser Cross Section:-Aircrafts.Predominantly for Submarines (SONAR). Ships. and Ships. Missiles. Acoustic Signature: ..Predominantly for Land Vehicles. Submarines.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY All the detection methods used that be in military and civil systems are by detecting the signature of the body. Visible Signature: . Ships. Signatures & Applications where such signature are detected. Ships. Aircrafts. Ships..Aircrafts. Magnetic Signature: . Land Vehicles. Radar Signature is called Radar Cross Section or RCS and so on. Infrared signature:-Aircrafts. Ships. 7 . Missiles. RCS: . Land Vehicles.
This is used to launch the missiles based on the target and also counter attack the missiles launched by other countries. 8 .STEALTH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-IV RADAR RADAR is abbreviated as Radio Detection and Ranging which is one of the most useful technologies in the present day warfare.
giving the target's bearing from the location of the radar. All the variables in the transmission-scattering-reflection sequence affect the maximum range at which this can happen. some energy will be reflected in the direction of the radar antenna. PRINCIPLES OF RADAR: Echo Echo can be considered as a wave bouncing off a surface and coming back to the source. The Doppler Shift 9 . The radar can detect a target ONLY when its antenna captures enough energy to rise above the electronic noise that is invariably present in the receiver. or "scattered. that part of the beam is reflected in many different directions. The width of the beam. or RCS." If the scattering is fairly random. These variables include: The strength of the outgoing signal. In the gaps between the pulse transmissions. and the gaps are carefully chosen to be just long enough for the signal to make its way to the target and back at the speed of light1. The time interval between the transmission and reception of the pulse gives the range from the radar to the target. The radar antenna moves at a pre-determined regular rate. work on the same principle: A certain amount of electromagnetic energy is transmitted through a directional antenna. The reflectivity. from an AWACS to police speed radar. of the target. so the time at which the target moves in and out of the beam can be tied to the position of the antenna. The time for the reception of the transmitted signal to reach the transmitter cum receiver can be effectively used to calculate the distance of the target from the transmitter.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY RADAR All radar systems. thousands of them every second. This Principle can be applied for all types of waves starting from sound waves to light waves. Most radar transmits this energy in pulses. the Radar becomes a receiver. The size of the antenna. When a reflective target blocks part of the beam. which focuses it into a conical beam. as is usually the case.
The sound that you hear as a vehicle is approaching you is at a higher pitch or a higher frequency than the sound you hear when the vehicle is moving away from you. Sound waves cannot travel as far as light in the atmosphere without significant attenuation. at a longer range. electromagnetic echo is much easier to detect than a sound echo. The same effect results in the scattered energy returning to the radar. the already-reduced energy hitting the target is scattered over a wider area and less of it will be captured by the antenna. Detection range is in proportion to the fourth root of RCS. The greater the range. and the smaller the proportion of the energy which will be scattered by a target with a given RCS. flat panels and edges. While its shape agrees with the laws of aerodynamics and the principles of engineering. The radar beam. The frequency of the reflected wave can be the same. This can be used to predict the speeds of the target too.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY This being the second principle of the radar. greater or lower than the transmitted radio wave. Therefore. This effect is more commonly felt for sound. it 10 . This property when applied to radar can be used to determine the speed of the object. And finally. the greater the area illuminated by the radar. full of curves. The relationship of RCS to the detection range is not in direct proportion. it is important to remember. i. is a cone. because of the afore mentioned conical beam and radial scattering effects.e. A conventional air craft has a complex external shape. Why Radio waves and not sounds waves? Although the above said principles are applicable to sound wave radio waves are used for detection and ranging due to the following reasons. The speeds of the radio waves are comparable with that of light and are much higher than that of sound. RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) Radar cross section is the measure of a target's ability to reflect radar signals in the direction of the radar receiver. if the reflected wave frequency is less then this means that the target is moving away from the transmitter and if higher then moving close to the transmitter and if constant then the target is not moving like a helicopter hovering at a point. it is a measure of the ratio of backscatter power per steradian (unit solid angle) in the direction of the radar (from the target) to the power density that is intercepted by the target. RCS is the one single variable that is out of the radar designer's control.
e. is a cone. The return from a corner reflector is analogous to that of a flat plate always being perpendicular to your collocated transmitter and receiver. The greater the range the greater the area illuminated by the radar. Therefore. at a longer range. isotropically). RCS is based on the size of a reflective sphere that would return the same amount of energy. RCS is determined by first measuring. is the RCS number itself. The corner reflector has an RCS almost as high as the flat plate but over a wider angle. Directivity: The ratio of the power scattered back in the radar's direction to the power that would have been backscattered had the scattering been uniform in all directions (i.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY is entirely random in terms of the way it scatters radar energy. i. As the airplane moves (rapidly.e. The projected area of the sphere.e. Targets such as ships and aircraft often have many effective corners. as they tried to measure the performance of their creations against a common reference point. The conceptual definition of RCS includes the fact that not all of the radiated energy falls on the target. or the area of a disk of the same diameter. The flat plate has almost no RCS except when aligned directly toward the radar. 11 . the already-reduced energy hitting the target is scattered over a wider area and less of it will be captured by the antenna. The radar beam. the amount of radar energy reflected from a target toward an observer. The same effect results in the scattered energy returning to the radar. Reflectivity: The percent of intercepted power reradiated (scattered) by the target. and the smaller the proportion if the energy which will be scattered by a target with a given RCS. Using the spherical shape aids in field or laboratory measurements since orientation or positioning of the sphere will not affect radar reflection intensity measurements as a flat plate would. it is important to remember. or calculating.. The measurement called RCS was originally developed by radar engineers. over 60ο. corner reflectors. Corners are sometimes used as calibration targets or as decoys. i. The sphere is essentially the same in all directions. it throws off a constantly changing. scintillating pattern of concentrated reflections. A target’s RCS (σ) is most easily visualized as the product of three factors: σ = Projected cross section x Reflectivity x Directivity. relative to a radar which is pulsing energy toward it).
STEALTH TECHNOLOGY The RCS of a target can be viewed as a comparison of the strength of the reflected signal from a target to the reflected signal from a perfectly smooth sphere of cross sectional area of 1 m2 as shown in Figure.NI Concept of Radar Cross Section MINIMISING RCS 12 .
A stealth aircraft on the other hand is made up of completely flat surfaces and very sharp edges. as well as the structures that will support these materials and integrate them into the airframe often referred to as ‘Radar-absorbent structures´. Aircraft shaping is useful over a wide range of radar frequencies but over a limited range of aspect angles. Most conventional aircrafts use a round shape cone. This type of construction makes it a very efficient RADAR reflector. One falls under the effort to shape the airframe. large returns can be shifted out of this sector into the broadside directions. The other principle is referred to as ‘radar absorb bent materials´ and is concerned with the materials that help to reduce the reflectivity of the airframe. The forward cone is of greatest interest and hence. trade-offs often have to be made between them. When a radar signal hits a stealth plane the signal reflects away at an angle as shown. as it is the most important principle of aerodynamics. and covers the geometric design considerations that are taken into account when aiming for a low RCS.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY There are two broad aspects of RCS minimization techniques. some amount of radar signal is reflected back. These two axes are of course not taken in isolation during the design. GEOMETRIC DESIGN. 13 . When the radar signal hits the plane no matter where it hits the plane. KEY ASPECTS OF RCS MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUES Geometric Design Radar absorbent materials. The planes are constructed according to the principles of aerodynamics which are approved worldwide.
instead of having the reflected energy scatter in all directions (and thus a portion of it being always picked-up by the enemy radar). maybe only one or two. but virtually no reflection at all in any other instance.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Effect of radar signal on F117 Another trick. Sea Shadow 14 . similar but antipodal to the first one in principle. This means that the enemy radar will get only one strong reflection when the spatial geometry is ‘just perfect´. it will bounce back on a very limited number of directions. is to shape the airframe in such way that.
STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Visby-Class Corvettes RADAR ABSORBENT MATERIALS. which consists of glass fibers embedded is plastic end of carbon fibers. The latter is preferable because an air craft whose parts are intrinsically radar absorbing derives aerodynamic as well as stealth function from them where as a radar absorbent coating is aerodynamically speaking dead weight the f117 stealth air craft is built mostly out of RADAR observant material termed fibaloy. These are used mostly for hot spots like leading wing edges and panels covering the jet engines. therefore. Metallic surfaces reflect RADAR. stealth aircraft parts must either be coated RADAR absorbent materials or use radar absorbent panels. 15 .
RAS works due to the angles at which the structure a fuselage is or the fuselages itself are placed. the F117 is a very unstable aircraft. Stealth technology is used in the construction of mobile military systems such as aircrafts and ships to significantly reduce their detection by enemy.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY RADAR scattering due to vehicle Shape Corner Reflectors RAS or radar absorbent surfaces are the surface on the aircraft. primarily by an enemy RADAR. The extensive use of RAS is clearly visible in the F117 NIGHTHAWK. The way most airplane identification works is by constantly bombarding airspace with a RADAR signal. Stealth technologies work by reducing or eliminating these telltale signals. which can deflect the incoming radar waves and reduce the detection range. Due to these Facets on the fuselage. 16 . Due to the facets on the fuselage most of the incoming radar waves are reflected to another direction. visual contact and infrared signatures. These structures can be anything from wings to be fueling boom on the air craft. Other methods focus on measuring acoustics disturbances.
This fools the heat sensors on the ground. Special low noise engines are contained inside the body of the plane.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Panels on planes are angled so that radar is scattered and no signal returns. CHAPTER-V STEALTH TYPES A) VISUAL STEALTH 17 . Planes are also covered in a layer of absorbent materials that reduce any other signature the plane might leave Shape also has a lot to do with the invisibility of stealth planes. This also keeps heat seeking missiles from getting any sort of lock on their targets. Extreme aerodynamics keeps air turbulence to a minimum and cut down on flying noise. Hot fumes are then capable of being mixed with cool air before leaving the plane.
Stealth aircrafts like the F-117 and the B-2 Spirit were painted black and were supposed to fly only during the night time for effective camouflaging.Magnetically conductive poly aniline-based radar absorbent composite material. such a plane would need to blend into the background sky and also carry antiradar and infrared stealth technology. the concept of day-time stealth has been researched by Lockheed Martin. in the very near future. Yet another similar ³skin´ is being tested at the top-secret Groom Lake facility at Area 51 in Nevada. as claimed by a technician working at the base. These thin sheets cover the air craft’s white skin and sense the hue. B) INFRARED STEALTH 18 . B-2 Spirit bomber. another system was tested. Perhaps one day. The image received is then projected onto the air craft’s opposite side. It is composed of an electro. VISUAL STEALTH MODE Subsequently the data is interpreted by an onboard computer which outputs it much like a computer screen. Boeing s Bird of Prey and the -35 Joint Strike fighters represent the pinnacle of modern day advancements in this particular field of human endeavor. At the Tonopah test range airstrip in Nevada. these panels undergo color change. an F-15 equipped with this technology took off from the runway only to disappear from sight 3 Km away. When charged to a certain voltage. Researchers at the University of Florida are in the process of developing an electro chromic polymer. However.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Low visibility is desirable for all military applications and is essential for stealth aircraft. one may fly in a completely invisible aircraft. The system also disposes photo-sensitive receptors all over the plane that scans the surrounding area. color and brightness of the surrounding sky and ground.
such as engine exhaust gasses or wing surfaces heated by friction with the air. Other measures include extra shielding of hotter parts. for low altitude flying it is still best to be in audible to ground observers. which travel at low altitudes and at low speeds.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Infrared radiation are emitted by all matter above absolute zero temperature. 19 . Combat helicopters. such as Lockheed s QT-2 and YO-3A have been developed since the 1960’s. mixing of cooler air with hot exhausts before emission. are particularly vulnerable to hear-seeking weapons and have been equipped with infrared jamming devices for several decades.. emit more infrared radiations than cooler materials. Several ultra quiet. INFRARED IMAGE OF AIRCRAFT C) ACCOUSTIC STEALTH Although sound waves move too slowly to be an effective locating signal for anti aircraft weapons. irecting of hot exhausts upward. Heat seeking missiles and other weapons zero in on the infrared glow of hot aircraft parts. away from ground observers. splitting the exhaust stream by passing it through the parallel baffles so that it mixes cooler air very quickly. these include infrared jamming (i. low altitude reconnaissance aircraft.e. hot materials. The application of special coating to hotspots to absorb and diffuse heat over larger areas. particularly those associated with engines must be kept as cool as possible Embedding jet engines inside the wings is one basic design step towards infrared stealth. mounting of flickering infrared radiators near engine exhausts to confuse the tracking circuits of heat-seeking missiles) and the launching of infrared decoy flares. Infrared stealth therefore requires that aircraft parts and emissions. Active countermeasures against infrared detection and tracking can be combined with passive stealth measures.
often wooden propellers. a sound wave rapidly bending towards the sea bottom. 20 . the submarine will not be ‘captured´ from the wave and she will stay undetected. The US F-117 stealth which is designed to fly at high speed and low altitudes also incorporates acoustic stealth measures and engine intake and exhaust cowlings. The sound wave goes to the sea bottom and ³stay there´. When the temperature gradient is greater. A thermo cline is a layer of water where the temperature gradient is greater than that of the warmer layer above and the colder layer below.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Air craft of this type are ultra light. run on small internal combustion engines quieted by silencer suppressor mufflers. Here are some acoustic techniques which are used for the application of stealth. If a submarine is submerged at the layer of thermo cline or immediate below the layer. They make about as much sound as gliders and have very low infrared emissions as well because of their low energy consumption. and are driven by large. The sound wave is useless. This acoustic stealth is mainly used in naval forces in the form of sound navigation and ranging.
100 kg) and retrofit table to existing aircraft. the depth is good for observing and torpedo launching.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY During the summer. the sonar must be submerged below the thermo cline. If the surface ship wishes to detect a submarine. if weather conditions are good. The disadvantage is that it makes the plane glow in the visible part of the spectrum. so it is theoretically possible to diminish the RADAR reflectivity of a no stealthy aircraft by generating plasma at the nose and leading edges of the aircraft. a submarine could not be detected from standard (hull mounted) ship’s sonar. Plasma absorbs radio waves. namely the cloaking of aircraft in ionized gas (plasma). Picture shows situation when the submarine is submerged below the layer of thermo cline and the surface ship is fitted with towed sonar. D) PLASMA STEALTH The Russian academy of sciences however developed a low budget RADAR stealth technique. MIG 35 21 . The Russian system is supposed to be a light weight (>220 lb i. the ship has to be fitted with towed sonar. In that case. In the same time. at afternoon.e.
the aircraft injects a stream in front of the aircraft. or from satellite Sea State data. In plasma stealth. i. The plasma will cover the entire body of the fighter and will absorb most of the electromagnetic energy of the radar waves. Adaptive Water Curtain Technology (AWCT) To reduce the ships remaining RCS. This technology developed by the Russians is a milestone in the field of Stealth Technology. Plasma Stealth will be incorporates in MiG-35 ‘Super Fulcrum/ Raptor killer´." This could be done by deter mining the surrounding Sea State either locally. Using this aircraft can propel itself to higher speeds.e.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Plasma technology can be also called as ‘Active Stealth Technology´ in scientific terms. The same method is used in Magneto Hydro Dynamics. This is a fighter which is an advanced derivative of MiG-29. Initial trails have been conducted on these planes and the results appear to be fruitful. THE ADAPTIVE WATER CERTAIN TECHNOLOGY (AWCT) The Adaptive Water Curtain Technology (AWCT) is intended to deflect and scatter enemy radar waves thus reducing the ships radar cross section (RCS). It consists of (highly conductive) sea water sprayed in a fashion that effectively creates an angled radar reflective curtain around the ship. or applying the appropriate coefficients to the modulating process for optimum mimicry. the water curtain can be "modulated" such that the returns appear as "Sea Clutter.. thus making the aircraft difficult to detect. deriving the Sea Clutter Spectrum. 22 .
Infrared signature (IR). The Arleigh Burke class Destroyer--which has rudimentary stealth technology. and Visual signature reduction. 23 . is used as an example of a recipient ship for this technology. This technology can reduce a surface ship's vulnerability to Radar cross-section (RCS).STEALTH TECHNOLOGY This approach is suggested as an "Add-On" to existing surface ships. an interim measure until the next generation DD(X) of stealthy surface ships has replaced this class.
24 . weapons can only occupy a less amount of space internally. A Stealth vehicles strike capability may deter potential enemies from taking action and keep them in constant fear of strikes. the number of B-2 bombers was reduced sharply because of its staggering price tag and maintenance charges. ISSUES WITH STEALTH TECHNOLOGY. Though the F-22 may be fast or maneuverable or fast. The F-22 and the aircraft of its category proved this wrong up to an extent. possibly resulting in significant weakening of the economically inferior party. On the other hand a conventional aircraft can carry much more payload than any stealth aircraft of its class. Fighters in service and in development for the USAF like the B-2 ($2 billion). The production of a stealth combat vehicles design may force an opponent to pursue the same aim. After the cold war.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-VI ADVANTAGES A smaller number of stealth vehicles may replace fleet of conventional attacks vehicles with the same or increased combat efficiency. Stationing stealth vehicles in a friendly country is a powerful diplomatic gesture as stealth vehicles incorporate high technology and military secrets. it can't go beyond Mach 2 and cannot make turns like the Su-37. Stealth aircraft cannot fly as fast or is not maneuverable like conventional aircraft. Decreasing causality rates of the pilots and crew members. F-117 ($70 million) and the F-22 ($100 million) are the costliest planes in the world. since they can ever know if the attack vehicles are already underway. the biggest of all disadvantages that it faces is its sheer cost. Whatever may be the disadvantage a stealth vehicles can have. As most of the payload is carried internally in a stealth aircraft to reduce the radar signature. Stealth technology has its own disadvantages like other technologies. Stealth aircraft literally costs its weight in gold. Possibly resulting in longer term savings in the military budget. Another serious disadvantage with the stealth aircraft is the reduced amount of payload it can carry.
affecting aerodynamics. Since reduced RCS bombs and cruise Missiles are yet not available. Stealth aircraft are vulnerable to detection immediately before. This is brought under control only through the use of highly sophisticated computers that serve to electronically balance the aircraft in flight through its autopilot and control system. Performance. \ 25 . all armament must be carried internally to avoid increasing the radar cross section. The resulting increase in drag reduces flight. but it has relatively slow speed. also tend to be aerodynamically destabilizing. resulting in 18 to 24 hour long missions when it flies half way around the globe to attack overseas targets. The advantages of stealth technology must always be weighed against its Issues. Therefore advance planning and receiving intelligence in a timely manner is of paramount importance. hurt the plane's performance. during and after using their weaponry. Another issue with incorporating "stealth" technology into an aircraft is a wing shape that does not provide the optimum amount of lift. the planes RCS will be multiplied. however. As soon as the bomb bay doors opened. adding weight. All of these modifications. and altering the structure of the aircraft.STEALTH TECHNOLOGY The B-2 Spirit carries a large bomb load. such as the "faceting" found on Lockheed's F-117 "stealth" fighter. "Stealth" shapes.
Even if anti radiation weapons are used in an attempt to destroy the SAM radars of such systems. given the increasing prevalence of excellent Russian belt Surface ± toair missile (SAM) system on the open market. Stealth technology . The sudden appearance of sea clutters on the radar at a region may be these ships. Operation Allied Force and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. China license-builds a wide range of SAM systems in quantity and would be able to heavily defend important strategic and tactical targets in the event of some kind of conflict . because the stealth aircraft aren’t going to be dodging surface to air missiles and anti-aircraft artillery over the target they can aim more carefully and thus are more likely to hit the high value targets early in the campaign (or even for it) . The plasma stealth technology raises new hopes of engineering brilliance. stealth aircraft are likely to be very important in a high intensity conflict in order to gain and maintain air supremacy. including operation Desert Storm. 26 .STEALTH TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER-VII CONCLUSION The Detection and Stealth Technology has improved significantly more advanced in the last fifty years or so. Till date stealth aircraft have been used in several low and moderate intensity conflicts.the first commissioned Stealth ships has raised new threats in the maritime boundaries.in future would be required for clearing the way for deeper strikes. This trend is likely to continue as these two oppose each other. these SAMs are capable of shooting down weapons fired against them. For example. In each Case they were employed to strike high value targets which were either out of range of conventional aircraft or which were too heavily defended for conventional aircraft to strike without a high risk of loss. In addition. However. The development and the deployment of the Visbys. which conventional aircraft would find very difficult. As plasma is said to absorb all electromagnetic radiation the development of a counter stealth technology to such a mechanism will be a strenuous task.Before other aircraft had the opportunity to degrade the opposing air defense.
STEALTH TECHNOLOGY Well to conclude the current scenario appears something similar to the cold war both sides are accumulating weapons to counter each other and each side can be termed as ‘Stealth Technology´ and the other as ‘Anti-Stealth Technology´. 27 . It’s an arm race except it isn't between specific countries. It is a fight between Technologies´.
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