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ANNEXURE C CONTENT BLOCK- 1 Multi Disciplinary Nature of Environment Studies

Unit 1- Environment Studies: Scope and Importance Unit 2- Conservation of Natural Resources Unit 3- Degradation of Environment

BLOCK-2 Resources Unit 4- Mineral and Food Resources Unit 5- Energy and Land Resources

BLOCK- 3 Ecosystems Unit 6- Ecosystem and Energy Flow Unit 7- Biodiversity and its conservation

BLOCK- 4 Environmental Pollution Unit 8- Environmental Pollution: Nature, Scope Unit 9- Pollutions: Air, Noise, Water Unit 10-Pollution: Soil, Land, Thermal, Radioactive Unit 11- Solid Waste Management

BLOCK- 5 Environmental Problem: Social and Legal Unit 12- Global Environment Problems Unit 13- Environmental Protection Acts Unit14- Health and Environment

ANNEXURE (D) BLOCK- 2 Resources

Unit 4- Mineral and Food Resources Unit 5- Energy and land resources

BLOCK: 2 Resources Summary: Unit-4: This unit covers Mineral and Food Resources that explains the use and exploitation, Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Minerals Resources. Food Resources- World Food Problems, Changes Caused by Agriculture and Overgrazing, Effects of modern agriculture, Fertilize-pesticide Problems.

Unit-5: This unit covers Energy and Land Resources that explains growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable resources, energy sources use of alternate energy sources. Land Resources- land as a resource, land degradation, soil erosion and desertification, conversation of natural resources. Equitable use of resources for sustainable development.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-4 Mineral and Food Resources Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the introduction of mineral and food resources Discuss the nature of mineral and food resources. Explain the scope of mineral and food resources. Narrate the importance of mineral and food resources.

Structure 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 The green revolution Benefits from the green revolution Problem caused by the green revolution Technology in agriculture Farming system Biotechnology for crop improvement Genetic engineering versus breeding Potential benefits of biotechnology Management of agriculture produces Post harvest field management Post harvest operations

4.12 SUMMARY: One of the challenges before the world is to increase food production in available resources for growing population and changing consumption pattern. an estimated 854 million people around the world remain undernourished.

On the one hand, there is the increasing demand for food. on the other hand, inputs such as land, water and nutrients, such as for cities and industrial use, biodiversity conservation,etc. 1.6 Glossary: 1. Threshing Threshing is done both manually and mechanically. Bullocks and tractors are used for threshing. 2. Drying Drying is needed to reduce the moisture content in grains to a safe limit. Question [A] Essay type questions 1. Describe the concept and benefits of green revolution. 2. State the benefits and problems caused by green revolution. 3. Write an essay on technology in agriculture. 4. What are the post harvest operations? [b]. short answer type questions 1. What problem caused by the green revolution? 2. What are advantages of crop rotation method? 3. Write short note on the following: (a) Biotechnotecnology for crop improvement. (b) Harvesting the crop. [c] Objective type question (1) Problem caused by green revolution: (a) Change in cropping patterns (b) Use of chemical fertilizers (c) Loss of genetic diversity (2) Farming is the complex system of: (a) Soil (c) Animals (B) plants (d) all of them

(3) Genetic engineering can help to develop: (a) new medical treatment (b) new industrial products (c) improved fibers and fuels

(d) all of them

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-5 Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the introduction of energy and land Resource Discuss the Methods of energy and land resources Explain General Process of Succession. Narrate the all conversions like soil, water, and wildlife. Energy and land Resources

Structure 5.1 growing needs of energy 5.2 renewable & non- renewable energy sources 5.3 use of alternating energy sources 5.4 important facts 5.5 energy resources 5.6 conventional sources of energy 5.7 land resources 5.8 composition of soil 5.9 ways in which land is degraded 5.10 control of land degradation 5.11 importance of soil 5.12 soil erosion

5.13 SUMMARY: Energy resources play an important role in the development of any nation. Energy is primary need to exist and run life properly. The capability to work is called energy. Energy has various forms. Energy got from machines is called mechanical energy and energy got from chemicals is called chemical energy. The energy which is stored and not in the state of working at once is called potential energy. 5.14 Glossary: (1) Fossil energy; most of the energy production of the world is gained from burning of fossil fuels. it is called fossil energy. (2) Food resources; the material which provide recessing energy for living to man are called food materials. Question (a) Essay type question 1. Write an essay on biogas. 2. Write an essay on land resources. 3. Explain conservation of energy. (b)Short type question 1. 2. 3. 4. What is tidal energy? What is fissile energy? Suggest measures to control of land degradation. What are the causes of soil erosion?

(c) Objective type questions (1) accumulation of non-biodegradable materials in the food chain is called: (a) Biomagnifications (c) None of these (b) detoxification (D) both of these

2. Nuclear energy can be generated by (a) Nuclear fusion (b) nuclear fission (c) Both of these (D) none of these 3. The minimum time needed for the formation of one inch of top soil is:

(A) 10 years (c) 100 years

(b) 50 years (d) 200 years

4. Minimum disturbance is caused to SOC1 during: (a) Contour farming (c) Terrace farming (b) no- till farming (d) alley cropping

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-3 Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: It includes Nature and Types of Environment Degradation. Discuss the super natural powers of Environment Degradation. Explain all kind of Environment Degradation in details. Narrate the necessity of Environment Degradation. Degradation of Environment

Structure 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Physical of Natural Environmental Degradation Environment Degradation by Volcanoes and Earthquakes Floods, Droughts and Famines Environmental Degradation Due to Human Actions Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

3.5

SUMMARY:

Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Soils are often initially acid because their parent materials were acid and initially low in the basic captions (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). Acidification occurs when these elements are removed from the soil profile by normal rainfall, or the harvesting of forest or agricultural crops. Soil acidification is accelerated by the use of acidforming nitrogenous fertilizers and by the effects of acid precipitation. 3.6 Glossary:

Physical of Natural Environmental Degradation: Land degradation is a humaninduced or natural process which impairs the capacity of land to function. While soil acidification of alkaline soils is beneficial, it degrades land when soil acidity lowers crop productivity and increases soil vulnerability to contamination and erosion. Environment Degradation by Volcanoes and Earthquakes: A volcano tectonic earthquake is an earthquake induced by the movement (injection or withdrawal) of magma. The movement results in pressure changes in the rock around where the magma has experienced stress. At some point, the rock may break or move. The earthquakes may also be related to dike intrusion and may occur as earthquake swarms. Floods, Droughts and Famines: A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard (e.g., flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide). It leads to financial, environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the vulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard, also called their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability. Environmental Degradation Due to Human Actions: The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed.

However in temperate me sic climates, the removal of all trees in an areain conformance with sustainable forestry practicesis correctly described as regeneration harvest Environmental Degradation Due to Human Actions: Big dam was an earthen dam located 11 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi in Lamar County. On March 12, 2004 the Big Bay dam embankment failed though piping in the vicinity of the principal spillway 12 years after construction. A peak breach flow of 147,000 ft3/s (4,200m3/s) was estimated from the breach geometry, breach timing and the reservoir volume.

ANNEXURE (D) BLOCK- 2 Ecosystems Unit 4- Ecosystem and Energy Flow Unit 5- Biodiversity and its conservation

BLOCK: 2

ECOSYSTEMS

An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight. It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (a biotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment. Ecosystems have become particularly important politically, since the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) - ratified by 192 countries - defines "the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings" as a commitment of ratifying countries. Unit-4: This unit covers Ecosystem and Energy Flow, explains the structure of ecosystem, energy and energy relationship, energy flux in ecosystem.

Unit-5: This unit covers Biodiversity and its conservation explains the natural hazards and their impact and conservation..

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-4 Ecosystem and Energy Flow Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the introduction of Ecosystem. Discuss the structure of Ecosystem. Explain the concept of Ecological Pyramids. Narrate the concept of energy flow and biomes in India..

Structure 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 Structure of the Ecosystem Abiotic Component Ecological succession Tropic levels, Food chains and Food Webs Ecological Pyramids Biomes of India Energy and energy relationships Special features of the ecosystem of India Energy Flux in Ecosystem Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

4.10 SUMMARY An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight. It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (a biotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment. Ecosystems are primarily governed by stochastic (chance) events, the reactions these events provoke on non-living materials and the responses by organisms to the conditions surrounding them. Thus, an ecosystem results from the sum of individual responses of organisms to stimuli from elements in the environment. 4.11 Glossary

Ecosystem An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight. Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Ecological Pyramid is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or productivity at each tropic level in a given ecosystem

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT 5- Biodiversity and its conservation Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the introduction of Biodiversity. Discuss the various natural hazards and their impacts. Explain the Dispersal of Animals.

Structure 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Natural Hazards and their Impact on environment Origin and Evolution of Animals Dispersal of Animals 5.3.1 Types of Dispersal 5.3.2 Factors of Animal Dispersal Floral and Fauna commonality of Indias two hot spots Extinction of Species Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

5.6 SUMMARY Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Greater biodiversity implies greater health. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions support fewer species. "Biological diversity" or "biodiversity" can have many interpretations. It is most commonly used to replace the more clearly defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region". The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused primarily by human impacts, particularly habitat destruction. Biodiversity's impact on human health is a major international issue 5.7 Glossary

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Animal Dispersal The dispersal of animals is usually linked with a change in abiotic and biotic environmental conditions and in the population size of the animals. The state of a population of a given species, for example, an increase in number that causes greater population density, stimulates the dispersal of the animals. Anthropogenic resulting from the influence of human beings on nature.

ANNEXURE (D) BLOCK- 3 Environmental Pollution

Unit 6- Environmental Pollution: Nature, Scope Unit 7- Pollutions: Air, Noise, Water Unit 8-Pollution: Soil, Land, Thermal, Radioactive Unit 9- Solid Waste Management

BLOCK: 3

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Unit-6: This unit covers Environmental Pollution- Nature and Scope, explains the importance.

Unit-7: This unit covers Pollution- Air, Noise, and Water explains all in details. Unit-8: This unit covers Pollution- Soil, Land, Thermal, and Radioactive it covers all kind of pollution.

Unit-9: This unit covers Solid Waste Management it includes all the wastes.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-6 Environmental Pollution: Nature, Scope Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the Environment Pollution. Discuss the nature of Environment Pollution. Explain the scope of Environment Pollution. Narrate the importance of Environment Pollution.

Structure 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Environment Pollution Kind of Pollutants Kind of Pollution Effect of Pollution on Nature Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

6.5 SUMMARY Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. 6.6 Glossary

Environment Pollution: The forging of metals appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman and Chinese metal production. Kind of Pollutants: Pollutant is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. Kind of Pollution The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them:

Air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous air pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Light pollution, includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference. Noise pollution, which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. Water pollution, by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering.

Effect of Pollution on Nature:

In the past, the water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-7 POLLUTION- AIR, NOISE, AND WATER Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the details of all kind of Pollutions. Discuss the reason and cure by Pollution. Explain the impact on environment because of Pollution. Narrate how to recover by Pollution.

Structure 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Cause of Pollution Air Pollutants Water Pollution Noise Pollution Effect on Human by These pollutions Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

7.6

SUMMARY Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater discharge outlet Noise pollution from a jet engine Disruptive seismic vibration from a localized seismic study Light pollution from an intrusive street light Thermal pollution from an industrial process outfall Radio emissions from an interference-producing electrical device

7.7

Glossary

Cause of Pollution: Pollution comes from both natural and man made sources. Though globally man made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. Air Pollutants: Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. Noise Pollution: Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-8 POLLUTION- SOIL, LAND, THERMAL, AND RADIOACTIVE Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the details of all kind of Pollutions. Discuss the reason and cure by Pollution. Impact on environment because of Pollution. Narrate how to recover by these Problems.

Structure 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Industry and Urban Wastage Agricultural Practices Radioactive Material Disease Caused Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

8.5

SUMMARY

Soil contamination (soil pollution) is caused by the presence of xenophobic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks, application of pesticides, and percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. Land pollution is the degradation of Earth's land surfaces often caused by human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed properly. Health hazard disposal of urban and industrial wastes, exploitation of minerals, and improper use of soil by inadequate agricultural practices are a few factors. Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is radioactive substances on surfaces, or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable, or the process giving rise to their presence in such places. 8.6 Glossary Industry and Urban Wastage: Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. Agricultural Practices: Agricultural pollution comprises wastes, emissions, and discharges arising from farming activities. This includes runoff and leaching of pesticides and fertilizers; pesticide drift and volatilization; erosion and dust from cultivation; and improper disposal of animal manure and carcasses. Some agricultural pollution is point source, meaning that it is derived from a single discharge point, such as a pipe.

Radioactive Material: Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is radioactive substances on surfaces, or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable, or the process giving rise to their presence in such places Disease Cased: Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. There are a number of effects of this:

Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved. The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and bimolecular (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competitiveness. Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilize land which can change the species composition of ecosystems. Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of troposphere ozone which damages plants. Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-9 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the details of all kind of Wastes. Discuss the reason and cure of Wastes. Impact on environment because of Wastes. Narrate how to recover by these Problems.

Structure 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 Fertilizer and Farm Wastes Plastic and Rubber Dissolved Solids Synthetic Detergents Biological Pollutants Water Pollutant: Industrial Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

9.7 SUMMARY Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. 9.8 Glossary Fertilizer and Farm Wastes: Fertilizers (or fertilizers) are substances that supply plant nutrients or amend soil fertility. They are the most effective means of increasing crop production and of improving the quality of food and fodder. Fertilizers are used in order to supplement nutrient supply in the soil, especially to correct. Plastic and Rubber: A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Dissolved Solids: Dissolved Solids is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in: molecular, ionized or micro-granular suspended form. Synthetic Detergents: Typical anionic detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonates. The alkylbenzene portion of these anions is lipophilic and the sulfonate is hydrophilic. Biological Pollutants: Biological pollution, or Biopollution, is a term that defines adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS) on quality of aquatic and terrestrial environment. Biopollution is a synonym for "biological invasion impacts" .

Water Pollutant: Industrial: Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Thermal pollution, unlike chemical pollution, results in a change in the physical properties of water.

ANNEXURE (D) BLOCK- 4 ENVIRONMENT PROBLEMS: SOCIAL AND LEGAL Unit 10- Global Environment Problems Unit 11- Environmental Protection Acts and Population Explosion Unit12- Health and Environment

BLOCK: 4 GLOBLE ENVIRONMENT PROBLES Global warming, nuclear waste, pollution, and extinction of species the list of global environmental issues, which is already quite a long one, continues to grow in length. Most of us seem to have become quite involved in our personal lives, and hence, are not at all aware about the current environmental issues, while others know about them, but prefer to carry on with their it-won't-affect-us attitude. The end result, the list is just growing longer and longer, while we run out of times to solve these global environmental problems. Overpopulation is a condition where an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. We know that pollution causes not only physical disabilities but also psychological and behavioral disorders in people. Unit-10: Unit-11: Unit-12: This unit covers Global Environmental Problems explains the importance. This unit covers Environment protection Acts and Population Explosion explains all in details. This unit covers Health and Environment it covers all kind of pollution.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-10 Global Environmental Problems Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the reason of Global Environment Problems. Discuss the major global problem. Explain how international cooperation helps in global environment problems. Narrate the global environment problems.

Structure 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 Thinning Ozone Layer Greenhouse Effect EL Nino Acid Rain Desertification Deforestation Hazardous Wastes Trade Biodiversity Global Warming International Cooperation Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

10.11 SUMMARY Global warming, nuclear waste, pollution, and extinction of species the list of global environmental issues, which is already quite a long one, continues to grow in length. Most of us seem to have become quite involved in our personal lives, and hence, are not at all aware about the current environmental issues, while others know about them, but prefer to carry on with their it-won't-affect-us attitude. The end result, the list is just growing longer and longer, while we run out of times to solve these global environmental problems. 10.12 Glossary Thinning Ozone Layer: "The ozone layer" refers to the ozone within stratosphere, where over 90% of the earth's ozone resides. Ozone is an irritating, corrosive, colorless gas with a smell something like burning electrical wiring. In fact, ozone is easily produced by any high-voltage electrical arc. Each molecule of ozone has three oxygen atoms and is produced when oxygen molecules are broken up by energetic electrons or high energy radiation. Greenhouse Effect: Our atmosphere is but a thin layer of gas around a huge bulky planet. This gaseous outer ring and its greenhouse effect make life on Earth possibleand could destroy life as we know it. EL Nino: Along the equator, the western Pacific has some of the world's warmest ocean water, while in the eastern Pacific, cool water wells up, carrying nutrients that support large fish populations. Acid Rain: Acid rain is a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation (rain, snow, hail, fog, etc.). Atmospheric pollutants, particularly oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen, can cause precipitation to become more acidic when converted to sulphuric and nitric acids, hence the term acid rain. Desertification: Desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas due to various factors: including climatic variations and human activities.

Deforestation: Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to agriculture or urban use. Hazardous Wastes Trade: As disposal facilities for hazardous waste become scarcer and more costly in industrialized countries, lesser developed countries are being increasingly targeted as dumping grounds. This places a disproportionate burden on countries that frequently lack the capacity to deal with the wastes in an environmentally sound manner. Biodiversity: Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Greater biodiversity implies greater health. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas Polar Regions support fewer species. Global Warming: Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activities such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation. International Cooperation: Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the state of the environment. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the color green.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-11 Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: Gives the reason of Environment Protection Act. Discuss the Population Explosion. Explain what the impact on population growth is. Narrate with the conclusion. Environment Protection Acts and Population Explosion

Structure 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 Increases in Population Population Policy Family Planning Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions

11.4

SUMMARY

The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) is an Act of the Parliament of Australia that provides a framework for protection of the Australian environment, including its biodiversity and its natural and culturally significant places. Enacted on 17 July 2000, it established a range of processes to help protect and promote the recovery of threatened species and ecological communities, and preserve significant places from decline. Overpopulation is a condition where an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth. We know that pollution causes not only physical disabilities but also psychological and behavioral disorders in people. 11.5 Glossary

Increases in Population: The world population is the total population of humans on the planet Earth, currently estimated to be 6.91 billion by the United States Census Bureau. The world population has experienced continuous growth since the end of the Bubonic Plague around the years 1348-1350. The highest rates of growth increases above 1.8% per year were seen briefly during the 1950s, for a longer period during the 1960s and 1970s; the growth rate peaked at 2.2% in 1963, and declined to 1.1% by 2009. Population Policy: The main vision and strategy of PP is to improve the quality of life for the population, the PP looks to expand opportunities for individuals and families, enhance individual capabilities, increase participation in socio-economic activities, encourage political and cultural progress, improve living standards, and provide a clean environment so that people benefit from healthy food, pure water and sustainable health care. Family Planning: Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control, though it often includes more. It is most usually applied to a femalemale couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as pregnancy termination.

ANNEXURE (E) UNIT-12 Objectives The objectives of this unit are to enable you: . Discuss the Importance of Health. Explain the impact of Health and Environment. Narrate with the conclusion. Structure 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 Population Effect of Pollution Aids Summary Glossary Self Assessment Questions Health and Environment

12.4 SUMMARY Environmental hazards are responsible for as much as a quarter of the total burden of disease world-wide, and more than one-third of the burden among children. Heading that list are diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, various forms of unintentional injuries and malaria. The disease burden is much higher in the developing world, although in the case of certain non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers, the per capita disease burden is larger in developed countries. Health impacts of environmental hazards run across more than 80 diseases and types of injury. 12.5 Glossary

Population: A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define the population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Normally breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border Effect of Pollution: Pollution effects are indeed many and wide-ranging. There is no doubt that excessive levels of pollution are causing a lot of damage to human & animal health, plants & trees including tropical rainforests, as well as the wider environment. All types of pollution air, water and soil pollution have an impact on the living environment. The effects in living organisms may range from mild discomfort to serious diseases such as cancer to physical deformities; ex., extra or missing limbs in frogs. Experts admit that pollution effects are quite often underestimated and that more research is needed to understand the connections between pollution and its effects on all life forms. AIDS: AIDS is caused by HIV. HIV is a virus that gradually attacks immune system cells. As HIV progressively damages these cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections, which it will have difficulty in fighting off. It is at the point of very advanced HIV infection that a person is said to have AIDS. It can be years before HIV has damaged the immune system enough for AIDS to develop.