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Civil Engineering Department Institute of Technology, Nirma University, Ahmedabad 2CL207 Surveying II Handout on Modern Surveying techniques Modern

Surveying techniques Photogrammetry Remote Sensing Geographical information System Global Positioning System

Photogrammetry is the practice of obtaining information about physical objects through the process of recording, measuring, and interpreting photographic images. It is most commonly associated with the production of topographic maps through aerial survey. Scale defines the relationship between a linear distance on a vertical photograph and the corresponding actual distance on the ground. Overlapping photography is needed to determine parallax and stereo/3D viewing, end lap is about - 60% and Side lap is 20-30%. Remote sensing Remote sensing is the science/art of acquiring information about the Earth's surface without actually being in contact with it. This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying that information. Elements of remote sensing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Energy Source or Illumination Radiation and the Atmosphere Interaction with the Target Recording of Energy by the Sensor Transmission, Reception, and Processing Interpretation and Analysis Application

Passive remote sensing: Remote sensing systems which measure energy that is naturally available are called passive sensors. Passive sensors can only be used to detect energy when the naturally occurring energy is available. Sun is the main source of energy of EM energy. Active remote sensing: Active sensors, on the other hand, provide their own energy source for illumination. The sensor emits radiation which is directed toward the target to be investigated. The radiation reflected from that target is detected and measured by the sensor. Advantages for active sensors include the ability to obtain measurements anytime, regardless of the time of day or season.

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Dr.Parul Patel

Applications of Remote Sensing Geological Studies, Vegetation applications ( Agriculture, forestry, and Ecology), Urban & land use application, Mineral & petrolium exploration, Marine studies, water resources management etc. Geographical Information System Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based information system used to digitally represent and analyse the geographic features present on the Earth' surface and the events (non-spatial attributes linked to the geography under study) that taking place on it. The meaning to represent digitally is to convert analog (smooth line) into a digital form. "Every object present on the Earth can be geo-referenced", is the fundamental key of associating any database to GIS. Here, term 'database' is a collection of information about things and their relationship to each other, and 'geo-referencing' refers to the location of a layer or coverage in space defined by the co-ordinate referencing system. Components of GIS Hardware, software, Data, People, Method Applications of GIS Urban planning, housing, transportation planning architectural conservation, urban design, landscape, vehicle routing and scheduling, location and site selection and disaster planning, on Management and environmental impact analysis of wild and scenic recreational resources, flood plain, wetlands, acquifers, forests, and wildlife, Hazardous or toxic factories siting and ground water modelling. Wild life habitat study and migrational route planning, Zoning, sub-division plans review, land acquisition, environment impact analysis, nature quality management and maintenance, to locate underground pipes and cables for maintenance, planning, tracking energy use. Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation and positioning system for determination of precise position and time using radio signals from the satellites in real time or in post-processing mode. The system was installed and is maintained by the US Department of Defence (DoD) for military usage. It basically consists of three segments: the Space Segment, the Control Segment and the User Segment. The space segment contains at least 24 satellites in 12-hour nearcircular orbits at altitude of about 20200 km and an inclination of 55 o. The constellation ensures that there are at least 4 satellites in the view from any point on earth at any time assuming that there are no obstacles and the entire 180o angle from horizon to horizon is visible in all the directions. The control segment keeps track of the satellite, gathers and processes the ranging data and uploads this data to the satellite. The user segment consists of an antenna, a receiver, a data processor with software and a control/display unit. It receives navigation message from at least four satellites available above the horizon. Correlation of received code with corresponding code synthesized by receiver allows ground observer to measure transit time of the signal from satellite to the receiver, from which the range of satellite can be computed. Simultaneous reception of four navigation signals from four satellites

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enables the observer to form four equations, which can be solved to obtain the three dimensional coordinates of the observer together with the receiver clock bias as the forth variable. The information is transmitted on two frequencies: L1 (1575.42 MHz), and L2 (1227.60 MHz). These frequencies are called carrier waves because they are used primarily to carry information to GPS receivers. The types of information these carriers (L1 and L2) transport are called CA (Course Acquisition) and P Codes (Precise Code s). The L1 frequency transports both CA and P-code information while the L2 frequency carries only the P-code information. In all, there are five pieces of data that a GPS receiver can take measurements on: L1, L2, CA (on L1), P-code (on L2), and P-code on L2. Applications of GPS Land Survey, Marine Survey, Geographic Information Systems, Mapping, Seismology, Precise Positioning, General Aviation, Commercial Aviation, Air Force Aviation, Recreational, Commercial, Tidal Studies, Army, P/Y Code Capabilities, Navigation, Ship Navigation, Tracking Systems, Offshore Drilling, Public Transit, Automatic Vehicle Location and Dispatch, Public Safety, crustal deformation, subsidence, land slides etc.

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Dr.Parul Patel