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by Louis M. at ihe Department of Ai/riculture.nt of Canada. Fresco . in the year Nineteen Hundred and Seven.Enterid according to Act ol Ihe Parliamp.

M. Borden.. 1896. M.. K.D. .P.G.C. W. Minister of Militia since July 13th.The Honourable Sir F.M.

Chambers (Corps of Guides) Author of tile liistories of The 1st Prince of Wales' Regiment.M. 1 he 43rd Own Rifles. FRESCO. Etc. The lOlh Royal Grenadiers. Highland Cadet Battalion.The Canadian A HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN Militia AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FORCE by Captain Ernest J. - MONTREAL PublUker THE MORTIMER PRESS. The Montreal Duke of Cornwall's Mont Royal". OTTAWA-MONTREAL . Etc. The 5th Royal Highlanders of Canada. "Le 65me Carabiniers The 2nd Queen's Own Rifles. The 90lh Winnipeg Rifles. L. The 3rd (Montreal) Field Battery. The Governor General's Body Guards. The Royal Norlh- Wesl Mounted Police.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • .

Responsibility of Keeping the L^nion Jack Flying in North America. —The of a Trent Aflfair and Fenian Raids. The Militia of Lower Canada.—The Mother Country While Conceding to Self Canada Expects Her The Militia do More in Her Own Defence.— 33 Principles of The War and The Rebellion 1837-38 CHAPTER V. —The the French Militia System Corps Retained.TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE. —The First Dominion Militia Act and Amending Legislation. The NorthDefensive Force Emerges west Rebellion and The South African War. Recent Developments. the Regular — Becomes a National Defensive Force Instead Mere Auxiliary to 61 Army Maritime Province Militia CHAPTER VII. Staff —The Canadian Militia Becomes an Effective Army With Own and Departmental Organizations And Arsenals.—The Government to Militia of United Canada.—The Militia a Butt of Political Discord 44 CHAPTER VI.— The Fenian Raids of 1870 and 1871. —Lower Canadian Militia and Volunteer of 1812-14 and 1837. The Change of Flags and Transfer of Allegiance. Sir Guy Carleton's Militia and Volunteers 20 IV. — Military Rule Canadian Militia in First British 15 CHAPTER CHAPTER III. The Canadian Militia of the French Regime Canada.—The CHAPTER VIII. 7 CHAPTER CHAPTER The I. 9 II. —Canada's From The 87 Experimental Stage CHAPTER Its IX. of —^The Original Organization under Governor Simcoe. —The Royal Canadian Volunteers. British Regulars —Canada Assumes The Whole —Departure of the Last 104 m2^o:k)9 .—The Red River Expeditions. 76 Militia of the Dominion. The Upper Canada of 1812 Militia.


or anything resembling them. and to the deeprooted determination of the Canadian people. has been accompanied by a development of wholesome national military spii. has done not a little to foster and nourish it. and the existence of the Canadian Militia. in the extension of her domestic industries and in the expansion of her internal and foreign commerce. only succumbed when the virile military spirit which had established When the Lydians. History proves beyond is all cavil that the continued possession of a ster- ling military spirit absolutely essential to-llie preservation of the liberty. at once raised the Canadian Militia from the level of a mere auxiliary IThe South African War stimulated and in been for years. . Babylonia. endeavored to throw off the Persian yoke. begotten of their royalist stock. T[The sound. Phoenicia and Lydia. during a momentheir prosperity and glory was extinguished. in cases of local emergency. to the status of a powerful and necessary unit of the Imperial defensive force.) decided that the subjugation of the proud race should be He did not lay the rebellious country waste nor put its people crushing and final. Cyrus (559-531 B. and were actually compelled to live in the idle enjoy- ment lized of the wealth they possessed. and with own arsenals.C. of the regular army.it and by an expansion of the defensive force of the Dominion just as noteworthy and unquestionably just as essential to the continued prosperity and happiness of the inhabitants of the Dominion as a people. tary revival of national military spirit. and equipment. IThanks to the oft-recurring outbreaks of unfriendliness among sections of the people of the neighbouring but not always neighbourly repul)lic. liable to be called upon to furnish men. and the intervening few years have seen an incompletely organized. Ancient empires like Assyria. king Croesus to this day stands as a synonym for vast wealth. sober military spirit which permeates the loyal and patriotic population of Canada is unquestionably one of the most valuable assets of this great country. IfThe Canadian people and the Canadian Militia have manfully assumed the increased responsibility. who combined the wisdom of a philosopher with the skill and courage of a mighty conqueror. there has always been more or less military spirit in this country. a poorly supported. This policy soon accomplished its purpose. Egypt. magazines with modern armaments and departments. The Lydians were fabulously rich. so much so that the name of their to the sword. to preserve inviolate at all costs the territory of Canada as the home of British par- liamentary institutions and the ark of true freedom in North America. and an oft-neglected militia transformed into an effective army with a carefully selected its and trained staff. decided that the national wealth of the Lydians coupled with the obliteration of the military spirit prevailiiig among them should be made to work the They were deprived of their arms and all trophies and monuments nation's death. Cyrus.PREFACE THE in remarkable progress made by Canada during the past eight or ten years the development of her natural resources. the higher standards of moral and religious life. and the true happiness of nations. in order that the race might become demora- and effeminate. even during the periods of most pronounced neglect. the military spirit in Canada as it had not demonstrating the mighty scope which existed for cooperation between the Mother Country and her daughter nations in defence of the Empire. and perhaps a few selected officers. the material prosperity. They were forbidden to practice military evolutions recalling past military glories.

to Major R. the absolute con- Mother Country. develop- Canadian Militia. to Dr. A. fOn account of the lack of space at his command the author found that it was impossible in this volume to give more than a passing notice to the campaigns of it of more practical importance to trace the development and to record the successive changes which have taken place in its organization and internal administration. G. ment and services of the first When he was TJThe Minister of Militia. as her oft-tried loyalty well warrants.. of the Canadian Military Institute. Librarian of the Militia Department. Accountant and Paymaster-General. H. Lane. -Colonel A. J. had been already interviewed by He also most courteously the publishers and kindly expressed his approval. Lessard. to Colonel F. largely drawn upon and so have the annual reports of the Militia Department.PREFACE— Cmitinued ^And Canada. promised the writer that any departmental information he required should be placed at his disposal.. more particularly to Lieut. and to their staff of the Parliamentary Library. J. Adjutant-General of Militia. is and ^There in the with reference to the infancy of the subject for congratulation to all Dominion Archives a veritable mine of invaluable information Canadian defensive force. he agreed to do the work. fidence of the possessing. has dutifully and proudly assumed the full responsibility of keeping the flag of the Empire flying in the northern half of this continent. ^A new epoch in the history of the Canadian forces has been reached. Ottawa. and it must be a interested in the force to it know that this material and usefully availis preparation of the following pages the Archives have been In the able to them. and to a large number of military and literary friends who have placed material pictures at the author's disposition. for a book of the kind has been long needed. Toronto. Quartermaster-General. but realizing that the volume proposed could hardly fail to be of immediate practical use to his comrades of the militia and others interested. being so skilfully carefully arranged that will and be directly ERNEST 325 Daly Ave. 1907. Sir Frederick Borden. 1[For many years the writer has had in contemplation the production of a volume or series of volumes giving. Arthur Doughty. CHAMBERS. the Canadian Army.W. to Colonel D. in comprehensive detail. parliamentary papers and the Hansards of the Senate and House of Commons. a record of the origin. be styled the development of the Canadian Militia. approached by the publishers of this book and invited to undertake the writing of it. author of a most interesting pamphlet on the militia (1875). L. and the time seems opportune for taking a glance backward and for reviewing the various stages of It might now. Ottawa.Borden. he hesitated somewhat. to J. MacDonald. Dominion Archivist. Todd and Messrs. Librarians of Parliament. more correctly. deeming of the force ^Thanks have to be accorded to Doctors De Celles and Griffin. to Mr. Wicksteed. . July 1. the Militia. and he hopes yet to carry out that idea. The last soldier on the pay rolls of His Majesty's regular army has left Canadian soil. to Major Irving. Sylvain and MacCormac. as the time and space placed at his disposal were limited. CM.

but the authorities appear to have availed themselves of the good offices of the militia captains. But it under Montcalm and de Levis. the object of the British wa. and yet the militia organizaFrench colony was. Montreal contained 4. from the derivation of the word. the Canadian of armed force raised in Montreal. suspended regime the that sovereign's commissions in the colony. was subject to subsequent treaty. the organized national reserve in fact. but rendered claim some relationship to gallant of Canadian Militia the French Act of Capitulation of Montreal.s to obtain the services of the officers of the old Canadian rather than in their military was the old militia organization which was temporarily revived under British authMilitia in their civil capacities. not only in reAmerican invasion of 1775-76. 1759. or to be more accurate. appreciated militia that rendered such fine service True. so many of the officers who hat! fought so valiantly to uphold the fleurs-delys. of perman' ently embodied troops —regulars — with a complete permanent staff. and includes a force (small it is true). nevertheless. a soldier) is generally considered by encyclopedists and historians as meaning that portion of the military strength of a nation enrollpd for discipline and instruction. And when the first colonial acts respecting Canada. . and it was they who were relied upon to raise and command the first British Canadian ority. and we know'*from parliamentary history that old English representatives 9 in the House of Commons. hut local in its orsanization. As to personnel of those of the officers of Militia. this present acknowledi^ed m'-anin^ was not its oriKtnal one.000 inhabitants. of the organization of a militia under the British rule course voided. accepting similar appointments under the Union Jack. To all effects and purposes the first Canadian militia organized under the British regime was the After the formal cession by treaty Canada to Britain the French commissions were cancelled by ordinance. realizing the national dreatl of military dictatorship. old French militia influences of the old miUtia organizations of Similarly it England rather than that there are of those of New France. the to who raised was the officers of the and officered the most many sort points of of connection entitling of the volunteer corps pelling the present Militia the of Dominion of Canada the which served. including were drafted the militia laws and practices of tlie old were taken into consideration and had a marked effect on the legislation in question. objected to the application of the term "militia" to the constitutional and popular branch of the defensive forces of the country. Quebec and Three system bears the impress the Rivers in 1764 for use in the operations against the western Indians. document in question But the ink upon the was scarcely dry before the would take the oath the first Canadian militia under British rule. the muster rolls of that period could be easily mistaken for those of the splendid but poorly British authorities provided for the recommissioning of such of the militia officers as of allegiance. In the generally accepted sense referred to the term is now a misnomer applied to the defensive force of Canada. for the capitulation. Few people realize what a powerful force the militia of the old battle of the Plains of The year of the first Abraham. *The word "militia" (from the Latin miles. authority of the King of France Regime. Clearly. for what we call the 'Active Militia" is the Dominion' s first line of defence. cancelling in The the good service with the Loyalist armies during the revolutionary campaigns in what is now the United States. same body as had served the Bourbons so well before of the Capitulation of Montreal.CHAPTER I THE CANADIAN MILITIA OF THE FRENCH REGIME ALTHOUGH as Militia* it at present exists. and enffaiied in active service only in case of emergency.

the was located. the clergy and ferred to of upon the smart Languedoc. says Rogers "Rise of Canada. professional soldiers noblesse excepted. These officials in turn decided upon the strength of the quotas of the various parishes. decided what quotas were required from each seigniory and town and forwarded a requisition therefor to the Town Majors and Seigneurs. La Sarre. a pair of and the French fortresses in Crown Point. performed good service during the siege. the regulation of statute labour. Militia in Ordinances. responsible for the drill and good order of his men.000 men on service in the field. Consequently. then Governor of Canada. The employment as scouts and skirmishers was congenial to the warlike race. According to Parkman. was required to enroll himself The military administrative organizaoutside of Quebec. all under salary. They pre- every man the colony. At least from the year 1754 until the Capitulation of Montreal every parish Quebec were naked. In every parish there was a Captain of Militia. Bearne. Law- rence. This enrollment of such a large proportion of the population was accomplished by the tion of the province After receiving their equipments. the Quebec. eyes of those used to the prim. militia dressed Some of the Canadian prisoners captured in affairs of outposts during Wolfe's upon being the Captains of Militia. and marching them under escort into the nearest town where the Town Major furnished each militiaman with arms and clothing. when the English American colonists had determined upon in his Town Mayor each militiaman the four expeditions against with a gun. he found all Canada in arms. Many duties of a civil nature in connection with the administration of the law. functions of partisans and bushrangers. a cap. Niagara Nova Scotia and on the Indian shoes and a blanket. generally reviewed once or twice a year for the inspection of their arms. and considering the country. bridges and other public utilities were imposed Sometimes the old French Canadian exactly like their Indian siege of allies. artillery must certainly have looked more serviceable than the critical and atctahed considerable bodies of regular soldierly. just as important. whose authority was not only acknowledged but rigidly until the enforced. The French authorities do not appear to have made any serious attempt. a pair of leggings. From of the date first mentioned appearance of Saunders' militia fleet in the St. in cases of emergency. minutely inspected and disciplined the militia of the seigniories. and the artillery Rivers was frequently exercised. consisted of a Governor. while the seigneurs were generally commissioned as colonels. that Montreal alone had a militia force of about 1. a cotton shirt. As the country was not commanders depended largely upon the militia for the important duties of the scouting and intelligence service. the militiamen were marched to the garrison for which they were destined. Guienne tion in each colonial district. When the Marquis de Vaudreuil de Cavagnac arrived in 1775 to succeed du Quesne. The Governors. a Lieutenant du Roi and a Town Major. to The French governors undoubtedly appreciated . with their bodies daubed with red and blue paint. the French officers made no attempt to instill into the ranks of the militia any idea of drill and discipline beyond such as was necessary to secure a fair show of order while on the march.was so perfect. organized the militia of Quebec and Montreal. a capote. Quebec rely artillery company. New was a garrison. commanded by a Captain of Militia. apart from the case of the aid of the Feudal law of Fiefs. where the Carignan. and they readily came forward whenever the war drum sounded. 10 every garrison. But he showed in the field and forest that he could do the work required of him. based upon soldiers or artillerymen out of the militia. in which respect they resembled the England Rangers. while clothing suitable for cavalry." in 1754 to be exact. they were said to use the scalping knife as freely as the Indians. a Canadian cloak. and the making and maintenance of roads. the Captains raising the men by a draft. and requisitioned administration the Captains of Militia therefor. the At the embodiment furnished During the Anglo-Indian French war. these useful officials compensated for their services in time of peace by grants of powder and ball. Berry and Royal Roussillon regiments and the Troupes de la " Marine" for the line of battle. the the peasant soldiery in a fashion as much unlike the military uniform of the day as anything well could be. tight-laced soldiers of those days. in the militia. Montreal and Three The old French militia was. The old Canadian militiaman particularly during to the French regime Ohio. the Marquis du Quesne. according to Warburton. that of Quebec was frequently exercised. The levies clothing supplied the militiaman can scarcely of the be described as a uniform. and with bunches of painted feathers in their hair. leaving to the militia the just as dangerous. the Quebec militia including a carefully trained artillery company which company at- tached thereto was very efficient. to make trained line Under the French this law. a breech clout.

Montreal. of the greatest inland waterway in the world. as compared with that of the English. yet fifty men were called out and placed under arms to assist in repelling one of the ever-recurring Iroquois attacks." organizing our be lost all Courage and self-sacrifice were required on behalf of Pestilence concerned to maintain the little colony.) were required to assist the In 1648 mention soldiers in garrison duty if needed. and the treacherous courtier. in fact. Lawrence into companies. In 1649 the first call militia service appears to upon the inhabitants for actual have been made. except the priests. ance of that question could not be overlooked by the authorities. 87 companies. The officers of this service while on duty in Canada signed themselves "Captain" or "Lieutenant. the Marquis de Vaudreuil issued a proclamation to the officers of the Canadian militia to excite their zeal And. divided among the military districts as follows: —Quebec. On at the official time of the conquest. but the habitants showed some disinclination to leave their In many cases the levies. and quicken their activity in preparations for resist- "Notwithstanding our glorious successes. the prowling savage." as the case male population of the colony did not exceed 1. The whole and afterwards of sixty-five men each. Canada. known as the "Fraternity de la Tres Sainte Vierge. and should remain in readiness to march at a that all moment's notice." speaking of this force says :—" Though attached to the naval department they served on land. should be enrolled in the militia. forms of similar pattern to the black facings. permanent military establishment of Canada. the effective militiamen of the colony numbered 20. No time must he. sections of the country remained waste. the occasion of this last appeal of the French governor there was really a magnificent response." They wore white line regiments. Francis Parkman. were soldiers. were administered by the French Department of Marine. " the state of the colony is perilous. Practically all of the first settlers. in his pre-eminently interesting and accurate volumes "Montcalm and Wolfe. at of fifty. He then directed defence. which maintained an army of its own.S. as to the origin of the French Militia in Canada. combined to endanger the very existence of the settlements. or as garrisons of the outlying forts. according to British returns. Three Rivers. and so it came that the Mississippi. with other matters The importto engage their attention than defence. 1.000 men. the western prairies. and this service appears to have been maintained continuously until In 1653 was organized a sort of volunteer corps men. That same year 100 volunteers were called out as a "camp volant" to patrol the country between Montreal and Three Rivers.976 men. undaunted. "of a in company of the troops detached from the Marine. at the close of the year 1758." . from sixteen to sixty years of age. the hardy pioneers of the colony on the banks of the St." said ance. ten uni- more companies were added. Dutch and Spanish colonies along the Atlantic seaboard. 7.the value of the force. great advantage which Canada has to-day. years.331 men. la 64 companies or 7. Thus they had become ill-disciplined and inefficient. universal conscription. where their officers busied themselves more with fur trading With the extension of the colony a purely commercial element sprang up and developed. worked out the salvation of themselves and of New France. the male inhabitants of the province. and well beyond the spheres of inNew France had the fluence of all rival colonies. On the date mentioned an order than with their military duties. for. 19 companies. The annals of this heroic period of Canadian history have a peculiar fascination for the reader. is made of the organization of some of the inhabitants in Acadia and along the St. and equipped to do duty as such. Lawrence pursued their explorations completely around. form- ing a total of 1. and were employed as a police within the limits of the colony. and we find as early as 1627 the first legal enactment imposing military responsibility on the population at large." In 1664 the whole male population of Montreal able to bear arms was enrolled as volunteers as a precaution on account of threatened Indian troubles. The Captains of militia faithfully endeavoured to comply with these orders. for colonial service.950 rank and file. was insignificant. increased in 1750 to thirty companies. but with The colonies. distinct from the Royal Army. now. N. The population rapidly during of the colony did not extend very and eventually the country was involved in a state of absolute famine." which formed the explored by parties from this colony. under the law of farms. might be described as forming a part temporarily of the French Colonial militia. till the hard hand of du Quesne restored them to order. m and famine.115 men. and the distant Rocky Mountains were discovered and first its earliest The "Troupes de Marine. but the brave colonists. They originally consisted of twenty-eight independent companies. first was issued that all the male inhabitants of Port Royal (now Annapolis.433 men. of 63 11 may be. 1651. were carried out to the letter. struggle and when the last decisive was impending. but the geographical bounds of its commercial activity increased tremendously. Although the population of New France. In March 1757.

In those early days the Boston be captured. houses for the troops in Montreal and Three Rivers. war only. May 16. M. M. 1677. To obviate . intendant. the Iroquois belonged to the April 3rd. Meantime Governor of New France. bodily incorporated in November 1st. were admirably adapted for settlement in a country in which constant fighting was going on with the Iroquois and Sallieres. These men. made pre- which had returned to France after fighting Turks in Hungary. the Governor-General. recently deceased. and petitioned His Majesty to award a commission in the navy to a son of M. In 1684. of trouble with the Iroquois and English. De Much of the glory of the first reinforcements asked for be sent or that he may be permitted to resign and return to France. writing on the state of the colony to the minister. with the Iroquois. wrote to the French government demanding re-inforceIn 1682. near Fort Nelson." to be brigaded in time of ereau de La Ferte. shortages of crops often resulting. " milices. the King wrote M. de La Barre that 200 soldiers had been sent from France to assist the colony. the colonial officials felt the need of regular troops. element was about this time the population of Canada. and to France in 1669 in when the regiment returned many of its officers and men remained this ston). who had returned to Quebec as militia. Governor of Montreal. Although the internal organization was progressing. was so firmly convinced of this that he submitted a scheme to the minister for the capture of New York. and their descendants are here to day. he brought with him as settlers the then newly disbanded regiment of Carignanstrong military A November 12. April 10. 1669. de La Barre proceeded with his preparations for the expedition. d'archers. 1707. reinforcements from over the ocean not having arrived. commanded by Captain Denis Joseph Juch- pany of militia. for a punitive expedition of friendly against the causing a number the English colonists. the then governor. thoroughly reorganized the militia. Courcelles. his first having been killed the year before in an expedition to Brazil. 1684. of troops. volunteering to carry the scheme into execution himself chiefly with at Court. the King of France wrote M. de Meules. The same year M. de Frontenac gave great credit to the Canadians. de Frontenac. and assembled a force of Canadians and Indians at Fort Frontenac and reviewed them there the Augu&t 14. complained that there were no guard The proposition was favourably entertained and instructions as to its execution issued to Count de Frontenac. to Phipps' expedition and suggested that as a reply Saurel. a company of Canadian militia from Cap Rouge. The Chevalier de Callieres. to organize all male inhabitants of Canada into companies in (Canadian order to teach them the use of arms.) From militia Between 1674 and 1676 Frontenac. the able-bodied men of each parish or c6t6. During this period there was almost constant trouble on account ments In 1679. 1711. Indians to assemble at Fort Frontenac (now Kingand reviewing them April 17th. forming a comof this time forward drafts of the Canadian were on almost constant service. June 5th." to execute its ordinances and at the head of a party of Canadian militia. acquitted themselves with distinction. 1684. de Ramezay wrote to Governor Vaudreuil requesting a commission for his second son. the English governor of New Severn. giving that body the form it retained up to 1759-60. and providing for six "officiers and this serving with d' Iberville in the same militia officer Hudson Bay in 1689. When the Marquis de Tracy arrived to take over the duties of Viceroy in 1664. the Canada. served in de La Barre's expedition against the Iroquois. The following year de La Barre wrote another letter Governor-General In his reports to the minister on the successful repulse at Quebec of the British Colonial fleet under King renewing his request for troops to make war upon the Iroquois. M. and The drafting militia of so many of the inhabitants for trouble in service caused considerable the many of them served in the French army and navy 12 colony. Archives. again appealed to the King for military aid to protect the colony against the Iroquois. and the governors and other officials were firmly convinced that the Indians were instigated by the English colonists. the Governor wrote to the minister praying that the campaigns against Canadian levies. Governor of the Island of Montreal. ambition of young Canadians to serve in the regular armed forces of the Crown was very marked. with Ramezay. De La Barre. meantime.And similar precautions were doubtless taken in the other settlements. wrote the minister thanking him for having appointed his son to a commission in the Marine Guards. an Edict was issued creating the office of "Pr6v6t" in Canada. de distinction. The Governor had. captured decrees. the iron governor France. de to the Admiral Phipps in 1690. according New to the reports of the commanding officers. liminary arrangements Iroquois. and. who had aided the in setting bounds to Mahomedan encroachment.

to the minister. recommended that muskets be also given to old soldiers who had previously In a letter dated married and settled in the colony. because they earn more and are more independent when they are further away. for after the departure of the Carignan regiment the regular garrisons did not exceed in the aggregate 300 men. de Champigny and de Frontenac spoke of having In a letter dated dated Quebec.200 comparatively time the French Government impressed rapid development of the men. Hocquart. Six or seven extra companies were sent to the colony. Inin the colony. Similar requests were made in 1693. The same year he forwarded another memorandum on the same subject to the Duke of Orleans. Quebec. some reinforcements were received. governor general. military resources of the English colonies. of the inhabitants of Canada fit to bear arms with the large proportion of English colonists. M. 1725. and every precaution was taken to make the most of what military resources the colony possessed. contains the names and citizens of despatched 700 men to Fort Frontenac. wrote the minister of Marine recommending that soldiers marrying in Canada and settling here be allowed to retain This suggestion was apparently adtheir muskets. 1727. and September 15th." that regulars be sent out. the rest of his force. the Intendant. however. In 1691. wrote husbanding the local resources. the Intendant.. In 1714. 1695. M. and they were commanded by a Captain of Infantry. 1726. When Celeron de Bienville. setting forward the urgent need for a thousand soldiers. extended so considerably as to call for regular official September 20. etc. acknowledging the receipt of permission to muskets to discharged soldiers remaining October 20th. and in September 28. They always want to push on. Militia Captains. Minister of Marine. a large proportion of them of d'Eschaillons militia. when they it comes to a question of orandum to the Council of Marine on the danger to Canada in the event of war with England. will not consent to removing to a distance do so. Intendant. de Champigny. writing to M. Dupuis.this danger constant demands were made for regular troops. Lachine on his celebrated ex- pedition to the Valley of the Ohio. left compared with the New England colonies. de Vaudreuil. 1728. of regulars This was about the ordinary proportion and militia of the numerous hard-fighting war parties of those years. drew the attention of the ability of officials in was composed principally 18. themselves in order to Quebec who presented learn the gim drill during the years 1725. Governor de Vaudreuil forwarded a 24th of May. without troubling themselves about the settlement of the interior. The exigencies the colony of military service. and pro- The war party sent to the Boston country under command October and de Rouville in 1708 bably anxious to avoid the constant demands of the Canadian governors for regular troops. M. of Canadians. the corps of militia artillery maintained to assist the regular troops in the manipulation of the big guns in that fortress. wrote distribute In Quebec. de Vaudreuil's successor. however. and an statement November 10. 1830. and highly praised the Canadians operating with the Royal The following year the old governor left troops. that their colonies are more densely peopled and better established than ours. in view of the small number of inhabitants able to bear arms. 1749. de Frontenac wrote the fresh Kmg asking for 1692. Randot. June 15th. 1. at different times between 1684 and 1713-7. Dupuy. The result of this difference in the mode of proceeding is. 1714. The militia system in New France appears to have . October of the burgesses 1728. M. About with the this Montreal on his chief punitive expedition at the head of 2. he had no less than 180 Canadian Militia with him. opted. 13 20 soldiers. exclusive of Indians. October 17. made it was fully realized by the officials of necessary to use the Canadian settlers on far distant fields that each succeeding year placed increased military disadvantage New France at an on militia service. and in October of the last-named year. De Maurepas. a regular troops. to the colonies to the desir- 1708. wrote to the Minister of Marine that an increased public expenditure had been caused by the assembling of militia to be sent to Choueguen. then Intendant of Canada. De Beauharnois. Regent He contrasted the small number of the kingdom. and steps 'taken to settle and It fortify the colony in every way. reported to the minister upon the reorganization of the troops and militia. 1726 and 1727. attained considerable official dis- tinction for its efficiency. wrote: "The policy of the people of New England being to labour at the thorough cultivation of their — farms and to push on their settlements little mem- by little. because the expense He asked woidd fall upon themselves The settlers of New France are of a different mind. the duties of the latter shown by the having a document among the Dominion Archives. May 22. tendant. memorial was despatched to the minister by de Frontenac. recognition. is How On well the situation was appreciated in France the Minister with reference to salaries for Councillors. and M. being 14 officers and cadets and Governor de Vaudreuil.

the King charging himself with the arms and equipment. Office. The militia on being drawn were given three francs. 13 of one. but the first drawing in Paris did not take place until March. the clergy and the nobility. rank and authority were divided among the gentry with due by Louis XIV temporary militia force of 25. and this number was. but they were not called out except in case of war. the gentry being drawn into still closer attachment to the governments of their by commissions in the Provincial (Les Troupes de la Marine) and Royal troops. and 29 separate battalions. uniform and underclothing. very arbitrary in practice. This institution had its origin in the militia of the Communes. The King fixed by an ordinance the number of men to be called out. all power practically residing in the Governor and Intendant. when a men was maintained in France. "Les Milices Provinciales " of Old France were auxiliary troops recruited upon emergency. In each province the intendant determined what contingent was to be furnished by each community. This is shown by the instruments creating the various 14 . During peace the regimental staffs (cadres) only were maintained. divided among the provinces. The political government of Canada before the conquest was very simple. 1743. but exclusive of the two first orders. As a matter of fact the seigneurs owed their titles and estates to past military services. They comprised in principle all able-bodied men between the ages of sixteen and forty. if arbitrary. The lists'. The militia of France in 1749 formed 40 regiments of two battalions each. in council.000 degrees of subordination. the Council having little real power. The men so drawn and equipped were eligible for service for ten years. and those enrolled determined by lot who were to go with the draft. and was first put into effect between 1688 and 1697.been in many respects in advance of that of the Mother Country. and their capacity for rendering posts valuable aid in the defence of the colony. It became permanent in 1726 under the administration of the Duke of Bourbon. clearly seignories. were drawn up by the intendants.

1760. to the war-scarred veterans of the militia the proud consciousness of having. to participate in the operations against Montreal. And above all. a race of people unequalled for their docility. To the rich harvest of imperishable glory reaped by the devoted supporters of the cause of the Bourbons during this. capitulated July 26th. with his army. bravery and loyalty. he received the submission of the various parishes on his way. The militiamen of Montreal must have felt keen pangs of regret when the Union Jack replaced the Fleurs de Lys on the little citadel near the site of the present Place Viger Station. last Battle of 13. . July 25. they had gained. the morning after the signBut they had been for years ing of the capitulation. so successfully. in growing disgusted at the rapacity and rascality of many of the French colonial officials and at the slights put had so heroically and. to General Amherst Fort Niagara was captured by the Frideaux and first British force under Brigadier General Sir Wm. LOUISBURG. the Flains Johnson. —The First British Canadian Militia. SeptembeT 8. the amazing hardihood and the pathetic devotion of the the lion's share. " regular " many armies of conceited and quarrelsome these beautiful and vast countries France loses 70. and the white-coated colonial troops and regulars of France before this day of final of contract-raised." That this tribute was and poorly handled regiments that had often suffered defeat at the hands of the Canadian militia. Though the fortimes of war had been against them and Britain had won their country. The ordinary people. submitThe change of flags in ting to the inexorable logic of a vastly superior force.C. and consoled themselves hour of the triumph of their hereditary enemies by the hope that it might deliver them from aspeciesof petty tyranny which they knew did not exist in the English colonies. 1759 the of Abraham was fought . 1758 .B. surrendered the French armies and the whole of New France to General Amherst. When quitting Canada..CHAPTER Military II THE CHANGE OF FLAGS Rule in Canada. done their whole duty. disastrous campaign. the spring of 1760 ascended upon them by some of the regular officers. fought. and richly deserved one has but to study the history of the Old Regime to realize. when the Marquis de Vaudreuil and General de Levis. Canada dates from the capitulation of Montreal. had suffered conthe overbearing siderably in many cases from 15 the St. at least. as much honour out of the prolonged contest as their tent — "With conquerors' colonials. There was a feeling. as these in Canadian militia fairly contributed There was no disgrace for such men the final defeat of the cause for which they for long. too. in the colony that New France had been to a considerable ex- conduct in the capitulated September 18. Lawrence from Quebec. When General Murray. to them. September the named year. during many years of most exacting service. too. and Quebec of the seigneurs.000 inhabitants of a rare quality. the gallantry. de Vaudreuil paid this homage to the Canadian people in a letter to the French ministry: left to its fate by the Mother Country. defeat. robbed defeat of its bitterest sting.

Gage. In the government dered their arms.the comitry lost. the arms would either be returned to them or placed in an armory as might be determhied. provided they would take the oath of allegiance to the British Crown. but dissatisfied clients had a power of appeal to the the parochial militia captains to settle nearest British commandant or to himself. No less much to their own discretion in carrying out the details of their systems of administrations. to some extent. and of public and public The admuiistration communal affairs^ works as roads. the old officials might safely be entrusted with these duties. Murray reserved to himself the jurisdiction. Canadians found in corps serving with the French would be transported to France with the regular the rural militiamen considering The three governors seem to have been left pretty depositing their arms. or less than five members. and at Place D'Armes the regular regiments of the garrison were drawn up and surrento take formal possession the A istrators of the laws of the country. officers and the to some extent the French in their services of the of old militia troops. with an appeal to a court composed chiefly of officers of His Majesty's Army. In each one there was to assemble a court (Un corps d'Officiers de Milice) on the first and fifteenth of each month. and that night. the other. whether on account of that district being the seat of the chief administration. The French regulars and officials were without any unnecessary delay shipped home to J>ance. for that General Gage. Two prominent French Canadians were appointed public procurators personnel of and of spirit of the militia in for the civil purpose of justice enlisting their assistance the and legal commissaries before the military tribunal of Quebec City: one being Jacques Belcourt de Lafontaine. etc. almost the same arrangement was made. Joseph Etienne Cugnet. Etienne.. 1761. were to be composed of not more than seven.400 men of the seigniory of Boucherville alone took the oath of Murray issued a proclamation that all neutrality. and bridges. of course remained force pending the final disposition of Canada by treaty.. who was also to act as Com- mander military in Chief. were called into requisition to assist accustomed capacities as the local adminin detachment of the British army entered Montreal day after the signing of the capitulation." The government was divided for the administration of justice into 5 districts. to have been perfectly satisfied. if in fact their authority was not increased. 16 and less expensive to those obliged to resort thereto. bridges. The military government established by Amherst divided the account the administration of justice of his government. General Thomas Gage was the first governor of Montreal. and as these matters had to be attended to by somebody. for the country on the right bank of the St. and Colonel Ralph Burton of Three Rivers. than 1. including such on the left side of the river. The English colonial troops with Amherst's armies were also returned to their homes. and order them to give up their arms. (Montreal) authorized any differences amongst the people according to their own discretion. September 19th General Amherst instructed Colonel Haldimand to assemble the militia of Montreal who had served under the French regime. for the drums beat the sunset tattoo in the streets of Montreal. This council held bi-weekly sederunts. Lawrence. Murray constituted a military council for his district (Quebec) composed of seven army officers. taking hito set forth that composed of militia officers. time. but the various governments were all of a military pattern. &c. were anxious to acquauit themselves with the of Montreal the militia officers found themselves re-instated in practically all their former functions. 13. ex-member of the sovereign coimcil. without power of appeal. These courts of militia officers. for when General Amherst established his military governments in the An ordinance dated at Montreal. That done. at once. or left them to the care of military labour. over other cases. had seen fit to prepare the present ordinance and release for the courts of justice of the government of Montreal. but in Quebec. On this point the British army officers appear generally. administration the country. Governor of Montreal and its dependencies. and being desirous of rendering it moi-e prompt country into three districts — Quebec. the repairs of roads subalterns in the country parts. or that the population was not so well disposed towards the new rulers. as judges of the more important civil and criminal pleas. which. Over the first was placed General James Murray. if they evinced any willingness to act. English The British force at once mounted first guards and posted sentries. had under the old regime been in the hands of the militia officers. the militia appears to have been only called upon to assist in the regulation of the statuory. who decided cases brought before them in a summary way. October colony he made provision for several courts of justice "His Excellency Thos. etc. of which one should . Montreal and Three Rivers. it was thought that. From subsequent proceedings it appeared that the British army authorities. At Three Rivers. who thus found themselves responsible for the government of the newly acquired colony. seigneur of St. &c. in his district.

was approved by the Governor. Three veiy different opinions were entertained as to the effect of the Royal Proclamation of October 7. 1763. Gage forwarded a letter to " Messieurs. their pay. In civil cases involving small amounts. and to prepare rosters of officers for duty therein. the militia officers to furnish with each prisoner an account of the crime and a list of witnesses. held The officers of militia of each district were summoned to meet in their parishes on the 24th October. There were those who argued that the proclamation repealed all the existing laws and established English laws in their places. members of hostile felt inclined to rely upon the honour than though late enemies. the gratitude and protection of the king. note that on retiring from the It is satisfactory to governorship of Montreal. And this it is gratifying to relate that this reliance upon the honor of the officers of the Canadian militia at trying period of the national history was not misplaced. and not always just and enlightened. the "ConseUdes Montreal" presented a memorial to the de Governor. in the of those considered to be the best versed in The commissions in the militia were generally 17 . one to meet at Montreal the other at Verennes. and no further. influence upon the early years of British civil government in Canada." This memorial. dian people at the capitulation of Montreal. The town of Montreal was set apart as a judicial district of its own with a local Board of Officers o administrate the From these courts appeal was to be allowed laws. be were not only made use of in the admhiistration of justice. and they had shown themselves to be good soldiers. the senior to act as president." dated Montreal. compensated for his services at the rate Two militia sergeants of 30 " sols " for each sentence. although from this period doubtless dates British back the intimacy between the old noblesse and the officials which resulted in the former class exerting a preponderating. upon the conquest of a civilized country. to make arrangements for the whole of these courts. naturally of brother soldiers. Continue to do your duty in advancing the public welfare. in which he " I cannot help expressing the satisfaction that have always derived from your conduct. 1761. They argued that according to the spirit of English law. Sulpice. rather upon that of civilians. than the militia courts of the district. but not proclaimed in Canada until the following May. Governor in person was provided for. Boards of Officers of His Majesty's Troops. appeal to the In the event of capital crimes. the same year. which their They requested that chamber and that Mr. for the supervision of the statutory labour or "corvee. and the third at St. and not only increase the good reputation you have already acquired among your fellow countrymen. others were of the opinion that the Canadian laws remained unrepealed. as they had done in the past. that they be exempted from the obligation to October Milice billet troops in their domiciles. The militia placing of the administration of the law to such in the hands of the officers of the old French an honest attempt to place the administration of the French laws. a treasurer to Montreal. to three respective districts. their clerk. officers of militia were authorized to arrest the criminals and their accomplices. but requested. in which they expressed their willingness to administer justice gratuitously. not exceeding 20 livres.with that strong by the seigneurs professional regard which engenders a species of deep- seated comradeship even between armies. were specially enjouied to The officers of militia mamtain peace and order within their respective districts. by a scale of fees. as a favor from His Excellency. often the most highly esteemed men in the country. Capitaines de 17. six cords of in wood be purchased to heat the sittings were held. les Capitaines de la Chambe de Milice de Provision was made for the payment of the militia officers. the temporary continuance of which had been promised to the Canaan extent was clearly hands them. but only so far as it did not conflict with the laws of Great Britain. October 7. Others again thought that the effect of the proclamation and the resultant Acts was to introduce the criminal laws of England and to confirm the Civil Law of Canada. 1763. Decouagne. the laws remain in force till the conquerors shall have expressly ordained to the contrary. these Courts of Appeal to sit on From these courts a further the 20th of eacli month.hold the rank of captain. it was also explained. Panet. and to conduct them imder guard to Montreal. but earn what you will certainly not fail to receive. but also for the district. and the other notabilities of their and these persons were not merely the best educated but. durhig the time I have had the honour to be your chief. October 1763. a Royal Proclamation was issued providing for the government of the new colony somewhat along the lines of the prevailing system. for all of these duties wrote I be appointed for each court. and it becomes my duty before leaving your country to testify as to my lively recognition of the services which you have rendered to your king and country. all the officers of the militia were individually granted authority to adjudicate with an appeal to. appointed to act as bailiffs and criers of the had been court and a tariff of fees was asked for to provide for These sergeants." The Treaty of Versailles ceding Canada to Britain was signed in February. which was signed R. The victorious officers.

construction of bridges. the Lieut. customary Burton promptly accepted the explanation. and more or less local ill-feelling was gradually consolidated into a wave of national discontent. New laws to meet all public distribution. The mighty uprising of the western Indians.. etc. It was doubtless felt that this would help to maintain the authority of the militia officers who had been friendly enough to the new authorities to take the Oath of in order that the recipients their hands in. removed from Three issued a proc- the improvement of the roads and maintenance and Rivers to replace General Gage as Governor at Montreal. He was strongly of opinion that the whole raised number should and could be to clearly proved by many existing placards of by voluntarily enlistment. on loan. immured to war and military discipline. government on the posting of the present placard. etc. and one of the objects of the Fred. and ah order from the new governor the arms. etc. failing the proclamation of new laws. issued by Governor Burton. Colonel Canada by the British. Governor of Quebec and Commander-in-Chief. customary manner. and there was much overlapping of systems and many disputes as to procedure. in a The proclamation may be said." many of the features of the military administration certain To strengthen number the hands of the militia officers a of arms were issued them for free continued for some time subsequently to the proclamation of civil government. officers Not only were the missioned time. Each officer of militia in his district or parish will attend to this in the When British civil government was proclaimed in Canada. 1764. a larger immigration the March 26th. The captains of militia were looked to as responsible for the statute labour. new government. however. General James Murray. one month after the issue of the present proclamation. The services of officers.Brigadier General his Burton. existing French laws.-Governors of Montreal and Three Rivers. Special mention was made of the fact that " civil justice would be administered by the militia and military courts. The principal clause of upon assuming lation. insolently. This is the French armies as bush fighters and voyageurs. and determined to avail themselves of the service of a Canadian detachment. and hoped be the time. May 9. And now Britain was about to call upon her new subjects in Canada for actual military service. all the proclamation read as follows: lamation announcing that the orders for the regu- "We expressly inform all the captains and officers good order and police service in the government of the militia within the boundaries of this to take steps immediately would be maintained exactly as they had been instituted under the administration of Major General Gage. the captains of the Montreal militia drew the governor's attention to an interference which had been practice. In one case the recipients of these arms Being a brave and military people. The British authorities recalled the splendid service authorities found themselves too much occupied other- wise to find time to draft a new militia law. but to have recognized the "ancient customs" and civil laws of made with New France. to perform public service in con- nection with the military transport service. for instance. who military rule. to avail themselves encourage province. So. drawing attention to the necessity for 18 able to prevent his neighbors. many of the old French ones were continued in force in accordance with the maxim already referred to. during good behaviour. March 5. of The old population the colony. known as Pontiac's conspiracy. of Three Rivers. to see that the roads and bridges are repaired and that the ditches are cleared out. Friction arose. roads. notice was given of the cancellation of the For the time being. rather favored a continuation of the Allegiance. from puttmg the draft . they had taken kindly to military rule as administered in refused." in case of colonial officials. Haldimand." with the appeal as heretofore to the Governor. and ordered the obstacle complained of removed. but more particularly the seigneurs were in closest touch with the British might hunt and "keep emergency. to have established in Canada the English criminal law. but the gradually growing British civilian population did not like it. and gentry. bridges. and armaments were preparing to suppress the uprising and relieve the few English posts that still formal document. For the interpretation of these the administration continued to avail themselves of the some of the tribunals composed of militia At this time there was considerable uncertainty as to the limitations of the two systems of judicature. wrote to Lord Halifax that he had made a requisition for 300 Canadians to serve the Canadians had rendered in the approaching campaign. was issued to the militia captain concerned to call in proclamation of British 1763 was to into The governors were not slow of the advice of the militia officers. 1764. as officers militia and non-com- used for mere court duties at this some have assumed. had broken out. broadly. one. under penalty of arbitrary measures being taken dgainst the captains or other officers of the parish militia who neglect to have the roads and bridges in their district placed in a satisfactory order by the time the inspection will be made. as in the days of the old regime. the existing local conditions could hardly be ex- pected to be produced at once. held out.



He had

prepared proclamations setting

"Made and
seal of

forth the terms of service,

and he wished that



delivered at Three Rivers, under the our arms, on the 12th of March, 1764. (Signed) " Fred.


should be raised according to them.

these proclamations as issued
at Three Rivers,

One of by Governor Haldimand
to "All the Captains


and addressed

April 18, 1764,

Haldimand wrote that he had

of Militia," read as follows:

the sixty


required as the quota from his govern-

have already verbally informed you of the desire with which His Majesty is possessed of

"Sir:— "Although


for the

Canadian corps.

He met

with a difficulty

in regard to volunteering, as the Canadians,


be ordered out or drafted, feared that by volun-

ensuring the happiness of his subjects, and of the firm
resolution which he has taken to bring back to reason


enlisted for

and accepting the bounty, they would be life. They were at last convinced, and


of the

Indian Nations, whose evil spirit has





through treason and violence, and to compel them to ensure the return of a paying trade
so necessary to his peoples, I

In a letter from General Murray to Lord Halifax, April

have deemed it advisable to inform you that for this purpose the Government has resolved upon adding five companies of Canadians to the troops to be engaged in this service. These companies will comprise 60 men each. Two will be raised in the Government of Quebec, two in that of Montreal and one in that of Three Rivers and will be under the command of Canadian officers. Only those who, of their own free will, are determined to become subject of His Majesty will be enrolled in these companies. In recognition of, and as a reward for the good will of those who enroll themselves, there will be given twelve dollars in money to each volunteer, there will be distributed to them one coat, two pairs of Indian mocassins and a pair of mitts; they will be furnished with arms, munitions and supplies during the whole time of the campaign. The pay for each man will be six English pence per day, and they will be accompanied by a priest to discharge the duties of his ministry. The service of these volunteers will end with the campaign, and after that each of them will be at liberty to return home. Such a step indicates in the Government confidence in the subjects of His Majesty. We are in the right in expecting that they will not only enroll readily, but will show great faithfulness to fulfill their engagements wherever they may be placed by circumstances and for the good of the service. They should act as much through honour and duty as through gratitude and through zeal in Pending the time when you may their own interest. be at liberty to publish this ordinance at the church door next Sunday, you will do all you can to render it public, more especially among the young men, so that they may be informed of all the conditions which are offered them."

and peace

Governor reported with apparent gratificaCanadian Corps had been raised and equipped in fourteen days, and left Montreal for Oswego on the sixth of that month.
24, 1764, the

tion that the




corps of

the British regime


Canada was placed under the command of one the most capable officers of the old French

Jean Baptiste Marie des Bergeres de Rigautemporarily commissioned as Major. This gentleman was born at Berthier-en-bas, Octoservice,

who was

ber 28,














Troupes de la Marine. As one of the senior officers that hard fighting body of men, he participated with marked distinction in the battle of Ste. Foye, often spoken of as the second battle of the Plains of


in the spring of 1760. his services in

He was


thanked for

connection with the sup-

pression of the Pontiac uprising,
Legislative Council in 1775.

part of the heroic

and was called to the The same year he formed garrison of St. Johns, being wounded

and taken prisoner of war. While in prison at Bristol, Penn., he succumbed to his wounds and exposure, October 30, 1776, and was buried at Philadelphia.

The who had





corps were



distinguished themselves in the militia of the

French regime, such men as Antoine Jucherean DuBellerive, Godefroy Baby and many others whose names are familiar to the readers of Canadian history. The service they performed in connection with the expedition against Pontiac and his Indians was of the most useful and gallant kind, gaining the unstinted praise of the commanding officers, and winning the confidence and esteem of their British comrades.
chesnay. Saint Ange de







to relieve the


of the old province of

year 1766 saw a change in the administration Quebec, General Murray,



Supplies were also

sent out from England for free distribution.



June and being replaced by General Sir Guy Carleton, another of Wolfe's officers, in September the same year. The name of Carleton (later Lord Dorchester) is intimately bound up with the history of the Canadian militia. When the new governor arrived he found affairs in

Governor General,

retiring in

the distress had arisen from the non-payment of the
settled for in paper

a decidedly critical state.

The vmcertainty

as to the

exact application of the Royal Proclamation of 1764 and the subsequent ordinances had caused much
confusion in the administration of justice, and bitter
disputes between the

by the French Government, money, of which large amounts were outstanding at the cession, and which remained unpaid for several years. The British authorities not only made efforts to obtain payment for the new subjects from the Court of France, but also took steps to warn the Canadians from disposing of their paper money at a sacrifice to jobbers and speculators. The honourable attitude of the first military authoriincurred

English and French speaking

towards the Canadians


well illustrated in a letter

Local agitations and

were prevalent;

written to General Amherst by General Gage from

trouble between Great Britain and her older American

was rapidly developing into revolution, and while the agitators in New England were anxious to induce the French Canadians to participate in their movement, emissaries of the French government were also attempting to turn the Canadian people from their newly sealed allegiance to Britain. At this juncture the fair and honourable treatment of the Canadian people by the British during the first few months of the new regime was repaid and with interest, although a few months later it looked for a time as though the generosity of the British had been

which the writer explained: am able to inform you that during my command in this government I have made it my constant care and attention that the Canadians should be treated agreeable to His Majesty's kind and humane intentions. No invasion on their properties or insult to their persons has gone unpunAll reproaches on their subjection by the fate ished. of arms, revilings on their customs or country, and all reflections on their religion have been discountenanced and forbid. No distinction has been made between the Briton and Canadian, but they have been
" I feel



the highest satisfaction that I




interesting at this point to recall that









immediately after the conquest the distress to which the French Canadian inhabitants had been reduced


soldiers live peaceably with the inhabitants,


they reciprocally acquire an affection for each other.
have, notwithstanding,

was such

as to render relief necessary,


in 1761 the

sum of 600 pounds sterling was raised by subscription among the merchants and others, and each soldier in the regular army gave one day's provisions monthly

pleasure on these particulars to the several

made known His Majesty's commanders

that every individual


be acquainted




no doubt, add

weight to the orders and directions which have been already given.

And you may be assured that the troops,
the most ardent desire to advance

who have ever shown

the interests of their Sovereign, and paid the most

As the common people are greatly to be influenced annex a return of the Noblesse of Canada, showing with tolerable exactness, their age, rank, and present place of abode, together with such


their Seigneurs, I

exact obedience to his commands, will vie with each other in brotherly love and affection to the Canadians over whom His Majesty has extended his royal favor

natives of France, as served in the colony troops so
early in
life as to give them a knowledge of the country, an acquaintance and influence over the people, equal to natives of the same rank; from whence it appears that there are in France, and in the French service, about one hundred officers, all ready to be sent back,

and protection."
1790, p. xi.)

— (Report

on Canadian Archives for

of all the governors at this time, than their actions, indicated the honest desire And so to deal justly by the French Canadians. much was this appreciated that some Canadians

The correspondence



case of a war, to a country they are intimately acquainted with, and with the assistance of some

troops, to stir

up a people accustomed


pay them

good family who had gone to France after the cession returned to Canada, preferring to submit to the British rule as administered in Canada than to remain content with the unfulfilled promises of the French


further shows

there remain
of those,

Canada not many more than seventy


ever had been in the French service, not one of them
in the King's service

nor one who, from any motive

Government. There is no doubt that there were those in authority in France who from the beginning looked forward to the future reconquest of Canada, and the Canadian military officers who returned to France were continued on the pay-rolls at increased rates of pay for some years, the only apparent object being to retain their services for use in future operations in Canada. Being a thorough .soldier, one of the first things that impressed Carleton after his arrival was the defenceless and dangerous condition of the colony, and before he had been manj' months in Canada he addressed a communication to Lord Shelburne, of the British Government, dated Quebec, 25th Nov., 1767 (Dominion Archives Series Q, vol. 5 1, p. 260), in which he clearly and in complete detail set forth the After showing the poor state of actual position. repair of the defences of Montreal and Quebec, Sir

Government and Dominion, gentlemen, who have lost their employments, at least, by becoming his subjects, and as they are not bound by any offices of trust or profit, we should only deceive ourselves by supposing, they would

indviced to support his

be active in the defence of a people, that has deprived

them of their honours, privileges, profits and laws, and in their stead, have introduced much expense, chicannery, and confusion, with a deluge of new laws unknown and unpublished. Therefore all circumstances considered, while matters continue in their present state, the most we may hope for from the gentlemen who remain in the province, is a passive neutrality on all occasions, with a respectful submission to Government, and deference for the King's Commission in whatever hand it may be lodged; this they almost to a man have persevered in, since my arrival, notwithstanding much pains have been taken, to engage them in parties, by a few, whose duty, and whose office should have taught them better. This disposition the French minister seems to have foreseen, as appears by orders calculated to draw them from Canada into France, well knowing that such as remained, were bound by duty and honour to do nothing against their allegiance to the king, under whose Government they live, whereas those who go to France, are to all intents and purposes officers in the French


colony's defence,

proceeded to detail the force available for the writing as follows: "The King's

forces in this Province, supposing

them complete


the allowance, and

all in

perfect health, rank


would amount to sixteen hundred and twenty-seven men, the king's old subjects (of British or British Colonial birth), supposing them all willing, might furnish about five hundred men able to carry arms,
exclusive of his troops, that



the king's

troops and old subjects collected in Quebec, with two

months hard

labor, they

tolerable state of repair,

might put the works in a and would amount to about

and liable to be sent on any service. "For these reasons, I imagine, an edict was pub-

lished in 1762 declaring, that notwithstanding the lowstate of the king's finances, the salary of the captains of

one-third of the forces necessary for


"The new

subjects could send into the field about

the colony troops of Canada should be raised from four

eighteen thousand men, well able to carry arms; of

which number, above one-half have already served, with as much valour, with more zeal, and more military knowledge for America than the regular troops of France, that were joined with them.

himdred and fifty livres, the establishment at which their pay was fixed at first, to six hundred livres a year, to be paid quarterly, upon the footing of officers in full pay, by the treasurer of the colonies, at the quarters assigned them by his majesty in Touraine,

Hertel. in 1663. should be struck off. 269.-colonel in France K. duty free. but the greater part have been sent to the other still remain in Touraine. Desbergers Picote De Rigauville.. Ens. 4. having had civil employments. "Natives of France. 6. 890). De Salaberry. which Royal Navy. the first that arrived in Canada. Villeray.-governors. cillor. 1715. came to Canada in 1760. ennobled in Canada. De La Corne. and obedience to the above mentioned injunction. have never been in the service. in the officer in the colonial service. Louis. De Vassal' officer in the Queen's regiment. Chartier — "My Lord. and the it had been also suggested that commissions in army might be given. 9. and De Richarville. 1730. Louis. title granted in 1700. But Carleton was met — De Dechallion. Louis. Series Q. lieutenants. in 1670. —Since my arrival in this province. The raising of a regiment officered by French Canadians had been proposed. "Officers who were all necessarily gentlemen by Daillebout. 15. captain army. had the rank of captain in 1760. Fontaine. title of "Godefroi De Tonnancour held the esquire. 79. "Families — (Canadian Archives. lieuts. being in the Roman Catholics. preserved in the Dominion Archives. the French Canadians. a certain quantity of wine. consult. 1767: —Captains having the Order of lieuts. in the colonial corps. De Taschereau. total. about the year 1652 or 1653. 26. having the Secretary of State for the Marine Department. 1. in their commissions as officers: whose ancestors received the title of Xavier De Lanaudiere. lieut. for their use. time in this country. Chaussegros De Lery. 1. 44. 5-1. and not depart from thence without a written leave from the " French Noblesse in the Province of Quebec. raised to that of lieut. De Varennes. captain captains named in the Order but not invested. Louis. upon from hence. La Durantaye. total. Carleton persevered in his idea. Aubert De La Chesnay. who have not the Order. majors. of St. St. St. according to their several ranks. 1. the provisions of which are en- vations on this same subject: Damour Duchaufour. the following obser- by act of the Parliament of Paris. in reply to some queries regarding some treasonable correspondence supposed to have been received in Canada. Novem- ber. la Hazeur Delorme. as a measure of relief.and that such of them. aide major and captains not having the Order. Louis Couillard De Beaumont. 1663. De Beaujeu. 2. 1700. : colony troops at Mississippi. first counregistered: Lepinay. Chabert de Jonquieres. with the reply that under the old laws upholding Roman Catholic disability. and is raised to the rank of colonel in the Spanish service at Mississippi Kt. by the king's commission of lieutenant-general of the have not been able to make any discovery that induces me to give credit to the paper of intelligence inclosed in your Lordship's letter of the 14th of May last. 1680. Duverger. Boucher. of ships of war having the Order of St. Canadian officers in actual service whose parents have By the Secretary of State's letter. ensigns. and are treated in France as Canadian officers: Captains not having the Croix of St. However. 7. colonies. as a means for the of securing their interest in the new regime. 126. who came over to Canada as cadets. nor do I think it probable the chiefs of their own free notion in time of peace. officiers de r&erve. dare assemble in numbers. lieutenants. the king's intention being." men should be so ignorant. is admitted to enter the towns. De Ganne. that the said officers should remain in that province. Denys De la Ronde. p. engineer De Bonne. aide majors. De Langy. p. or that an assembly of military 22 district of Three Rivers. Order.) It appears that Carleton had already advised that some steps be taken to give military employment to the French Canadian gentry. 1767: Grand Croix. 23.: — " Families whose titles of nobility are enregistered Baron de Longueuil. Denoyelle. cadets. and the arrears due to those who have remained any few of these officers " A 16. 20. captains and lieut. governors. esquire. I De Lotbiniere. and we find in a letter to Lord Hillsborough. "Families whose ancestors were councillors in the superior council established in he wrote November 21st." The summaries as follows " : of the lists sent with this letter are ' Names titles of the roots of noble families in of Canada which are unquestionable. 1768. and resolve on a revolt. De La Valtrie. Guillemin. 5-2. where these Canadian officers quarter. (Series Q. viz. 19. of St. 7. 1. served and were preferred in the colony troops. Vol. Louis. as to fancy . their emigration " "French Canadian Noblesse in France. officers in the colonial corps. was captain in the vince since the conquest. in the upper country who have never been in the service. until further orders. 1.. De Montigny. 1732. first councillor. 6. and whose children and descendants have remained in the prothe remained in Canada. could not hold commissions De Belestre. came out in the regiment of Carignan. De Normanville. Vol. 2. Juchereau Duchesnay. officers of the port. as did not repair thither. 12. Ours birth: purpose of securing a valuable addition to the forces of the crown. 5. are punctually discharged. Sabrevois De Bleury.

My letters to the Earl of Shelburne.they could defend themselves by a few fireships only. by which chiefly they supported themselves and families. succeed. fix their and esteem. for my part. as well as from the general prejudices of mankind. I have not the least doubt of their secret attachments to France. gained should to extremities. Never was proof sufficient to convince me it did not exist in some degree. necessarily here disp>ersed. at least in their former commissions. at least the marine of France I refer is thoroughly subdued. " When I reflect that France naturally has the affections of all the people. by making to remain His subjects. Jan. without a place of security for their magazines. and am. it will hardly be practicable to extend such participation to the military line. and the natives attached. extended. and think this will continue as long as they are excluded from all employments under the British government. Lordship's " most obedient " and most humble servant. should it be intended only to make a diversion. However that be. 1769. of their indepen- "Notwithstanding ful this. very few were entrusted with the secret. sovereign). assuring so great a The reply discussion : to this communication is interesting as me they would take every expressing the views held at court on the subject under opportunity to testify their zeal and gratitude for mark I of favour and tenderness. under that of France. Canada itself in the hands of France would no longer present as an enemy to the British colonies. most of the Gentlemen in the province applied to me. but I fear that from the spirit of the laws of this kingdom. I own my not having discovered a treasonable correspondence. "Your to create a jealousy and prevent a measure that might attachments to the British Government. and begged to be admitted into the king's service. 4. as soon as determined to begin a war will attempt to regain Canada. Nos. Canada probably fate this of then become the principal scene. "Sir: Whitehall. that the king proposed raising a " Your lordship must immediately perceive the many in disadvantages Great Britain would labour under a war of this nature. interest or in opposition to wish with the other it provinces the supreme seat of government —was the king's dominion over only strengthened by a citadel. for their secret despatch of the 21st of November. ally. if such a message has been sent. how greatly Canada might forever support the British interests on this continent for it is not united in any common — principle. is necessary to secure this province in till time of war. Perhaps the Court of France. (the Gentlemen. " it their interest. 24. should it it fail. after their experience in fifty nine. the foundation of clamour and opposition. while it may reasonably be undertaken with little a reasonable participation in those establishments hazard. and the dispositions that appear in all parties and factions to make every measure. To those letters your Lord- ship for further particulars. informed a year past by Mons. amidst a numer- of His Majesty's "The remarks you make upon the state and temper new subjects will be of great utility and ous military people. or a great force. convinced. and where so much may be But should France begin a war in hopes the Briti-sh Colonies will push matters them will in their and she adopts the project of supporting independent notions. and on the other hand. that the affections of the Canadians. although. 23. but to their posterity. caused this piece of intelligence to be of the Canadians. where the America may be determined. however well-considered and intended. that they or their descen- dants will be admitted into the service of their present measures now under deliberdo evince both the propriety and necessity of extending to that brave and faithful people in the consideration of the ation. that. poor. to make no mention of fees of office and the vexations of the law. I clearly see and agree in opinion with you that great advanatges might be deduced 23 . de Chatelet. communicated. "When is consider further. without hopes. situation. or. arms or for themselves. all officers of experience. and probably. " " GUY CARLETON. which a few national troops might secure. 25 and 26 contain more fully my humble opinion of the measures necessary to obtain this desirable end. we have done nothing to gain one man in the province by making it his private interest to remain the king's subject. with great regard regiment of his new subjects. and their decent and respect- but as an dency. on receiving this news To the Earl of Hillsborough. and are certain of being reinstated. Affairs in which are to form the basis of the future government of the colony of Quebec. not only to them. against any future attack from Great Britain. that the king's dominion — I have received and laid before the king your maintained but by a few troops. of those savages who have always acted with them. from France last spring. 20. but I am inclined to think. and that the interests of many would be greatly promoted by a revolution.! can have no doubt that France. a friend and a protector obedience to the king's government hitherto.

as at war with English liberties. " I in favourably regarded by the inhabitants. re-established the French civil code and the seignorial tenure. The Act was unquestionably an honest attempt to satisfy the French Canadians.'" He recommended raising a battalion or two of Canadians. most o!" them most absurdly devised. September 4. Carleton wrote to Lord Shelburne urging various means for impressing the new subjects with attachment and zeal for the king's government. 1775. were naturally thrown into closer contact with the first British colonial officials than their fellow countrymen of less pretentious social status. but found the law on other subjects. suggesting among other things that a Canadian corps be raised and that offices in the king's service be bestowed upon them. and recommending the repeal the old Canadian laws almost entire. but the French Canadian seigneurs and clergy. And and the refractory and democratic spirit. under the Quebec Act. every clause of showed that the wishes of the British colonists in Canada especially had been unjustly and contemptuously rejected. " would give color to the language of the sons of sedition. on in had existed misgovernment. that it Roman Catholic disability. abolished British Parliament in 1774 passed "the Report for 1890. and vested authority in a governor and an appointed council. forwarded to Quebec. serve in regular corps but did "not relish commanding a bare militia. Nor did the Bill recognise the wishes of the mass of the French Canadian people. and the people of the older English colonies. but the mistake was subjecting made of accepting altogether the representations of the seigneurs and clergy. which would find employment for and attach the gentry. of unselfish patriotism. some progress had been made exception of tory. giving them an influence over the lower classes and securing the Indians. Carleton. This act. and some of the civil officials. superior social positions. of whom many. Governor Gage of Massachusetts. The French noblesse. and home authorities. January 20. for Carleton. not always an indication of sound judgment. from an establishment of that sort. were acting such an arbitrary or a greedy way as to cause disaffection among the high-spirited French population. which from first settlers "HILLSBOROUGH. with the the date of the landing of the been fostered by gross In December. &c. but who were 24 . were taken by the establishment of calling government Canada. at the time of Pontiac's conspiracy. who were and restored to the possession of their estates their tithes. most of them from the older American colonies. and from the Ohio to the watershed of Hudson Bay. The measure was founded on petitions and repreit sentations of the French noblesse. under proper regulations. 1768. greatly dis- pleased the mass of the French-Canadian people. leaving administering the laws since the Ordinance of 1764. by reason of their the seigneurs. government had retained so little power. was still uppermost in their thoughts. confirmed the English criminal code. but by a large part of the British residents it was detested." and naturally not to recall them to arbitrary power." Carleton was anxious to properly organize this. This act made no re- ference to the militia. Meantime some of the newly arrived English settlers. am. at Quebec. February 4." The sudden dismissal of the Canadian regiment raised in 1764. were received into the Coimcil or appointed to executive offices and the Roman Catholic clergy. Nova Scotia and the Hudson Bay terri- preparing a summary civil of the laws of Canada in as they existed under the French regime and previous to the appeared about ready to fall to pieces. was rapidly drifting on towards rebellion in New England and the southern colonies. xiii). Carleton wrote to the colonial authorities in London In the hope of conciliating the French Canadians the attention to the confusion which existed in of that ordinance. — (Dom. 1767. a number of whom were French Protestants or "Swiss. confirmed the tithes to the exempted Protestants from payment.. as the sedentary militia. whUe received with gratification by Catholic clergy. p. the English-speaking colonists in Canada. 'that it was the intention to rule over them with the former despotism. of familiarity with popular views or of knowledge of national requirements. 1774. wrote to General Gage at Boston stating that the French Canadians generally seemed pleased at the passage The gentry were well disposed to of the Quebec Act. Archives Quebec Act" which extended the boundaries of the Province of Quebec from Labrador to the Mississippi. confusing. Carleton of course could not comply. To embody them suddenly as militia and march them off to war. All sorts of tardy conciliatory measures. without gratuity or recompense to officers. acquiesced in the new form of would require time and discreet management government. As for the peasantry. The whole patchwork fabric of British Colonies in North America. more particularly those of The latter class.both to the colony and to the Mother Country. from Boston. and them to habits of obedience. a suggestion that two regiments of Canadians be raised for service in Massachusetts in view of the unruly disposition of the people there.

Carleton. went to his on the River Richelieu. owed military service to it been produced throughout the mass of the French the King of England. for if the peasant of New France had owed compulsory military service to the king. and did not look on them. and the Gen. But the prudence of Carleton soothed them. let If made by any into Canada. a former officer in the British regular army. and beat him severely. whose elation at the supposed restoration of their old privileges had given offence to their own people and to the English merseigneurs. Further. 1775. He of a . this maddened the people. and made an oath on the public they would never The peasants believed that the Quebec Act revived cross. succeeded in The seigneurs appeared sound popular views to have those powers of Crown and noble which had been their scourge and their horror in the French period. rather For.se things did not escape the notice of They replied defiantly." Then followed uproar. the fate of Canada was about to be placed in the balance was everywhere felt in militaryserviceofhistenants. Cuthbert.sent with him an {'English officer. "im- tenants. he pointed out that Carleton had acted very injudiciously in depending so much upon the seigneiu's. La Corne. Congress passed a resolu- "That. that they should engage for the personal service of all their vassals. fearing that it might go ill with them. whenever the had owed to the seignior crushing feudal obligation. The peasants. a Capt. M. and he kept his word. Carleton promised to forgive them if they dispersed. the than those people" (the seigneurs). subsequent action of Congress. common soldiers. them would 25 follow made a peremptory demand on the They toldhimnota man of him. influence of the Quebec Act. security. and this obligation was but too often most cruelly Even Carleton. number of three thousand at Fort Chambly. and. and often corrupt conduct of many of the old seigneurs during the French regime. now that disastrous disappoint- Mr. The peasants only dispersed when Hamilton promised that La Corne should come no if not. he also same tenure. as the It was also believed that. no expedition or incursion ought to be undertaken or tion setting forth in was the most pregnant commentary on the conquest: "They were now become subjects of England. to raise the harangued them in an arbitrary strain. He then drew his sword. at the place of meeting. In the light him give us English command us. He would not give La Corne soldiers. The people armed them. La Corne took high ground with the peasants. as.sembled to the The malign of war. the men man who preserved Canada to the Empire. that the seigneurs. He told ihem to that. whereupon the people surrounded him. Congress passed another resolution. on the 27th of June.selves for resistance. the seigneurs had a legal right. on the 9th June. whose advice had been exacted. if more among them. whom they suspected the governor would use against them. The result of this incident might have been fraught with the very worst consequences. determined to die rather than submit to the seigneur. administrators the truth as to the ill-feeling which had by the tenure of their lands. sought in framing the Quebec Act. St. Hamilton. was deputed by General Carleton to enrol his tenants.seigneur. Quebec Act revived the laws and customs of Canada. command The seigneur of Terrebonne. this resolution must be regarded as an attempt to cheat either the Govern- or ment or people of better to overrun Canada into a sense of and overwhelm them. and public spirited. threatening to bring back two hundred soldiers. they did so. sagacious though he was. or body of colonists. he services. to the personal service of all their tenants.sclves as Frenchmen in any respect whatever. instructing General Schuyler to proceed without delay to Ticonderoga. against or The resolution was translated into French. In reply to Hamilton the people said: services.' colony. and began to march to Fort St.better able to give expression to on public questions." not Governor been for the admirable tact of Carleton. depending chiefly upon the seigneurs for the enrollment. at the same time he called out its militia. that . by the tenure their of their lands. son father's estate ho found it practicable. John's and Mont- and pursue any other measure in Cnaada which might have a tendency to promote the peace and The. failed to receive with due discrimination the representations of the self-seeking king or his representative called on them. o^. M. Deschambaud. as this Congress has nothing view than the defence of these colonies. On more the 1st of June. mediately to take possession of real. John's to face two regiments of regulars there. Carleton requires our officers to distributed throughout Canada. command military Their answer chants. that was part of the Canadians by the arbitrary. Carleton one of the most praiseworthy military that ever governed a British dependency. He was forced to fly to Montreal. A Mr. but . had a right and in a letter written by Chief Justice Hay to the Lord Chancellor in 1775. 1775. An keeping from the ears of the British opinion prevailed in the province. la Corne struck some of those who spoke loudest. ment. had it security of these colonies. proclaimed that he had put the province under martial law. seigneur of Berthier. greedy.

The men of In the towns held the measure in detestation. and made the repeal of the Quebec Bill one of the conditions for laying down their arms.take of up arms against the Americans. they would their mother. burn his house and barn. subsequent contributed to his (Maseres papers). But then the invaders said that they as enemies. To the Province of Quebec. and held After the conquest. on his honour. The governor thereupon gave the promise. It invoked the aid of the church to influence the peasants. applied to the Captain General. but were determined to hold possession of their lands In his reply to those who welcomed his arrival he deprecated pomp and ceremony. if Carleton attempted to compel them into the service. he and his. Finally. Briand. and M. The invaders were now in arms for the defence of the peasants from their oppressors. decided that the Penal Laws against the Roman home authorities. the faiseur French Government. M. take arms as a militia unless His Excellency would assure them. of the peasants The conduct drew out hints from unpopularity and lessened his influence. he suspended the thunders of excommunication. Accordingly. The men that he would do his best for the repeal of the Quebec They Bill. The people. M. Briand was chosen. were not enemies but their best friends. that he was 'un simple de prStres' a mere ordainer of priests. But the children closed their ears against the advice of The people not only turned deaf ears of to the in unctions the bishop. de Montgolfier. an irresistible claim on the the elements of religious kinship to and obligation begin The very quarrel then in progress between Great Britain and her colonies was proof to evaporate. the point. his in the latter year. which had been without a bishop from 1760 to 1766. without their part. and that. Briand. It seemed. M. The governor took exception to the nomination. asking that their right to elect should be recognized. Happily for Canada and Great Britain. to the warm debases as to whether they should send him to the American camp at St. that their refusal to obey the seigneurs had justified the forfeiture of their lands. they would repel force by force. He told them that " he did not come into the province to be a bishop on the same high footing as his predecessors in the time of the by force. John's. The government of Canada felt that it had. Anne's went to Berthier to make the attempt in which Cuthbert failed. with seventeen of his companions. The peasants admitted that they had incurred forfeiture. in 1775. and administration. that he would use his utmost endeavours to get the Quebec Bill repealed. and received. In the same year. he visited London. Superior of the The main reason why a determined and warlike the peasants race — —when aroused. they any provocation on had been reduced to their former state They were told to regard the invaders of slavery. in all justice and generosity. Montreal. Seminary of St. a stipendiary of the King of England to the extent of £200 sterling His acceptance of the yearly pension. and steeled their hearts against her (Maseres) entreaties. Montreal. and then repairing to Paris. Briand returned annually. Roman Catholic Church in the Province. but expressed the opinion that his . the captain of the French Canadian militia declared to Carleton "that his compatriots would not In this epistle the bishop exhorted them to up arms for the Crown against the American To those who obeyed. that if any one them offered to join the government. with the consent of the King. he promised indulinvaders. refused to do military service was. Sulpice. Mgr. and that suits at law would be taken to dispossess them. Murray. on his pro- The governor transmitted the matter and recommended the granting In 1763 the law officers of the Crown of the demand. gences. Lanaudiere. The people seized him. Catholics in the British Islands did not extend to the colonies. his bulls on investiture from Pope Clement XIII. would Berthier declared that if Governor Carleton promise. that he would exercise only the milder and more beneficent duties of his high office. they were ready to defend the Province. a Breton by birth." reception accorded to the letter was another instance of a phenomenon sometimes witnessed in history that when the political passions of men begin to boil. the government. said "that on a sudden. was designated for the vacant Episcopate. the grand vicar and clergy of Quebec. 1764. the see being vacant by the death of its former occupant. and affix the promise to the church door. the Chapter of Quebec elected as their bishop. Over the heads of those who should refuse." — soldier-statesman who governed the Province did not Mgr. new rulers. a native of France who had held himself aloof from the British. and never again to come amongst them on a like errand. was there consecrated. Mgr. ment take issued an encyclical letter to the French Canadian But it was not the peasants only to whom the Quebec Act was a menace and a grievance. friends were set at liberty. on his return to Canada. one of the canons and Grand Vicar of Quebec. seigneur of St. not that they disliked their of but that they detested the new Bill. and destroy his cattle. at the instance of the Govern- allow any actions for forfeiture to be taken. Pontbriant. mise to obtain for them the governor's pardon.

with the assistance of a number of Quebec and Three Rivers volunteers.action in the dispute was quite unsuitable to to the have no concern in anything that involved the shedding of blood. Messrs. number of militia recruits offering The governor offered tempting For men who would volunteer for the war . Johns. "they being too much attached to the English government and too nay. the larger pro- Salaberry. who ought was retaken by M. or in conjunction with the regular troops. Perthuis. Congress refusing to exchange the Canadians. of whom perhaps 1. Perthuis and Beaubien had been killed during the siege. either to act separately. de la Corne. Demusseau. started for St. The arms and had been ordered. and June 26. even at that early stage of affairs.000 men. Lamarque. the whole military force of the empire did not amount to 20. portion of whom had list drifted into Canada from the England older English colonies. de vieux. but received from Gage.000 men. General Carleton publicly thanked them. fell an easy prize about the end of May." died Two. which (Maseres). de Labrui^re. conditions. authorizing Carleton to raise 3. Duches: The population 3.000. de Montigny. owing to the exactions of the wars in Europe. de Rigouvill. in consequence of despatches — Dartmouth again wrote ordering Carleton to raise 6. but after being beleaguered. Gamelin. decided to —principally of the seigneur class and retired British soldiers — who offered best he could with the few men their services as volunteers. successfully off. de LonBelestre's De gueuil. de Lotbiniere had an arm shot de Salaberry was twice wounded. the did their neighbors of English speech. Moquin. sentation of the blue-blood of detachment included a goodly repreNew France. Carleton did everything he could to raise men. Johns.000. French (old France) birth. Blood was shed at Lexington and Concord in April. They even went further than this. they showed less practical sympathy with the Continentals than Here. A few days afterwards. de Beaubien. instead of 3. and the same pay would be given to officers and men as to the British regular clothing troops. de Lotbiniere. any sort of compulsion. with a view. de Rouville. this party. The Canadians and soldiers were carried away prisoners of war. The French Canadians not only disobeyed their bishop. five of English and 1776.000 men. The whole population of Canada consisted of 90. The list included 29 of Scottish. de Belestre at the head of Montreal and vicinity.000 were English speaking. of the English colonies in revolt was The governor. influential in their own country. as attested by such names as the Chevalier de Belestre. the was 27 very small. A detachment of revolutionary troops under Benedict Arnold was despatched down that old route of invasion the Richelieu River. perhaps. In an of official Carleton forwarded to settled in the in the withstanding a storm. character of a Christian prelate. and a few days afterwards. but went so far as to lampoon him in more than thirty songs. July 24th. St. and by the expectation he had formed of a larger gratuity. it might be explained. Herd 'Eschambault and For this service. and who expected a siege. prisoners war. Johns to relieve a detachment of the 7th and 26th regiments.000. The army of occupation in Canada. de Montesson. xci). Ours. de Tonancour. Carleton wrote to Lord Dartmouth from Montreal that with his best efforts he had only been able to assemble 500 men at Chambly and St. then in charge of the fort. Faucher and others. de Boucherville. or under realizing that it would be absolutely do the impossible to raise a force under the old militia laws. the fort surrendered on the 2nd of November to General Montgomery. The victory is one of great historical interest as the first recorded feat of arms of a fortress eighty Canadian volunteer militiamen raised in force of Canadian militia fighting alone under the flag of England. obtained the mastery of Lake Champlain without any loss of men. The garrison under Preston made a gallant defense. chap. They assumed that Bishop Briand's conduct had been influenced by the pension of £200 a year he received from the King of England. and several old officers of the former French militia. viz Messrs. that although French Canadian peasants refused in so many notable cases to serve in the militia. of preparing for an expedition into Canada. had been reduced to an insignificant force. In September of the same year. and St. The situation Carleton had to face was certainly a perilous one. Lord Dartmouth wrote from Whitehall. 21 of American. And according to Allison (History of Europe. others. apart from the corps organized in the leading centres of population. de la Come. 1775. garrisoned by a sergeant and ten men. The first invasion of Canada after its passing under British rule speedily followed. of de Montesson and de Rigouville.000 souls. were circulated during the summer of 1775. Colonel Warner. as should be deemed most expedient. June 10. artillery included. this important of and one July 1st. fierce assault delivered during a severe "the principal persons fled province who very zealously served the rebels winter of 1775 upon their leaving it" there does not appear one French Canadian name.

Johns. but Carleton did not abandon hope of relieving The fort there the besieged garrison of St. men crossed to the Island of Montreal. most of them returned to their homes. district of mand of the governor. wise precaution.000 or 8. and there were but few gunners to man them. Carleton ordered all who would not join in the defence of the city to leave it The story of the siege of within four days.surrendered. to have 12. in view of the possibility of an attempt l)y escalade. At this himself supported by 300 regulars. who gave the command to fire which swept the head of Montgomery's assaulting column away and laid militia. who was mortally wounded in the fight which took place assured of assistance before the invaders surrendered. . in it. lean inhabitants stipulate being defenceless they to could not their the commandant militiamen as far as St. of the wall In another place and reached some of a delightful spirit of independence. After their departure he found time Montreal was a small place of 7. who had come from the older English colonies. Montgomery to the simply had to march his possession. but their carriages were rotting away. be joined by Carleton with the Montreal militia. There were rusty gate. but the govenror got no further than Longucuil. In all 1. the energetic Carleton. to coupled with the inability of Carleton militia raised in rely upon his corps of 800 the Montreal district. 28 A handful of Canadians the general himself low. assembled at Montreal. and the people of the suburbs were practically friendly to the Continentals. food and ammunition. On December the 22nd. thus saving a considerable detour to the nearest 543 French Canadians. rines. married ones 250 acres. made his escape by night a boat from the lower part of the town. As nificant matter. left Maclean with no alternative but to retreat to Quebec. a militia officer. being gained over by emissaries from the Chambly sympathisers. recruits. deserted to Montgomery found himself badly supplied with clothing. holding their ground foot . imposts for 20 years. Johns and Chambly. 500 men. had broken down a section of the wall to make a convenient entrance for the teams drawing wood into the city. and the Continental soldiers had been very glad to appropriate and don the reserve uniforms of British troops they had found in the military stores of St. but. Lawrence to the Island of Montreal. but was encountered and captured near Longue Pointe by a force of 60 regulars and 300 of the town militia commanded by Major Carden. where he expected to at terms. besides 50 more for for each of the children . 485 seamen and maand 120 artificers capable of bearing arms.' when Montgomery's army in crossed the St. responding to the call to arms. the land to be held free of all guns mounted in the little citadel. Quebec by the Continentals and Montgomery belongs rather to the imder Arnold pages of national history than to this volume. perceiving that Carleton was dubious of their fidelity. Allen with 110 And so it happened that when Montgomery and his army entered Montreal by the Recollet Gate on November 13th. especially some of the leading ones. The campaigning the enemy. September 25. the governor having deemed it a could be depended upon. and after a siege of 45 days. quite a number of the Continentals wore scarlet coats.each unmarried private he offered grants of 200 acres of land. was only a poor affair. A very important part was played in the repulse of the combined assault on Quebec by the Canadian militia. fearing to disembark. from sympathisers in and was the city. It was Captain Chabot. and only a portion of the militia The English-speaking merchants were generally dissatisfied. for he advanced further from his base the wants of his army naturally became more acute. all ladders placed in the citadel. opposed Arnold's column. Yet these offers attracted few- Carleton desired to succor St. This desertion. Military defences had not been allowed to stand in\he way of business convenience. This had been shown by the refusal of the suburbanites to deliver up their ladders to the garrison. where nearly all of his men. men into the city to take although the fort was Colonel Mac- The Continental general explained that the key of the frontier line of defence. Quebec led 300 of his Denis. and actually assisted in the capture of the fort at that place. an attempt was made to take Montreal by surprise by Colonel Ethan Allen and Major Brown. Johns by means of the armed rural populations of the Montreal and Three Rivers districts. as he learned that The possession of the public stores was no insig- some of his men contemplated joining the enemy.000 population and defended by a feeble and decidedAt one place a pile of rubbish ly dilapidated wall. with its garrison of about Lake Champlain and the Richelieu had been very rough and trying on equipment. 330 Anglo-Canadian was lying against the outside almost to the top of the citizens. The governor had barely enough regular soldiers for the guard. Fort St. The Chambly people joined a Continental detachment.778 men. Johns. Maclean returned to Sorel. but nearly the whole militia of the Three Rivers refused to march at the comSome few hundreds of rural royalists. but he promised respect personal rights on condition that the keys of the public stores were turned over to him. planking being the only shelter afforded from the beseiger's fire. November 1775.

the Union Jack was once more raised over Montreal. and its relief was finally effected by Captain Marcoux's company reinThe elder Papineau (Joseph). seized goods on promises to pay. too. This post was held by Captain Dumas' militia company. took the most of the New England and and had proved most defective. and Arnold feared that the commander of the place might try a sudden dash upon Montreal via the St. where any force descending the St. and of course the seignorial influence about him would encourage him in that view. Moreover. which had retreated from before Quebec on the 6th. forced by a few regulars. and the promises were never redeemed. and fairly strongly held. Lawrence would have to make a portage. The Continental soldiers performed all kinds of arbitrary and illegal acts. Once the Continental troops evacuated Canada was no grave danger again during the war. About the middle of May. soon ceased to be indifferent. owing to the arrival of strong reinforcements from there England. the habitants remembered. Considerable consternation and alarm was caused in the Montreal garrison when it became known that this party had Ijeen attacked and captured by a party of French 29 On the other hand. Ogdensburg was still a British post. They found method. arrived in Montreal. In June. James Street. an intrepid and robust man. reinforcements. and the Canadian British regiments. militia. for want of money. and seldom amenyears in existence in southern colonies against the Continentals. for the French Canadians all through planted their scaling ladders against the inner barricade on St. advanced amidst a shower o balls. and by June 16th the last Continental soldier had crossed the river. but his time for some months was largely taken up providing for the large force of regular and Hessian troops sent to Canada to operate against the revolting colonies by plain way of Lake Chamand Lake George. and he detailed a certain number of non-commissioned officers from these companies as well as from the regular He found that but few Canadian sympathizers remained. and their officers would not or dare not bring them to book. seized the ladders and drew them inside the barricade. and generally mutinous Continentals very different from the wellfound and thoroughly disciplined troops of the British. The Continentals. a town militiaman named the country were becoming more and more unfriendly and aggressively hostile. such levies as did reach the camps of mobilization were often insubordinate and mutinous. He realized that the first thing to do was to prepare and have passed a militia ordinance clearly defining the authority of the government and the duties to be imposed upon the people. field in several districts. on a war footing. able to ordinary discipline. and there it has remained ever since. that the Canadians would prefer an ordinance similar to those to which they had been accustomed. in good yellow gold. but so were Charland. The advance guard of a British force from Quebec marched into the little citadel. British A retirement of the Continental garrison of Montreal was ordered without delay. raised by Arnold and the remnant of his and Montgomery's armies reached Montreal. Arnold establishing his headquarters at the Chateau de Ramezay. for trial. As soon as the invaders had been expelled. The merchants of Montreal. The British paid for all the goods the merchants could spare. For various reasons he was led to favour the old French laws and customs as the basis of the new ordinance rather than the English militia law. via the Atlantic. had been promptly arrested. part of Arnold's army. the French militia laws and usages had put practically the whole male population in the field in upon emergency. to act as instructors of the sedentary who had been enrolled after the old French "habitants" as well. and for all the produce the farmers could supply. Carleton would naturally suppose. Between 1776 and 1783. the ill-provided. and even handed over to courts of which French Canadian militia officers officiated as judges. and kept them on service a useful state. Governor Carleton maintained three companies of Canadian militia. and encouraged the French Canadian clergy and gentry to make redoubled efforts to wean the mass of the people from their temporary lapse of indifference.by foot with great obstinacy. failures voluntary enlistment. while British soldiers charged with offences against even the local French colonial ordinances. the generals commanding in the old French wars being never able to depend upon obtaining the levies ordered from the various colonies. served as a volunteer in Captain Marcoux's company. Militia laws framed after the English model had been for French Canadians. Lawrence. Reinforcements were coming to the Continentals via the Richelieu. To guard against such a contingency he posted a considerable force at the Cedar Rapids. for the of the Continentals and the energy of the had a depressing effect upon the disloyal. half-starved. Carleton set himself to work to endeavor to place the militia on a sound footing. When the Continentals Canadian militia. So it came to pass that at the historical session of .

In a letter of Sir Guy Carleton to Lord George Germaine. and would provide for couragement was given to volunteers. and discouraged the idea soil. in concluding his communication to "If this measure cannot be the minister. with a better grace than was expected. 1777. Lord Sydney wrote 30 . 20th May. discharged men from the I of this province. such as to bear arms beyond Canada for an indefinite time. particularly with the need of making and keeping in repair the roads from Montreal to the scene of active operations on Lakes Champlain and whose name figures so prominently in the history of Montreal and the province of that time. ance subjected the inhabitants to rigorous military service. published in 1784. as much as ought. to serve as an example and point d'appui for the sedentary militia..the Legislative Council held at Quebec in 1777. on the same plan as those existing in England. Lord Dorchester (formerly Guy Carleton) wrote to Lord Sydney announcing the passing by the Council of " An Act to Regulate the Militia. Carleton wrote Lord Germaine that the army. in the first dawning of good order and obedience. for should have the conduct of the war on the frontiers which Canadians. and number of militia called out being insufficient. The governor. having the judgment of the ministers then. the latter. the superior officers and British. as when public spirit and popular readiness with regard to the defence of the colony exceeded the demands of the government. but two men had been ordered from the respective upon the parishes. June 13th. based largely desertions among for each deserter the armed militia force. 1787. the same year. all to be for gratuitously performed. or were supposed Critics to have prevailed. etc. St." to explain that the corps to be raised under this ordinance may be increased as exigencies require. agricultural labour for In the celebrated "Appeal" of Pierre du Calvet. he wrote "Three hundred Canadian militia are also to make the campaign (Burgoyne's via Lake George and the Hudson). wrote: carried out in peace there is little hope of drawing — out the strength of the country in case of invasion. I think. Luc La Come. to be demanded from this unfortunate province. during the French regime. Burgoyne. to be disposed of by Lieut. excepting under extraordinary circumstances. in prudence. by the over-zealous seigneurs board. except that the colonel should have neither pay nor emolument. and always preserved complete. Provision was made for calling out the militia for corvee or statute labour. He enclosed the opinion of the new Attorney In laws and practices which prevailed. with the ultimate object of expanding this force to provide for small detachments in each parish. 1775." July 10. and charged that the established for a who had seats at their new militia ordinance which were he took the steps that were necessary without waiting for orders. but. There had been . English and French being associated in the agitation. obligations in New France never imposed on the militiamen. under heavy penalties refusal or neglect." The ordinance provided for detachments being embodied for two years. dated Quebec. He asked leave to embody three battalions. two of Canadians and one of British or loyalists. of recruiting from George and the Upper Hudson. Lanaudiere and others assembled about 170 and joined the Western Indians under Campbell those from the interior of the province were led by A corvee of 500 men forBurgoyne had gone off Fraser. the same I had ordered while I flattered myself the militia. probably. among the sixteen ordinances passed was one providing for the regulation of the militia. is." September 14th. and a great woods towards the New England number which must be employed for the forwarding all things for those two expeditions.-General Burgoyne. As a matter of fact the new ordin- After the war the Canadian people appear to have devoted some attention to the question of defence. Du Calvet suggested that the chief officers should be British. was a suggestion that a permanent regiment of two battalions be established hi the province. These services were a burden on the people and there were difficulties in the way of restoring the old usages. especially as he had been deprived of support by the appointment of an inferior officer (Burgoyne) to the command of this army. en- teach the people that the defence of the country is their own immediate concern. the subalterns and non-commissioned officers should be Canadians. of the measure declared that the council was misled General as to the legal proceedings in such cases. He expressed the hope that the ordinance "would have the effect of curing the dangerous supineness produced by the disuse of to train all militia service to up youth in discipline and obedience. So soon as the transport was finished the number should be inHe would do everything possible to assist creased. Dorchester would have preferred three. to do vicariously. common rule. with those necessary scouring the provinces. he asked for full confidence in no lawyer's opinion. as the Canadians were required for the cultivation of the — Apparently his idea was that privates. many natives and residents The governor proceeded of distinction. Considerable agitation arose against the militia laws on account of the provisions imposing statute labour upon the people. absentees serving in the army. a very im- portant duty.

-governors. It was the wisest course to rely on the people for their time there should be a provision to enable the governor. for purpo-^es of promotion. Early in 1788. But Query? Whether it would be necessary to keep the same embodied more than a month or six weeks. such time not to be less than in every year and only one-half of the militia to be called out. enabling the governor early in the spring." of establishing Canadian militia was approved of. to call the whole out at any time.. and then to have fresh and so to proceed as often as the militia is called out at the end of every two or three years.000 each for Nova He also urged the Scotia and New Brunswick. now the 60th Royal Rifles. an officer in H. "The other particulars mentioned by Lord Dorchester seem proper. 1790. "It appears by the 5th suggestion that no steps September 25th. so that the troops might be united for general defence. and that clothing for the proposed battalions would be sent out of a He wrote: — "To "a this resin effect Canada a law was passed to in 1787. it except during the time they remain embodied. While the Constitutional Act was under discussion. It should be extended to all the king's colonies. and I am of opinion that it might now be a proper measure to propose a permanent Militia Act.000 for Quebec (old province. This measure has not yet been carried into execution. in every year. whose father had been the and one of the most patrioic men in New France before the change of flags. but being annoyed at being considered. own de- On the 9th of January he wrote Lord Sydney. but not to keep them embodied longer than weeks without the consent of the Legislature of the province . namely. In 1791. one-half or one-third to be discharged annually and replaced from the mass. the object being to show the people the necessity for standing forward in their fence. and then each corps to be renewed officers by fresh ballots. at his discretion. urged upon the British 31 only add that the Act for so important a measure as the constituting of a permanent militia should either be transmitted home for His Majesty's assent or rather a copy of the Bill before its passage thro' the Provincial Legislature." To this Lord Grenville replied: "It is conceived that Lord Dorchester might be instructed to propose a new law to the Legislature for embodying two or — three battalions of militia. "The expense otherwise would be considerable. of small arms should also be deposited in the king's colonies for use of the militia in general in case of emergency. and 5. Dorchester issued circulars to the lieut. Guernsey and elsewhere. M. which practically included the present province of Ontario). own defence. under a permanent corps of officers. which was acrichest embody draughts to serve for two years in rotation. two or three years. from which time. etc. province. the officers asked for disbandment. At the same would be the means of restoring habits of mi itary service. until the passage of the Act of Union in 1842. according to Mr. orders respecting the this General lines of its admit of. and revive a spirit of national defence. Jersey. were placed under the command of Colonel Louis Joseph Fleury d'Eschambault. Lord Dorchester. should be in the general outformation in a great measure similar to our militia had been ordered for and copies sent to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick for consideration.000 be sent. the governor.Dorchester that the proposal for the establishment government the importance pectable militia. The governor pointed out that corps formed from the militia were the only reinforcements that could be had on a sudden own. without the pale of the regular army. Grenvi le that the prospect of a war with Spain seemed a proper occasion to call on each • were taken to carry into execution the Militia Act passed in Canada in 1787. "The time less of service I apprehend should not be than three nor more than five years. The two battalions so raised served not only in Canada. but in the Antilles. A quantity. If a certain number of militia were kept always embodied. This would be an Act for a regular permanent militia. Sir Guy Carleton later added two battalions raised in Canada to the 60th Royal Americans. during which time only the men and officers to be for ballots. stating the time of service corded. The two new battalions. 109th Regiment. the militias of Upper and Lower Canada were distinct forces under separate staffs and separate laws. Suite. Upper and Lower Canada. But neither the men nor should receive any pay emergency. Lord Dorcheste wrote from Quebec to Mr. 20. which as far as local circumstances will of the Provinces for its own defence. " It " I will will be certainly necessary to deposit a pro- portionable quantity of small arms within the pro- . and recommending that 30. the Constitutional Act was passed dividing the old colony of Quebec into two provhices. drawing attention to the want of small arms. Without it the dominion of Great Britain on the continent of America will always be precarious. are to be paid. despatch to Canada of strong reinforcements of regulars.

at of her late Majesty Queen Quebec in 1791. two of that of Juchereau-Duchesnay." The arrival of H. and it will be equally so that some coercive for their preservation. as Colonel of the 7th Royal Fusiliers. II." October 30th. is an event of some interest to the Canadian During his sojourn in Quebec the Duke made militia. Among these proteges of the Duke were four of the de Salaberry family. sions in the regular army of for mode should be adopted their regular and Canadians. and was instrumental in securing commis- on the militia force and on national history. (City of London Regiment). himself very agreeable with leading French Canadian families. father Victoria. the Duke of Kent. 1899. Crowds at Quebec watching the Departure of the " Sardinian. 32 . several whom some dozen j'oung French have left their mark and freciucnt production. Meantime France had been passing through the revolutionary period.vince. An example of Popular Interest in the South African Contingent.s. and two of that of Des Rivieres. H. and the long-threatened war between the two mother countries of the Canadian people had broken out.

of their pathetic wilderness but it Constitutional Act (31st George III. —The British Model of the New Force. hence the Constitutional Act. Canada To each province was the regulation of its militia. of their sacrifices. Chap. In the light of of Quebec after the treaty of peace with the United States. that they be accorded a separate government. The War of 1812 and the Rebellion of BY At Lower "Upper Canada. Chap. according to section xxxiii of the all remained for the great upheaval American Revolution to furnish the province of the with her first settlement of any great account." were created Canada" and out of what was left of the original Province the Constitutional Act two provinces. Brunswick. and a brief review of that development is essential to a clear appreciation of the principles whom the French laws and usages of the old the Province of Quebec 33 which guided the original organizer of the provincial militia of Upper Canada in his work. authority and effect in the province as if the Act in question had not been passed. and in New and a part of Canada. March 31st. Canada was post There were trading posts at a few places frontier and a respectal^le military —or rather population of Upper seem very considerable. of the United Empire Loyalists. to and ordinances which had been in force in the original Province of Quebec continued to be of the same force. The original Upper Canada Militia Act was drafted by Governor Simcoe himself and provided for the organization of the proNdncial militia on a system very closely indeed approximating to that then existing in England. and their settlement in what is now the Province of Ontario. statutes and noble loyalty. We are able to form some idea of the feelings of the men of Upper Canada of that time from the knowledge present at that time does not development. was the passage of a Militia Act (33 George III. the population of Upper Canada had attained such dimensions as to give weight to the expres. there was no Immediately succeeding the conquest there was a — that the first business of the second session of the first parliament of Upper Canada. " left were irksome. . The story of the United Empire Loyalists. but it was a population strongly imbued with pure patriotic principles and high military spirit. — 1837-38. isapartofthenational history of this country whicli will never be forgotten by the people By 1791. being only about twenty-five thousand. 1). the Practically at Frontenac. the time of the cession the territory comprised virtually a within the Province of Ujjper wilderness. thanks largely to the settlemen. xxxi) laws. in the Eastern Townships of Quebec. their hardships. This English militia system had been the development of many centuries of experience and legislation. its ruins settlement and no militia. small influx of immigration into the Upper Canadian Up to this time.CHAPTER IV THE UPPER CANADA MILITIA The Original Organization under Governor Simcoe. now Kingston.sed wish of the inhabitants. 1793.

In 1757. and sixty county During con- and liable to serve elsewhere "upon the So many families were a tything. a re-organization took place.U. but it never ceased wholly to exist. The general levy probably constituted the larger part of the infantry. partaking of the nature both of volunteers and militia. horsemen. who. and train men the internal defence the or "general levy" for so many days every year. the age limits being 18 to 50. and arms establish the militia constitutional Red Sea." and during a Parliamentary debate on this subject the name militia appears to have been first given to the A Parliamentarian of the day. ten coming of strange enemies into the realm. the men of which were agriculturists in peace time. as pursuing the as being thrown in the Israelites.sentations of Egyp ian cavalry are to One of the first acts after the restoration.000 men. The actual origin of the English militia is lost in The Roman invasion was stoutly resisted by armed tribes resembling a militia and possessing both organization and military ability. but the family system that of discipline. service in the "feudal levy" depended upon tenure of land under 34 1758 was the first to officially recognize volunteers as counting toward the quota. the statutes bearing of subjects wei'e county powers. Scarcely any repre. the country. and basis. That wise sovereign about the year 880. military organization of The most ancient national which we have any authentic force of Quebec. making land the basis of numbers. A. and hundreds were united into the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth. and each man provided himself with his own arms and had to be in The old Egyptian readiness to serve when called upon. soldiers in time of war. locke. leader. on a Act of 1662. and particularly the Danes and other over-sea raiders. the Welsh. armies chiefly depended upon the number and skill of their archers. new word. cap. rendered the militia largely unnecessary. (13 Edward I. by ballot was also introduced.' this harsh in word. were bound to attend the king at their own expense. with certain exemptions. by the to furnish horses. Each section of the its dux community had not its solidated. frequent disputes arose between the King and the Parliament as to the command of the "trained bands. the English militia. its heretoga. the baronial troops introduced with the continental feudal system. II established in 1181 Henry at which every holder of land o" Edward I. between the Crown and the barons began." who fought either on foot or in chariots. with their retainers. was transferred from the owners of property to the counties and after the parishes. when the question of defencs against the Scots. as often stated. eighteen centuries before the Christian era. 'the militia. The similarity of But to return to the militia force in Britain. was in 1794. had ever been introduced the House." a force being established numbering 160. all men were required to bear arms as a sort of body-rent for the land they held. but deficient in discipline and drill. really a national militia. when the nobility were called upon to supply their quota of retainers." record is the great military caste of Egypt. keep them in repair. but frequent mention is made in Holy writ of the horsemen of Egypt. mounted and a"med.. . in proportion to their property. 1066.. The defensive Egypt at the command of the Pharoahs of the Old Testament. as accompanying Joseph. the distinction between these forces The period Act passed It which had to provide fixed quotas. the kings found their most powerful instrument in the Saxon militia. a year later than the passage of . horses. In 1604. After the Norman conquest. James abolished the Champlain founded old Saxon "fyrd. but also to stituted as the agents of the of for Crown for the purpose of provide arms. four I. consisted of the soldier-farmer caste. this must strike any one." was bound to produce one or more men fully equipped and capable of fighting An Act passed in the reign in the national defence. being obliged owners of property. years before home of the militia system. as feudal lord. (1625 to 1648). each under or duke. upon the military obligations and the Lieutenants effecting levies of Counties were con- only to furnish quota in time of war. It is having been several times called out in the meantime on active service. Britain was not by any means. During the reign of Charles I. service was for three years. 16) decreed that every. but there was no special organization until King Alfred's reign. in An being that while obligation to serve in the latter rested upon being a male. and the obligation to supply the men. The occupancy and tillage o' the soil imposed upon them the obligation to military service. organized the militia or fyrd. freedman between the age of fifteen was or to be available to preserve peace within his shire. etc. "an assize of arms. Whitetrained bands. foot soldiers. Under the Anglo-Saxon kings of England. and when the period of contention system and that of feudal days. the king. was one found on the monuments. while the feudal levy consisted of knights. was a very live one in England." tythings a hundred.antiquity. Norman conquest that we first hear of Obligatory service of the "feudal levy" in addition to the "general levy" of Saxon days. and substituted "trained bands. within certain limits of age. piously expressed his regret "that this great this word.

In fact the whole male popula- tion of those days. under the constitution of Britain. were al. and the principle has been retained ever since. for the government of the militia in their respective counties. a serious enough obligation in those days. a most obvious shortcoming for any practical militia enactment. from whom officers and non-commissioned officers would naturally be drawn. and it did not last long. for theirproperty. were well qualified by the very nature of their pioneer existence to play the part of soldiers. In accordance with his wish to follow. namely. and also for Canada. militia existed long before 1797. and discretion in their several counties. Simcoe in appointed a lieutenant each whose duty was the officers delimitation of the militia districts. making a due provision of power for that local aristocracy which the experience of ages has approved necessary to the balance and permanency of her inestimable form of government. and the equally rapid changes in the character of the population. on this subject are found Alex. The result appears to have fallen short of expectations. an held in England by gentlemen or noblemen of loyalty and distinction. Every lad on attaining the age of sixteen was obliged to enroll himself with the militia officer in charge of the district under penalty. with the difficult means of communication taken into consideration. abilities. The enrollment under this Act produced a force of 4. for neglect. were men who had served their king and country long and faithfully in the ranks of regular or colonial regiments. the officer who absented himself was liable to a fine of eight dollars. in 1684. and the private to one of two dollars for each offence. in 1715. without the intermediation of the Lieutenants In this only did Simcoe s plan fail of of Counties. loyalty. that Mr. respect. and the scope of the force was at the same time extended. the ages of possible. and from a combination of such possessions and qualities. composed the militia. acquire that weight. and every company had to be paraded and inspected by its captain at least twice a year. " for practically universal liability to service. The governing principle of this first mUitia law.Goveriior Simcoe's Militia Act. Simcoe's views in a letter he wrote to Col. as military deputies for the king. whetherof any previous military exper- ience or not.ssex County. was 35 Act of Upper Canada was amended so as to make men up to sixty years of age eligible for the militia. as follows: "It may not be improper to observe that this high office. and public confidence which render them the natural support of constitutional If on the one hand this office has been at authority. on the other it has been a principal object of honourable ambition. The French revolution. There was no provision in this Act for the training of the officers and non-commissioned officers. although under existing conditions it would have been absolutely In fact it was not long before the rapidly changing conditions of the country. So the brave old Simcoe's militia Act was well devised for the particular occasion upon which it was required. Pitt passed the encouragement and discipline " of his bill the British volunteers. With certain very natural limitations. affected the whole world. and as a result of which the Fencible or Militia Cavalry began to be called "Volunteer Yeomanry Cavalry. radical amendments absolutely first necessary." The office of Lieutenant of Counties does not seem to have suited the conditions of the new country. and in the following year Militia (1794) the success.213. made worthless. well and usefully. The force was divided into regiments and companies. the whole male population between the ages of 16 and 50. This first militia of Upper Canada was some- thing more than a sedentary militia. and made his historical appeal to the "gentlemen and yeomanry" in each county." Ireland and Scotland did not furnish any regular militia until 1715 and 1797 respectively. The Irish militia when first was restricted to Protestants between 16 and 60. is generally conferred upon the persons who seem most respectable to His Majesty's Government. The country at this particular time had in fact all the trained officers it was likely to require. which the British Constitution approves. and it must not be forgotten that many of the more ordinary pioneer settlers of those days. in Perthshire. appointment to the office of Lieutenant of E. all times bestowed by the Sovereign with the circumsjjection and caution due to the important trusts which it involves. Continental . with a general oversight and power or recommendation of to the command McKee on of the militia force. On the division of the counties or ridings.so men who had seen military service. with its excesses and upheavals. Though there was no provision for pay for these parades. but it must be remembered that a goodly proportion of the most influential settlers of Upper Canada. the militiamen becoming liable for service on the war vessels on the lakes. upon emergency. although in Scotland. as far as the English militia system. Simcoe introhis first Militia duced by office Act into Upper Canada the office of Lieutenants of Counties. This was a stirring time for Europe. the men who would compose the rank and file of the infant militia force. in the first men of the state. The granting of commissions in the militia was preferred to be vested directly in the Crown. of a fine of four dollars. his more perhaps. though not much raised.

among other veteran regiments which had fought against the F ench. descendants of men who. was set aside as one of the places of settle- United Empire Loyalists. the second battalion of nhie companies drawing some of its officers and recruits from Lower Canada. particularly in the infant Province of Upper Canada. to them. the district which now forms ment their the Counties of Stormont. loins Madison and the Democrats. The anti-federalists (or Democrats) encouraged him. declared his intention to attack Detroit — and the other British posts in the west. Dundas and withdrawn from the western posts. much to the indignation of Jefferson. which considered itself. and the whole of their party were wholly in sympathy with the French revolution. of course. Governor Simcoe. based upon a desire to keep the Indian country under the British flag. while this invasion was threatening. quietly called out 600 of the new Upper Canadian militia for active service. questionable fidelity of the French-Canadians of Lower Canada on the other. This force remained on duty until the signing of the treaty concluded by John Jay. many of the best militia officers with respect to the confiscated property of the expelled loyalists and the debts due them. and the rest from the Upper Province. Britain had no against British ' Act was under these circumstances that the Militia 1794 was passed with a view to making the Upper Canada militia more efficient. accompanied it on its campaigns. refused to allow a FrancoSpanish army to traverse United States territory to attack the colony of a friendly power. England girded up her for the inevitable conflict. Father Alexander McDonnell.Europe stood aghast. promising that as soon as that was done the British troops would be After the American Revolution. in 1794. Genest. for she repeatedly called its upon the government fulfilling of the United States to do part towards Royal Canadian was recruited exclusively in Lower Canada. 36 Glengarry. The project never materialized. at this time in his second term as President of the United States. and he . and General Wayne. and when France declared war upon Britain they urged that the United States should enter into alliance with the new French republic in return for the assistance France had given during the Revolutionary War. was the 'Glengarry Regiment" of Roman Catholic Highlanders. and adopted even the extravagant dress and symbols of the Sans-Culottes of Paris. The war fever he was fostering subsided considerably upon the recall of the French agitator. George Washington. and the. but while it lasted it caused considerable excitement in Canada. the battalion of which the articles of the treaty of peace of 1783 the training school for of 1812. expelled from United States. chiefly from among the LTnited Empire Loyalists of Glengarry. as it were. after defeating the Shawnees with great tion of slaughter. the Governor-General. "talked war" and urged the conquest of Canada. between two fires the zealous hatred of the tyrannical democracy of the United States on the one hand. as President Washington. the Ambassador of the French Directory in the United States. Jefferson. the United States would do nothing of the kind. who. The anxiety naturally created in the minds of the Upper Canadians by this agitation for war in the United States was increased by a scheme for the invasion of Canada from Louisiana by French. And there remained after the recall of Genest other causes for threatening agitations and war talk in the United States. Madison. of Glen Urquhart. the remaining four hundred being disposed along the Niagara frontier. Probably only the great personal influence of George Washington preserved peace at this juncture. This regiment proved (1794) also of the saw the organization first Volunteer Regiment. On its disbandment he obtained aid from the British Government to transport the men to Canada. after Culloden had been transported to the for the homes in the southern plantations in the Carolinas and Georgias. The out-aud-out democrats agitated. In 1793. It was claimed that the obstinacy of the Indians was due to British interference. and. A general Indian war had been in progress in the western part of the United States. requested the French Government to recall Genest. The western Indians were firm in their demands that the United States withdraw from the country north of the Ohio. The retention of Detroit and the western posts was pointed to as proof of Britain's determination to keep the United States hemmed in to the westward. raised by the Rev. It was as much as Washington and his government could do to persuade the general from carrying out his threat. and the request was complied with. Washington's special ambassador. During this year there was a considerable distribuarms throughout the province at the public expense. Heretofore the militiamen had been expected to provide their own It of arms. Spanish and Indian forces via the Mississippi and Michigan. began to ers fit out private- commerce. During the brief peace of 1802. and Lord Grenville. still held by Britain. acting on instructions from Lord Dorchester. disbanded. This same year of anxiety and threatened invasions such designs. as the regiment's chaplain. Two hundred of these men were placed in garrison at Detroit. A large majority of the United Empire Loyalists who went to the district were Scottish Highlanders.

shall within six months after such enrollment provide himself with a good and efficient limits of age — By musket. Bishop of Kingston. being consolidated into received one comprehensive Act (Chap. the same year. bodied. women and children. after enrollment. or for the attack of any fortification now 37 defence of the country. the question of national defence had again assumed serious importance. The law obliged captains to call out their companies not less than twice nor oftener than four times each year for arm inspection and training." Among following: the provisions of this important Act were the the Episcopate and died. formerly commandant of the garrison of Quebec. this Act imposed serious obligations issued a circular to upon the male population so Lieutenants of Counties directing them to cal out the of Upper Canada. with vitally some important amendments." For failure to comply with this law he was liable to a fine of five shillings in peace time. almost isolated. of fusil. and each company its own limits. for there were not at this time more than 12. rifle or gun. and with the spirit of were fixed at 16 to 60. the 31st. with Britain. 50 There was an annual muster day. of time. and a larger one in war time. or in pursuit of this Province. except in case of emergency. or any depot or magazine formed for the or forming. and the man absenting himself was liable to a penalty of a fine of two dollars. considering the small number . in the and it was under this clause that fourteen During 1807 one sLster fifth of the whole militia of the years later the original troop of the present GovernorGeneral's Province of Lower Canada was called out emof Body Guard. In 1801 the Militia Act was extent. and of the British troops in Canada. with at least such six rounds in hostility developing apace in the United States. on paper by reason of the lists of full complements officers. was first raised. a mere formal. The parliament of Upper Canada in 1812 voted Lower Canada when invaded tion.000 souls. Governor Gore militia. of The militia were especially warned to hold themselves in readiness. but in a very modest and imperfect manner. authorized the various regimen- formation of troops of cavalry tal districts. This makes the successful militia. One clause of the Act. to form detachments of one-quarter of the whole.947 powder and ball. those between The and 60 being exempted. and trained.000 white people. personal enrollment. and enabled the Governor to march the militia out of the province to the assistance of was passed providing for Upper Canada militia. but also revealed the disquieting fact that of the whole number only 200 had received any training for several years. fighting on in her old grim way Europe. At the close of the war the whole population of Upper Canada did not quite number 84.000 pounds sterling for the training of the provincial an enemy "who may have invaded vessels and also for the destruction of any built or building. The Act still adhered to the original Saxon militia rule as to armament. all of the existing Acts. November Upper Canada 26. and its revenue comparatively insignificant. 48. The brave chaplain to the Glengarry Regiment rose to erected or which may be hereafter erected to cover the invasion thereof. Under Governor Simcoe's has its each county own militia regiment looking formidable enough of have its army were given Each district was to regiment.000 stands arms were distributed among them. arid some 4. in the whole of Upper Canada. 1805. in — Officers the regular officers. In 1808. and in view of the readiness with which they submitted to and by volunteers or by ballot. or for the attack of an embodying or marching enemy who may be purpose of invading The population of the province was small compared with the older province. or in a state of insurrec- 5. joining the Highlander loyalists frona the Southern States in the Glengarry District.accompanied them. this province. which after being hispected and dismissed. March 16th. Training was aimed at. non-commissioned officers and men enrolled. precedence over militia militia laws. providing as follows: "Each militiaman. relative to the militia were repealed their provisions. Toronto. 1808. with Canada practically denuded of regular troops. were to be held in readiness to assemble at an hour's notice. universally beloved. which the assent of Lieutenant-Governor Gore. men. and on the 30th of September of the same year Lieutenant-Governor Francis Gore resigned the government of Upper Canada into the hands of Major General session of 1811 a bill At the the raising and training of the Isaac Brock. but the change amended to a trifling of was not productive much good.session of many exacting terms of service it is difficult to understand how the United States politicians succeeded in inducing themselves to believe that they had but to "send a flag the fourth Parlia- the country. A return of the militia showed that there were 652 officers and 7. The new Act provided for much more organization within the militia. and a proclamation" to Canada to capture They found their mistake in due course ment of Upper Canada. On the whole. George III). unless excused by his commanding officer. at the fourth . but the ranks cannot have been very full.

from Quebec. February 12. total.of regular troops in the province. Colonel Baynes writing to Major General Brock at York. General Isaac Brock. Bishop of Regiopolis. Colonel Brock wrote from « hope the latter will Major General anxious to do so. The military force in this country were it is very small. all the more remark- essentially useful in checking Lower Province. and he will be directed to take an early opportunity of communicating with you commandant possible to collect it in as soon as he has felt his ground a little in Glengarry. I then might be enabled to assist the Lower passed on a former occasion. Royal Artillery. during the rebellion in Ireland. In the event of invasion. Alexander M'Donald. and is able to form a correct idea of the prospect is and extent of success that likely to attend his exertions. proposals for raising a corps of Glengarry Fencibles. Province. This force had to occupy the forts St. stated: "GoverI Canada at the time. and were graciously acknowledged by His chaplain.500 men. reckoning from the confines of Lower Canada to Amherstburg. and consider upon you for a further supply. Windham of the British (Official) government. 50. and have every reason to believe that the corps. and time to oppose any an officer George M'Donnell. for raising a corps among the Scotch settlers in the county of Glengarry. 250. 250. officers to the same indulgence are reasonable and expedient. it may be deemed a prudent measure to appoint him At this critical juncture in its history.C. 10th Veterans. being stationed on the confines of the 38 *Afterwards R. * I beg leave to observe. it being almost without arms. When it is considered that both the Canadas furnish only two hundred militia who are trained to arms. Colonel Brock was written to at Quebec by Lieutenant Governor Sir Francis Gore As commander of the troops in as follows:— " I must again beg leave to direct your attention to the present situation I of our militia. While in command for several years of the garrison in Quebec Brock had evinced an intelligent interest in the defence of the Upper Province. . as follows: "I am directed to transmit herewith a copy of Quebec. the number would of itself be insufficient to ensure a vigorous defence. a lieutenant colonel be appointed. would be soon completed. would be always immediately and any seditious disposition On the breaking out of hostilities with the United States in 1812 the regular force in Upper Canada amounted to barely 1. His influence over the men is deservedly great. that the men being all Catholics. to attempt the formation of a small battalion. and to de'end an assailable frontier of nearly 800 miles. from Quebec. and York and Kingston to maintain the superiority — — which the wavering sentiments of a large population in the Montreal district might at any time manifest. serious attempt upon Quebec. a Captain respectable body can be will collected. If be may duty to call and that this supply Upper Canada in the most to be my — the militia were properly nor Gore has revived the formation of the Glengarry Fencibles. This corps. the advantages to be derived from such an establishment must appear very evident. Provincial Seamen. Royal Highness the commander-in-chief. but November 21. in Upper Canada. and Chippawa. this force could be easily and expeditiously transported by water to Quebec. W. to preserve the communication and escort convoys between Coteau du Lac and Kingston. Captain M'Donnell will leave this in a few days. and hereafter become a nursery.-Colonel John M'Donald. as follows: I be able to provide for his school-fellow. 1807. I have the honour to transmit for your consideration a proposal of Lieut. Am- herstburg. an avowed Catholic. from which the army might draw a number of hardy recruits.500. by his exertions. His zeal and attachment to government were strongly evinced whilst filling the office of chaplain to the Glengarry Fencibles. forwarded to expeditious manner. February 12th. including seamen. the only tenable post.000 stand of arms forwarded at once to York. 900. and he expresses himself very December 12. 1807. Newfoundland Regiment. The extent of the country which these settlers occupy would make the permanent establishment of the staff and one sergeant in each company very advisable. 1811. Sheaffe. as under:— 41st Regiment. able. on October 6 1807. Fort Erie and Fort George." A marginal note in pencil showed that Brock had 4. and in case a more The commander of the forces has selected of the king's regiment. 50. late of the Royal Canadian Volunteers. Quebec to the Right Hon. 1. the same year Colonel Baynes wrote to Major-General Brock. Upper Canada. or other emergency. Joseph. and a relation of the Glengarry priest of that name. and I have shown Sir George Prevost what armed. The original proposal was not entertained. In regard to the Rev. to be in the first instance under his command with the rank of major. I shall not presume to say how far the claims of the field on the lakes. Upper Canada had a tower of strength in its active and clever governor.

by the desired oath of abjuration so as to exclude settlers from the United States and to organize the flank persons of doubtful loyalty. and when the companies are completed throughout the province. and I have availed myself of the opportimity to move the evil. 1812. however. January follows : 2. I have the honor to be.se flank companies were the back bone of the my calculation. companies is six times in Lt. To His Excellency. will be composed Prevost. the new plan providing for a regularly embodied corps. had every reason to expect the almost unanimous support of the two branches of the legislature to every means government thought necessary to recommend. U. on April 22. of considerable benefit. unaccompanied. The Militia Act is to undergo a revision much for the better. Sir. The consideration of the fees ought propose one." Brock wrote from York. and. from York. and he had not the least doubt that a added: sufficient number would be found ready to volunteer to complete the flank companies. they must be calculated at 1. or be subject to considerable privations. and. of the 49th. Prevost that he partial and gentle means. militia laws were passed which enabled him no hesitation in companies of the militia. but remunerating the men. to be hereafter disbanded and distributed among their countrymen in the vicinity of Amherstburg. and ought by every practical means to be diminished." I shall post a regulation for the have the honor of sending you by the next payment of clergymen per- me into very anxious to introduce the oath of abjiu-ation the bill. for a company and you are at liberty . Feb. George will as many officers as he can from the up the new Glengarry corps with line. The favourable terms which Your Excellency has authorized Captain Macdonnell to offer cannot fail of success. Brock. and I beg leave to assure Yoiu" Excellency that I shall gladly lend my best efforts in aid of so desirable an object. but after a short trial found myself egregiously mistaken in and may in a political light be productive. at Brock's request. wrote Sir Geo. in whose advancement know you feel not to stand in the to promise way of such a politic arrangement. Prevost. expect. The officiating clergyman at York will receive the garrison allowance of a captain.-Gen'l Sir Geo. To give encouragement to real subjects to settle in this province can alone re- rank. at this juncture. recommending in the strongest manner the raising of a Canadian corps upon similar terms." The. as no provision made for for each month. Your Excellency's most obedient and very humble servant. &c. "The many doubtful characters in the militia made 39 Upper Canada militia during the war. &c. I be instructed It will be observed that Brock's original plan had been considerably altered.C. as the Glengarry Regiment. He has allowed me to note Lieutenant Shaw.800. the general. M. number I actually present at These companies. wrote Sir George presume to submit consideration. as follows: of the best description of inhabitants. already commenced to give the new law operation. — the total expense attending the measure can be of no material consequence in a pecuniary point of view. and should your Excellency ultimately determine some of the vast lands of the Crown to such Scotch emigrants as enlist I haive in to inform his father. 6. who in most "I am happy to inform Your Excellency that the House of Assembly which met last Monday appears disposed to meet my wishes in every particular.. together sterling per with a salary of 70 (Private) " Sir pounds army fill annum. unless this liberal pfovision be allowed. favourable intentions towards his son. and which . which is spoken of so frequently in histories of the war. stating that Captain Macdonnell of the King's Regiment has been directed to proceed to Glengarry for the purpose of ascertaining the disposition of those people to form a Fencible corps.. — "I He here beg leave to call Your Excellency's attention to the clause which authorizes the training of the flank ISAAC BROCK. of Sir George's 1812.-Gen'l. Sir." not exceed 700. had by Brock. At the session of the legislature of 1812. Your Excellency's indulgent commissaries that the to issue rations for the exercise. with permanent I House when this highly important measure was lost by the casting vote of the Chairman. The battalion of incorporated militia. The great influence which the vast number of settlers from the United States possess over the decisions of the Lower House is truly alarming. as during harvest will number embodied The gallant general was doomed to disappointment.— I have the honor to acknowledge Your Excellency's letter (duplicate) of the 13th ulto. an interest. There were twenty members in the forming religious duties for the troops at the different stations in Canada. and February 25th he wrote Sir George Prevost as follows: " I and the winter months few or no parades take place. According to will my present arrangements the command all denominations in the militia. and I am not without the hope of being able to get the House to consent to allow the field officers of the line to cases will have to go a great distance to attend parade.. will be liable to heavy expense.

Major Evans Regiment. having clothed them in the of the 8th reserve clothing (red coats) of the 41st Regiment. The creation of this distinction. being considered as a reserve. but the men evince a degree of impatience under their present restraint that is far from inspiring confidence.M. by the excellent work of the militia at the capture of Detroit and the battle of Queenston Heights. The flank companies were really regarded as the active part or first line of Brock's system of extracting from the Canadian general militia a select or active force by the organization of fiank or service companies. now occupied as a Museum.lost so heavily at Lundy's Lane. Occupied by the Continentals in 1775. the bulk of each regi- was early justified ment. Montreal. called the service companies. from Fort GeorgCj as follows: "The militia which assembled here immediately third year. regular regiment recruited in 1813. and. organized. formed when an emergency called for its embodiment into companies. almost exclusively the men. men to be trained for Any man Ijalloted had was established in a whole year every the option of serving In 1808 a force of as an efficient in a volunteer corps. the militia. was a Canadian the "local militia" being organized into regiments. which provided for the raising by ballot of a force of 200. fully uniformed. Detroit were probably the The when two flank companies which took part in the capture of first Canadian militia to be Brock thus practically divided the militia into distinct classes. 40 on the account being received of war being declared by the United States. from 18 to 30. only called out absolutely necessary. So great was the clamour to return and attend to their farms. secondly. which continues. serving for four years. embodied or trained. Official Residence of the (iovernor during the French Regime. at the suggestion of the rest of the militia liable by law for service. July 12. In 1806 a "Training Act" was passed in England. scarlet with blue facings.000 of uniform of the Canadian Militia to be similar to those H. Brock. first. available body —an active force. that I found myself in some measure compelled to sanction the departure of a . a voluntarily enrolled. trained. Army. but not In 1814 a general order was issued prescribing the The Chateau de Hamezay. "local militia" England and Scot- land by Lord Castlereagh in addition to the "general militia" which became a sort of sedentary militia. Major-General Brock wrote to Sir George Prevost. theoretically. 1812. have been improving daily in discipline. from among the men of these flank companies. was in line with the development of the parent service in the Mother Country. to the present.

" During the peace which succeeded the battle of lation of the world Waterloo (1815). leave the service taken for reducing the Incorporated moment the harvest commences. as regards the militia of were largely devoted to perfect the incorporated permanently embodied corps. struck me so forcibly that I determined to offer in the instructions I Robinson. 6d. subjects were compelled to enroll in the militia. Bounties were given by the army authorities for Major-General recruits for the embodied militia. to serve These under any officer in His Majeswere known as "Provincial contained the following provisions: — "Whereas there is now no provision by law for Corps. and cause him to be paid such expenses as he shall incur for the postage of letters." placed sure to amend 48 Geo. the armed forces of the empire were allowed to fall into neglect. To the Speaker of the House of Assembly to purchase a sword to be presented to Col. in the ten dollars to each volunteer for the incorporated militia. and soon after. H. At the same session of the assembly an act (56 George III. subject to the rules and regulations of Lieutenant-Governor government of this province to issue two warrants in favour of the Adjutant-General all of militia of this province. xxxi) was passed. where there were so many calls upon public attention and national energy. that little or no attention was for many years given to the question of the maintenance of the militia. 8d. stationary and other contingent expenses of his office. to be passing." Although the "service companies" of militia did officers of the line attached to the Incorporated Militia. were brought directly under the army authorAll departmental duties were performed by ities. as regards organization and maintenance. at its first publication.son administering the The Incorporated Militia. efforts army officers during the war. 2 authorized the Governor. and nearly all staff duties in the field were performed by regular officers. the officers. who the prospect of a change of government. In 1816 an act (56 George III. "provincial corps". signed December 24. which closed the war. Chap. the Major-General commanding in Upper Canada in 1813. was passed. vii) was passed granting 165 pounds additional salary to the AdjutantGeneral of Upper Canada militia. or so completely To 15s. the Canadian Light Dragoons." in contradistinction to militia. and were under Martial Law. the of the militia. Chap. on March 15. ment were provided from the army stores. Chap. wrote to Sir George Prevost as follows: "The importance of having without delay an efficient force from the militia. and the various £1. 41 assembling a Court Martial unless when the militia . I hope the critical situation in which this province is will justify me for having adopted the meawithout waiting for Your Excellency's answer The sviggestion to my application on the subject. steps were which can only impose a the fine of £20. the whole English speaking popuseemed to be carried away with the idea that the millennium had arrived and that the time had at last come for turning the swords into ploughshares. amending 48 George III. non-commissioned officers and privates of the Incorporated Militia. applied as follows: 6s. was raised under and subject to the mQitia laws of the province. and reduce to one Act of Parliament the several laws now in being for the raising and training of the militia of this province.se. Mother Country. To the officers and non-commissioned These cool calculators are numerous in all societies. Chap. but several Canadian corps on service during the war. late of the Incorporated Militia. and it is not surprising that in Canada. in the development of the young country's virgin resources. (55 George III. to the new plan adopted for that purpo. entitled "An Act to explain. R. were regularly enlisted and attested. 100 guineas." Section 1 of this Bill provided that only British Section or was approved of. supplies. 2d. Ill. The positions of lieutenant-governor and military commander being combined in one man the militia during the war. To the officers and non-commissioned officers and privates of the Incorporated Militia Artillery. 1814. as for instance the Provincial Light Dragoons.large proportion. in defiance of the law. Rations. while permanently embodied and paid by the army authorities. etc. six months pay £288 1 Is.594 take an active part were the regular troops increased.000.. had prepared an additional and the spears into pruning-hooks. sions that the remainder will. entitled " An Act At any rate.Incorporated Militia of this province and other indifferent to what is American as to rejoice in Many. the net pay of their respective ranks in the said corps good service whenever urgently required. now consider our means inadequate. would readily the greater part purposes therein mentioned. There can be At the session of the legislature of 1815 an act xiii) no doubt that a large portion of the population in this neighbourhood are sincere in their professions to defend the country but .883 for the uses of it appears likewise evident to are either me that the . six months pay £4. and of giving effect. and I am not without my apprehen- The Treaty of Ghent. arms and equipthe regular army. His Majesty a certain was passed "granting to of sum money £5. was Militia. Sheaflfe. This act the ty's army and service. the Artillery Drivers.. amend." xii) At the session of 1819 an act (59 George III. per.

When this little party was on its way to Toronto. administering government may direct a General Court Martial to be held. No. Upper Canada. and drilled them by censure or suspension. rifle corps to the number of seventy. which was the seat of the provincial government. It is recommended that the militia fines. formed a drill corps during the year 1835. No. 6. Provided that such General Court Martial in peace time in the event of convictions either his may inflict such penalty propor- tioned to the offence as the Court shall judge proper. for remedy whereof be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty. may will be dispensed with on next day of assembling. and by authority is same that the 25th of an act passed in the 48th year ***** Colonel James Fitz Gibbon. "No. may or the governor in person be called out on actual service. The establishment of the first battaliozi be eight companies of light infantry (when they can be formed of thirty men each). withdrawn from Penetanguishene in November. ("Dent's Story of the Upper Canada Rebellion. who was and the same " In all cases hereby repealed. for such young men of Toronto as desired military instruction. sir. Colonels will be responsible that the fines demanded from every individual who may be absent on the days appointed by law for the assembling of are Parliament of Great etc. 3. No. The Governor sent all the regular troops to the Lower Province." Britain. week with tireless enthusiasm. It as though they persisted in regarding all appeared the preparations as being merely for effect and to intimidate the government.. 4. men would be found in their places. whose so shall be conspicuous during the war of name had become 1812. No. but all to no purpose. but The last detachment to be sent out of the province to Lower Canada consisted of a subaltern and thirty men. If the cannot defend the province.. "The doing so would destroy the whole morale of my policy. York. under the auspices of Sir John Colborne. All through the autumn the Governor and his advisers received regular intelligence of secret drillings. ments their for their being instructed in small divisions in by reason whereof it may happen that persons against own homes. One company in each wing will be armed with rifles. before a Court competent may be ex- upon oath. and degrading him from his rank. the battalion to be two composed of not exceeding forty years of age. 7. 2. in their behalf." entreated the hero of Beaver the better. In 1836 Colonel Fitz Gibbon devoted himself with redoubled ardor to preparations for the insurrection which he declared would break He got together a forth before the next winter. constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an act passed in the to receive such evidence pended in remunerating one sergeant in each company to be employed in drilling the young men who are not called out with the battalion. prayed for by any have been made or of the militia whom any charges subsequently becoming Deputy Ad- may be preferred when any part jutant-General. whom charges of Enquiry. the second or reserve battalion of such men as may be within the limits of the Corps.") As the time of the actual outbreak approached. may have been preferred before a Court may have no opportunity of making their No. entitled of the "An act etc." In 1829 an important step was taken providing for the division of the militia in peace time into active and reserve this is forces. or depriving him of commission. 1829. Young men under the age of eighteen enrolled for the militia will not be assembled with the battalion. and of other seditious proceedings. clause the militia. 1. which are placed at the disposal of colonels of regiments for the incidental expenses of the corps defence against such charges. 5. His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased to direct that in future the several regi- ments of Militia in this province shall consist of first battalions each. The attendance of the onto. in order that their presence might have an effect upon the local militia. declaring that when the hour of trial should come he and "his boys" twice a and no other." answered His Excellency. not even as from that age to the period establishreserve battalion much as a company being kept as a garrison in Tor- ed by law. by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada. the government continued to rest in undisturbed confidence.of this province shall be called out on actual service. and who General's at this period held a position in the Adjutantoffice. The method of accomplishing : set forth in the following interesting order Militia General Order. Colonel Fitz Gibbon urged the Lieutenant-Governor to keep them in the city. A handful of well-connected young men availed themselves of the opportunity. not a man. These will be divided into a right and left wing. No. of the manufacture of pikes. 16th May. the sooner it is lost " Then." militia commanding officers will make arrange42 . where a General Court Martial shall be officer against gazetted Colonel of the West York Regiment in 1826. to be assembled as provided same manner and under same provisions by law in time of actual service. however the rest of the community might see fit to demean themselves. "No.

twelve battalions of provincial militia on duty for a stated period. 19. the field of the of commander While the excitement produced by the rebellion was still maintained." 1837. official who appears to have been the only military izations were used to raise an effective force." responded and ready to defend ourselves. organized and imiformed like troops of the line." from The Governor reported that bands of militiamen all directions poured in upon him. being raised. they were handed over to the municipal authorities. who form the only regular force in but having deliberately determined The Act of Union passed by the British Parliament 1840 came into effect by royal proclamation February 10." Sir Francis. he induced his rifle corps. by the free inhabi- tants of this noble province. to have them properly guarded. B. Head wrote: "I might also have most — advantageously availed myself in the military services of Colonel Foster. remarking: I have already done. Fitz alarm the established militia organ- Gibbon. B. According to the best reports he could collect.000 stands of arms being brought from Montreal. and since that date the militia of UpperCanada that the important contest in which I was about to has formed part of a Canadian national force. approaches to refused. According to MacMullin's History. 132.000 to 12. but even then. of Captain Baddeley of the corps of Royal Engineers. the British Constitution. and to furnish two sentries to guard the Government House. was afraid that the rebels would some night overpower the two constables and gain To guard against such a possession of the arms. Dec. The Governor have this arrangement carried "But that I do not like to undo what out. the forces in Upper Canada. I would have those arms brought from the City Hall and placed here in the Government House. under the care and keeping of my domestics. "No. with a couple of Upper Canada. there were twelve battalions of provincial on duty for various periods. most of the militia corps had a troop of cavalry attached to them. " I do not apprehend a rebellion in Upper Canada.000 of men simultaneously capital to support him in marched towards the maintaining for the people (Despat- them in the old City Hall. in this province. no less on the alert. whom he continued to drill than five battalions of incorporated militia. 43 . who placed Canada be engaged should be decided solely by the Upper militia. he had neglected As a matter of fact. or in other words.") After the first constables to keep watch over them at night. "let us be armed. etc. however. and thirty-one corps of artillery. ches in S." This was only a day or two before the Governor and the City of Toronto received that rude midnight awakening to learn that the rebels had fired the first shots of the rebellion at Montgomery's Tavern. contingency. quite distinct from the territorial militia regiments." (Dent.Dams and many another hard fight. No. an important Militia Act (2nd Victoria Chapter ix) was passed. to Upper Canada at the end of the rebellion showed an establishment of 106 complete regiments. artillery.) The only preparation the Governor had consented to make was to permit of 4. some of which were not finally disbanded until 1843. and of a detachment of eight artillerymen. dated Toronto. rifle and marine corps as separate units. In his despatch. from 10. militia lists Besides militia with vigilant regularity. cavalry and rifles. F. thirty cavalry and riflemen. organized for and clothed like troops of the line. 1841. Sir F. light infantry. which provided for the establishment of mounted corps. Head's " Narrative. while (infantry regiments?) one corps of artillery. in 1839. "There were four battalions of incorporated militia. to volunteer a nightl}^ guard of fifteen to twenty men to watch the City Hall.

as the But in Lower Canada the old militia vince of Quebec system. But the main principles of militia organiza- ordinances which were in force on the day fixed for the commencement of the act within the new provinces. respectively tion were understood." 26. being specifically repealed. various overlapping acts and ordinances. In his speech dismissing the house at the close of the the governor. tended to replace. Every male of age was a for the "corvee. without the legislation they were in- which had really lapsed naturally. if the Act in question had not been made. except in so far as the same were expressly repealed or force. the Governor-General. Lord else- Dorchester. 1793. but which continued in practice. or in any part thereof. with a few amendments. CHAPTER V THE MILITIA OF LOWER CANADA The Principles of the French Militia System Retained. new acts and ordinances had been enacted regulating certain points. as in Upper Canada. or either of them. which had existed in the old Pro- In the preceding chapter first was received from the governor informing the house that "the persons exercising the supreme authority in France had declared war against His Majesty. as best suited to the habits of the population and the needs At the time the Constitutional Act was passed there was much uncertainty as to some of the province. all laws.Wrhl^-) *5). the same labour. generally cherished as perquisites. during recess to as members upon "such further regulations of the details of the militia system. The Militia a Butt of Political Discord. some of and more having been merely temporary. Chap. asked the reflect session. The subject was taken up and discussed." In answering this message the assembly stated that they would immediately proceed to a revision of the militia laws. as. — ACCORDING to the Constitutional Act (31 George III. There were may appear necessary for the better organizing effectually calling forth the militia. a message varied by the Act.Hl<'iS V>))e^h ^Wi^h ^). November 1793. Most revolutionary and requiring . but no alterations were made in the militia ordinance then in force. completely replacing the old act. The Royal Canadian Volunteers — Lower Canadian Militia and Volunteer Corps of 1812-14 and 1837. April 25. and as if the said Province of Quebec had not been divided. but Various fell remained and continued to be of authority and effect in each of the said provinces.xxxi) section 31. was continued. based upon the French system. not alone for military duty. however. During the first sitting of the new assembly of the Province of Lower Canada. to the lot of the militia officers. issued a proclamation drawing attention to the fact that alien enemies from France and where were propagating 44 in the province busying themselves in principles." or statute militiaman.ti^s 'CA)^i^h %>). civil duties. statutes details of militia administration were regulated by and orders. Again. it has been explained how assembly of Upper Canada at its second session passed a Militia Act based upon the English system. it is to be inferred that such were deemed unnecessary by the assembly. and liable.

shall be liable to be rechosen to serve eiter as surveyor or overseer under this act within eight years day of 45 . and in the month of August every second year thereafter issue an order to the eldest captain or senior officer of militia in each parish.. or the militia thereof. and be it further enacted. and every such officer of militia who shall refuse or neglect to call such meeting or to preside therein. and he the shall. clergymen.. civil functions of militia The act was entitled: "An act for making. Provided that also. shall forfeit and pay the sum of five pounds for every such refusal or neglect. Chap.." ix) and it In 1796. and one miller to each mill. captains of militia.. was entitled: "An act to provide for the greater — captain or senior officer of militia shall preside.." This act was to 1796. who shall have so served as overseer. report of such death." and section 36 read as follows: full title of this act : "And render whereas the great extent of this province it may often impracticable for the coroner of the township for each of the said divisions thereof . same. then at such other place as shall be appointed by the said captain or senior officer of militia. who shall be chosen in manner following. Chap. as he shall judge proper and necessary." and sections 26. for amending the judications thereof. order. 29 and 78 read :— " XXVI—And be it enacted by the authoritj^ aforesaid that the grand voyer or his deputy shall and may divide every parish. may made therein. shall forfeit officers of militia shall be. and then and there the said householders. vi) conferred assembled. and any person so chosen and nominated to serve. to the deputy. repairing and altering the highways and bridges within this province. The consolidation of the main militia laws. and hereby are empowered. or the majority of war. Chap. in their respective parishes. or to oversee and perform any of the duties required of or neglect. shall choose a fit and proper person from the power to act as coroners upon militia officers. the names of the parties then and there chosen as overseers. day on ducing no material change. district to give his attendance at the different places it neglect to signify to the said captain or senior officer of militia his consent to enter where it might be necessary. to same. another act (36 George III. or to make such return. is who fix. provided that no officer of militia. and the same shall be held in the public room of the parson- security of this province by the better regulation of age house of the parish. 28. (34 George III." XXVIII." them so The other The act (34 George III. of peace officers. and for repealing certahi laws therein mentioned.. was shall shall be the duty of every officer of militia who have presided as aforesaid at any such meeting. seigniory or township of his district into such number of divisions. seigniory or township. summon together six consenting to accept such office shall refuse or neglect reputable householders of his parish to inspect the to obey the lawful orders of the grand voyer or his according to their opinion. to and publish or cause do the duty of overseers January next. which day shall be a Sunday or a holy day between the first day of September and the fifteenth day of October.. at which meeting the said eldest a . who shall refuse or ... and persons upward of sixty years of age."all magistrates. and shall serve for two years. of the service. in writing. to be passed at the first." " XXIX. for by the authority aforesaid." etc. "or until the end of the where there shall be no such public room. and for other purposes. be further enacted upon such service. Two acts affecting the militia were session of the assembly this year. to serve the office of overseer of highways and bridges. licensed school masters. seigniory or was An act for the division of the Province of Lower Canada. forfeit manner and cause be nearest justice of the peace. a sort of but intro- which the householders thereof shall meet for the purpose of such election. and to make a return of such nomination and choice to the grand voyer or his deputy within ten days after such meeting. being not more than nine. if necessary. that the captains or senior the space of eight days after such nomination. for openly to declare to the persons so assembled. and to each of which divisions there shall be allotted by him an overseer of the highways and bridges. among the householders of the parish. . And be it further enacted that the officers of militia shall continue to the purpose of electing overseers of the highways and until the first hereby required upon receipt of such to be fixed and published at the church door or place of divine worship bridges. shall for every such refusal and pay the sum of twenty shillings. passed affecting the special officers.. parish. seigniory or township after mornmg and others His Majesty's good subjects. and each of which overseers shall enter upon the execution of his office on the first day of January following. captains of militia. or who appear on any dead body.. seigniory or township. iv). when any marks of violence and pay the sum of five pounds current money of this province for such refusal or neglect. and for repealing certain acts or ordinances relating to the be in force until July 1. shall be exempted from being chosen or appointed surveyors or overseers of highways and bridges. vigilant. that a further examination him by this Act. that is to say: the grand voyer or his deputy shall in the month of August next.

-Col. Mate. that the deputy overseers of the highways for the surveyors and the time being shall and hereby are exempted from transporting effects belonging to Government. . J. and three companies at Quebec. the 2nd battalion The 1st battalion went under canvas at Montreal. the First Battalion had five companies and headquarters in Montreal with detachments therefrom at Three Rivers. a half company. The uniform was of the regular infantry cut. Robert Anderson. J. The in time. Destimeauville. 2 companies. to disband the various colonial corps. but the proposal did not meet with favour. the interest of the world in 1796 being At concentrated upon his brilliant campaign in Italy and the Tyrol. B. Pierre Marcoux. The regimental motto. Ant. Menard.Major Louis De Salaberry. 1802. A. J. and there appears to have pany was seventy been no difficulty in securing officers or recruiting the men. Joseph Bouchette. the first composed of consisted of two French Canadians. Lanaudiere. Salter Mountain Adjutant. holding up to the Canadian people and steps were taken. R. Francois Duval. Chapter xi) was passed continuing 34 George III. were armed with the old flint lock and bayonet. a half company. particularly. De Bleury. Chippewa. excepting in the case of invasion of the province. For years." During 1796. J. Bte. S. Francois Boucher. Daniel Dupre. S. Stephen La Morandiere.'. Lieut. The Canadians. J.from the first day of January next." "LXXVIII. or of insurrection in the county where they officers. Francis Dambourges. Johns and Sorel. The regiment was raised. time Napoleon was just attaining the zenith of his power.Andbe further enacted of each by the authority grand voyer. the aforesaid." this However. J. Chap. and for while the headquarters of the 2nd battalion were at Montreal. At the time the battalions were read out of the service. Magazine). Petrimoulx. Beaubien. The gentry. Louis Bailie. the men The men of which wore the usual talf. the others being distributed throughout Upper Canada as follows: York. Francois Vassal. to hindred clergy. in V. the second battalion composed largely of English speaking men. Louvigny de Montigny. Duchesnay. iv. Fort Erie. Henry Hay. conical cap. and St. Montizambert. Surgeon. from and the and gave but a deaf across the sea. Pierre Bazin. emissaries of the French government had beefn busy in Canada attempting to stir up the French Canadians against Great Britain. men. Lieutenants. Louis Feromenteau. (Surgeon-Major Neilson. The Royal Canadian Volunteers battalions. unless he it shall con- gaiters buttoned to sent thereto. B. equipped and administered as a regular regiment. cloth breeches. the officers white.. Benjamin Jobert. A. Desaulnier. Fort George. Quarter-Master. L. C. the officers and men being obtained in Canada and their terms of enlisting calling upon them for military service anywhere in the colony. Captains. 2nd Battalion Royal Canadian Volunteers. however.C. and from being called out to serve in the militia. The result was the raising of " The Royal Canadian Volunteer above the knee. Richard Hay. Antoine Lanaudiere. (Niagara) 3 companies. 1797 and part of 1798 the 1st battalion was stationed at Quebec. and others at Washington were trying to embroil the United States government with Britain. James Davidson. Each battalion consisted of eight companies. with long black 46 Duchesnay. duly emblazoned on the colours. Carleton returned to England after completing arrangements for the carrying out of his long cherished scheme of founding a permanently embodied establishment of Canadian troops. I. with The men wore grey scarlet coat and blue facings. 1801. Peter Duchoquet. threw the great weight of their influence in the balance against the foreign agitators. one company. Chaplain. Major Hazelton Spencer. Regiment. some months during the summer of 1797. raised and equipped in Quebec. DeLongueuil. R.' are respectively serving the said The same year an act (36 George III. In the spring of 1798 the battalions exchanged garrisons. Joseph de Beaujeu. The head dress was a three-cornered hat with black cockade (tassels for the officers) except the grenadier company.) In the summer of 1796. Hipolite Hertelle. John M'Donnell. Lieut. and raised and equipped iii Montreal. The second battalion upon disbandment had only one company in Lower Canada. Sorel. Royal Canadian Volunteers were disbanded in August and September. was "Try Us. Francig Piedmont. of the Treaty of Amiens. Kingston. Honore . the horrors of the French Revolution and the failure of the invasion of the province by the American Re- In the Quebec almanac for 1797. the signing October 1st. restored peace. Royal Canadian Volunteers appear as follows: First battalion Royal Canadian Volunteers. the officers of the arguments against any suggestion to unite Canada politically once more with publicans in 1775-1776 as old France. St. Robert Anderson.-Col. their their were not to be so easily won from ear British allegiance. including a grenadier and a light The strength of each cominfantry company. Johns. detachments or perhaps the whole battalion was stationed for periods at Laprairie. C. In 1799 pressure was brought upon the officers to consent to be placed on the same footing as other fencibles for service abroad. Ensigns.

1800. It will be remarked that while there are but three names which are not distinctively French Canadian." The Governor The population is computed to be about progress in 160. apparently. Taschereau. it is necessary to refer here. could be depended upon to use their influence " to encourage a spirit of loyalty in opposition to the spirit of democracy. the English people being spurred to make great exertions by Napoleon's taunt that England would not and could not stand alone against France. Thomas Fraser. the second. George Ermatinger. The bishop and priests. England declared war on Napoleon. the British government in March. each nation being aroused to the highest pitch of enthusiasm. he pointed out. etc. Chichester Donald M'Donell. Evidently. Deace. Eylau. and the next the Captain of Militia. as strong among of the French Canadians as origin. Charles Lanniere. Adjutant —John Cromp—Andrew Cameron. 1803. Within a few months of the signing of the treaty. speaking of the social conditions prevailing. As to the progress of the several campaigns which followed. Wm.. and next through the militia. England refusing to evacuate Malta. -Governor Robei't Shore Milnes in a letter to the Minister on the real situation in Canada. Richard Willkinson. Napo- leon was then Vice Consul." The Governor proceeded to suggest that by some honorary and pecuniary reward. Quarter-Master James Davidson. that there were five French Canadian officers in the second battalion. and the British Militia was Napoleon ordered large additions of troops called out. whilst. in the public press and pamphlets. to the camps which had been forming at the ports liberty of the press Capimder the French rule were great. Peter Grant.000 additional men enrolled for the navy. Lieutenants Richard Ferguson. and until he had. tains cerned and continued to increase his armaments at strategical points threatening Great Britain. "a spirit which is natural to the Canadians. and few The great Napoleon had not attained the summit of his ambition in 1801. of course. the feeling of which remains. along the English Channel. British government and Napoleon were embroiled in dispute as to the execution of the terms of the treaty. Chaplain — — Father ton. April 29. the Pyrenees and the South of France.Captains Peter Drummond. the militia officers might be brought to consider themselves as. very long. The French papers retorted and attacked England. 1803. remarked " The counties are divided into parishes. After menaces had been made on both sides. Hector McLean. ordered 10." He went on to show that the influence of the government might be extended by the co-operation of the clergy. at least. into the contest — M'Donell. Hugh McDonnell. The authorities of Lower Canada were at this important juncture anxious to do more to bring the national defensive force into line with military jequire- Angus M'Donell. But they are stiU employed in performing services for the Government. of Napoleon's triumphal campaigns of Jena. officers of the Crown. Lieut. there was to be no lasting peace. for which the only remuneration is the sense of the honour of being so employed. Joseph Boardwine. Auerbad. with 292 captains and 16 of a the latter chiefly seigneurs. Pierre Ignace Major. Niel M'Lean.904. and the English papers retaliated. Miles M'Donell. — Ensigns Pierre Boucherville. Fraser. November 1st. Wm. Finally. In this way a spirit of loyalty would be diffused through the whole province. Crawford. had 31. but the student of Canadian history has to have some knowledge of the war in Europe to appreciate the events preceding and during the war of 1812-14. 47 by a proper system. " His Honor was pleased to add "I would like to call attention to the relative expenditure for civil and military purof the The powers — . not only would the military expenses be greatly lessened. Wm.000. among last their neighbors British The peace expected it of Amiens did not would. or by some other plan. Wm. poses. ments and more in touch with the population. and to be actually made. the Cape of Good Hope and Alexandria so long as Napoleon failed to restore his continental conquests to the powers conthe made much proceeded : — " which has fortimately not Canada. and the country secured from internal commotion. the military spirit was. staff. the latter out of proportion to the latter. the militia 37. While the 1st Battalion had 34 officers. — Both Britain and France entered with zest. nine-tenths of whom reside in the parishes. were engaged in sarcastic and bitter attacks on him and his government. among those of the officers of the 1st Battallion. Johnson. The British government. Robert Wolsey. Alexander McMillan. though the power is withdrawn. Spain. the in the and the right of refuge. but the co-operation of the . but this is by no means equivalent to the expenditure of the time and trouble. and French royalists who had taken refuge Channel Islands and London. at least so long as he held the supreme power in France. Napoleon demanded that the British government muzzle the press and banish the French royalists refugees to Canada. explained that it could not interfere with those very British institutions. of the same nominal establishment. and of the British victories at sea first and afterwards in the Peninsula. Duval. the principal person in each of which is the priest. Surgeon Mate —Cyrus Anderson.

40} yards. interesting in the prorogation taking place the next day. and they were revived.. mixt. therefore. yellow. authorizing me to 'receive from His Majesty's magazines at Quebec such arms as may be necessary for the use of the militia. by a new act (43 George III. that Lord Dorchester. year 1796." At the first session of the parliament of Lower Canada in the year 1803. new November made a requisition upon Lieut. I shall further request Your Excellency to give directions that these. Quebec. pensions for disabled militiamen. a power is respecting the militia in this and pouches which are essentially necessary to their attaining any degree of perfection in their exercise. It The act was limited to four years' duration. Robt. " It in the is my dis- probably known to you. other details. in the following terms: — "The officers of the British and Canadian Montreal having represented to me that at the time Your Excellency was so good as to order muskets to be delivered to them for the purpose of enabling the militia of Montreal to practise militia at Governor Milnes lost no time proceeding to put the Militia Act into effect. i). with the six hundred you have already had the goodness to order to be at posal at Montreal. passed. The act in question authorized the governor to spend 2. linen. Chap.500 poimds sterling annually. 104f yards. there was. Hats and cockades. S. yards. the following: Privates.200 men.' and I . brown. -General Hunter. Nov. which is dated Quebec. being in the military store. for During 1802. 16. on muskets being lent them for the the regular army stores. and the requisition he made on Lieut. sixty needles. forty and zeal for the interests and honour of his crown. Excellency 1803. " (Dom. provided for ment in Montreal. was felt from the circumstance. there was a strong manifestation of loyal feeling universally throughout the province. which. 18^ yards. Governor 29th. to command them.910J. looping.. 1. 28th April. to request Your Excellency will give the necessary orders to forward a measure so important to His Majesty's service. Hats. same connection "I have the honor : to enclose the Militia Act of the earlier session being in force. acquaint them that a considerable number of His Majesty's subjects in this province. they omitted to ask also for belts passed the legislature province. In this document. He was authorized to embody annually. etc. The lieutenantgovernor sent down. complete the complement.inhabitants could be secured for the defence of the country. that six hundred stand of arms will. The Alien Act. I shall be much obliged to Your Excellency to give directions for belts and pouches being delivered to them in proportion to the number of muskets. and their example may be of considerable service in the province. Drummers. The following extract from a to the letter by Governor Lieut .-General A bill was introduced. actuated by a spirit of loyalty yellow." return mentioned in the preceding included. and that for the preservation of His Majesty's government had been allowed to expire at the time of the peace.100. have. had offered to form themselves into to Hats and cockades. Milnes to His 11. there were buttons braids. 80. whenever this measure be adopted. 57^ — by hundreds of gross. as he should 48 from Lord Hobart. a force of 1. may be delivered to me when The among required. accordingly to the consideration of the House. 1803. is Legislative Council relative to but too late. mixt. and which. as I have the satisfaction to find they mean to continue practicing during the ensuing winter. towards the formation of an efficient militia.) judge expedient. 1. the commander-in-chief. Archives. Besides. the governor wrote " In consequence of new regulations which have : the use of firearms. assembled for purpose from Milnes. received from England clothing and accoutrements for the number of men now fixed by the I have the honour to inlegislature to be called out. two thousand tailors' thimbles. a mild outbreak of military excite- 28 days annual drill. 4. but the return of war rendered their revival necessary. however. Upon the recurrence of war. 1802. and sent up it. -General Hunter for arms and equipment gives us at once an idea of the scope of the bill and of the absolute dependance of the militia of those days on the regular army for equipment.179^ yards. a message to the assembly stating that he had "the satisfaction to vested in the Executive Governfor ment to embody twenty-eight I days annually twelve hundred men. as a result of the warlike outlook in Europe. No incon- venience. and officers as serve under such the subject His Majesty's representative should appoint pounds hundred and twenty of thread. brown. the militia laws were renewed. may be delivered upon shall my requisition. —Cloth. etc. —Cloth." He recommended epaulets. on the advice of the governor. Sergeants. The second session took place in August on the resumption of hostilities between Great Britain and France. close a statement of the articles intended for the use of the militia. extract of a dispatch which I have this Your Excellency an day received and sufficient for every practical purpose at the time. the Hunter. and the local militia voluntarily drill. yellow. or any part of them. a volunteer companies for the defence of the province at the present moment. Cloth. 152 J. linings. late in the session.

-Governor Milnes has acquainted may be requisite for this branch of His Majesty's me with his service. which. dated York. 1803. December follows " I : — 9. as follows: " Lieut." 49 consequence of Lord Hobart's despatch to me. and requesting to the amount of twelve hundred stand of arms. with above quantity of arms. make up the number required. King Edward VII. 1803." such proportions as proportionate accoutrements. to the amount of two for the Canadian and one hundred stand for the British Militia. The arms are to be deposited at the Chateau.shall amount as be obliged to Your Excellency to receive the of 1. military secretary. at such times and in such proportions March 29th. Major-General Mann. with an extract from Lord Hobart's letter to you of the 9th September. who have been training as far as they could do without arms all the winter. "I have by this opportunity given Colonel Mann we find Lieut. with the stand of arms formerly issued to you for hundred the ordinance stores by Your Excellency's order in this service.sary directions to order the ordinance storekeepers to issue to such persons as Your Excellency writing to the commander-in-chief " I as follows: may authorize to receive them to the amount six of six letter of the have had the honor of receiving Your Excellency's 24th inst. -Col. Green. quired by Sir Robert Milnes. 1804. at such times. and hundred stand delivered out only at such times as they exercise. and July 25." intention of giving a proportion of of the City of arms to the militia This letter received a reply from Lt. 1805. dated 9th of September. ^ necessary for the use of the militia. presenting His Colours the Strathcona Horse on their return to London after the South African Campaign. conformably to Lieut.-Governor Sir Robert Shore Milnes the nece. wrote Lieut. by which I was authorized to . and in may be requisite for this branch Some issue of His Majesty's service. in command at Quebec. reading in part as have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of letter of the 11th November. and trouble appears to have arisen as to the further also the care of these arms. respecting the arms issued from hundred stand of arms.s.-General Hunter.-General Hunter's orders signified in your letter to me of the 8th December last.. order the issue of the His Majesty. authorizing you to receive from His Majesty's magazine at Quebec such arms as may be Your Excellency's Quebec only. I may when be re- wanted for shall accordingly.200 stand of arms with proportionate accoutrements.

have been erroneously considered (Dominion Archives. intended to give every possible latitude to their and to study in everything their conit is venience. . 1806." During the year 1807. at the the governor-general. 1807. of course. respecting a musket with the Tower mark. but I am inclined to think it may possibly be one of those muskets that were placed in the hands of the militia by Lord Dorchester in the year 1787. for which an equal number of muskets complete will be given "One shilling will be allowed every time the volun- teer assembles for exercise. Sir James to say he wished might be adopted. he trusts. tions that forty-six carbines. " I can say nothing in regard to the officers they. therefore. who was a retired army officer. it is not improbable.) as private property. -Colonel Panet for the they receive the order to march. and he requests you to state the nature of the engagements under which the men assemble for exercise. of this province. to be bound to attend drill and of to be in constant readiness to whenever march to the any part discretion of the province in case of emergency. till when I shall "His Excellency is exceedingly pleased to find a principle in some measure established by your individual exertions. ing His Majesty's forces: " I have to request you will be so good as give direc- ^ "Arms and accoutrements must. Seigneur of Berthier. on the 20th of this month. I the military state of as to interfere with the just pretensions of the regulars. for obvious reasons. or any other assistance from govern- arms as may be necessary for the use of the militia ment. " In consequence of the information Your Excellency has honored me with. the auctioneer. will not be forgotten in the arrangement. prejudices. however." The 27th of the same month the following requisition was made: — "I have to request that you will give directions that two field pieces (six "The men ordered. Thomas Dunn to Colonel Barnes. up in exchange. and give spirit to. I shall take government to secure a more substantial hold on the services of the men than their mere promise. thought no regulation to that effect can operate to diminish the number of voluntary offers. organized the and allowance. "Such are the chief conditions which I miderstood He. "You must be aware that in any future general arrangement it will become an essential object with consider myself as responsible for the safety of those arms to His Majesty's minister only. which was exposed for sale at McCary's. command22. "Government will undertake either to provide or give an allowance for clothing. in justice to you. the basis of which he means to pursue in forming an extensive. James Cuthbert. Mr. son of the first Seigneur of the name. may. considerable "Every consideration of policy ought to make the proposal to appear to come from yourself. " unquestionably be allowed. to be placed precisely upon the same footing with His Majesty's use of the battalion of Quebec militia under his com- mand. but they cannot expect to be exalted to such a height officers will — You may well suppose that the principal subject of is conversation at headquarters this country. the regular troops in regard to pay pioneer volunteer corps in the country districts. "A proportionate number of non-commissioned attached by the authorities to the organization of -the Berthier company: "Quebec. will be always ready to attend to any suggestion that tends to improve. and he desires me to ask your opinion in regard to the following points: May by the we find the following request addressed Hon. the to mention to Sir have manifested the inhabitants of James Craig the public spirit you forming a company from among youi seigneurie without the least 50 anxiety until I hear experiment. From time pounders) complete may be delivered to the order of Lieut. complete. "As you have been the first to set such a laudable and which from the lapse of time. October 12. and as it is every possible step to ascertain whether or not it belongs to the present militia. and the degree of service they are under promise to perform. The following letter from Colonel Brock. "Being in some measure pledged for the success of have been in careful. Sir James thinks it but just that Berthier should take the lead in any new project he may adopt. may be delivered from the ordinance stores to the order of Colonel Hale for the use of his battalion of militia. be provided as far as practicable by the individuals themselves. Cuthbert shows the importance object in view.receive from His Majesty's magazines at Quebec such pecuniary aid. " I shall take the earliest occasion to lay before His Majesty's Secretary of State the subject matter of your letter. to Mr. in the expectation that His Lordship will send out to the person administering the government during my absence such further instructions with respect to the arms in question as he may judge proper. and." example. and were never afterwards withdrawn. then in command at Quebec. not to exceed thirty days during the year. I shall be under your sentiments. in this instance. an efficient system of defence.

Lieut. Dunn. jecf.000 was placed at the disposal of the governor. then governor. and he thought it best not to proceed any further. on Dec. George Prevost. —Having had the honour to receive and lay beCommander-in-Chief your I James Craig. be satisfied he would not hesitate a moment.000 was voted. to His Majesty's Government as to the expediency of carrying the levy therein proposed into upon same suba reference was made effect. the acting governor (President of the Council). Consequently an order was issued excusing the drafted force from service. and everything prepared for spirit. made arrangements for a grand military demonstration to be made during the summer of 1808. dismissed 51 pediency of this measure. One fifth of the militia of the province were called out for training. when half of the embodied would be relieved by fresh drafts.-General Sir "Sir. The cause assigned for this action was that the governor could place no confidence in the services of persons whom he had good groimds to consider to be pro- prietors of a seditious and libellous publication (Le This note was to the effect that Canadien). forwarding a copy of a note received from Sir James Craig. entitled: — "An act to explain. it will be un- from the Quebec militia five officers. 30th May. to embody 2000 young immarried men for three months in the year. who. Borgia Militia out of Cuthbert's project. who were not drawn. chives. Sir George Prevost. were to be retained in service for a whole year... for on July 7. 1808. ii) authorizing the governor. being for the raising and training of the militia of the forwarded "as soon as the business conclusion. and with it the ambition of the ruling faction in the United States to secure possession of Canada." Mr.. Mr. £12. but the suggestion was overruled by the British Government who. the loyalty In refutation of this libel between Great Britain and the United States. 1808. Sir George Prevost. and a supply of ammunition were and His Excellency promised should be is reduce to one act of parliament the several laws province. young bachelors competed with one another to procure the service tickets of married men who drew them. 13. giving the to the doubts a letter addressed to Sir George Prevost. still drill and for the military persisted in exercising direct control is over military clearly The ballotting for men was lie carried out with the greatest matters in the colonies. but which he trusted would be got over immediately. Panet. After the men required had been selected by ballot. Capts. such accoutrements as were in store. in case of invasion. but not a few married men refused to sell out. in new was passed. "Lieut. the war party in the republic industriously circulated the report that the Canadians only awaited the unfurling ojiened on the 21st of February and passed a bill for objecting to added: — "Were any George III. in This point in exposed which had been cast upon the loyalty of the people. and it is only lately that an answer was received. training and other purregular forces. on this par- ticular occasion. In 1808 a They were Col. Brock wrote to Cuthbert that the general had very substantial reasons issue of arms at that time. Bart. Arms. he was empowered to embody the entire militia force of the province. In 1809. i). at this period. had reported to the Home Government that he proposed to carry out a levy of the militia for the French Canadians." brought to a The session of parliament of Lower Canada in 1812 (52 Apparently the legal difficulties proved insurmountable. purchased tickets from others who were. Sir fore the letter of the 4th of arrived at Queljec. &c. and preserved the Dominion Ar1812. . and who dated the 4th of December last. purpose of executing some necessary works. the governor lauded the Canadians for the loyal and heroic spirit they had manifested." As the war between Britain and France developed. and Brock. on the ground necessary to state your having received a communica- that the step was necessary for His Majesty's service. amend and now in and Surgeon Blanchet. It reads as follows: "Horse Guards. March. wrote again. but in a their mobilization. At the ballotting. poses of the militia service. to be used in the event of a war arising of the stars and of stripes in Canada to rise in a body on against British rule. &c. &c. the new governor. on the subject. Act (48 George III. B6dard some legal difficulties had arisen over the carrying and Taschereau. am commanded to acquaint you. but no militiaman was to be drafted into the For drilling. Chap. and a further sum of £30.. intimating the view which had been taken of the inex- had commanded Carleton's advance guard at the expulsion of the Continental troops in 1776. He your corps the sole consideration. In the event of imminent danger. Some men. Chap. Sir James Craig. Cuthbert wrote in reply.when you tion consult those around you. readiness. that the receipt of your original dispatch on the general order issued November 24. but he cannot show you such marked preference without exciting a degree of jealousy and outcry which might occasion unpleasant discussions. to whom he had submitted Cuthbert's letter. who had shortly before arrived to succeed Craig. as communicated to you in the Secretary of State's dispatch of the 31st of March.

Thomas Hay ward Cartwright — "Compagnie d'elite". 1812. Henry Weatherston. It was to de Salaberry and the voltigeurs that the French Canadians owe the proudest laurels of the chaplet of glory they so gallantly earned during this war. M. But for this letter fortunately reached May 28. Walter Davidson. and Lieut. Benjamin Delisle. guet. Josias Taylor. detailed to other duty. Quartermaster jutant Lieut. " a sort of small hunting horn which was later replaced by an instrument much Captains (2). (2). Cochrane. that His " I am or riflemen. and a regiment of " voltigeurs. who were light infantry Absent. Wm. Dewar (staff).Johnson. Robert Under the second empire the voltigeurs were accorded the same pay as grenadiers. McQueen. the voltigeurs being ex- pommels of the cavalrymen's The maximum standard of height for the French voltigeurs was four feet eleven inches. Ewan McMillan. the latter being placed imder the command of Major de Salaberry. their instrument of music being a " cornet. The "Canadian Fencible Infantry Regiment" (10 companies). Daniel Dupre(2). Cunningham. Sir. 21. being intended to accompany mounted forces in swift attacks. were raised without any delay. two regiments be allowed of conscripts raised as chasseurs to form part of the Young Guard. George R. which battalion. fully sensible of the very zealous and proper motives by which you were actuated upon this occasion. Radenhurst. already serving in the province and carried on the establishment of the regular army. for each battalion of infantry. of the same year. Wm. The list of officers published in 1813 showed a few changes. R. geon Alex. provided for the raising as a The decree of March 3. P. G. Noah Freer. Ronald M'Donell.Royal Highness is no arrangements of this kind should be put in a course of execution. William De Haren. Companies of "voltigeurs" were first raised in the French army during the rule of the Great Napoleon. Benjamin Delisle. Alexander Grant. George Robertson. Captains — James Major — Francis Cockburn Colonel (1).." was raised. HaUes. "corps d'dlite. W. Pinguet. Cochrane. Ferguson (2). as Adjutant. Chas." Canada too late. in fact of opinion that the strength being reported complete in forty-eight J. and at first with sabres. These men were in- tended to be transported about the theatre of operations. and a decree dated Sept. James Lieutenants John Reid (2). —Thomas Hay (2).. De resembling the modern trumpet. AdR. Ulysses Fitzmorris. of a company of voltigeurs light (2). Lieut—Major-General David Shank. there war much progress had been made in the organization of the militia. Louis Dufresne. Lieutenant —Wm. John Hall. Radenhurst. — Major-General Thomas Peter (1).-SurAlex.Archid. William Marshall. K. Pentz. however. and shared with that branch of the service the charge of the colours. humble servant. 1807. Wm. the Hertel. Ensigns F. without a previous authority. TORRENS. B. —G. Peach. military formations whatever. provided for the retirement of the The voltigeurs. etc. Patrick Nowlan had been brought — — — — in to replace Lieutenant Cochrane. John Johnston. " a sort of Col. The company officers in (1813) stood as follows : latter October 7th. voltigeurs. The voltigeur companies occupied the left of each Besides the company of voltigeurs. rapidly. Grant. Gugy. Taylor. "I have the honor to be. H. Surgeon Michael Mabey. Ulysses — introduced voltigeurs into the infantry of the line. W. Alex. James Pentz. The complete list of officers of the Canadian Fencible Infantry in 1812 was as follows: hours. the idea being to secure the services of est stature in the men of the small- army. Sir George Prevost raised four battalions of embodied militia in Lower Canada. and that it is usual for the Commander-inChief to communicate with the Government upon all His Royal Highness is. staff: (2) The Canadian Voltigeurs. Thomas Fitzmorris. Alex. S. one company for each battalion. McMillan. its officers being taken almost exclusively from the regular army. At its head was the following imposing (1) were in the Guard four regiments of voltigeurs. Captain De Haren had been promoted major. Fraser. but a decree of ercised at riding on the saddles. McQueen. and the smaller they were the better. Edward Cartwright George R. Your obedient. The voltigeurs made such an impression by their useful services that John Johnston. Pierre Gamelin. Peach. was largely recruited among the French Canadians. C. Marshall. Marshall. Henry Weatherston. E. Temporary Rank S2 . troops at that time. unlike other French arm. tioned in 1810 to designation of G. Asst. had no drums. Ferguson (2). Alex. 21 days before the United States bill Congress passed the empowering the President to composed exFrench Canadians. 1804. This historical regiment was clusively of declare war against Great Britain. the peti- Ensigns Tagart. and by the year 1812 the militia force of Lower Canada had undergone considerable change and had developed greatly. M. During years immediately preceding the existed in each battalion of infantry of the line. Alex. Antrobus. also to observe. Edward Eccles (2). Charles PinGunter. They were armed with light guns. Paymaster Lieut. Wm. EdDugald Campbell.

Boucher. Orderly Sergeant. and from thence to St. a column of some 1. left for Montreal.200 Americans made a reconnaissance in force into Canadian territory. 13. militia and Quebec was garrisoned by At Montreal. several companies in Quebec and four of Montreal. and came to grief at Lacolle. 2nd Bat. some three or four hundred persons assembled at Lachine for this purpose. N. and a powerful and well equipped army of 10. During the night of November 20th. As soon as war was declared the regular troops were moved for the militia. —Captain Jacob Adjutant for the Chambly Division de —Captain D. they were regularly called out by the governor. L. four hundred setting in. An The district of Quebec comprised 8 regimental divi- sions. and it was determined by his neighbours to organize a party to liberate such others of their friends as had already joined the depot of the embodied militia of the district at Laprairie. a the result being an immediate retreat. — Lt.Y. but that the authority. Accordingly.-General — Charles Simon and a company of the 49th Regiment.. of the magistrates that the militia law was simply being enforced. — Adjutant for the District of Trois Rivieres Capt. confronted the crowd. and placed under the command of General Dearborn. and a six-gun battery of artillery. the soldiers were killed Turcot. R. De Salaberry was entrusted with the command of a line of outposts established along this side of the line. Juchereau Duchesnay. and one man was Adjutant of Provincial Militia Lt. F. the Adj.-Col. Adjutants for the Eastern Townships and another dangerously wounded. Louis de Montizambert. Three Rivers. refused to join their Louis. Delisle. but one was rescued. The habitants refused to believe the assurances and the companies in Montreal were brigaded. de Lanaudiere. the flank companies of the embodied militia. where they found their progress opposed by a picquet of some 500 militia and Indians.-Col.-General — Lt. which had arrived from Montreal. The Riot Act. 6. and 103rd Regiments of Foot. Strategy proper. but equipped from the magazines of the regular army. Through their faulty dispositions their for In the Parish of Pointe Claire. Adjutant for the Gaspe District — Lieut.-Col. for the north. where they captured twenty-four of the mutineers and took them But the Pointe Claire habitants bitterly to Montreal. Captain Philip Byrne. On the 6th of August the whole to Montreal. advance base was established at Lacadie. A. One of the first measures decided upon by Congress was the capture of Montreal. — — — Joseph Gary. leaving some of the most daring among them to keep up a straggling fire from the bushes. 100th. was read. They shouted "Vive le Roi" and announced held their readiness to serve in the field provided The battalions of embodied militia raised at various times in the province during the war were recruited by districts. Minor details of organization . ordered to shoot into the mob. H. and political strategy alike justified the attempt. and fifty of the Montreal Militia marched to Pointe Claire. but it soon appeared that the trouble was due to a misunderstandthese. with a commandant and adjutant of their own. J. Percival. or to take the field necessary. the latter attached to the First Battalion of Montreal militia. the invaders fired into on Lake St. Lieut. but they were attached to their territorial gazetted. Lukin.. Delery. The officers which were organized regularly the volunteer companies. M. J.-Col. Lieut. The force at this point consisted of the flank companies of the 8th. M. militia regiments. Destimauville. after great provocation. Lieut.000 men was concentrated around Champlain. the Canadian Fencibles. some young men. Gaspe. Laurent. two pieces 53 under militia officers.Adjutant-General viel. P. own men. Bte. — Glen. District of Montreal Capt. the militia also turned out garrison duty. The military made thirteen prisoners. FraiiQois Vassal de Mon- Deputy Adj. R. for the south. the Town J. Of four were included recognized establishment of in volunteers.-Col. A military 'epidemic seized young and old. on the following day. de Boucherville. Xav. Eastern Townships. who had been the embodied militia." were ing. embodiment had been done without As the rioters refused to budge. and subsisted from the regular commissariat. 2. were commanded to hold themselves in readi- ness embodiment. — Major Charles Fremont. "to perform garrison duties if voluntarily. Adjutants for the Town of Quebec Capt. which was readily given. 1st Bat. 1. O'Hara. the attack. The provincial militia organization during the war apprehended. Lieut. of Montreal —Capt.-General Orderly Clerk to Assistant Adj. H. Ls. The mutineers then dispersed. G.. 3rd Bat. L. repented the resistance which they had made to the militia law. Capt. that of Montreal. Charland. Adjutant for the four divisions south of the St. and many of them craved forgiveness. Provincial Aides-de-Camp Lieut. and after the troops and rioters had fired several of artillery volleys over each others' heads. Capt. C. drafted into battalions. Lawrence. de Tonnancourt. and as night was Next day. Adjutants for Griflfin. but there was an exception to the rule for of martial enthusiasm.

" About eighty men of the description required campaigns in Upper Canada. and I should think might be readily got. and another strong inducement will be the superior rate of pay of the corps. wrote to General de Rotten- cornet. And these parties frequently took part St. and supply them with certain articles September 26. more efficient the Dominion Archives." Two provincial corps were raised in Montreal early in a provincial field calls the corps "The Royal Montreal Drivand at others "The Troop Provincial R. for September 13. it was sent to the front. and moccasins. George 3rd. Freer. Documents the ticulars of the raising Dominion Archives give parand services of these corps. " His Majesty's Canadian Light Dragoons. Occasionally the embodied militia were hard put to it for uniform. 1812. parade states. it appears. for the space of eighteen months. militia for manual The Lower Canadian a militia. during a space of time not exceed- do in this work. consisted of 880 rank and The imiform consisted of green jackets. Captain Sinclair. 1813. or during the war with the United States. where it is that of necessaries. complained that upwards of 500 men of his battalion had not been supplied with any clothing or shoes since June. (Benjamin Holmes). MajorGeneral Sheaffe was informed from headquarters that no more corv6e or levying of the labour alone was to be required. 54 1 secretary to the governor. Captain John S. but writers generally have entering on their second year of service. Now. eligible men and such as should prefer to join one of the incorporated battalions. (Pierre Lefevre). 4 . The organized Corps of Voyageurs was not sufficiently numerous to do all of the water transportation work between Montreal and Kingston. for instance. and rendered valuable service. rosettes and bugle badges). as follows: "I enclose for the authority of His Excellency a request for clothing for 22 additional gimners who are Upper Province." writing from his regimental headquarters at Chateauguay to the military secretary of His Excellency. In those days the drivers of the their horses. military Captain Thomas Coleman raised his troop. shall enroll himself in a corps of troops or embodied militia. the recruiting fail. Lieut.. etc. in the correspondence. the skirmishing which took place along the line of communications between the head of Lake and Kingston. "Should. the military secretary. mentioning that it was his decided opinion that the most eligible mode to raise the corps "will be to recruit the men amongst the Canadians. 1814. who. 1813. Detachments of the were present at the battle of Chrysler's Farm. "H. raised in the file." regular and Upper Canadian in corps. 1813. took much more important part than they usually get would be wanted. Canadian Light Dragoons. 1813. shall be confined in prison. not merely in Cases of invasion. ing one month. replied to the letter. on trial. and to grant them a bounty of five pounds currency. commanding 4th battalion "Select and Embodied Militia. Sinclair commanding. Quebec. C. and parties of men were drafted from the various battalions of embodied credit for in the militia to said: "Every militiaman ordered out or ballotted. may be resorted to. These corps went through the very thick of the fighting in the Sinclair wrote Captain Freer. August 16. Three Rivers district. without bail. but to carry out military works at Isle aux Noix and other points along the exposed frontier. The sergeants carried pikes and wore sashes like those of regular regiments. Captain Noah same time. the expedient of taking. April 15. "As for procuring volunteers from the embodied militia. guns. from the general predilection that the Canadians have to be about horses. Section 60. raised in the and more particularly Lower Province. than the existing establishment. Captain Sinclair reported his corps as raised to the full strength March 30th. blue trousers. General de Rottenburg. May I trouble you to present it. the formed a corps distinct from the artillery. From requisitions. and artillery corps. 1812. as stated in your letter to complete the number of gunner drivers. they form part of the artillery corps as much as do the gunners. appears to me to militate against the Law. and a great many of the men had no other but linen trousers. 2 sergeants. Lieut. Francis Voltigeurs and his enlistment shall be null. 1 lieutenant." in Montreal about the December 22nd. "provincial corps". the 3rd battalion of embodied militia. -Colonel Voyer. 1813. caps (decorated with feathers. from the sedentary militia." Gunners appear to have been tillery included in the establishment. and soon after. (Coleman). Several levies of the sedentary militia were made. Vide 52. confusing them with the now at Kingston. sometimes ers. &c. in burg at Montreal that the officer commanding the Royal Artillery desired the formation in the Montreal district of a corps of drivers for the artillery. being in actual service. with James Cuthbert. field that Col." Captain Thomas Coleman commanding. the strength of the troop was 1 captain. December 26th.M. 12 of are them lost sight of their identity. which should cover the reward given to the bringer.were referred to the regular staff in the province. ArDrivers. These battalions were of considerable strength and well equipped.

The few isolated cavalry and rifle corps were of an independent character. The struggle between the legislative assembly languished. Mr. -Col. Chap. 3rd. granting pensions to certain classes of wounded Militiamen. Archibald N. 1. The troop baggage upon one occasion was lost. Beaver Dams. Captains Alexander McKenzie. Issues affecting finances. Pierre Rototte. Of course they received no pay or allowances. By the preamble of 52 George III. At the request of the governor-in-chief. 55 . McGillivray. The troop not merely served on the lines of communication between Montreal and the Niagara frontier. 2nd Major. Shaw. 1815. By the acts 1 George IV. The members of the legislature of Lower Canada volunteer troop of cavalry or a there. to advise a uniform. he recommended the following: blue jacket with red cuffs and collar. by passing 59 George III. 1. Aeneas Cameron. The militia law in force at the termination of the war of 1812-14 was a temporary one. 21. made permanent the 31st section of 43 George III. fils. white buttons. John Molson. 2. 55 George III. Louis Joseph Gauthier. "They have conducted themselves generally in a soldierlike manner. Kenneth McKenzie. Cartwright. were in 1813 as follows: Wm. by — — and practically ceased to exist The long lists of the officers of the sedentary militia made a brave show. James Campbell. and to the end of the war. 10. grey overalls strapped with leather. the Earl of Dalhousie. 1 and 52 George III. remarked of his company of rifles here and amounting in both provinces to 300or400 men. Captain Coleman having asked Sir George Prevost to corporals. except upon paper. Captain Coleman. 2. the St. including Proctor's moveaffairs at Forty-Mile Creek. Lieutenants James Goddard. Chap. William McKay. Lawrence steamer.augmentation of Captain Coleman's troop by a cornet and ten men. and the form of holding the annual muster on June 29th each year was kept up. The The officers of this corps. Adjutant. The act. which was launched at Montreal in 1809. 12. 53 George III. felt helmet with bearskin trimming. 1816. 1815). representation stitution itself were of militia and the conparamount importance. George IV. Joseph McKenzie. made an appropriation for certain expenses of the embodied militia during the war. and to the widows of those killed on service. among the vessels so employed being the "Accomodation. etc. Chap. in an 1815. and several of the troop were taken by the enemy and held prisoners for a considerable time. James Hughes. James Maxwell. Chap. Sandwich. 3 re-enacted the law for another two years. Angus Major." the pioneer St. a corps of Canadian boatmen for the transportation of troops and supplies up and down the St. the legislature. and continued them as amended until May 1. Chap.The strength appears 43 privates and 51 horses. Chap. Quartermaster. Ensigns Pierre Perras. with the exception of a January 22. Lieut. and I have never had to use corporal punishment. After the conclusion of peace. John McAndr6 Baron. Chap. there was no armed force in the country exclusive of ihe regulars. Chap. 4 and 22 (1821). Pierre de Rocheblave. the officers and men receiving pay up to the 24th. Chap. An act (55 George III. Commandant. particularly between Montreal and Kingston. administration. and were not subjected to any systematic oversight. and 5th George IV. officers and men uniforming and maintaining the corps at their own expense. for responsible government. who remarked that the constitutional provision for the defence of the country had been shown by the late war to be peculiarly well suited to Lower Canada. The act. Surgeon. The troop was disbanded at Montreal May. Joseph McGillivray. Gillivray. Canadian beef half-boots. steamboats were used for the transportation of troops and military stores between Quebec and Montreal. adding that from the report of Major-General Vincent and other officers at the front he was perfectly satisfied of the utility of the corps' services. McLeod. The period of the last extension terminated at a most awkward time for the administration. the Cross Roads. the act was further continued. William Hall. many of them North. 1 (May 8.West traders. Henry Monro. 28. have been increased considerably before being despatched to Upper Canada. Lieutenant-General Sir Gordon Drummond at Kingston recommended the . requiring renewal every few years. Was this the first occasion on which steam power was put to use in military operations? There was considerable legislation affecting the militia during the war. Peter Grant. and even purchasing the arms privately. it appeared that that act was only to apply to the then present year. but participated ments. 1st — John McDonell. Paymaster. During this campaign. official report of March 27. One of the most important permanent organizations of the war carried upon the militia establishment of Lower Canada was the Corps of Voyageurs. revived and amended 43 George "ill. not found something else to interest them besides military matters The country and this is equally true of — — both provinces of Canada —was about entering upon the hardest and most bitter phase of the long struggle between the popular representatives and the bureaucracy. to lace in front. in some of the hardest fighting and other military operations. Lawrence. Davids. men. 2 trumpeters. Chap. and lapsed for want of re-enacting in 1820. Chap.

took to effect an important reform in the system under which the militia in the City of Quebec were divided into " British " and " Canadian " battalions. it was declared Provincial Parliament of in the be enrolled. till the first day May in the year 1816. and sent it back to the assembly for concurrence. and bother- vexatious their provisions. but the object too important to admit of any consideration of such etc. 1827. upon the prerogative of the executive. and the bill fell through. The assembly refused to accept the amendments. repealed. a system which tended to keep alive an inexpedient and imConsequently a militia general politic distinction. including the bill to renew the Militia Act. order was issued under date April 28. and certain and they are hereby temporary provisions were substituted in lieu thereof. 1828. council repealed. adoption of a petition to the King by " the Commons of Lower Canada. while Sir James Kempt — discussing a was acting as administrator. the said ordinances after the passing of the said shall be. amended the bill accordingly. musters of the militia to be made under the old ordinances. they never having been absolutely 1789 came into force again in consequence of the lapsing the temporary acts. The assembly passed the bill with a clause declaring that the removals of officers that militia ordinances of the legislative council of the and appointments had been made since old Province of Quebecof 1787 and 1789. as householders. At the following session. regarding the forms and accounts in This system was of in things restored. the question of the militia was again revived.) During the session of 1829. "That the said provisions and other temporary The provisions for regulating the militia were continued or governor-in-chief first is is sensible that this may create at enacted by various other acts of the provincial parlia- some trouble and inconvenience. arbitrary abuse of the executive powers. and the old order by Lord Cathcart. legislative considered that this entrenched and some militia officers. reading While the affairs of the provincial According to the terms of the petition: "Certain ordinances for the better regulation of the militia of the then Province of Quebec. mander-in-chief. The administration claimed that by the expiry of the Militia Act. and subjected all the male inhabitants of "His excellency the governor-general and comthe the said to province. etc. being desirous to do away with and sixty years of age.of chief Lower Canada on one side. in between sixteen an exercise of martial law in the distinction which has always been supposed to exist in the militia of time of peace." which is interesting as giving a review of the militia and their duty was done. 34th year of the reign of your Majesty'& royal father of revered memory. had their commissions This action was held up as a further cancelled. then adjutant-general of the militia in Lower Canada. light. and continued from time to time.-Col. reached a climax in 1827.. militia were in Lord Dalhousie underthis unsatisfactory condition. 1847 reversed. to appoint to each battalion those captains and officers and non-commissioned officers. were made and passed by the governor and legislative council of the said province in the years of 1787 which ordinances in were inadequate. and the governor-inon the other. or other holiday. and the differences on this one question were so acute that they caused the rejection by the legislature of every measure which the government presented. were automatically May of 1st. and enacted that from and act." a difficulty. ment. who. arbitrary and 1789. two old connection civil lency change was attributed to the advice given His Excelby Lieut. whether British or Canadian born. and answer to the call of their names. (George III). unnecessarily as follows: some to the subject. in which shall householders or lodgers Lower Canada. much time was occupied new militia bill. that no distinction of religion shall be considered and that arrangements shall be made gradually. thought allotted proper to order that to each battalion be a certain portion of the city. in Provincial Parliament assembled. who protested publicly that the proceeding was illegal and tried to dissuade the militiamen from attending muster. at first apparently with the object rather of impeaching the former governor than with that of placing militia matters in the province on a The militiamen's duty was exceedingly fact only nominal. legislation of the province since the conquest. as an acknowledgment of obedience to the laws. are resident within the limits of the battalion. when the militia ordinances of 1787 and revived. Tache. The militiamen cussion of militia matters during the session was the had to meet after divine service on a Sunday. subversive of personal freedom and the right of property. when they expired in consequence of a premature dissolution of the house of of 56 . The result of the first dis- acts or the old re-instated ordinances. This of course was disputed by the opposi- The and the militia became a source of discord and The governor promptly ordered the formal agitation. tion. The unwise with the votes for the expenses of the government. once a year. (Christie. in under either the temporary lapsed more satisfactory basis. were illegal and null. Quebec as forming one English and has all "That by an act passed the first second session of two Canadian battalions.

whereby he assumed a legislative authority over your Majesty's subjects in this province.assembly. (October 30. In opening the session of the legislature in 1834. Honorary Colonel. Child. inances in question are laws in force. passed on the twenty- second day of March in the following year. Hence the earliest association of the Aylmer family with the ing the African War at his own expense. leav- The Rt. a measure which I sincerely hope will be effected in this province. who arrived at Quebec.. and were enforced by the late governor of this province. the aforesaid ordinances. reinstating several. Herald. Neilson and Knowlton. in the year 1817. for regulating the militia of the late first day year 1816 and the said 22nd of March. soon after the said prorogation. must. to assume the reins of government. October 13. 1830.O." Among sion list the British' names appearing in the divias supporting this petitioit were those of Messrs.M.M. Cannon. It is understood that the Home Government took no notice of this petition. continued or enacted by the first provincial parliament. and attempted to establish arbitrary power over their persons and property. at or subsequently to the said 22nd day of March. exacted a respective property qualification in persons commissioned to the militia. " That the aforesaid ordinances of the governor and provincial parliament.G. day of May. in the course of the present session.. under colour of law. the 3rdjVictoria Rifles. G. observe on the present occasion that His Majesty's courts of justice having determined that the ordmy duty necessarily requires me to be governed by such judicial decision initil a new act shall be passed by the provincial parliament for the regulation of the militia. Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal. were pretended to be revived. or known to be in existence by the body fit of the inhabitants of the said province for militia duty.S. 1817. putting at rest the that had arisen between the executive and 3) the assembly. I think it necessary to draw your particular attention to the act 10 and 11 George IV. On receiving the petition. nor any other law for regulating the militia were enforced or pretended to in the May be inforced.C. Chap. Raised Strathcona's Horse during the South consummation of the work of conciliation and reform to his successor. Commanded a militia company at Wiimipeg during the Fenian Raid of 1871. and residence within the their territorial divisions. etc. 3. This bill enabled the governor to call the legislature together in time of war. the "That all the provisions for regulating the militia governor in his speech remarked: —"Amongst the acts of this province revived. Hon. Brookes.. Leslie. difficulty bill (10 and 11 was passed. expired on the after a sudden prorogation of the S7 which are about to expire. his excellency stated that he would not but added: —"I fail to transmit it to the King. Province of Quebec. 1827. Chap. Before departure of Sir James Kempt. 1830) he made a beginning with the reorganization of the militia. and to regulate the militia . national defensive force of Canada. Lord Aylmer. and were revived by another temporary act of the provhicial parliament. Peck. which legislative council. P. intituled An act to provide for the better defence of the province. relative to the old ordinances of 1787 and 1789.. Later in the session a militia George IV. if not all. in H. however. Scott. of those deprived of their commissions. "That during the interval between the of was followed by a premature dissolution of the assembly.

15s. as by F. The colonial secretary's was as follows : Downing Street. there were issued 900 ball cartridges described as "French musquets. sixty swords of scimitar pattern and fourteen belts for same. Cap. 1825. 40 saddle bags and 180 buff slings and pouches... I must. 29. Cap. at that date.. the whole issue to the corps being valued at £573. 1824.. without further assistance from His Majesty's Governtion that the colonies. 1824. will ment other than the advantage to 58 of receiving from time time the necessary supplies from the ordinance . 42. and his letter was answered by one which is very interesting as indicating the attitude of the Imperial Government. etc. ammunition. 1823 to September Quarter. intituled 'An act to authorize the appointment of courts of enquiry.000 ball cartridges.. with the request that the governor would report "for His Lordship's (Bathurst's) information the fund from which the payments referred to can be made. To the Beauharnois Militia in the June Quarter. the whole of a value of one hundred pounds. apprize you that although free grants of arms are allowed by His Majesty's Government to their value. as recom- certified In proroguing parliament the governor thanked the legislature for having passed the militia bill mended. of ordinance stores to certain To the " Royal Montreal Cavalry. This return shows that there were issued to the Fifth Battalion Township Militia in February 11. Sisson. 14s. 40 swords and scabbards. at the public expense. under authority of an order dated February 21st.. convey to you my authority for the payment of £993 18s. several volunteer companies being organized at Montreal and Quebec. however. there were issued 100 musquets. I approve of the issues which have been made. colonial militias on their first establishment. issued to different regiments of militia in the Montreal District from March Quarter. and to a very sligljt extent. is a return dated October 16. on authority dated November bridles. be asked to order payment of the amount the Treasurer of the Ordnance. In the Dominion Archives. accoutrements.' which act is also about to expire. yet encouragement is given in the confident anticipa- Rifle Corps in June Quarter. The apparent triumph of these enthusiastic volunteers was not to be of long duration. with a this view to encourage the formation of such corps. judged e. December 27. transmitting a detailed account for these arms and accoutrements and asking on behalf of the Board of Ordnance that the Earl £993. nine shillings. under authority dated June 5. and I have to Quarter. the Colonial Department on beLord Bathurst transmitted the correspondence from the Board of Ordnance to the Earl of Dalhousie^ the governor-in-chief. by 2nd William IV." To the Montreal when the militias are so formed. The governor-in-chief replied on the 17th of the same month. on authority dated March 10. under authority dated May 28. maintain them properly accoutred and armed. no idea of obtaining pay for drill. 1823. of 50 saddles and bridles. I would recommend to you to consider the expediency of embodying in it the provisions of the act 2nd William IV. muskets complete and 150 musket ball cartridges. I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the 17th February. thanks to a combination of red-tape and political exigency. there were issued 40 saddles and buff leather slings 60 swords ("Scymitar") with scabbards. 4d. 100 sets of accoutrements complete and 1. to of Bathurst. of "Arnis. letter to the Earl of Dalhousie March Quarter. the "Montreal Militia" there were issued in the My Lord: June Quarter. 1824. At called this period there was some small effort within the militia of Lower Canada to maintain what may be an active force of drilled vokmteers. equipped. for investigating coutinued it and fourteen and a half pounds of Is. fine grain powder. 1824. To the last mentioned corps a further issue was made during March Quarter.xpedient further to continue that Should be act. 1824... towards the half of local forces of the colonies. To fifty 5th March. the secretary of the Ordnance Department wrote to the Colonial Office in London. 3s. 55. under your directions. 1824. Id. 1824. 60 cavalry pistols and 160 and infantry pouches. at Ottawa. the whole of a value of £3. Id from the military chest at Quebec to be charged upon the army extraordinaries. 1828. but for a short time some of these volunteer corps connected with militia organizations had the distinction of obtaining official recognition and of even being armed. The value of the whole issue was £993. and there was. the whole of a value of sixty one pounds. then in England. Id. " in the December corps of militia in the district of Montreal. eleven shillings and eight pence. oi course. Id. the storekeeper at Montreal. 1823. on authority dated January 24. 1823. the qualifications of militia officers in certain cases. 1824. At first they appear to have been uniformed and equipped at the pVivate expense of the members. 1823.thereof. the colonial of secretary.

it is necessary that an application should be previously transmitted to me. and the whole British population. were only fit for the exercise or trainfor actual service." "Quebec Volunteer Cavalry." "Quebec Volunteer Rifle Company. 1826. although : 24th. the cities of Montreal and Quebec at have the honour to be my Your lordship's obedient humble servant. whether gratuitously or otherwise. Lord Bathurst wrote him approving "of the measure you have adopted for causing the arms and accoutrements issued to be returned into ordinance stores. The There were only four position was very critical indeed. ordinance storekeeper at Quebec and Capt." "Volunteer Militia Companies in the Township of Hull. to must be duly authorized. the agents of the respective provinces authorities. on which you Majesty's pleasure. Coffin. and the few volunteer corps tained in it less. When the authorities realized that they had a rebellion on hand they at once authorized the enrollment The loyal male population of the of volunteer corps. a troop in Montreal. others for certain advances chest to the receiver-general. 59 of such hard work as they put government being speedily got the various miits into very good shape was at its very height. Particularly had he been censured therefore consider that the province under your govern- ment must unless provide for all future supplies of this nature. the First Royals. addressed to Major General Darling by Ralph Gore. This was the exact period when the acrimonious discussion over the financial system of the and a few weeks indeed. went in for soldiering with enthusiasm. enable me to take His moreover. were a troop of cavalry at Lachine. 1825." In a letter of October 28. at which the Ordinance I may have lord. having been approved tions will by this office. and August 2. "Home at Quebec. had very little in the way of military protection." In the same letter Bathurst expressed the opinion that arms might be sold to men of good character who formed themselves into military corps. Lord Dalhousie appears to have ordered all the goods issued to be returned into stores. These corps and drill associations were soon up to full strength. and 66th.stores on payment of the price at which they were originally contracted for in this country. 32nd. You will accused of making use of the public monies illegally. by the proper pay the Ordinance for them at the rate During the period immediately preceding the outbreak of the rebellion in 1837 the militia of Lower Canada had little encouragement. be given for such a delivery being made as shall be then authorized. they are for the purpose of facilitating the formation of a new corps. When the rebellion actually broke out in the autumn BATHURST. Further correspondence ensued between the officials Canada. than to any encouragement received from the authorities. the governor-in-chief . without the previous authority of the legislature. It appears. but held subactual value on the ject to recall. 2nd Battalion. 15th. called serviceable. was due rather to the military spirit of the officers and men and to the popular apprehension that the perpetual political agitation would eventually result in rebellion. and upon notice of their having been so delivered. contracted for them. and the arms in particular. of the regular regiments attached as drill instructor. and after communication with the ordinance. Montreal. G. including"The Artillery Volunteers" " Grenadier and Light Companies of the 1st Battalion. direc- arms and accoutrements. The sedentary militia battalions were in a hopeless — and the only volunteer corps in the Montreal district which was chiefly affected. which shows that during 1824 certain arms of 1837. to whom the matter had been referred. and many loyal French." " Light Company. commanding the Royal Artillery. by representations which have been made by the Master-General and Board of Ordi- nance that in all cases of supplies furnished to the colonial militias. " All the arms and accoutrethe following was stated ments which were issued were articles which had been used and repaired. and in fact the whole of Canada. ing of troops and were not fit A great proportion of the articles issued to the militia in the Montreal district were supplied from the stores Guards". will by Papineau and made from the military As the army authorities even so far as to place would assume no the responsibility. or five regiments in Canada. City of Montreal which was not enrolled in volunteer corps was formed into "Ward Drill Associations" or state of disorganization. All the available halls and warehouses in service as drill Montreal were pressed into halls." The two officers declined to place any value on the day. If volunteer corps were mainall. and Each the corps volunteers drilled night and one in had a sergeant from articles in question for this reason. in and accoutrements had also been issued to various Quebec militia corps. or under some special circumstances. and a rifle company in Montreal.

first with uniforms the year. Before the drafting of the special council of Lower Canada had agreed to the union and to the assumption by the United Provinces of the large debt of Upper Canada. The Regiment per- The Act of Union was drafted by Lord Sydenham and passed by the British parliament in 1840. namely. 60 . and a month after this agreement had been reached. After the rebellion. the object being to obviate difficulties which had arisen between the this act. in December. The dian Rifle Regiment was regiment was in no way connected with the militia. organized in Canada. so far as military matters Lower Canada. As might be supposed the men were a remarkably sturdy and generally fine lot.locks The Governmetit furnished these corps with flintThey were not served and accoutrements. This corps did its part in keeping up some military spirit in Canada previous to 1855 and. moreover. which intervened between the battle of WaterIn 1840 the Royal Canaloo and the Crimean war. It were concerned. being an Imperial corps raised for garrison purposes in Canada and recruited among veterans who had not served less than seven years in line regiments. there ensued another period of depression in military affairs in was. in the year last mentioned did good service for the newly organized active militia regiments by providing them with very efficient instructors. when it was disbanded. sister provinces. time of the most inactive part of the era of torpor in England. 1839. the legislative of Upper Canada had also agreed to the union. the formed garrison duty until 1871. But this is anticipating. but supplied with military overcoats and immense fur caps.

" In Lower Canada.^ i m CHAPTER VI THE MILITIA OF UNITED CANADA The Mothkr Country. think that it was time for Canada to do something more than supply the in the case of an auxiliary force to the British army war or invasion. The British govern- Canada was being accorded more herself. British statesmen began to In was composed of all the male inhabitants between the ages of 18 and 60. etc. ("Canada East") there were 178 battalions the time of the the sedentary militia in one day in each month for drill and inspection. Expects Her to Do More in Her Own Defence. the muster rolls of Upper Canada. in connection with the defence of her frontier.npulsory muster days each year. year. however. One of the most important communications ever received from England. if ever. known as "Canada West" in the Union. the maintenance of highways and bridges. of the old French regime. It will have been observed by the reading of the preceding chapters that. the enforcement of the statute labour laws. reports on the subject having been prepared officers by army then serving as in Canada. the militia officers and even non-commissioned officers continued to exercise important functions in connection with the civil administration. in view of the continual interchange of civil and military administrators between the sister of the adult exceptions. in line with the practices July and August. to fire at marks. and there were three co. the ballot being available to raise any force for active service in case an insufficient number of volunteers offered. While Conceding Self-Government to Canada. although the systems on provinces of two militia of the the which "United Canada" were organized were of completely different origins.000 men. in June. showed 248 battalions with 117. she should assume her own share of responsibility fully the right to ment urged that govern provinces. with a few natural was the theory of both. with 118. In Lower Canada the service age was from 16 to 60. as a matter of duty. and for instruction in the exercise. Conscription the holding of coroner's inquests. they were both based upon the underlying principle of universal liability to military service The object of these musters was not merely enrollment. AT Union. while in Lower Canada. The Trent Affair and Fenian Raids. At the time of the Union the question of Canadian defence was under serious consideration in England. and was also being given direct control of her national assets and revenues. but they seldom. namely.000 men. and merely for enrollment. male populations. and there was a provision in both provinces for the acceptance of volunteers towards the quota. moreover. but "to review arms. had the optional right to assemble their commands In Upper Canada the militia fact. There were some clearly defined points of difference in the militia systems of the two provinces somewhat to be wondered at. to muster once only each Colonels. did it. The Militia Becomes a National — — Defensive Force. and they had. for men 61 .

£100. will be indispen- carrying into execution the purpose of the crown. it must be taken for granted. in such a case. interest the enclosures affecting the militia (4 and 5 Victoria. bears date as back as 1841. nor the provident care of the interests of the empire at large.000 should yearly be applied for the defence of Canada. Her Majesty's advisers are not the difficulties imposed upon them in and enrolled. but by a more economical plan this expense might be greatly diminished. Chapter II). at this time. and completion of permanent works calculated points of most importance to for the protection of the us. and the treasures of no empire might be spared.000 left for the improvement of military communications. by neglect or apathy. determination to maintain. 1840. whose lives and properties are freely devoted to the service of England. governor-general. " You wiU hear further from me on this point when have more fully considered the various plans pro- " I I posed. approached with ease at all times by the citizens of a neighboring and powerful state. the views which Her Majesty's government entertain on the topics most interesting to the welfare of Canada. of peculiar weight. and was contained in a despatch from Lord John Russell. follows :— "Downing " Street. on this subject. The other course would be cruel to a brave people. the old laws of each province were to remain in force therein until replaced We sources —of — by strengthening her British population —of legislation enacted by the parliament of Canada. 3rd May. the commanding othccr of engineers. (Signed) J. must be maintained by a judicious preparation for defence in time of peace. other works. and the erection and repair are prepared to state their opinion that of fortifications. in this instance. and the approaching meeting of the council and assembly of the United Province have ports with which me to explain to you. and of supporting and encouraging the loyal spirit of the people. To with the fortunes of men. should lead us to neglect the construction. no blood need be shed. My Lord. have only to consider the means of binding Canada more firmly to this country of developing her re- According to the Act of Union. but by the rigours of climate and season. that no dependence upon the decided superiority of our troops and arrangements made for defence. " In this spirit. " An act to amend the Militia Law of that part of this "I have perused with great province formerly constituting the Province of Upper 62 . is "The question was not satisfied you have furnished me on several important subjects. separated from England.upon the subject far of Canadian defence. incur the risk. "The Canadians might. not only by the ocean. would permit any deviation from this fixed principle of whose high authority on every military subject. "In any measure that may be adopted. and unbecoming the character or to encourage foreign aggression of the country. Consequently the old militia laws remained in force for defending her territory. " The despatches which I have received from you on the general state of the Province of Canada. The first act of the parliament of United Canada connected with these views. connected with them. but not called from their except in case of invasion. would be far worse than the spontaneous surrender of these important possessions of the crown. nor the support due to Her Royal subjects in British North America. RUSSELL." "But. from the attention he has for many years given to this matter. sable. 1841. Oldfield. Her Royal Canada. Neither the honour of Her Majesty's crown." " Their opinions are transmitted with this despatch. to Lord Sydenham. "A province bordered by an open frontier of more than a thousand miles. containing reports from Lieut-General Sir Richard Jackson. and a great portion of the sum of £100. that Her Majesty persists in the induced all hazards. but I also asked the opinion of the commander-in-chief. which read as your despatch of 24th December. have therefore to inform you that the Government beyond the ordinary estimates of the year. both on political and on military grounds. and requested him to consult the Duke of Wellington. "But it cannot be reasonably expected that works on a large scale should be undertaken without reference to the great expense to be incurred. and in Col. then. the re- one of so much importance. "At the insensible to same time. and a militia. we have no alternative. a large effective regular force. then colonial secretary. At present this sum is nearly absorbed in the maintenance of the militia and volunteers. registered districts. I shall touch upon the principal topics some time. "They likewise concur in His Lordship's opinion that. or not at trifle all. that I with referrhig your despatch to the Master-General and Board of Ordnance. is. and vigourous exertion of the resources of the empire in time of war. in the event of the construction of these or any British policy. at authority in "Her Majesty's Government agree in opinion with Lord Hill and Sir Richard Jackson. as I have already said.

63 The Canadian government agreed to assume the and the bargain so far as the Mother Country was concerned was in course of time com- . there was organized in Montreal. second.G. name of "The Montreal Rangers". Lafontaine and Sir Etienne Tache. 1854. responsibility. James afterwards Lieut. to be determined by men engaged in the might be permitted to return home. a reminder dread of military domination. -Col. came forward to support the government in carrying this measure. originally numbered sixty-four rank and file. but subject to re-enactment. " during the winter months. and the present one. from Aliens. of the then mayor. Kingston. and received the thanks of the Secretary to the Imperial for the war. but the whole of the first class in peace time were to assemble "for muster and dis- but held equipped. headed by Mr. 18 to 40. except the Halifax. and fairly well drilled in the elements of military work. It was a temporary Act. Canada. While the excitement aroused by the Crimean war was at its height. Ferrier. and made Naturally the unsatisfactory state of the militia laws. agreed to enroll and maintain a small active force for internal purposes. Montreal. after considerable correspondence with the Imperial govern- 30. the other half Militiamen drawn by ballot for to serve to serve the full term. This battalion drilled. was provided Enrollment for this quota was to be voluntary. for several years. Fletcher. This force was to be composed of ordinary avocations of civil life. like the old English of the national Army and Militia Acts. At this time the Imperial home government authorities to tration. 40 to 60. infantry or other corps of or light infantry.cntury. 1846. The militia were relieved of the various civil duties which had been a feature of the Lower Canada laws and the service age limit was fixed at from 18 to 60. The governor was authorized to form volunteer regiments cipline" one of to be transferred to the posts. Quebec. garrisons of and a naval base in British Columbia. but without arms. in the market hall.M.Canada") merely provided for the amendment clauses of the old act. The duties of the battalion as a fire brigade. and available for service By the terms of the agreement between at short notice. eventually. officered. influence of the old of State for War therefor. On the breaking out of the Crimean war in 1854 Captain Fletcher. except in case the quota was not filled. minable in three years. served to maintain it in its strength as a volunteer militia corps long after the excitement of the Oregon incident had died away. then a volunteer organization. have conscientious scruples against military This act was in due course continued by the Act 13 and 14 Victoria. Chapter 28). when the ballot could be resorted to. was realized. This Act has been described as the first stepping stone between the old purely sedentary militia system. when the slogan of the agitators was the historic formula " Fifty-four-Forty or-Fight. In 1846 the Montreal Fire Brigade. men of the active quota. In August. active service and not wishing were allowed to provide substitutes. ment. and elaborate Militia Act (9 Victoria. that affecting Quakers of two and others service.000 men. Oregon Boundary dispute. In case of invasion or war the governor could call out In the event of actual service. militia laws Upper Canada laws predominated. except namely. C. was formed John into a battalion of militia under command Mr. An enrollment period for men of both classes. remove the regular troops in Canada. divided into two classes. half the lot. were government of day each year.. which were to be retained by the so long as regular troops remained in garrison at these points. a volunteer corps under the Rifle extending from vided for. first class. terThis bill Niagara and Sorel. and that relating to the collection of fines. This was the time of the outbreak of anti-British feeling and war talk in the United States over the Fletcher. the Hon. home and colonial governments all the works and the lands in Canada held at five by the Imperial government. rifles was brought in during the Draper adminisand the opposition of the day. was pro- An active quota. and to act as auxiliaries to the British regular troops in the event of foreign war or invasion. and June 9. in default of militia service. is now Number One Company The company of the First Prince of Wales Fusiliers. the Canadian government. namely on June 29. This act was supposed to be a consolidation of the but the of the two former provinces . which after a continuous existence of over half a (. ordinarily not to exceed for. assent was given to a comprehensive good progress. with one code in force in one part of the united provhice and a different one in the other. Chapter 11. and a large proportion of the clauses of the new statute were adopted in their entirety from the laws in question. With this exception the old laws of the two formerly distinct provinces continued to remain in force until 1864. and the musters at fires and company parades. militia —dragoons. ar- tillery. offered the services of one hmidred men of the Montreal Fire Battalion government as volunteers. the first to the 20th of June. one the whole militia. with authority. announced all it to be their intention. being appointed adjutant.

and Lieut. equipped. Donald Macdonald. Colonel de again divided into regimental districts. and men altogether. and herein lies its historical importance sanctioned the raising and maintenance of a permanently organized active force to act as the nucleus of seven entitling volunteer militiamen to such exemption in perpetuity. which was based upon the report of a Royal Commission. since the cession. 1855. The sedentary of 18 drill militia was to consist of all male New organizations were raised in all the chief centres inhabitants. had been good for little else than to provide for the occasional mustering of the territorial militiamen in peace time and to furnish as simple and economical a system as possible for the mobilization of the men to form an active force to act as auxiliaries to the regular army in case of emergency. 5 foot companies of artillery. Sir Edmund Head. 10 of which were to be continuous. first to be taken. Section XL provided that members of the volunteer militia should be "constables. 7 field batteries." sedentary " and "Active." were provided for. The whole country was divided into a certain num- ber of districts for military purposes. militia being called out In the event of the sedentary for volunteers from necessary. if by the 2nd class service men. The militia systems hitherto in force. selves. or 5. Considerable impetus was at the start given to the little active force in Canada by the indignation aroused from attending muster. to accept the offer of a regular regiment made by the people of Canada. Chapter 77) marks a notable step in the development of the active The few militia of Canada as we have it to-day. had been tolerated rather than encouraged by the authorities. there was a keen military the length and spirit at this period throughout breadth of Canada. militia territorial. This Act (18 Victoria. The first companies of volunteers enrolled under this Act were two rifle companies. but. The "Active or Volunteer Militia" force was not to exceed 16 troops of cavalry.worth government. at the expense of the officers and men themof population. Lieutenant-Colonel Melchior Alphonse De Salaberry. The Canadian people felt that the time had come to assume more direct responsibility than they had hitherto done for the defence of the country. the service class service men were men drafted. 1855. men and widowers with children. such as the commandermay direct" were to be i-ssued at the expense Field batteries were to perform an of the province. Two divisions of the militia. provided that the governor should be ex-officio commanderin-chief of the provincial militia. and very few of which had been maintained for any time. This militia was divided into two classes. between the ages and 60. and these were Rottenburg was. " service men" and "reserve men. engineer and marine companies was also auth- orized. There was no provision Canada was practically denuded of regular troops. in-chief "Arms and accoutrements. volunteer corps which had sprung up in Canada. into 9 military a national Canadian army. 31st August. drain upon the military resources of Great Britain. and the reserve men. the other (the Montreal Rifle Rangers) at Montreal. Section XXXVIII of this Act contained for the first time a provision for the volunteer militia being called out in aid of the civil power. Deputy Adj. Under this Act. The act of 1855 recognized the old. The Lst class service men included unmarried men and widowers without children. with a few exceptions. and in several. finally. pleted by the transfer of many millions of dollars the 2nd class service men included married service. annual training of twenty days. and 50 companies of riflemen. In time of peace no actual service or was required of the sedentary militia. for Lower Canada. Ten days annual training was exacted of other volunteer militia units. This was the origin of the 100th Leinster Regiment (Royal Canadians). 64 Canada over the atrocities of the Indian mutiny and the authorization given by the Imperial Government in 1858 to the governor. sedentary exempt from serving years service as jurors and system as the back bone of the national defensive force. Arms for the sedentary militia were to be kept in armories in various centres. Chapter 77). the formation of which was regularly authorized bygeneral order. and this feeling for training the sedentary militia. the Queen's Birthday in Upper Canada. in . and several small volunteer Owing to the organizations sprang into existence. and a fairly liberal scale of pay was provided. The organization The Militia Act of 1855 (18 Victoria. each of the former provinces of Upper and Lower Canada was divided districts. one at Quebec.-Col. for Upper Canada. appointed Adjutant-General for Canada. on the 9th July.000 of oflficers found expression in a very important statute.-Gen. then the 1st followed. June 29 in Lower Canada. The reserve men were exempted and early in 1856 the full number of corps authorized had been organized." 40 years of age) required to attend one muster a year. of military property to the Canadian With British and French troops fighting bravely side by side in the Crimea." the service men class again being sub-divided into "1st class service men" and "2nd All the service men (from 18 to class service men.

The period of drill for field batteries was reduced to twelve days a Other year.000 militia- men would be service. up to the time of the Trent excitement in 1861. C. as the 2nd Queen's Own Rifles of Canada. The by regular service was represented on the commission by Colonel Lysons.. That Act marked a considerable step in advance in the development of the organization of the Canadian militia. on which the present organization exists.In 1856 an amendment (19 Victoria. sary owing to the rapid increase of the force. Tache. can have been said to have been accomplished. this regiment still exists. companies springing into existence everywhere. By order." It is scarcely necessary to add that. nor more than ten companies. the usual period of down that there should be a service iniiform for in colour. The "Trent" excitement in the years 1861 and 1862 had an important and beneficial effect upon the active spirit of the menaces of invasion arousing the military whole Canadian people and stimulating the energies of the newly organized defensive force. sent out specially on this service the Imperial government. 1862. -Colonel Wily. This corps still exists as the First Prince of Wales Fusiliers.000 men should be raised." by a militia general order dated Quebec. The nine companies in Montreal were back to those stirring months. who had had much experience with volunteers in Canada. The Act XVIII Victoria. the governor general issued "The First Battalion VolunCanada. required to assist the British of the . Lieut. 17 November. volunteer corps had to drill for six consecutive days each year. and Colonel Cameron of Kingston. 1859. MacNab. but after all." did something more than provide for the brigaded mider the title a commission on which. A. Colonel the Hon. 100. and exhausting the militia appropriations.B.M. Chapter 77. rising from one dollar a day for Act of 1855 amounted to four thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine men. Macdonald (later Sir provisions at length. Sir Allan N. This act placed certain restrictions upon the strength and drill periods which were much resented in the vitally important recommendation was that a qualification of military efficiency should be exacted from militia officers. Macdonald) explained great A military authority of value Burgoyne —had — Sir arm John given it as his opinion that to hold the country in the face of a foreign foe. militia. Hilaire. similar pattern and design. The paid establishments were reduced to 30 men per company. was secretary of the commission. as fixed by the former act. C. Two of them had members a of former militia commission.000. J. P. little more than the mere laying of the foundation. The commission recommended that an active force was made for uniformity in clothing. Bart. remained the same. the 1st Battalion. In 1856 the enrollments under the provisions of the option to raise 20 additional men and It distribute the pay among the the arms were existed. but captains were given the G5 A. April 26th.. Sir E. and each one of the four colonels appointed districts to in the commission been commandof ed militia various sections the of province. Colonel the Hon. were teer Militia Rifles of placed Colonel Daniel Lysons. Chapter 44) was made to the Militia Act. Army. A service at the time. with a view of more effectively organizing the militia. 1860. the four rifle companies in Toronto. with the Barrie Rifle Company and the Highland Rifle Company of Whitby. Chapter 18) being passed providing (Section 15) that where possible the independent companies should be grouped together and organized into regiments or battalions.. but which were considered neces- of $1. noon and night. which was officially designated "An Act to Amend and make Permanent the Laws Relating to the Militia of this Province. C. volunteer Upon J. which emphasized the development of the voluntary idea in the Canadian militia. being of 50. of H. as having large experience with English volunteers. to • be approved by the commander-in-chief.000. the Mother Country poured regular troops into Canada.. Colonel Campbell. of not less than six. By this Act the muster day of the sedentary militia was discontinued. Towards the end of January. tion 12) laid Provision (Secit The formation of any more new corjjs was suspended new law could be brought into force. whom an allowance was made. were constituted into a battalion styled the "Second Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada. In 1859 there of non-commissioned officers and men. "The schedule for pay. until a regimental organization of the volunteer militia and the permanency of the militia laws. the Many militia of the existing their organizations of the active was another important development the vokmteer system. Upon this recommendatipn the Cartier-Macdonald administration introduced a bill providing for an aimual expenditure training to be 28 days. dated Quebec. Voluntary drills went on morning.B.B. of St. one of the most efficient and most historic corps of the service. to be kept in was provided that armouries where such left otherwise they were to in charge of the captains. a new Act (22 Victoria. and while the infant Canadian defensive force trace existence was trying to get itself into serviceable shape.. full company. its introducing this bill into parliament the Hon. each service. six of which had to be consecutive.

be easily assembled for the purpose of that system was not practicable in districts' that are in But be the country. They were to meet annually for three years.000 men would be required for the defence of this interesting statement An mission and for how many days' drill an appropriation should be made.000 men. And in the plan. for a few hours each day. it was necessary that the drilled for 28 days in the year. annually. nine battalions in a regiment.was laid before the comby Colonel Lysons. their armory. and then they were to be drilled for such a period. obtained from the regular service. in addition to the reserve. But the Commission and the Government felt that the system of drill must vary in the rural and in In the towns and cities. and each battalion would furnish a company for active service. an adjutant. for keeping up the esprit du corps. regard to the volunteer principle. While the report stated that the drill should be for not more than 28 days. a large proportion would use those arms. and an examination of the map would show that to make anything like a show of defence. It was proposed that at each armory there shall be a staff officer. when there were the Glengarry militia. who shall be a fully trained officer. tal division it It was not proposed to ignore the volunteer system. ere long. In the opinion of the commissioners. should have its own militia. it With parliament might fix. that there would be any necessity for the ballot. their was considered served as of great importance that in forming the drill they acquired while drill of six the active force. for three years more. The commission reported therefore that a force of 50. on an alarm of war being given. in the event of an alarm of war. would regimental divisions. Thus the military spirit. With regard to cities. where the urban districts. and other 50. was simply this organized. It would be a regular active battalion shall be formed. and to use know how to where the arms and the clothing for the regimen- them efficiently. the frontier. It three years. as might be ordered. Each regimental division. would grow up. and the executive and that they should be trained for a period officer. it recommended that it should not be for less than 14 days. 50. where it three It years.000 men would be the smallest force available for that purpose. It would be for parliament to say how many men should be taken out for drill. the operation of the system. as in England. a number of people were collected together.000 men would become reserve. it to At the end of three years. of three years.000 men for several other county corps. annually. and it was only in the case of volunteers not being procured. at their central point. Volunteers would be called for in the first instance. was proposed. as proposed. he marched with it might be ordered. showing the distribution that would be actually requisite for making at least a show of defence of this country with 50. as number of consecutive days. bearing arms. in order that there might be that wholesome competition which was exemplified both in Upper and Lower Canada. as in the cities. that each countyin this country. the inhabitants lived apart from each other. He would be the inspector in drill men be coimtry. of the cities and towns. the regular or active battalion would fall into It became a reserve battalion the three years acquaintance with posed that each military district should be divided It into a certain number of regimental divisions. as pointed out by the commission the report. and possible. and on the active battalion. which is so essential in every country. they could drill. the bill provided that each city specified . so that. It was not proposed by the report But it was prothat that number should be altered. Those active service men would form what is called an active batThis active battalion would be enrolled for talion. system was 19. should be kept. and would extend every year after the first three years. Suppose was thought of great importance. and not. may was proposed that from each regimental division not thickly settled. for that in the country would be out of the question. : that a force of 50.000 men would assume the position of being the active force. And during in that the men were in reserve. should be divided into so many batThere might be eight or talions of sedentary militia. and for five years as regards the population The report recommended that the country should be divided into a certain number of The number under the existing military districts. would be this. meeting at the central point. the active militia would assemble at their central point. Supposing there should be an alarm of war.000 men should be of the active battalion. as regards the rural population of the be there on the spot. commanded necessary that the volunteers in the country parts by to officers who should have passed such an examination as should be assembled for stated periods and receive their drill for a show they could be entrusted with the command of The men were to be enrolled a battalion. having received during that period an annual the reserve. to obtain full efficiency in the force. It much as the report of the commissioners carried out to the extent there would be a force of 50. would be the same in the country as in the towns. those 50. the 'county divisions should be pre- be kept up by a fullest days. drill of from 14 to 28 days. of all the was proposed by the commission that in each men in the country capable of regimental division there should be a central rallying point. or wherever He would country.

the expense would be abundantly compensated by the perfection which the corps would attain. the however. The probable cost of the arms would be about £4 a set. Hon. like the population in the country parts. Sicotte objected to the discussion proceeding xmtil some estimate of the cost of the proposed system was presented to the house. of allowance $27. so that should there be danger from to carry out the it cities. —56 adof jutants. It was an enabling bill. was not an annual. 27 militia. it was proposed that there should be an officer in every battalion who could The discharge the duties of adjutant. These officers would be considered as belonging to the army. measure provided that the commander-in-chief might It batteries artillery. as these would not be raised except in case of war. for to ask the Imperial 50. $600. Mr. in call division out a battalion every year from every regimental but it also provided that he might dispense. Mr.164. Drummond enlarged upon an admission by the Hon. but a permanent force. Mr. though with the utmost zeal and diligence. In the country parts they would not be expensive. with a portion of the numl)er of days' if it be thought advisable. drill. Mr. that if the volunteer organization failed or broke down in the cities or towns.556. thus reducing. in England. but in-chief it enabled the commander- system provided by the bill bill. and there would be about sixty of them. men were called out and only drilled for 14 days. The as if they were actually serving in the army. this is might procure arms. the regular as distinct from the volunteer in this way. It was provided in the that all those volunteer corps. parliament of the In this move a clause extension of the principle. and a sergeant.916. a fieldofficer. on the other hand. 10 battalions volunteer $129. like the Mutiny Act hi England. in encouraged in the cities. pay and other advantages. the expense would approach £250. 10 troops militia. every town and village would bounds of some regidar regimental be division and where a volunteer company was formed in within . The estimate was that they would cost £750 a piece. should form a military district in it and such a volunteer system would be adopted as would not re<iuirc the force.000 If men if they were drilled 28 days in the year.000 less. his discretion. There was no item for marine or engineer corps. This was done to enable the volunteer corps that might be formed out of the cities to become useful. and as the volunIt was provided. only 20.253. to assist in the instruction and dicipline of the corps. and suband at the same in the time not destroy the regular militia force country —that force. under the bill. to drill for a numl)or of consecutive days. field $51. and one.itself. for the purthe same manner as they were bill there was no provision for the perpetual organization of the militia. of having a field-officer and adjutant in every battalion.110.- 204.180. The expense stated. expense of this arrangement would be considerable. but the annual vote would be such as parlia- country could readily deal with pose of giving encouragement to the volunteers of towns and villages. teers had previously been doing. with the benefit of such officers. however. provisions of the bill were carried out: $26. When the bill went to committee of the whole.000. to organization under the regular or sedentary annual expense. if parliament should see fit to supply them. might be main- tained and kept up. $18. Macdonald that it was not as yet known if the Imperial Government would give the 67 . have the assistance of two officers of the service. Instead. which did not exist in the cities. 60 of sergeant-majors.000 a year. and it might exceed that. in addition to its own officers. $122. parliament voted every year upon the army. they in to the popular liberties. if the full would form a portion of the regular battalion raised within the division. cavalry. Mr. at . but the men would drill as theycould. an adjutant. Macdonald explained that if 50.879. he proposed to to saj'. Macdonald proceeded to point out that the bill was an enabling bill. The bill did not say such and such things should be done.000 men were raised and drilled for 28 days. The following would be the maximum cost.000. that corps ment in its wisdom saw fit. would have over one trained under their own officers. contemplated the cost of the whole of the arms. but in the rural districts. $61.236. the population would not escape from their duty as militiamen. And the a village within a regimental division. without such assistance. available servient to the defence of the country. 49 clothing battalions of regular volunteers. ammuni- making a total of $1. the expense would be proportionately so much Hon. but from the great superiority which a battalion. and in every respect enjoy their rank. but would be liable. but no pay. is. one. seemed desirable that every battalion of volunteers should. cost clothing for militia. annual cost of tion for practice. $73. while. consistently -with their engagement. which parliament passed annually. and that others might be formed on the same conditions as volunteer corps then in the system as approved of by the military authorities and by parliament. the it. Hon. The report recommended certain things. He added that there was no estimate of the cost it was the ambition of the government Government to supply them. As regards the cost of the armories it would vary. The militia.

thinking it desirable to refer to the arming of the sedentary as well as the regular militia. Mr. This was only reasonable. He would have liked on this occasion. it must arise as a consequence of imperial And policy as distinguished from colonial policy. they came to the house to be advised —in other words. who was speaking (May 6) on behalf of the government. the country was in a pecuniary sense. coming to advise the house. He could not fail. owned 7. H.110. they were putting the cart before the horse. was not a person on the commission. Now.000 men. it was understood. he thought the government should tained do so. The fact was that the whole proceeding was a mere partizan proceeding from first to last. Hon.000 of Such a cost as that which the purwould entail would be too great for the provinces. for the express purpose of finding out the opinion of the house. Cameron said he wished the Attorney General West (Hon. those were the only arms belonging to the province. instead of it would consent to provide for. to have given this his countenance and support. as to the number of men In fact. sp»oke a very large expenditure would be required. and that.000 would be wanted or 20.335. was asked who was to supplj^ the arms. and un- not carry their point they should leave tion to it to the opposi- worthy of the parties who had managed it. which sent out immediately 30. requiring the services of 50. Mr. but they had shown themselves so wholly unprepared to meet the house. He was sorry to say that the government had failed to tell the house what they really proposed to do. however. The necessities of the country were represented to the Imperial Government.arms which should be necessary to equip the 50. coupled with the examples under such regular militia. or placed at their disposal for service. Drummond) thought the government had been extremely neglectful of their duty in not ascertaining this point before they brought in the bill. They could not say whether 50. the house would have known how But no. after all the time they had had to consider the measure. in extremely to a solitary of 100.000 rifles low circumstances. Hon. but if the opposition limited them to 2. He company. J. and then said what they were going to do with it. they would take the number. circumstances. The ways and means for meeting the expense should also be stated. They had not had the courage to come down and say what they wanted. already possessed of the liberal behaviour of the and he believed the house would cordially support him.000 or 500.000 men.000 men. which were then at Halifax awaiting transportation to Canada. If they had asked a million of money. The country was less able than it had for many years been to bear such expense. though an uncompromising opponent of the ministry. The Canadian Government had good reason to expect that arms would be given either to the militia of Canada by the Imperial Government. During the debate the Hon. or to serve with the 50. it was at once to devote $2. Mr. it was that measure before the house. when the country had hitherto only paid $40. on the recommendation of the military authorities. who had the duty they had assumed.000 men. but still re- . the same necessity would calf for the placing of the reserve of 50. in fact. to remark what a most extraordinary selection had been made to advise the Crown on this With the solitary exception of Col.000 per annum for militia purposes. chase of 100.304 for the first year and 1. Colonel Rankin rose to ask whether the government had decided what the numerical force of the militia would be? Did they desire to conceal tneir intentions After until they had ascertained those of the house? the eloquent way in which the necessity of the measure had been presented. T. Imperial Government.000 men.000 Enfield rifles. If difficulty arose with the United States so as to imperii the safety of Canada. Lysons. for it was well known that there was great commercial depression. Sandfield Macdonald said if there ever was a measure which required to be well defined and" clearly stated. because if circumstances were to arise. Hon. and must devolve on the Imperial Government. that he felt obliged to oppose them. Gait explained that the province already say that they really did propose to do. and why had they not? Just because they there slightest fitness for the which were purchased under the existing militia act. it might be. and called the government of this country were were afraid of losing their offices. The true question to be answered was what was the policy of England towards us? and as this had not been ascerit was then his duty to exhibit the extraordinary neglect that had been exhibited.000 stand of rifles. or even upon to provide rifles for 50.304 for every succeeding year. ment. Loranger said he had expected that when the government came forward with such a measure they would be prepared to say why. would. he (Mr. indefinite manner.000 or 100. for they were evidently prepared whatever to submit to any degree of humiliation.000 in a position to take their places. they brought in the measure in an to act. J. Macdonald) would come down boldly with a demand for a definite number of men. there . A. be placed at the disposal of the provincial governThe arms were a most expensive part of the if equipment. subject. Gait. and if the government could was no reason to doubt arms would be readily resthat the application for ponded to. At the period of the Trent difficulty. These arms.

maiiiing the property of the Imperial authorities. that the withdrawal of as 50. and Hon. As an old military man. Those who said. continuous instruction. and leave them. If it was nothing more tlian a presumption. that Canada would receive no assistance were also those who maintained that England should have no colonies. The promised bill was brought in by Colonel Haultain. were not the men who held the destinies of the empire in their hands. although they did not doubt the good-will towards Canada of the people of the United States thought it would be incurring some risk if they did not represent to the Imperial Government the absence of arms from this country. The government the next day resigned. among body other things. be solely as the result of imperial policy. read to parliament a memorandum of government's policy. Happily. prevented any large sum being appropriated to militia purposes. it could be easily conceived that he would rather see a vote of $1. Mr. but he did not see that there was any foundation on which to ground a belief that the whole force of the empire in case of law as it then stood. and when on May 20.000. accompanied by a suggestion that the arms Great Britain might be disposed to send to Canada could be placed in store. the necessity for calling out expensive. or even shorter. who was in England when the news of that difficulty reached sented itself. period of The Trent difficulty occurred shortly afterwards. the government of this province.000 for this purpose than $250. in the manner already described. might cause incon- venience. the vote was taken without any further speaking. as far as was compatible with the extension of the volunteer system. be much more to be used in case of need. navigation of the country were assailed. who thus mistook the position of Canada. and based their theory upon it. after disciplined than all.000. Wallbridge. it was a presumption based on the fact that when difficulty arose and arms were required. That representation was made. far less efficiently the militia for training not having at that time pre- an equal. But looking at the pledge England had given over and over again. Vankoughnet. that the constant recurring service for five years would worry.000 so large a men from industrial pursuits. Mr. and. If the country was to be made a battle ground it would. the motion for the second reading of the bill was made. Lawrence closed the previous autumn. that the whole force of the empire would be exercised in Canada's favor in the event of her being involved in war in consequence of imperial policy. an hitimation being given at the same time that if more were required they would be dispatched. as a Great At the time. June 5th. It might be said it was only a presumption that the Imperial Government would supply arms. but the funds of the country precluded the hope of that desire being fulfilled. in such circumstances. accompanied by the assurance that a large number would be forwarded as soon as possible. It was assistance to which they were entitled — urged. It must also be borne in mind that the government had not at their disposal all the information desirable to be possessed with a . in the fairest and most liberal spirit. and the government defeated by a vote of 54 to 61. The result was seen in the shipment a few days afterward of 30. Opposition to the bill rapidly developed. on behalf of the new administration. Such being the case. as. The only specific information the government possessed was that Great Britain had already sent out arms to be used by the Canadians. and urged the importance of the request of the Canadian Government being complied with without delay. and would by with folded arms. the cloud of war blew over. But. on the other hand. and with it the necessity ceased for a supply of arms. deal by had been said about the doctrines urged House of Commons. in their opinion. stand danger. Their doctrine relative to Canada was therefore part of their system and policy. As forming certain parties in the British A great part of the empire we should be prepared If to share in her difficulties as well as her prosperity. Before the St. but Canadians should bear in mind that those perssons. and the Hon. Sandfield Macdonald was called upon to form a new politically. aimoy the men. which was represented as much more important. they were entitled to expect in the hour of not. though only for a short time. J. arms were sent out. from the mother country. that support and — and which they had always received. The financial cir- would not be placed at our disposal danger. 1862.000 stand of arms. May the 23rd. government. the mother 69 cumstances of the country were such. Altogether this proved to be one of the most important and interesting militia debates which has ever taken place in a Canadian parliament. they must make the best of their limited resources. in the House of Commons. Canadians should not. Britain. which stated that the ministers proposed to bring in an amendment to the militia law so as to secure a proper enrollment of the available force of the province under efficient officers. the government happened to be weak and in view of the objections raised to the l)ill it was deemed a useful instrument to effect the defeat of the administration. immediately applied to the Home Government. and. Canadians had every reason to suppose that she would treat them. 1862. the honourable gentleman explaining that the government desired to leave the matter of course.

and the new arrangements to be affected would be of a provisional character. the most emof active service in the field. officers . but except as hereinafter provided. bill And it "The commander-in-chief may. "22. On country. full scope to the volunteer —The active train. to make out such corrected roll. was also authorized. and from not a few English statesmen. The bill enabled the commander-in-chief to employ. feature of the bill was at once apparent. foremost amongst which were the cost of the clothing and the limited number of men who were entitled to pay whilst being organized and drilled. be supplied with uni- form clothing. (Hear. and that a system established on any other foundation must certainly fail to accomplish the end in view. . Each of the brigade majors shall be paid by the province at a rate not exceeding $600 per travelling expenses. be with the information at their disposal. may "5. while on drill or service. from time to time. —Each volunteer militiaman the discre- tion of the commander-in-chief. this bill was passed and became the Act 25 Victoria. to be armed and equipped according to their respective services and to be formed at such places and in such manner as may from time to time be of artillery. they were order that a corrected roll of every guided by the state of the finances and by the belief that they should ask for powers to act in accordance company shall of the sedentary militia. and it commanding a com- give. The It chief was to be the duty of every officer pany.view to in their framing a more complete measure.) All the country could hope to do at the time was to furnish that basis to the extent of its means. not exceeding one for each military district. within ten days after such order has been received. whilst others were equally persuaded that the feeling existing among the people would induce them to come forward readily when the hindrances of which he had spoken were removed.. Some were persuaded that compulsion must be resorted to. it was hoped that there was to be found in the country efficiency among military bodies "3. and of independent companies of infantry in universities. and be subject to Section 43 provided that sergeants-major of field batteries be paid $200 per drill instructors." —The commander-in-chief may appoint brigade majors. such drill instructors to be paid by the province. the sum of fifty cents per diem. The organization of associations for drill. of regiments of militia by voluntary enlistment for general service. whenever he deems necessary. this bill would remove such drawbacks. the total strength of such volunteer corps shall not exceed ten thousand officers He held that the basis of and men in Class A. Provision was made for the raising. gari^ison companies of engineers and companies of infantry. belonging to and used for such drill by such non-commissioned officers and men. militia of the province in time of movement. as far as practicable. To a great degree. armum. preparing the riow before the house. schools and other institutions. of their was as yet a matter of experiment whether the volunteer system would succeed. the government had thought it advisable to make the amendments to the existing act as fair and simple as possible. in addition to the active and sedentary militia.. and marine and naval companies. For the reason he had stated. 1862. or receive such sum not exceeding as six dollars per annum in lieu thereof. and musketry and fifty a dollar and cents a day." assented to 9.. "An Act to amend June the Act respecting the Militia.." annum of —The non-commissioned officers and men patriotism to induce men of various ranks in society if the active militia (Class A) shall be paid for each day of actual and bona-fide drill not exceeding twelve in number." shall. He believed the feeling in the country was general. and "40. by providing clothing and payment for drill for a greater number of men. In time such future changes as experience might teach to be necessary to be carried into effect. hear. in the event of war. need be. who may also determine the manner in which such number of days of drill shall be computed. With a few amendments. Chapter 1. that that system shctidd be extended. all peace shall consist of volunteer troops of cavalry." to enroll themselves for the defence. but without pay or allowances for clothing. Another important feature of the bill was the means of instruction it furnished to volunteer companies. and a further sum of one dollar per diem for each horse actually and necessarily present. 70 and men were to have same pay and allowances as the regular army. etc. the absence of precise information. military batteries field batteries of artillery. be directed by the commander-in-chief. in was the ability of those who were appointed to instruct and command. designated or ordered by the commander-in-chief. etc. It that subject there were differences of opinion. — Chapter thirty-five of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada. as many drill instructors as were necessary. The rejection of the Militia Bill of the CartierMacdonald government drew from the English press. Hitherto there had been many hindrances to the movement spreading. made out. Such days of drill need not be consecutive unless so ordered by the commander-in-chief. With these facilities afforded. Among its provisions were the follow- ing:— Section 1 The following paragraph shall be added to the twentieth section of " An Act respecting the Militia.

phatic declarations

— many

times repeated



as an efficiency grant, the aggregate sum,


land could not and would not undertake the defence of Canada, unless Canada was prepared to contribute,

not to exceed $5,000.

and that



slight measure,

towards her own pro-

The success of the system inaugurated by these depended almost entirely on the establishment

of a

couple of military schools, to be attached to imperial

At the second session of parliament in 1863, the John Sandfield Macdonald administration submitted a comprehensive new "Militia Bill" and also a separate "Volunteer Bill," both of which received the support of parliament and were assented to October 15, 1863. The "Militia Act" (27 Victoria, Chapter 2) divided the militia into three classes: 1st class service men, 2nd class service men, and reserve; and provided that the service militia might be called out for six days drill each year, the men to receive pay at the rate of fifty Further provisions of this Act included cents a day. the establishment of a militia department under a

regiments serving in Canada, in which the militia

were to be trained for some two months,


they chose to attend.
first big rifle meeting participated in by marksfrom all parts of Canada was held in Montreal in men 1863, and continuing twelve days. It was under the nominal patronage of Lord Monck, the prizes being furnished by a fund contributed by the Corporation of the City of Montreal, the baiiks, merchants and others. General Sir Fenwick Williams of Kars fired the first shot, and all matches were open to the British regulars as well as to the militia. The Guards and other regiments forming the strong garrison of Montreal at that time furnished complimentary guards of fifty






schools in connection with the British regular regiments

then in Canada, for the training of


the laying


every day of the meeting.
to the


of the rule that officers

must have qualifying



of 1864 not one single






of drill associations or cadet corps in universities
Officers of the regular


army were

to outrank

and when called out on actual service, were to be given the same rates of pay as corresponding ranks in the regular army.
militia officers,

had been organized, or received even the six days' drill which was the maximum permitted, not enjoined, by the new bill. At this period a statesman who had even then atof militia

the militia








wright) advocated strongly in parliament and pamphlet

The second act
desire to

(27 Victoria, Chapter 3,

"An Act

a scheme which comprised these propositions:

Respecting the Volunteer Militia Force") indicated a


distinct understanding, convention or treaty

keep the volunteer service quite distinct from the militia, as in Britain, where there had been a
marvellous revival of the old volunteer

with the imperial government
defence, be defined.

which Canada's con-

tribution, as a province of the empire, towards her




1859 and 1860 as a result of the menaces of French
invasion at the time of the excitement over the Orsini
conspiracy, the volunteer force in a few




be regarded purely as an

auxiliary body; chief expenditure to be devoted to
disciplining a certain proportion of the "regular" 1st
class militia, the

months ex-

panding from 70,000 to 180,000 men. This Canadian "volunteer" Act provided for a force of 35,000 men, exclusive of commissioned officers.


to be fixed

by convention



Uniforms and arms were supplied by the country, and
the arms were to be kept in armouries sonal charge of or in the per-

but supposed likely to range from 50,000 to 100,000 men. 3. These to be trained in annual instalments of so many thousand a year, each detachment to serve

Section 34 proalways be considered senior to officers of militia of the same rank." Volunteer officers were required to qualify for their commissions before a board of examiners separate from



say six months,


the open


vided that

"volunteers shall





thenceforward free


further duty in time of peace, but liable for

actual service for 10 years, and thereafter to be formed
into a reserve, not to be called out except in


the militia boards.


called out for actual service

In the autumn (September and October), 1864, the London Times and other English papers had much to say about Canada's unpreparedness for war and her responsibility in that regard. "Take care of yourselves, for we can do nothing for you," was, according to one shrewd pamphleteer of the day (''Backwoodsman"

volunteers were to receive pay at the


rate as the

army, and they were liable to be called out in aid of the civil power. There was no provision for drill pay as in the militia, but an appropriation of $2,000 per annum was made for prizes, to be competed for by corps, for proficiency in drill, discipline and target practice. A further allowance was also made of not less than $50, nor more than $400 per battalion.

Templeton, Que.), the plain English of


the Times'

writings of that time about Canadian defence.


phlets wrote

Backwoodsman " " The


a foot note to one of his pam-


highly educated as a soldier in his profession,




— 'The

Times received here contains, on the above subject, these pregnant

question (of defence)



Canada, and we have endeavoured duty by pointing out the necessity of defence, and endeavouring to arouse our own colony The language we have held to a sense of its danger. has been plain and uniform, and yet, though plain, not such as could give reasonable offence to any community which feels a respect for itself, and estimates properly its duties and its responsibilities. We have stated that Canada leans on a broken reed if she supposes that, in case of an invasion from America, any considerable portion of the burden of her defence can be borne by this country.' What is known as the St. Albans Raid in 1864 threatened serious complications with the United States. The United States held the authorities on this side of the line to be responsible, and prompt measures were taken in this country to prevent a repetition of the Provisional battalions were organized from the raid. volunteers for special service in November. The special order issued by the commander-in-chief pointed out that the militia were not to be employed for the purpose of warfare "but with the object of aiding the civil power in its efforts to prevent aggression on the territories of a friendly state, on the part of persons enjoying the right of asylum in Her Majesty's dominions; and to maintain, as regards Canada, complete neutrality with respect to the war existing in the United States, which Her Majesty has enjoined on all

Mexico and


to discharge our

and was gifted with the most charming, the most fascinating manner towards all men by no means a poor recommendation for any one who has to get on well with politicians. He had also the great advantage of knowing Canada and its good people thoroughly, from having formerly served there many years. No man knew better than General MacDougall the difference there is between the educated officer and the ordinary amateur in uniform, and the best of the Canadian militia soon came to recognize their new commandant's military worth, and the value of the new system he introduced.

It was, however, very uphill work, for he never could induce Canadian ministers to supply him with the

funds required to start schools of instruction upon an
scale. There is no idle or 'leisured' class in any part of Canada. Every one has to work there, and it is not easy for the hard-toiling man in any office to spare even a few hours per week for the study and practice of the military arts and science. Colonel MacDougall began the heavy task before him by the creation of an efficient militia staff, and of military schools at every station where we had regular troops. At these schools militia officers were to be taught, and young Canadian gentlemen rendered fit for the position of officers. After these schools had been a season at work, he collected those who had qualified at them in a camp he formed at the old disused barrack of Laprairie, which is south of the St. Lawrence river, near Montreal. He asked me to be its commandant, and, always anxious for any interesting emploj^ment, These cadets were formed I gladly accepted the offer. into two battalions, one of Upper, the other of Lower Canadians, and two excellent officers of the Canadian militia were selected to command them. The mcjre drill they were given the more they enjoyed their camp life. 1 may say, that it was at the Laprairie



The organization

of the militia at this time


considerable progress, and so did the erection of


the end of 1864 there was an imposing

array (on paper) of

sheds in Canada.


of the first steps

taken towards the successful

carrying out of the
L. Macdougall, of

of a capable imperial officer to

was the securing assume the duties of The choice fell upon Colonel Patrick whose selection Lord Wolseley, in
of a Soldier's Life," wrote:





the best militia officers of that genera-


"The Story

all Canadians to study seriously how defenceless would be their province should we be forced into war with the United Hitherto the people of Canada had been too States.


'Trent Affair' had caused










step towards the reorganization of the Cana-

and given some practical knowledge I liked all those men I met at this camp, and thoroughly enjoyed my life there. General the Hon. James Lindsay a first-rate soldier and a most charming man who was then commanding our troops in the Quebec province, helped me much, and took a deep interest in my work. He marched the Montreal garrison of infantry and field artillery to Laprairie, and with my two battalions of cadets we had an instructive field day, which my embryo warriors
tion were drilled
of military duties

dian militia was to obtain the services of a thoroughly

thoroughly enjoyed.



thus to this Laprairie

and command it. His Royal Duke of Cambridge wisely selected Highness the General Patrick MacDougall for this duty, and no He was very better selection could have been made.
able soldier to organize

camp, because it was the birthplace of the very fine Canadian militia force with which I was subsequently intimately associated, and because it was, I think,

practical effort


to convert the excellent

Canada possesses so abundantly, A considerable number of those trained at Laprairie subsequently accompanied me in the expedition I led in 1870 from Lake Superior to the Red River, and no commander could wish to have better soldiers than those of the two Canadian


into useful soldiers.



of the



bulk of the


then had with me."

The excitement

Fenian Raids of 1866 gave a

great impetus to the volunteer force, which,



ready response to the call to actual service, and by its really good work in the field, asserted its claim to be
considered the
first line

of defence of the country.

The first call upon the national defensive force was made November 15th, 1865, when a militia general order was issued calling out one volunteer company for
active service in each of the following places:


as riflemen, formed a force of about nine hundred strong at Port Colborne at the head of the canal, the point of that work nearest to Fort Erie, the Fenian base. The senior officer was LieutenantColonel Booker of the 13th. At Chipewa was assembled on the morning of June 2nd a force composed as follows:— Field Battery Royal Artillery, 200 of H.M. 16th Regiment, 350 of H.M. 47th Regiment, the 10th Royals and the 19th Battalion of St. Catherines; all told about sixteen hundred men, of whom six hundred were regulars. Having secured the head of the canal and the bridges over Chipewa Creek or Welland River, Colonel Peacocke, commanding H.M. 16th Regiment, and the senior officer at the front, issued orders for the junction of the two forces at Stevensville. This movement resulted in the action of Lime Ridge or Ridgeway, and the fighting at Fort Erie which fol-


Montreal, Ottawa, Morrisburg, Toronto, Port Hope,


Hamilton, Woodstock and London. The order explained that "His Excellency, having had under consideration








vasions on the frontier of Canada during the winter,

and being impressed with the importance of aiding Her Majesty's troops and repelling such attempts," had decided to place a portion of the volunteer force
on active



detachments were made

during the year 1866, to furnish guards for armouries, to hold strategical points along the frontier, etc.

The expectation of trouble from the Fenians this year had good effect upon the militia force, and during the three months of March, April, and May the nominal
strength of the active militia increased from 19,597

Meantime the Fenian leaders had not been and four simultaneous descents upon Canada had been planned, one from Chicago, the second from Buffalo and Rochester, the third from Ogdensburg, and the fourth from New York, Troy, and Albany.
to 33,754.

By the Third none of the Fenian force remained on Canadian soil except as prisoners. A few days later a couple of incipient raids were made across the Vermont frontier of Canada East, upon the last occasion a minor skirmish taking place near Pigeon Hill, between the raiders and a force consisting of the Fourth Battalion, 60th Rifles and a Montreal volunteer cavalry corp)s, the Royal Guides. The Sandfield Macdonald Government had been defeated March, 1864, and the Tache-John A. Macdonald Government was formed on the 30th of that month. July the third, 1866, the new government through the Hon. J. A. Macdonald, Attorney General, presented a bill to amend the Militia Act, which passed, and was assented to as 29 and 30 Victoria Chapter XII "An Act to Amend an Act respecting the Volunteer Militia
This Act repealed the restriction that the volunteer
force should not exceed 25,000, the niunber being left


29th, telegraphic advices to the public press re-

ported parties of

men on


move northward from

and gave to the Commander-in-Chief more extended authority to call out the volunteer force, he having no right under the
to the discretion of the government,

points even as far south as Tennessee.

Act, as


stood, to call out the force except "in case

showed that the movement had become general,

and the government's private reports confirmed them. During the evening of the 31st, orders were issued at Ottawa for the calling out of four hundred of the Toronto militia, and their despatch to Port Colborne on Lake Erie. The following morning news of the crossing of O'Neil's force of Fenians to Fort Erie was received, and orders were at once issued for the despatch of all available troops to the Niagara frontier to protect the Welland Canal, and expel the invaders from Canadian soil if po.ssible. The Queen's Own Rifles, the 13th Battalion, the York and Caledonian Companies and the Welland Canal Field Battery,

The organization mounted rifles, military train, commissariat, staff, hospital and ambulance corps, and also naval companies, was provided for. In cities, no
of war, invasion, or insurrection." of



infantry units smaller than a battalion were to be accepted or gazetted as "Volunteer Militia," and the establishment of troops of cavalry, batteries of garrison

and companies

of infantry


fixed at one

captain, two lieutenants, 3 sergeants, 3 corporals


48 privates.


objected to in

important provision, and one much parliament was that municipalities

might spend their funds

support and encourage-


of the Volunteer Force, for the building of armor-

on August 14th. and important points on the lines of canal or railroad communication. assistant brigade major. and while on Active Service to the Rules and Articles of War and to all other laws applicable to Her Majesty's troops except that no man should be subject to any corporal punishment except death or imprisonment. it became necessary to form the isolated companies into provisional battalions. volunteer infantry. wing of H. when in the spring a sudden call was made for the service of the whole force. The opposition having objected to the large increase of the staff. The component corps and brigade staff were detailed. was as follows: The nucleus of each field brigade consists of one regular regiment. told off into field brigades and garrisons of posts. militia to dis- play considerable activity in the border cities of the United States and. engineer in charge. of which each had its volunteer commandant and brigade major. 16th. surgeon and have at their command all the knowledge and appliances in times of peace.880 for departmental salaries. to 569 companies with a nominal strength of 33. each brigade was prepared to provide the it necessary transport to enable notice. four in Eastern Canada. in guarding frontier towns and villages. a regular volunteer officer. Lieutenant Colonel Hoste's Field Battery.754 men. regular officers. the time in the dollar a camp being used to put in customary annual drills. The staff provided for was an Adjutant General. now Field Marshal Lord Wolseley. The duties of the commandant and brigade major were to organize a system of lookout parties and patrols suited to the localities. artillery. the volunteers of the principal cities having been alone formed in battalions. teer). The men received a day pay. with a nominal strength of 19. 3 1 field tageously in time of pressure. on the Welland Canal. in the autunui of 1866. and would draw then from the storekeepers who had orders to issue them on the shortest notice. officers. Royal Artillery. tions and Orders for the Thus. a Military Surveyor. volunteer officers or N. and without ex- battalions. such Municipal by-laws for raising and expending monies were subject to disallowance by the Section 8 provided that the Volun- Great inconvenience was experienced during this year from the fact that the force consisted for the most part Minister of Militia. and the points of assembly fixed. and an arrangement for combining in the most viseful manner the action of the force with the regular troops was made by the lieutenant-general commanding. and free rations.ies. as a matter of precaution. with as many may be For some time after the withdrawal of the from the frontier. etc. brigade major. two Deputy Adjutant Generals. to move at the shortest and a troop relieved of cavalry. with departments suddenly created for the emergency. departments are expected to work well in time of war they must be created and gain experience perience. The force in this Of these brigades three were formed in Western Canada. The infantry battalions were every ten days. The adjutant-general therefore obtained the authority of the commander-in-chief to form the isolated companies During the same session that this Act was passed the sum of $134. officer. If The staff of each brigade was as follows :^Commandant. Fenian agitators continued necessary. cavalry. a Superintendent of Military Schools. of isolated companies. and to visit constantly all the posts within their respective brigade districts. the Adjutant-General. 1 1 battalion. at the time of the Fenian Raids. commissariat. battery (regular or volun- troop (volunteer).is. originally suggested by Lieutenant-Colonel Earle.C.000 to purchase improved fire arms for the volunteers was also passed. and one of $36. aids as sergeant. The staff officers were provided with a list of the stores which were required to enable each brigade to take the field. of 1866 Between the spring and the end of the year the volunteer force of Ontario and Quebec increased from 348 companies. etc. These corps were to be employed in garrison duty. four Assistant Adjutant Generals. . teer Force should be subject to the Queen's Regula- Army. was read in which he asserted "it is utterly impossible to work advan- permanent battalions with permanent commandand staff officers. a letter from Colonel MacDougall. This arrangement. thi'ee or four battalions of militia infantry. and at an obvious disadvantage. mounted provost. of routine duties. the military authorities decided to form.060 was voted for the purchase and maintenance of the gunboats it had been found necessary to place upon the St. which they would have to bring to bear in time of war. Lawrence and the great lakes. This was effected.M. etc. and its composition was as follows :— into ing Regular infantry. assistant commissary. Provincial Aide-de-Camp. wherever possible. by forming the isolated companies into battalions by counties.. at Thorold. a camp of observation under the command of Colonel Wolseley. Similarlv the commissariat officer of camp consisted of the Governor-General's Body Guard of Toronto. The force w. one Regiment.597 men. 74 Those volunteer corps which did not form part of the above moveable columns were formed into brigades by districts. An -item of $250. and to appoint a provisional' staff to each battalion in a hurry. the care of the families of volunteers on service.

to London on the west. that is to say. indefatigable. the whole of the Montreal brigade was supplied with the Westley-Richards breechloading rifle from the imperial stores. and kindly manner in instruction of the graduates in the schools to their superintendence. -colonel In order that a batit talion should be efficient. and Kingston and Toronto. to ensure the efficiency of this it most important arm. generally along the frontier from Lake Memphremagog. The adjutant-general recorded his acknowledgements to Colonel Anderson and to Lieut. and candidates for commissions therein. who should have obtained in the rank of lieut. and the adjutant-general in his annual report expressed his high sense of the efficient manner in which the duties of histruction had continued to be performed by the respective commandants and staff. as also a cavalry school in the latter city. and by His Excellency's command the adjutant-general prepared and circulated a code In his annual report at the end of this year the be supplied to each garrison artillery corps. indis- of regulations for the volunteer militia. in the opinion of the adjutant-general. of the 13th Hussars. led to the adoption Three thousand Pea body were purchased by the government. The schools by the The apprehension of further hostile intentions connection with the service militia of the Province of Fenians. officer sergeant-major. to acquire a knowledge of the duties connected with those arms of the service.During the period force in the of active service of 1866. who should give up their whole time could possess. established in to their military duties. one at Montreal and the other at Toronto. rifles breech-loading Canada. two schools of gunnery. each militia unit was under owing to the absence of a properly paid battalion that staff. These were later exchanged for the Snider rifle. and these. In addition to these schools. and in operation at Confederation. In addition. and were in operation. which they did accordingly between the 20th March and the 30th June. were distributed to the vokmteer corps in the localities most exposed to attack. occasioned by the inexperience of the officers and generallj'. on the east. affording every facility to officers and non-commissioned officers of militia. The corps which were supplied with these new weapons were ordered to drill twice every week to accustom measures of precaution. pensable that one deputy and one assistant adjutantgeneral of artillerj' should be appointed to superintend the adjutant-general drew attention to the disadvantage the organization of the artillery force of the Dominion. in the Province of Quebec. Jenyns. of the Royal Artillery. Colonel Pipon.000 of these rifles were then in the hands of the volunteers of Ontario and Quebec. was. which existed generally along the frontier of Canada during the spring of of 1867. together with four thousand five hundred Spencer repeating rifles which were at the disposition of the government. and the adjutant-general had the satisfaction to report at the end of the first year of Confederation that 30. of military instruction. which they had carried out the committed 75 . for the able. in the Province of Ontario. by the vokinteer The adjutant-general and that at least this year recommended that summer much inconvenience was the garrison artillery should receive sj^ecial instruction. had been temporarily formed. and to Colonel the volunteers to their use. he considered it indispensable should be provided with an adjutant and and would thereby bring to the service of the country that knowledge of all the details of artillery science which none but an educated artillery Royal Artillery. established respectively in the cities of Quebec and Montreal. men two eighteen-pounder guns should In order and by the absence of specific instructions for their guidance. were four in number. 1867.

at the expense of the Imperial Government. his suite.submitted to government in the autumn of 1748. in calling the attention of the British North America as at present founded. and in 1625 the Scottish Order of Baronets was founded. The Halifax coloni.sts were largely of a military class. Edward Cornwallis. as well as the great commercial advantage. a French 1598. Nova Winslow Scotia militiamen served under in 1755. capture of particularly in Cape their Breton. designated Captain-General and Governor of Nova Canada to the advantage the same laws and inducing a constant intercourse and a mutual interest. to be derived from such an undertaking. A plan was . and was warmly supported by Lord Halifax. so that from the first British occupation there may be said to have been a British militia organization in the province. under France till ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht. among until the the Acadians. It is interesting to observe that according to Dr. at the instance of Sir Guy to British Carleton (then commander of His Majesty's forces in North America). In 1621. who. desperate services on behalf of and the Bourbon cause are recorded in history. and was the first actual settlement by Europeans within the boundaries of the the bay. a great country may yet be raised up in North Amof uniting these provinces of both.. of First Halifax was founded in 1749. It was conquered by Lord Protector Cromwell. in 1713. The French maintained a militia organization Dominion of Canada. was named in compliment to George Montague. Again ceded to France. R. some Halifax companies serving in this expedition claiming to have been in existence since 1749 or 1750.sent in 1783. colony was established there." The is "ti first now Canada was attempt to form a regular force in what in 1792. is to be found in a report made by Colonel Robert Morse. suggested the my mind of has been strongly impressed with the idea since necessity of. when the King authorized . who was . whereupon Richelieu formed a colonization company to colonize the country. by establishing erica. by which Colonel the Hon. and the colony was really established as a military post. Parliament voted £40. Louisburg. it remained really. and supplied 13 transports and a sloop of war.000. Earl of Halifax.E. under whose immediate auspices the settlement was undertaken. or nominally. under the direction of the James Johnson (Alphabet the first Things in Canada) as applicable suggestion of Confederation Lords of Trade and Plantations. and 2. The French attempted to occupy Nova Scotia in In 1605. In his report (1784) Colonel Morse says: " In the course of this examination Government of to the claims of the French on the territory Acadia. Nova Scotia was ceded to P^rance by Charles I. The scheme for a settlement on the shores of Chebucto Bay is said to have originated with the people of Massachusetts. and. and again the following year. were conveyed to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into the militia of the new Dominion of Canada.CHAPTER CONFEDERATION brought the miUtia forces of VII THE MARITIME PROVINCE MILITIA Scotia.576 settlers. Nova Scotia was annexed to Scotland and named Nova Scotia by James I. Monckton and when they captured the French fort Beausejour. to report on the military defences required for Nova Scotia.

Three distinct corps of militia were enrolled in the western portion of the province. and utter abhorrence of French democratic tyranny.000 more." About the same time a Royal New Brunswick and a Royal Newfoundland Regiment were raised." Of the Halifax militia artillery. frigate Boston appeared off Halifax harbor to procure a pilot for the American coasts. most of whom They They " led the way title in obtaining the is served under these officers during the late war. and these as fast as possible by the militia legion of Nova Scotia. Dundas that town militia were nearly six hundred strong. also In the town who may be depended upon. Lieut." He considered the militia everywhere well disposed and faithful. without a ship of war. He estimated the whole force of the country at 9. He requested arms for Barclay's legion. Wentworth. On emergency." In a letter dated Halifax. Regiment. clear. put under the command of Brigadier-General Ogilvie. commanded by Lieut. Ordnance office. as there are not any to be had in the province. H. he wrote: "Among the privates are men of from £100 to £600 per annum. and can be assembled at Halifax in six day's notice returned thanks for the permission to use the word —part of them sooner. Major Louis de Sala- berry: "His Majesty has thought proper to make it known that he would be pleased if all all the provincial the American regiments would offer to serve in colonies. in two hours to be reinforced with 600. Its officers were men of considerable means. who. — On this. ordered the signals of alarm to be made.M. -Colonel Taylor. and the adjutants and quartermasters would be sure of half pay in case of reduction. in place of being confined to the one whose June 4th. — July 19. men. October 12. the King's Nova Scotia Regiment were in a first battalion of Halifax armed. raising under my command. and now practising with great assiduity. and the militia assembled. may think projjer. E. Wentworth stated to Mr. MajorMay. are formed into artillery. 56 men. the Duke of Kent wrote to his friend. Mr. about 60 freeholders. upon which Brigadier-General Ogilvie. then commanding the troops. of Nova Scotia. of which the commander-in-chief of the troops in North America would be colonel. This is stated b}' Governor believe it is the intention of forming a brigade of few minutes paraded. Dundas. in a letter of July before 23.000 men. raised viz.the raising of a regiment in each of the provinces. desired distinctive Royal. it will." The structions of the garrison. fact will be necessary to furnish the militia with arms from the King's stores. militia.000 effective for garrison duties. During the long war with France the Nova Scotia militia were embodied. anil other respectable officers. and they served without pay. The people of the harbours on the Atlantic coast were ready to assist in defence. 1793:— "Brig'r-General The harbor I is Ogilvie has. completely Canadians after the manner of the 60th. reported to your excellency the reduced state of this garrison. The Royal New Brunswick Regiment later became the 104th Regiment. in December. as the The proposition Scotian and New Brunswick Regiments.M. armed and drilled and used vincial regiments were disbanded. who were daily exercised. and are 77 . the Secretary of State. It detachment of Royal Artillery in this Royal Canadian Volunteers has already been referred to. the several pro- Governor Wentworth. who reside a few miles round the town.. was the Roj'al Nova Scotian Regiment. writing on 11th October that the disljanded men of the Royal Newfoundland and Royal Nova Scotian Regiments were all quietly dispersed through the province. Many of them had served in the army. commanded by half-pay officers. -Governor General Clarke. 1799.000 of them to join him. 1 Fencibles are in England and as that is by Colonel Barclay one under Colonel Millidge. case of He added: "In in invasion of this town. and both have expressed in the most loyal manner their willingness to serve wherever His Majesty Duke of York is of the 60th. the second battalion. completely armed from H. " as seen in the 1793. and a body of Acadians." any twenty minutes. being. In August and September of 1802. The King's Nova Scotia exceed 100 men. has been made already to the Nova Government House. commanded by Colonel Barclay. 1793. In consequence of accepting this the regiment they would be placed on the establishment as the to say the officers is the Newfoundland would rank through all North America the same as they do at present in their respective provinces. and in an extreme case 2. name they offer bear. from a declared principle of estate. 8th Wentworth wrote to H.160 men. have two companies of artillery and one troop of horse. to Mr. and the regiments would be commanded by officers taken from the line who would be proprietors. which. consisting of 1. however. chiefly merchants and freeholders. "Royal. There was also an artillery company. by June. have voluntarily offered their services. was complete. loyalty. that Sir John Wentworth. and composed of privates. The first of these regiments to be raised. I have another select regiment of 1. 900 militia. under the in- permitted them to take the raising of the title of " Royal. no doubt. he reckoned on 4. upon half-pay. in fifteen minutes. have 700 good One company. now the in garrison.

them Admirals Berkeley and Cochrane. 2. Fillis commanded 60 men.-Colonel Howe and Colonel Brymer. there were Of the French Acadians. published his thanks to them for their prompt obedience and good conduct. three In 1805. Bremner. and the early part of the war from the cruisers of the enemy. and said he thought. attention to the militia of the province. to Willet. zealous and gratified to unite with the English colonists. Sir John suggested their being instructed on Sunday afternoons. July. The behaviour of the militia while in Halifax was unexceptionable. with all more would be found able and disposed to serve.October 9th.000 more select men the Halifax garrison. Duke of Kent requested that another battalion should under good and well-informed officers. lieut .000 militia were embodied for service in In addition. remain. and Colonel Lieut . One company of 40 men. the Lieutenant-Governor estimated the militia of the province at 10. Mr. Wentworth wrote: "Perhaps a finer body of athletic. ant-Governor Wentworth. King's and Annapolis counties to Halifax.597 sterling to cover the pay.- were working on the fortifications. Lieut .000 militia were placed in garrison in their stead and in October. and to extort compensation from the foe. out a number of privateers in order to retaliate nearly 400 could be lodged in the place he had proposed for the French prisoners from Pierre. who had begun their artillery exercise. being fishermen. and were believed to be on their way to Newfoundland. nor men more determined to do their Island). finding that the French on armament had left the American coast the 9 October. and Fillis had volunteered. country to strengthen the place. performing 135 35 pany. on intelligence as to the French New York preparing and being nearly ready for sea. and of this number one half were owned by the little village of Liverpool. Wentworth drawing bills on the Lords of the Treasury for £4. Halifax militia By the 26th October. battahons of Halifax militia. They were but scantily supplied with arms. November 8. as they were generally employed in their boats in the week. that 6. Of these. 17th February.000 men. under Captain Granville hours. and remonstrated with him by letter. There were companies of artillery in other mihtia regiments who had Ijeen instructed by men from the force who had been discharged and settled in the province. Lieutenas it was computed. marched into town with all possible speed and alacrity. Monk was directed to secure the aid Two companies of militia (150 men. adjutant-general. Admiral Berkeley designed to employ 140 men. but Sir John for Halifax or the fisheries. the came with his men." Many of his letters generals who commanded One company. were never assembled in any country. and dismissed them after a garrison service of about four weeks. that St. Within four j^ears. (Melville About 105 effectives. possible despatch. of Hants. accustomed to boats and vessels. were frequently exercised in the . of the Micmacs. General Ogilvie and Commissioner Duncan united in opinion that Halifax was in danger. Dundas. The militia and regulars at the capital amounted. The last division marched off on The expense of this service was paid by the British Government. shewing the ill effects it would produce upon the people and their agriculture. healthy young men. country militia should be brought to town. requesting of the in the garrison supplies of duty. under orders to come in on the shortest notice were The in case of any attempt to be made by the enemy. 1795. 1800. 500 more were drafted from the . He accordingly. twelve or fifteen ships of war were fitted out by the Nova Scotians. the lieutenant-governor. on 31st October called the council together. exclusive of officers.-Governor Wentworth at all times gave much on. and the apprehension of their any pay. and that the Wentworth was unwilling to accede to it.000 worth issued orders for 1. the companies of Captains Morris. In 1807.-governor stated to Mr. which the council concurred. Van Cortlandt. well clothed) trained and skilful. Colonel Barclay. The embodied militia were discharged 24 October In a letter to Captain Fenwick. Captain Mcintosh's company were to do duty at York redoubt. to near 4. resided near Chester. and 20 or 30 for another. for defence. and the Governor Wentcouncil approved of the measure. every exertion was being made in Scotia Nova by the Governor.000 men to be marched from the regiments of Hants. and Mr. in anticipation of an American war. Mr. General Ogilvie Nova fitted Scotia having suffered very severely in the promised all the unoccupied barrack room. 1. marched from miles in muskets —40 for one com- Halifax. part of the reinforcements of militia had come in. subsistence and contingencies of the militia. Generals Hunter and Skerret. on November 2. in case of invasion. living near it. 1799. of King's county. under Captain Thompson. 1. attempts on Nova Scotia ceasing as the . (the law requiring only 4 days duty in the year).season passed. and that they were supposed to be destined fleet at be embodied and called into the garrison.000 effective men. and stated to in his intention to send the militia to their homes. on the request of MajorGeneral Skerret. October 10. 75 youths came near 20 miles. and declined The lieutenant-governor commended him. in gun brigs. The 98th Regiment and the Newfoundland Fencibles were sent to Quebec by order from England.

and 800 at HaUfax. Interest in the militia was kept up even after the close of the war. and the The Lieutenant time furnish 124 men. resolved to pay for all arms and ammunition which should be issued for the to apply for as many more A A bill providing for the reduction at of the force was discussed some length during the Several session of 1819. December letter.. and prorogued the assembly. arming boats. on intelligence own horses. at for on a next found necessary. 57 fixed the pay of sergeant. and a proportion in each district to be at once embodied.were attached. £10." Sunday night. which he ascribed " to the jealously manifested against measures emanating from government. Although session. the assembly together on sent small guns. province demanded... (Act 1808. June 18. The house voted £8. also promising (Burdock's £30. F. 6d. provincial statute to the militia. trumpeter. July 21. The effective 2nd The assembly met Tuesday. the lieutenant-governor and council agreed to do.000 men. day each to clerks of the price of prices. of which the militia. 1812.000 stand of old arms and accoutrements now in H. The artillery (militia) could at was then made pul)lic.000 pay to militia. May to amend the militia laws. and to a tendency to democracy. They also resolved to borrow further force embodied. horse. His Ex- cellency held a council at 10 a. Wentworth's letter of March 26 to Lord Castle- paid when on Governor ordered the first class of the militia (ablebodied men from 18 to 50) to be ballotted from. Is.000 stand of made for such other expenses as the security of the for block-houses. actual duty. its would. Several inspecting field officers .) It was convened on account of the it.M. (10th assembly. 26. History of Nova Scotia). and a company of 50 free blacks was batteries to which tiiey of militia (regular officers) were employed and paid militia regiments there this year.000 for extra now to be embodied." Saturday.000 got ready to be called into service on the shortest notice. stores. and £120 for medical attendance on embodied militia. capable of assisting the The regulars either in batteries or with field pieces. the Governor con- would not exceed 3. longer term of service seems to have been advised by the governor. together could furnish 400. session. town militia mounted guards in rotation. embodied in Nova Scotia. to have same pay and allowances and the same rations as regulars. and where there were suitable boats to carry them. it just arrived. 79 members use of the militia. a messenger. in number 35 officers and men. be by im- Thursday. — war. June 20. as might be required to complete arming the militia on a similar pledge. the Lieutenant Governor informed a committee of the house that "in addition to 2. a paymaster and adjutant-general of militia.000 for a if new arms and accoutrements" pledge from the house that session.000 militia Hunter. at 2s. so graciously granted. regular troops. for service. clothing and camp ecuiipage." private man. The whole trained force was 1. 700.) He also called for provision to be The Assembly in their session this year thanked the Imperial Government for " the supply of arms. being only reliable. corporal. make provision new arms for the payment such arms. Sir George Prevost closed the thanking the house for the militia laws they had passed. These regiments of militia were in February. 56. to protect the most exposed parts of the coast. June 28. Monday. arrived at a late Brunswick. requested that should mediately embodied. when embodied. as he could not spare regulars for the purpose.. the militia it new considered very defective (December 29). who commanded in New of war. Major-General 1. This law was a great improvement. The Governor wrote at "Hitherto the male population composed this date: It was rather a levee en masse. dissented. £150 for carriage of arms.) used On and April 18. to be estimated at the Tower and the old at reasonable rates. and His Excellency requested ing speech. drummer or fifer. one-third only will be called out for training and sidered. to in his open- make provision for the extra pay allowed by the sec. for defences. He also directed a few guns to be mounted at the entrance of some of the most exposed harbours. Is. he reagh. and a further 1. for the use and acconmiodation of our militia. telegraph. — which directed the militia. at 6 per cent.. June 23. &c. Sec. and employed in actual It was proposed to have one troop of light service. to be against the depredations of privateers. The assembly accordingly. and great harmony pre(Sir vailed between them and H. &c. instruction. per day. the militia it was decided to 19. £12. £40 stationery and printing. he still. 1808. 7s. also engaged. 200 to be stationed at Annapolis. temporary work. 1809. with despatches from General Hunter. who should find their this imbibed from our neighbours. with intelligence of the declaration hour at Halifax.000 men in New BrunsCape Breton and Prince Edward Island wick.m. 1808. call was estimated at 9. M. In the other were at least 150 more good artillery men. 6d.800 men. force of the militia in Nova Scotia.000. he will order the issue of 2.

The continual drafts to supply their places. the governor. From the outset there was an inclination exhibited to organize by nationalists. late war. would allow. and drill instructors from the regiments in garrison were furnished.30 a. ment. and a certificate. During the the force were very Earl different. there was no charge of disloyalty against him. Mulgrave. was a very proper one. were labourers. approved of were concerned. and to provide for two inspecting field officers in place of the adjutant-general and quartermaster-general. Halifax. His Excellecyseemed to think the offices of uniformity. in the city of it Meetings were held Halifax during the autumn was evident that the material for military organization was not confined to the old country. next day. the 24th of April the South Barrack On barrack) yard. Col. Scotch.. member for Truro. The oldest existing militia organizations in Nova Scotia at Confederation traced their origin back to the volunteer the big volunteer movement in Nova Scotia co-incident with movement in England. provided. in his remarks. a public meeting was held presiding. Halliburton's office. On this. Halliburton as secretary. of course.m. appeared from the plan. Mortimer doubted whether the province had any was militia at all. to be from 18 to 60. The volunteer force not only had the privilege of paying for their own clothing and accoutrements. and he thought it strange that in time of peace they should find It difficulties that did not exist then. and Irish companies were of 1859. he said. the companies having the use of the ground on alternate evenings. and it would be found necessary to have recourse to years. that they were to take a part of the first class and enrol them for the term of seven tended to keep up the interest and promote a pride in each company. or their financial The result was a great want resources. Eastern and Middle districts respectively. although the color generally selected being of of quartermaster-general and adjutantuse was gray — that considered colour. that the candidate had a majority of the votes of the company. that the first class for service be from 18 to 40. 1860. rendering more efficient. Roach (of Cumberland) moved that a committee be appointed to report what aijiendments were necessary to be made to the existing militia law. that Scottish Rifles. and an interest by citizens who were unable to join the ranks as active members. Irish and Victoria Rifles and Halifax Engineers. for all the service required of them to turn out three days in the year. he thought. Chebucto Greys. was resolved. Mr. 1860. and in matters connected with the formation of volunteer companies. some of the companies also mustering on the Grand Parade for morning drill at 6. "That . ment. the Mayflower. Caldwell. to alter the age of enrol- Nova Scotia volunteer force. English. instead of 16 to 60. stated that he was not able to comprehend His Excellency's down. On the 14th May. he bein time of war? lieved. signed by the secretary and chairman of the meeting. Mr. but were allowed full liberty to select such styles and colors as the fancy of the members. for the Western. and (now the was handed over by the imperial authorities for a drill ground for the city companies. This com- Battalion. seconded kinlay. that during the American war no inconvenience was felt in the existing system. Earl that there panies with a total strength of eight hundred and sixty-eight (868) men. stated were at that time thirty-two effective volunteer companies in the Province. how happened it that it was not necessary One quarter of the militia. was all that was required by the adjutant-general. of proceeding mode was laid views on the subject. Samuel Macthe This had the effect of causing a healthy rivalry. Adjutant-General Capt. with a total strength of two thousand three hundred and forty-one In the city there were eleven (11) com(2341) men. the plan as far as the staff officers but not of a reduction of the battalions proposed. gives a the development of the account of mittee advised. and in December. for. and that both This amendoffices might be executed by one person. and when they arrived at the age of twenty-one they removed to different places. Halifax Engineers. and Lieut. shew that the utmost freedom was allowed in the selection and appontment other of comre- was necessary to drill them so frecjuently now. Nova acted Scotia Militia presided. a meeting of representatives from the Volunteer Artillery. particularly as regards the reduction of the battalions. a Mulgrave. 1859." published in 1889. On the evening of April in 16. to add one engineer day for battalion meeting. 1861. Scottish Rifles. " Regulations and Orders " for the local forces of Nova Scotia. Major Egan's " History of the Halifax Volunteer full committee of eleven members was named. If it missioned gular officers. which motion was adopted and passed by the house. Colonel William Dickson. most suitable in general of militia were not of much towards England— -the shade and style of facings quality of material. The commissioned officers were elected by the company. to entitle the applicant to a commission. Sinclair. was held in Lieut. there were three inspecting field officers. 80 by Lieut. Haliburton observed. On motion by it formed. each keeping its particular national character.Mr. Halifax.

1865. an inroad by the Fenian Brotherhood from the United States caused considerable alarm. W. June the volunteer battalion made an effort to secure 62nd Regiment. The Halifax battalion lost By this general order the thanks of the commander-in-chief were conveyed to the men. 81 some of its best members at this time. which had now been in use for five years. and day. and the regular militia was now organized. company continuing wear their dark plaid clothing. being detailed. the intention being to have a paid adjutant. and another which regulated the transfer of men from one company to another. During the winter of 1866 overcoats were issued to the battalion by the government. as adjutant.$20) and one shilling and for the care of appointed to consider the subject. 1866. tion of a its ranks. 3d. the Halifax battalion was ordered out for fifty previous to the organization of the volunteer force. The idea did not meet with the approval of Earl Mulgrave. One hundred and men. that being the teers in amount allowed the volunEngland and Canada. having served from the companies competent men were now drawn by the offer of commissions in the regiments of militia and paid drill instruction being introduced. Among per the regulations issued at this time from head- companies. from a military point of view. great activity was displayed in reorganizing and enrolling the regular militia of the In the services of Capt. The "Scottish" and the "Grej-s" encamped on the ground. with the proper required to complement proportions: their off of officers. and application was made to the Commander-in-Chief to secure a grant from the government to assist the tion under the inspection of an officer. off to its post. was one allowing the sum company to provide armories. this all three pence (25 cents) per annum each the companies except the to stand of arms and accoutrements. as a rule the families of the their meals ready men sent were. ammunition was £11 7s. requiring to be renewed. men who many cases From the volunteer cooked to the guard rooms. This was adopetd by Scottish. and the commissions were consequently held by —The men were provide and two men for fatigue were told with each guard. Milson. the subject of reorganizawas taken up by the officers. with the military spirit duty. and to place the militia in each under brigadiers. of five pounds (. own the provisions. "The Regulations and Orders for the General Management and Guidance of the Volunteers militia of Although the fears of a Fenian invasion in March proved groundless. and the departure of an armed ship from New York. 31st the battalion was relieved from garrison duty. dated May 3rd. and in March. a committee of officers was quarters. the Government having granted an allowance of ball cartridges. province. and the long field" rifle Laurie (unattached) was appointed Inspecting Field Officer of the Volunteers "En- with the rank of colonel. the tempta- ." During the summer of 1860. proval of the services of the battalion was also published. The duties of inspecting time been performed by Col. in a mysterious manner. 1862. but Captain Milson was soon after employed by the Adjutant-general. the scores of the last twenty rounds. (muzzle loader) which the battalion had used from its organization. By a general order. Previously there was no means of getting trained officers for that force. with the rank of lieut. was replaced by the short rifle and sword bayonet. and a despatch from Earl Carnarvon expressing his ap6th June. the . the city companies proceeded to Point Pleasant range to go through commission in the militia taking many from At one time it was in contemplation to form the counties into districts. caps two shillings volunteers. In consequence of an inroad into Canada and the withdrawal of a portion of the garrison. were returned to For private practice the price of headquarters. but. the of Rumors the scene of attack. but the other companies marched down each Sixty rounds per man was the allowance. was in a very crude state. 1863. in addition to the duties of adjutant-general. officer had up to this and Militia of Nova Scotia. dated July. appointed as Inspecting Field Officer. By the general order. affairs came about. the term of service for which the men had enrolled expiring in January. no excuse for non-efficiency was allowed. Sinclair. in the following a new state of and training introduced by the Volunteer movement. of the first Fenian scare took place. The Halifax battalion was told called out for active service. per thousand. and Militia" shewed that the Nova Scotia. the result showed that there was some cause for alarm. whose duty it was to look after rations. During 1862. seemed to point to Halifax as In March. and they recommended " Rifle green " as the most suitable color.signal of and each company alarm being three guns fired in succession from the citadel. in totally unfit for their position. The uniform of the and eight pence half-penny per thousand. and rifle practice. Major J.Halifax Volunteer companies be formed into a battalion. the sum of five dollars per man being suggested. Quite a number of meetings were held. which were fired their regular course of position drill During the fall of 1864.-coloncl.

avoidable political excitement which I need not further advert to ^and a misconception raised in some — — districts that the however.. subject to required examination for commissions. this report giving a the organization prevailing at Nova Scotia during the five years they have been called on to render gratuitous services. "By a system of service men and reserves. six weeks' is conthe out for five days' training for five successive years. Light infantry was. 1860. to venture to recommend adjutants of regiments. for six weeks. the men not being force. unagainst militia training. men This for five days) is was equivalent equal to training 5. organized 26th April. "The this report are interesting on this account: organization is the result of about six years' work. nominated to Hitherto these field serve.720 men called out till the latter were fit to instruct. and the 2nd Battalion "Queen's Own. 1859." of Toronto. battalions senior in having had an unbroken The only other 1st Truro have adopted military training. and the regiments armed were trained in it to a limited extent. it existence since the 14th of May. eighteen age for administrative purposes. while the more intelligent have gained an amount of military knowledge which would be useful if required days before the 63rd. 1860. I take the returns of 1866 as a base for remarking.767 to 223. for muster only this year. five days heavy drill. "The volunteer artillery. a considerable proportion were not conflict with general plans. that the aggregate training for that year (45. lately armed to for only suffices body of the militia force being only any considerable extent. could not be called out. Bligh Sinclair. as. The which from the above causes. and giving them a tolerable idea of parade. taught to the officers trained at headquarters. all of whom passed examinations in field exercise before receiving commissions. "The Provincial Army List gives a fair idea of the Officers are state of the organization. far less training will have greater effect as soon as the benefits of early training begin to operate. during peace.during the militia regiments. discipline and marching. per annum. excepting those between the ages of 18 and 22 (attained). (Major Egan's History of the Halifax Volunteer Battalion. and 1st. and no advantage For instance. By far the most valuable effect has been on the officers of the force. thoroughly trained at headquarters. The adjutants Of 230 had most advantageous period of training. all under forty-five. in 1863.) "It affords the militia of me sincere pleasure to be able to report that nothing could exceed the willing and loyal spirit of As adjutant-general on the provincial of of the militia of Nova Scotia. and business and private convenience had to suffer in a say that should it is the highest grade of examination. "It is my duty to represent to your Excellency that the annual five days' training of the whole force has now fully attained the object originally aimed at the com- — plete organization of the whole force of men of martial Canada were the Battalion "Prince of Wales" Regiment. which must have been heavUy felt. during the constructive to the service. be formed into reserve. "In several previous reports I have represented the good results which would be derived from establishing a reasonable amount of military instruction with prizes in all schools . as cadets. 82 "I have reason to notice that the amount of drill performed by the Halifax volunteer battalion under the militia staff.How the old Halifax battalion explained. pated from such a limited period of drill. 2nd and 3rd brigades Halifax militia artillery. "From with secutive drill experience. Officers promoted also passed all higher to pass grades of examination. practised.835 days. and besides had the a good deal of training to qualify them. and the advanced season. reported good idea and immediately The following extracts from prior to Confederation. country. officers from the "Whatever be the periods training I hereafter. came to be called the The college at Windsor and the Normal School at 63rd in the Dominion active militia has never been satisfactorily the regiment being really entitled to the third place in the roll of regiments of the Active Militia of Canada. December 31.selves to com- mand. the service would be relieved of much that now weighs on individuals with inconvenience. PH" During the past season a good deal has militated Amongst other things. that. the whole of the militia force of all arms. during the last two years. commencing first with the military instruction of volunteers and militia officers." observed in returns. has been equal to former years. and the result has been more favorable than antici- drill of five hours a day. "As the final returns are not complete at the date of — commencing this report. of manding and field officers. officers The whole available militia force has now been called intelligent and men. examinations been limited Light infantry has been as yet irrespective of the have to little exercise. will be Fenian alarm. had to be called out for drill at the same time. 1867. being inspected by . organized November 1st. as well as the com- now avoidable. militia law was suspended. until they pass the your Excellency's consideration that such further orders as may be deemed expedient. I can safely submit. Montreal. Colonel R. with acting rank. organization of the whole force.

Lieut .-Colonel Hardy, and the 4th brigade



any part

Colonel Sawyer, are in a good state of discipline and

officers of the general

The volunteer artillery have learned the Armstrong gun exercise, having a battery of six of

under the orders of the government. President MadLson then availed himself of an act of Congress, passed in February previous, which authorized hiiji to accept
of the state militia

those guns.

the services of 80,000 volunteers from the different

"I have to note

your Excellency's consideration,


Colonel Laurie's suggestion that volunteers be heresubsidized


and General King, of Bath, (Kennebec), a democrat, was sent to Eastport to make

according to the year's work per-









Lieut. -Col. Laurie, Inspecting Field Officer, District

C, remarked

in his report:


feel it

to bring to notice



my duty again would be that some

arrangements for raising three regiments of volunteers, in the district of Maine. Conventions and meetings were held, and spirited resolutions passed in opposition to the general government. As little as possible was done by the authorities of New Brunswick to antagonize their neighbours.

acknowledgement should be made to effective officers who, often at considerable inconvenience, attend their annual 28 days' training, and carry out all I do not the duties connected with the organization. think it would be well to reduce the number of days' training required of them under the present system, and would again suggest that they obtain the same exemptions as effective volunteers, from whom far less duty
of militia,

About the close of the year 1812, some field works, block-houses and batteries were begun for the defence
of the city and river of St. John, in New Brunswick, and a permanent pentagonal work was proposed on the Washademoiac. Major General Smyth, who commanded in New Brunswick, and Sir John Sherbrooke differed in opinion about some of these fortifications, and Captain Nicolls, engineer, was sent to the River St. John in consequence. The small military force in New Brunswick does not seem to have been reinforced from the declaration On the contrary, the 104th Regiment was of war. sent to Canada, while the 2nd battalion of the 8th remained in New Brunswick. The detachments of the 104th left St. John in February, and the people helped them with sleighs. Apprehension of invasion having made the people in New Brunswick uneasy. Sir John sent on ten 24-pounders for the batteries on


"The volunteer companies were


year inspected

with the regiments to which they are attached
gaining some knowledge of battalion
of classifying the volunteer




companies so that their

subsidy should be proportioned to their efficiency

whether highly or indifferently trained, are classed under one rate. "I am happy to state that in each county in this district a county rifle association has been formed, and competitions have been held, thus carrying the interest

most desirable; at present

in rifle


much more home

to the people."

of the

The following figures give an idea of the Nova Scotia Militia at Confederation:
first class

the entrance of the John, with ammunition and other requisites, and 1,000 stand of muskets, but the store ship

Patridge Island, which


harbor of

— In 1866

the total

enrolled were 58,031


in 1867, 59,147;


increase, 1,116.

Total trained in


class, 45,767; 1867, first

class, 41,997; decrease, 3,770.


of officers with substantive




1st lieutenants,

110; majors, 171; captains, 797;



was lost. She was from H.M.S. Rattler, her convoy, in a snow storm. It happened that 400 of the muskets were in the Rattler, and got safe to St. John, but the Diligent, and what was saved of her cargo, fell into the hands of the enemy. Sir John had no means of replacing these until more ordnance stores came from England.

Diligence, in which they were laden,

New Brunswick was

separated from


Scotia in


and had a

militia force of its

own, but resem-


Brunswick, the militia assisted the regulars duty, detachments from Westmoreland

bling that of



During the war of 1812 a sort of neutrality was observed between the people of New Brunswick and their Maine neighbours The Federal party, who were dominant in Massachusetts and Maine at this period, were openly adverse to the war; and the injuries done to commerce by the embargo, non-intercourse, and final war measures of the democratic government at Washington, were much resented. Governor Strong, refused to place

going to St. John, where the local militia were also embodied. According to the New Brunswick revised statutes of 1854, the militia consisted of all white male inhabitants from 16 to 60. Each county was a battalion district and each regiment or battalion was to as.semble one


in each year "for inspection and exercise," and to "rendezvous two days in each year for di.scipline," &c. In 1862 a Militia Act, 25 Victoria, Chapter 20, was passed which divided the New Brunswick Militia into







The The

1867 to May 20th, 1873 Hon. 3olh, 1874 to June 1st, 1878. Hon. L. R. F. Masson, Oct. iglh, 1878 to Jan. i6lh, 1880.
Cartier, July Wni. B. Val, Sept.





1867 to 1880 The Hon. A. G. Jones, Jan. 21st, 1878 to Oct. 17th, 1878. The Hon. VVm. Ross, Nov. 7th, 1873 to Sept. 3olh, 1874. The Hon. Sir Alex. Campbell, Jan. i6th, 1889 to Nov. 8th,
Hu^h McDonald.
Minister from July



— It was

impossible to secure a satisfactory portrait for reproduction of the Hon.

1873 to


6th, 1873,






men from

18 to 45 years

been attained under the present system.
that the




of age, sedentary

from 45

to 60.

The Active

men composing

the force are, as a general

was divided into Class A (volunteer cavalry, artillery and riflemen) Class B (unmarried men and widowers without children) Class C (married men and widowers with children. Class A drilled for 6 days each year and was provided with ammimition at the expense of the province. Classes B and C were to be enrolled and muster one day in each year. The Sedentary Militia was not


taken but from one class of the community, all engaged in industrial pursuits, and when the volunteers were called out on service during the past year, the absence of the men from the usual avocations was much felt.

His Excellency General Doyle, being fully aware

of the comparatively small


of available local

required to enroll regularly.




guards), of the

The following extracts from a report by
Colonel George


defective law enabling

Maunsell, Adjutant General of




dated January


1868, give an

him to call out the militia but for one day's muster, and the disadvantages under which the volunteers served, had it in contemplation







Brunswick force

previous to and at Confederhitherto been considered the

have a scheme for training the militia, in conjunction with the volunteers, laid before the legislature of this province at the last session, and which, while
the volunteers as an 'advance guard,'
to furnish a drilled

"The volunteers have


'advance guard' of the local forces, well drilled, as a rule, and when drilled every man is furnished with a

was calculated

'support' of the


uniform coat and cap by government; they attend a of drills annually to entitle them to a capitation allowance,



intended to provide for the

remaining portion of the active militia, the sedentary to form the 'reserve.' I regret that (the union of the provinces intervening) His Excellency was prevented from carrying this scheme out."

proper care of the arms and accoutrements issued to




divided into two classes

—active and

them, Ijut unhappily, in consequence of the absence of 'government drill sheds, this allowance is inadequate,

sedentary: the former of these

subdivided into three classes, termed respectivelj' class A, B, and C. The
volunteers, or class A, of the active militia consists of

and has frequently to be expended in obtaining insufficient accommodation for drill purposes in such buildings as are available, and officers commanding have had, at their own cost, to defray the other necesHence, I would remark, sary expenses of their corps.

cavalry, artillery, engineers,

and infantry, and num-

bers 2,079."
" I may observe that there is not a government magazine in the province. His Excellency, MajorGeneral Doyle obtained authority from the Imperial Government, to place anmiunition, purchased for the militia, in Carleton Tower, Saint John, as a temporary measure, until a magazine be erected. There is but one militia store in the province (at Fredericton)


highly creditable that the volunteers retain the

efficiency for

which they have been justly commended.

must admit



when volunteers

serve their time of engagement, they appear unwilling
to re-engage,



consequence of the inability of the
strength required by law, the

officers to recruit to the

service of the corps are dispensed with.
" It is

Considerable sums are paid as rent for a building in which to store arms, accoutrements, and other govern-



intention to urge this as an



voluntary system.

hold the opinion
of well-

that each corps serves as a school of instruction on a

small scale in
drilled officers




The number

the volunteers have furnished to the

proves the truth of


and as the

services of one corps are dispensed with, another has

ment property, at Saint John." "The furnishing of uniform, tunics and forage caps to 'effective' members of corps at government expense, has been a large item in the annual expenditure. The term 'effective' is, by law, applied to those who perform at least fifteen drills in each month. As none but effective members are provided with government
uniform, another inducement
to attend drill regularly.

been speedily organized, a knowledge of drill and military ardour being thus diffused over a large porI grant that under the existtion of the Province. ing law, which is admitted to be defective in many important particulars, and the consequent impossibility
of success attending the organization of a corps in

thus offered volunteers

can bear testimony to the










obtained uniformed trowsers at their As the supply of uniform for voluateers


limited, so

that system regarding


at present

but a thickly settled

district, or

town, there


a limit


from perfect."
Scarcely a year has elapsed since the establishment

to the progress of the volunteer system,

and although

can with truth state that our volunteers generally

of the Provincial Rifle Association

by His Excellency

are in a satisfactory condition, probably that limit has






class B being unmarried men and widowers without children class C. is such. or in such proportions as the commander-in-chief should deem expedient. consisting of 3 and 60 rank and file each. and such unsatisfactory circumstances." "By the provisions of the Militia Act passed on 31st classes been attended with were these : many difficulties. with the same exceptions as comprising classes B and C. and for the erection or hire of a building in which to house the assembled force. as the difficulty. consist of all the of the (except class A male and " In disposal consequence of the limited funds placed at the of the commander-in-chief. New Brunswick militia.formation nection success. in The dress regulations of the 7. had necessarily to be filled from the so-called 'migratory class. is camp caused. was pleased to order it to be dispensed with. inhabitants certain B and C province. if not impossibility. either the course of drill had to be curtailed. "2.193. should be only called upon under such a law. should assemble annually for 28 days at a specified time and place. and were in general terms : ducted to those who otherwise would have no opportunity of obtaining such information. to conof tribute to the military strength of this province. amongst others May. It is true that the efforts made to instruct militia officers. battalions They are attached to the in officers "1.' However. The men to be drawn. and the neces- exempts) between the ages of 18 and 45. provided for in the existing law. eight battalions had and from camp. this selection of enforcing obedience and collecting fines was in it was found that some cases impracticable. Any officer commanding a must execution battalion failing to with the association. equal proportions from every battalion. the excuse being that absence from their tions for a lengthened homes and ordinary occupa- venience to period would be with inconthemselves. to men of this class failed to attend. and of shewing the system by which the interior economy of a battalion is conabsence from indeed to be regretted. resort to the draft. were accomplished with a view to facilitate a future system of training. as per order dated April for the various 1863. and surpassed the expectations most The practical of these principles has ardent. 1865. and the vacancies their diminish the power of commanding officers. that in cases of men absenting themseves from muster. and to drill a quota %from every battalion at an annual camp. or a smaller number of men called upon to attend than it was previously considered desirable to have at Camp. the 'bone and sinew' of the community. Although commanding officers were requested men who reside in distant parts of the province to already mustered when your excellency's order was published." districts the reside. of several county rifle matches in con- "3. . which has a tendency to increase the number of absentees. provided for uniforms to those of the British arms similar army. which. the draft was not resorted to in any instance. It is creditable to officers and men that the attendance at muster parades has been in any respect satisfactory. married men. which they but should be carefully enrolled as Section 39 of the Act provides. and has an injurious effect as regards discipline." "The only remaining class is the sedentary militia. as many under a defective law." "The principles upon which the camp of instruction was based were in themselves admirable. composed young active men. That the important classes of which I now treat. and are not called upon to muster. sarily large sums required for the transport of those children. and men for duty at the camp who were residents in the province. comprising all male inhabitants of the province. That at least fifteen companies. "2. and whose services would subsequently be available in imparting instructo select officers tion to their respective companies. has been a complete of the furnish the required quota. but I cannot vouch for the accuracy of their numbers. And it must be admitted that the camp of instruction has been the means of diffusing a good practical knowledge of drill throughout the province. as taken from the returns would amount only to 7. and having escaped punishment by fine." " Your lordship being well aware that no advantage could accrue from the one day's muster of battalions. and widowers with . and it cannot be doubted that these efforts have been attended with excellent results. A return of them has been made by the commanding officers of most battalions. However. by the voluntary system. a precedent is established. between the ages of forty-five and sixty.

not exempted or disqualified by law. of course. assumed a practical form. acting together alike in peace and war. The second class comprised those of the age of thirty years and upwards. entitled "An Act Dominion respecting the Militia and Deof fence of the Canada." At the time of Confederation there were 22. and the South African War. or widowers without children. of the age of eighteen year? and upwards. — comprised those of the age of eighteen years and upwards. but under thirty years. we find that the Hon. and one system of militia organization.398. The Red River Expeditions. divided as follows: Upper Canada 12. and the organization contemplated under its provisions. We are at this moment with a different militia system in each colony ^in some of the colonies with an utter want of any system of defence." all but Her Majesty might require masse the male inhabitants of the Dominion.791. which 87 were unmarried. (later Sir John A. without any arrangement between Confederation. to serve in case of a levee en The male population so liable to serve in the militia were divided into four classes: The first class federated provinces.002. .) Macdonald. consummated came into being on July 1st. capable of bearing arms. who were Nova Scotia. said: "One of the great advantages of Confederation is that we shall have a united. a concerted and uniform system of defence. 1. 1868.199. "Of all the male inhabitants of Canada." was assented to — May 22.390 active militia maintained in the four originally con- by birth or naturalization. 7. New Brunswick. Defensive Force Emerges from the Experimental Stage. or widowers without children. the main motives which led to the adoption of the scheme The first Dominion Militia Act. —Canada's THE of Confederation of the provinces. and under sixty the colonies as to the means either of defence or offence. —The Fenian Raids of 1870 and 1871. but under forty-five years. xl). in his speech in the United Canada Legislative Assembly February 6th. who during peace to the Dominion. this Act was carried into effect. had. The Northwest Rebellion. During the year 1868. and being British subjects But under the union we will have one system of defence. By that law the militia consisted : — 1. the desire to provide an adequate system of national defence was one of were maintained pending the drafting and adoption of a militia act for the entire Dominion. John A. (31 Victoria. 1867. Chapter 3) gave the management and control of the militia unmarried. but for some months organizations in 1867. a momentous effect upon thereafter the old provincial militia the militia.¥i CHAPTER The First Dominion Militia Act and VIII MILITIA OF THE DOMINION Amending Legislation. 1865. We have a number of staff establishments. We will have one system of defence and be one people. Lower Canada. 1. As a matter of fact. Chapter For instance. The "British North American Act" (30 and 31 Victoria.

The marine militia was composed of seamen. and are discharged after giving the required notice. have volunteered or been ballotted were divided into 22 brigade divisions. reserve subject to the exemptions. and such of the men as have not previously given notice of their desire to be discharged. for not less than eight nor more than sixteen days. on payment These men had the benefit accorded under and the corps were permitted to enrol other men as volunteers to complete the strength in each instance to the regulated standard. was provided that the adjvitant-general should be charged with the military command and discipline of the militia. as 1868. on providing a of $30. Ballotted men could be exempted. serving in the active militia at the time muster roll. viz. shall for the purposes of this Act be held to be existing and shall be continued as such. Botsford being the first President. If the law for previous service. to bring these organizations of the Dominion. shall not be liable to be ballotted for any period of drill or training of the active militia." the militia. the several Provinces had military forces organized under local laws. which were reduced to the minimum. In the volunteer force. in addition to the officers of reserve militia. The law provided for annual paid drills for 40. second and third division within classes of militiamen in the company These nine military districts which they to serve." organization had previous existence. or had served three shall sign a The four provinces originally districts. shall be explained to them. The "regular militia" was composed of men who voluntarily enlisted to serve in the same or of men ballotted to serve or of men who voluntary enlisted to serve with the ballotted men. one comprising the province of New Brunswick.000 officers and men. men in the first. population could be called upon to serve. and thereafter such men of any volunteer corps. and four in the province of Ontario. all such corps shall and within three Act shall come into be mustered by their captains this commanding the provisions of this Act . force.The third class comprised those of the age of thirty years and upwards. including the officers com- The active consisted of the missioned thereto.: of which the Dominion was years continuously in such corps immediately before such muster. and others were raised in stead. and the strength in of the volunteer militia in was highly addition to the old corps pre- Section 28 provided for the appointment of an viously in existence. including any previous continuous service in the same corps immediately before such muster." and the "marine The volunteer militia was composed of corps raised by voluntary enlistment. the substitute was his place. and again subdivided into regimental divisions. three in the Province of Quebec. section 7 of the their reorganization in were married. or required several if The re-enrolment of the volunteer militia and the enrolment of the reserve militia. until all the other composed.s complete three years. who As. were divided into nine military one comprising the province of Nova Scotia. The reserve militia consisted of the whole of the men who were not being. many new ones were added te adjutant-general of militia to be "a person educated to the military profession parts of the country where no local rank of It field officer in and who has attained the Her Majesty's regular army. or widowers without children. Section 27 provided for the calling out of the militia aid of the civil power. 88 The Dominion The numl)er Rifle Association was founded in 1868. and others re-enrol. and of men l)allotted to serve. d. but under forty-five years. The re-enrolment satisfactory. sailors. The men required for drill could be comprised entirely of volunteers. prior to the date of the union. there were it stood on the 1st October. drawn in his principal had to supply any corps became inefficient. it was intended they should be disbanded. Col. and persons whose usual occupation was upon any steam militia. the men could be drawn from the by ballot. If substitute. or in the event of failure to maintain such complement of men as was considered necessary for efficiency. navigating the waters of the Dominion. and be enrolled as volunteer militia. shall take the oath hereinafter prescribed. hut under of the age of forty- sixty years." reside. sul)ject to the provisions of this Act. the number being regulated by the money vote of Parliament each year. militia viously to and existing on the was divided militia into active and reserve "volunteer shall Every volunteer corps duly authorized preday on which this Act come into force." months or after the day on which officers. were carried on simultaneously. "regular militia. and each man or sailing craft. of the corps of active militia. did not desire to number was not furnished in that way in the divisions. their many men who had completed who the periods of service. The fourth class comprised those five years and upwards. under the direct authority new law provided for the words following: And The militia: the above was the order in which the male "3. with their .

were divided into divisions. formed in connection with regiments of the regular army. During the year. and candidates became so numerous that in the year 1865. and being based upon the old provincial In the rural parts of Ontario and Quebec.000 circular tents complete. would be conducted with fairness and impartiality. and the officers appointed thereto resident within their company limits. who had charge of the schools in Ontario and Quebec. several battalions performed the days of annual drill It was felt in camp at their battalion headquarters. notified the deputy adjutant general of fnilitia that in pursuance of the plan of the home government to withdraw the regular troops from Canada. at Montreal Kingston. largely increase the number of was decided and men which had preit when viously been under training. and in the other proxnnces the deficiences w'ere being rapidly filled." Towards the end of the first year of the existence of the Dominion militia. Hamilton schools last named. The number of cadets who had up to 1870 been granted certificates by the several commandants (officers of the regular army). commanding and drilling the men to provide for this want the schools were established. It when In his annual report for this year. In Ontario the quota was complete at the end of the year. connection those cities. where corps of active militia are required. in two were taken in Queljec for every one Ontario.nominal strength as they stood at the end of the year 1868 was as follows: Ontario. Quebec had the advantage of first class certificates. and the question of instructors is no longer an impediment. The whole of these cadets were distributed throughout the two Provinces of Quebec and Ontario. were originally established Imperial army stationed in Canada was only a temp- year 1864. at Quebec and Toronto. New Brunswick. and that the time was drawing near when Canada would have to make arrangements for the establishment of military schools of her own. Lieut. and the result has shown that in every regimental division in Ontario and Quebec. could not in any other way be instructed to act in concert. those interested in militia affairs received a pointed intimation that the system of military schools in connection with the units of the will be recalled that military schools for the practical training of officers. in proportion as the population of each com- pared with the other. The drill for 1868-69 was performed in the several provinces under orders and regulations having local application. the following plan was as during the period that gratuities were given for first contemplated by the law. that the number of cadets in Quebec only exceeds that of those from Ontario by eighty-eight. members company were divisions for representation by House of Commons. in in the year 1868 at Halifax and St. widely separated as regards distance. gratuities of S50 were granted with both first and secondclass certificates.170 Dominion number There appeared no doubt that the total authorized of active militia could be raised and maintained by voluntary enrolment in the several provinces.-Col. failing to As regards the reserve militia. after the apprehension of troubles arising out of the Trent affair. the linen tents from England. commanding the 13th Hussars. which with few exceptions were identical with the class certificates.000.816 12. schools of military instruction for infantry of the were opened during John. competent officers can now be found. The two draw a sufficiently numerous attendance of cadets. exceeded 5. with the regiments of the line stationed securing to a large extent a personal knowledge of the and separate schools and Toronto. These schools were in the porary expedient. mallets and blankets manufactured in Canada. the chief obstacle to the raising of corps in the rural parts. deputy-adjutant general of militia. and so continuous had been the applications from these provinces. The several regimental divisions.789 Quebec. and providing rations which amounted to from three to four dollars a man. pins. The vote of eight dollars per man was paid to each country corps for eight days drill in camp. and the poles. Nova Scotia. all parts. for artillery and cavalry were in men enrolled. The call was responded to from 89 Colonel G. the volunteers paying out of that sum the expense of the camp. to extend the operations of the volunteer system. Walker Powell. his regiment was about .se. the laws. and 10. and London. explained:— As an evidence of the success which has attended the opening of schools of military instruction. in was the difficulty obtaining local officers and instructors capable of . that these corps made up of companies (although within the same county). were closed by the end of the year. 2. of whom 24 per cent. Total of all arms 21. it may be observed that some five " years ago.637 1. thus electoral In addition to those previously in existence. had taken first-class certificates. four more schools were established.000 blankets were procured and added to the public stores. S. and to encourage candidates to apply for admission to these schools. and also being a guarantee that the ballot successful operations in each of the cities of Montreal called into u. Jenyns. do do do total 928 37.

15th. Dec. The Hon. Jan. Sir Mackenzie Bowell. C. J. o. 1896. sth. 1892. Dickey. 25th. The Hon. Jan. The Hon. 15th. D. ti. i8g6 to July Sth. May 1st. The Hon.MINISTERS OF MILITIA. sth. 1895. Caron. Sir Adolphe P. 1892 1. )i. to Dec. The Hon. R. Tisdale. 3 The Hon. 1896. 1892^0 March 26th. 1892. Nov. 4. 8th. Patterson. March 26th. 90 . A. Alphonse Desjardins. 25th. 189s to Jan. 1880 to 1896. 1896. 1880 to Jan. 1896 to April 27th.

in zine in the Toronto drill-shed. Meantime the carrying into execution of the home government's policy of withdrawing the regular garrisons was partially suspended. non-commissioned officer and private came there to learn. adjutant-general of militia. who are at least admirably armed. and the regiments were ordered alternately to mount one sergeant and three men as a guard over the magaOctober 12th. 1869. the adjutantgeneral. that required for the defence of the country. occurred. the commander-in-chief has but to give the order.: The 50th Battalion. the 51st Battalion. With very few exceptions. 5. wrote his — "Although as yet the military system it Canada is in its infancy. or at any rate delayed. Lawrence and west of Lake Memphremagog." connection with the development of the defensive force During the time the militia force of the new Dominion was being organized the military spirit of the country was maintained at a high pitch as a result of the continued threats of Fenian invasions. Robertin son Ross. was called on by Government. the 52nd Battalion. and the 60th Battalion. to take the necessary steps to hold in readiness such number of the active militia as might be deemed Col. numbering 29 officers and 250 non-commissioned officers and men. and despatching them in to the October 9th. with success the . particularly as a considerable the liberality of Parliament. During the year stirring up of the military spirit as a result of frontier was a considerable throughout Canada the Fenian raids across the Quebec 1870 there uprising. time of The ques- tion of the maintenance and support in a prof)er state of efficiency' of the militia of the take the defence of Dominion to underthe country. should at once be called out for active service. troop horses. Colonel P. 1870. sufficient time for military training ought to be afforded them. This resulted partly from the attempted invasion by Fenians from the United States. a great many officers and noncommissioned officers are quite capable of drilling militia the great zeal which I But to enable the men of Canada to fulfil ranks. in taking over the entire military parts of Fenian scares of that time. Robertson Ross." number of men under them have passed through the During the year 1870. consetjuent on the withdrawal of the regular troops from the Dominion west of that station. owing to their unremitting attention. numbering 31 officers and 314 noncommissioned officers and men. headquarters at Durham. headquarters at Knowlton.to return to England. and the Red River At the beginning annual report: of of the year 1870. numbering 21 officers and 200 non-commissioned officers and men. charge of the country west of Quebec. Although some could hardly sit on a horse when they entered the school. Dominion. and in a very few hours more than 40. apprehension being an intended Fenian raid from the United States on the southern frontier. numbering 29 officers and 258 non-commissioned officers and men. all officers commanding Province of Manitoba. in the early part of thfe year. belonging to military district No. and Early in the of entertained — . headquarters at Hemmingford. but chiefly from the labour and responsibility that devolved upon the militia department. the 10th Royals and Queen's Own resumed evening parades as in 1866. viz.sacred duty of defence. all The men of the local volunteer militia corps were instructed to take home their rifles and accoutrements. the order to specially requesting the commanding officer have the regiments kept in hand without causing alarm. Jenyns remarked like communication: "I do not to resign the appointment of commandant without bringing to the notice of the minister of — Colonel specially men of the active militia. and an adequate and permanent in peace. animated with as much courage and determination to defend their Queen and country as has ever been exhibited by any nation. submitted for adoption the following measures: 1st That the four frontier battalions of active militia. have found exists in all I have found that every officer. and it was quite surprising to me to find how much very many did learn in the short time they were under instruction. accordance with district orders. and he was about to sell his Consequently the cavalry school mainin his tained at Toronto could not be carried on. maintained to secure their training and their guidance in time of war. if may be said at all events with equal truth. Col. south of the St. depends entirely upon in their respective troops. would stand forth to form the first line of defence. and did his best to render himself efficient. and their ranks might be hourly swelled by men from the reserve militia. headquarters at Huntingdon. These drills and guards were maintained until January 12th. conjunction with a portion and volunteer militia in the Toronto brigade district received warning to hold their battalions in readiness to turn out for active service at short notice on account of another of the periodical Her Majesty's regular troops. Robertson Ross sufficient for the emergency. partly from the necessity of raising and the part of the militia organizing a militia force for service in the then Northwest battalions of Territories. The all necessary reserve of arms and stores should be at times staff available.000 91 month of April. events of great importance of the cavalry school. and involving considerable action on and the department.

should be likewise to support those on duty on the Missisquoi. That such portions of militia way to. The gunboats "Rescue" and "Prince Alfred. 5. Brydges.000 Lieut. -general commanding Osborne Smith." however. Lieut. in consequence of additional it the information received by Government. 40 strong. real. 4. —That the the above force should remain on duty it being considered by that time unnecessary to retain the whole of the force then em- On the 21st April. 5 (an officer well acquainted with the roads and localities on the frontier of his district. ordered from Montreal to the front. subject to such orders as he might receive from time to time. if required. and all on their — might be required. ready. two companies infantry (100 men). armed. and 64th. of the 7th Champlain. command in chief of the All these recommendations were duly approved of by an Order in Council.-Col. their respective posts. and bodied. number- On the 12th April. when they were also withdrawn. —That the Montreal Troop of Cavalry. 52nd. although at of such. or for such other Col. a force in of fence.000 of the active militia were held there in reserve. 51st. assumed the immediate command of the on duty. 1.-Col. dated 20th April. and that to ensure unity of command. 3rd. a force of militia. St. J. deputy adjutant-general commanding Military District No. Clair frontier. —That the Cookshire Troop of Cavalry. dated 9th April. regular troops. and 30 troopers. to be employed on patrol and outpost duty along the frontier. On May 24th. and that the gunboat "Prince Goderich." then lying at ingdon and Hemmingford frontiers." then lying manned. — — On the 11th of April. and who remained at their posts until the 29th April. Martine Company. desirable to call out an additional force of 5. for the protection of the St. except that a proportion of the Grand Trunk Brigade was judiciously disposed at certain vulnerable points its placed on active service for the protection of the along the line of the Grand Trunk Railway. to be taken chiefly from military districts Nos. and placed on on the river frontier for patrol service short space of time. Including all communication 7th. 55 strong. various pickets. were still kept on their respective stations. Shanly.637 officers Huntand at Quebec placed on service and ordered to Sarnia for the protection of the St. by Beauharnois Canal. Clair frontier. for outpost and patrol duty east of Lake ing 3 officers and the St. the force at Sarnia being vmder the com- mand of Lieut.-Col. and the Leamington independent company of infantry. upwards of 2. until alarm had subsided. of the at London field battery. should be directed to proceed at once to Hemmingford. orders were transmitted for the from duty of all. arrangements should be enable the lieut. acting also as supports of and posts line of commandant. Lambert and Stanbridge. together with the St. -general made to release commanding Her Majesty's regular troops to assume the militia so called out. Alfred. with the exception of the 50th. as their headquarters. all the active 4th. military district No. number- and 45 troopers should be sent by rail (the roads at that time being in very bad condition) via Sherbrooke. make the necessary military 2nd. That the above force should be placed under immediate command of the deputy adjutantgeneral commanding. C. About the middle of May rumours of Fenian invasion from the United States again became current. and ready. 8th. 1870. (the 64th) as were then equipped having their headquarters at Beauharnois. 60th. and to dispositions. the Windsor company of 55 strong. be of active The remainder of the force called out at this time was concentrated at Montreal and Quebec. in Montreal. That in the event of the regular troops being 5th. in a very —That the militia gunboat "Rescue. and that battalion. it first many disbelieved in the probability tary soon became evident from the active miliproceedings adopted by the Fenians in con- centrating force in his district. Windsor under Major Walker. with the Huntingdon de- the troops on the St. and within forty-eight hours after the receipt of the order very many were assembled at. proceeding to post the 92 that mischief arms and war material on the frontier was intended. with 35 gunners of the 7th battalion of and drivers). 6.000 was considered men. Rodier's battalion once responded with promptitude and alacrity. should. and from thence march to Frelighsburg. consisting of a demi- battery of field artillery (two guns. of military district No. Thomas troop of cavalry. then being . the one then most threatened). and the two troops of cavalry originally placed on the southern frontier. and men were concentrated. 6 and at 7. 5. To this call the active militia in those districts militia corps there should be held in readiness to turn out for garrison duty service as 6th. men was stationed where required. should be duty at Prescott. By returns received from Mont- at Kingston. was placed on duty at Sarnia. Clair frontier.placed upon frontier dutj' for the military protection of that part of the country. the command the in chief of the militia called out being placed in the hands of the lieut. posted at Windsor. west of the ing 3 officers Richelieu.

eastwards to LawTence River frontier from Cornwall and Vaudreuil. armed with four guns. They also abandoned a small field gun. those in districts 5. which they had fired several times during the evening. M. available to act on its line of communication and cut off its retreat. mony St. the in the meantime invaders were driven out of certain houses on the boundary line. in the act of crossing the line from the State of of Cook's Corners. (the and 37 farmers. but the invaders were instantly met with gallantry and repulsed with loss. fled in all directions. where no regular being Lieut.. throughout the Dominion.celebrated as the anniversary of Her Majesty's day by the inhabitants and mihtia in the large birthcities Four hundred and . commanding Vermont.P. on the same day.m. near Hinchinbrook. and styled as general. including the Welland field battery of artillery. and being already demoralized. a force of 2. likewise called out at Kingston. who. and the 50th (Huntingdon) North-West expedition. and the towns militia of Prescott and Brock- Huntingdon but were instantly engaged and driven back with rapidity across the lines by one As the Dominion the gunboat "Rescue. to be at the disposal of the the Dominion militia officers who held deputy adjutant-general of militia of military district No. and not available to Battalion of active militia. dated 24th May. wounded. the leading man was immediately shot dead. the command in chief of On exposed points of hood. seeking shelter in the by Lieutenant-Colonel throwing away their arms and ammunition. was also employed with part of the Quebec garrison. of the Canadian militia. a force of 1. boat "Prince Alfred" on this line of frontier. the necessary orders were issued. that vessel (which. and a demi-battery of field artillery from London. across the frontier. at a place called Eccles hi A sufficient number of the active militia was called out in the districts threatened. who commanded troops were at hand.230 officers and men with its New York. was likewise provided a field for by the militia alone. the necessary protection was at once furnished by the men of the militia. resident in the neighboronly officers on the ground at the moment the frontier. or Trout River. a very interesting ceretook place in the large reception-room of the the insignia of Lawrence Hall. by virtue of men of the 60th (or Missisquoi an Order in Council. At 6 p. with great rapidity. brook's. Sarnia was occupied by 322 infantry and Captain Bockus of the same corps). by a small force consisting of forty Battalion). -Col. when an investiture of Companion of the Order of St. 4 (who was charged with the command there). and which subsequently fell into the hands of the Canadians. another body from the 8tate of Durie. Donnelly. and if such force had landed. military district No. the British troops. apparently about 200 numljer. at Hol- battery of four guns occupying Cornwall. (General Lindsay). and patrols of cavalry or mounted riflemen established in the vicinity of each The co-operation of the militia gunof these places. On the St. -Col. 6 and 7 being brigaded with the regular troops under the immediate orders of the Lieut. in 5. -Col. commanding the militia. in which they had taken refuge after their repulse in the morning.. then forming usual station was at Kingston. in arms. again assumed the militia forces so called out. on the line of canal. commands on the Quebec frontier during October 20. had been altered and converted into an effective fighting craft. she was despatched to Prescott. authority Although official recognition of the services of rank and file who participated in the repulse of raiders was decidedly tardy. On the advance of the enemy. deputy adjutant general. at Brockville. co-operate in the defence of this portion of the river was obtained to hire.seventy officers and men were Hill. The defence Brockville of the St. the service medal being issued until 1900. Osborne Smith having arrived with reinforcements. the fact of the presence of the invaders at different points on the frontier becoming actually known. with four guns. ready to intercept the landing of any hostile force. the British government not lose much time in marking its appreciation of services of the the not did the sequently to Cornwall. 1870. Lieut. Windsor by 234 infantry. with a small detachment of militia artillery. Osborne Smith. the 60th Battalion. during the winter months. Montreal. and subfrontier. could not upon the occasion of this second alarm be obtained. Michael .-General on the Missisquoi frontier. On the Niagara frontier.159 men." whose company of Her Majesty's 69th regiment. The men had been previously judiciously posted by Lieut. the deputy adjutant-general of militia. ville. and fitted with iron shutters to protect the gunners from rifle fire). Chamberlain. Clair frontier. again crossed the border frontier. 2. a small steam vessel. 03 responsible the raids. was judiciously posted and the rest speedily retired in disorder. On May advance 25th. and after placing on board one six-pounder gun. and having one of their leaders. On the 27th May. being employed at the moment in connection with the Red River expedition. and several others wounded (some of whom were subsequently reported dead). in military district No. called neighboring woods. the first attempt during the year 1870 to invade the territory of the Dominion was made.

Alberta and the Northwest Territories. "Lord Kimberly. Sir George E. certain considerations. A.L. Col. Saskatchewan. Lord Lisgar. His Excellency delivered a speech in which he remarked that the Imperial government had marked the public spirit commanding 50th Huntingdon Borderers. that the conferring of the powerful force placed in the field to resist the Fenian raiders. George was held by His Excellency the GovernThis was Eachran. the first occas. March its 1869. Fletcher accompanied the troops when advancing to attack.on on which the decorations of the then new order had been offered to any in the British colonies. whom I efficiencj^ of the newly department that. displayed by the Canadians. and be received with the utmost gratitude in all quarters as a gracious boon on the part of Her Majesty. Michael and St. and McEachran." It whether there were any command the colonial forces who were actually engaged in the recent repulse of the Fenians on the frontier. on the understanding that the territory was to be transferred to the Dominion. William Osborne Smith. was present there in command on the afternoon of the same day when skirmishing took place. or the Hudson Bay Territory. or-General. or Manitoba. submitting the of His Excellency's subsequent remarks are historically interesting as indicating the routine followed in pro- curing these honors for the gentlemen concerned. Brown Chamberlin. Before handing over the insignia of the Order.-Col. the rewards upon them would have an excellent effect throughout the Dominion. feeling assured as 1 did. and in accordance with their views. and though not in command.. -general in command. George. His Excellency said : — pleased to direct that the decoration should be offered " I was officers particularly in asked of to them. Louis Riel and his followers were running things with a high hand in Fort Garry or Wiimipeg. commanded his own corps when it drove the Fenians across the border at Trout River. deputy adjutant-general of militia. Accordingly I communicated with the lieut. the intervention of the British Government. both in connection with the successful resistance of the Fenian raids and with the suppression of the half-breed uprising in the Red River Valley.-Col. Of course. acknow- my despatch. M. arranged the defence of Eccles Hill. and provided for the defence of that post on the 25th May.-Cols. 5th district. Lieut. commanding 60th Missisquoi battalion of militia. and attacked the position named on the forenoon of the 25th of May. Fletcher.the recipients being Lieut.-Col.-Col. Lieut. while arrangements were being made for the mobilization and equipment speaks volumes for the created militia would recommend on that account for the honor of a Companionship of the Order of St.C. and as specifying the exact services for which the honours and strongly recommending for the distinction named. animate and encourage the volunteer militia. Mcthe Fenians across the border. and for company. Cartier. and Her Majesty was graciously names them of the four officers.. Fletcher. who commanded on the Missisquoi frontier. A delay in the issue of the proclamation announcing the transfer 69th regiment. Osbo'rne Smith. they had resolved to confer the order on any Canadian militia officer who might be deserving it. commanded on the Huntingdon frontier until the arrival of Lieut. U. and drove the Fenians back when they crossed the frontier. the officer commanding that regiment assumed the command of the field force. and I stated that there were gentlemen whose names I should be happy to have the opportunity for submitting for consideration under the circumstances. 94 was productive of much trouble. In reply. I recommended for the distuiction in question the names gentlemen following: Lieut. were conferred. brigade major of St. this year by the new militia department and staff was extremely creditable. the Hon. and the Honorable the Minister of Militia. From 1670 prises until 1869 the Hudson of Bay Company comto the — asserted jurisdiction over the vast region which the provinces Manitoba. who had ledged the receipt of in the meantime suc- ceeded Lord Granville at the Colonial Office.A. Lord Kimberly stated that he had much pleasure in submitting the names of the four gentlemen to the Queen for the Royal approval. and before any communication from him could reach Her Majesty's ministers. Bagot. was in command on the of department had the great advantage of the cheerful assistance of the staff and the departmental organizations of the British regular troops still remaining in Canada. was present with the advanced guard when it drove Lieut. and the imperial magazines were drawn upon Still the work accomplished to a considerable extent. when Col. -Colonel John Fletcher. the Thanks 9. The first attempt to raise a Canadian militia force in Manitoba was during the stirring winter of 1869-70. relinquished its charter and authority over the frontier previous to the arrival of Her Majesty's whole region of Rupert's Land. The Honourable William MacDougall. commanded at Eccles Hill. plans were progressing concurrently for the raising of a force to restore order in the new Red River Province. James Lindsay.and St. John's militia brigade Huntingdon district. the Lieutenant-Governor .

who was one com- setting forth the condition of affairs in the colony selection. supplies and ammunition.. authority. issued a commission to Lieut. a Hudson Bay post twenty effect miles down in the river towards Lake Winnipeg. Mr. Colonel Dennis sent all of the Indians whom home except the chief and 50 men. he could not keep himself informed of the course of events. after of the staff of his surveying party. man The to command men select have a military school each one of the companies. disarm or disperse the said armed men. While Colonel Dennis requisitioned and purchased arms. and had figured prominently in the operations in the Niagara Peninsula in connection with the Fenian raid of 1866-67. for the time to assault. apart altogether from its doubtful On some the first of December.selves. In 184f) a body of . The unlawfully a!5. issued a proclamation means for giving it effect were decidedly meagre. when colonel ([uartered in the older provinces. appointing him to be his " Lieutenant and Conservator of the Peace. Macdougall. Boulton. had armed his men with the weapons left in Fort Garry by the last detachment of British troops who had been in the countr}. the Dominion. and even loyal Canadians residing in Manitoba doubted whether they had any legal right to offer armed assistance to As a matter the men who had assumed the authority. Mr. 100th Regiment. who had charge of one of the Dominion Government survey parties which had started to survey the country virtue of the in anticipation of its regular transfer to reinforcement from Chief Prince's band of christianized Indians of some 70 to 100 men. C. including detachments of the Royal Engineers. A guard for the fort volunteered for the night from those present. a had been connected with the old Upper Canada militia. In IS. he was at Winnipeg. an upper part of one of and they were given an The same day Macdougall. consisting of one hundred officers ami men of the De Meuroti and Watteville rcKimeiits. Dennis explained that he propo.sed to organize a full battalion of infantry throughout the colony.designate. across the international frontier at Pembina. in as he issued this proclamation. he commissioned Major Boulton to visit the various parishes.1.i8. and more subordinate to let the the enrolling of the companies. or Lower Fort Garry. he intended from among them. was making his residence. appoint the officers 95 . John Stoughton Dennis. Webb. supervise other. and Dennis also reported having called in Messrs. F. purchase. impress and take all necessary clothing. arrest. fire upon. stronghold or other place in which being forbidden by Riel's government to enter the country. of fact the Hudson Bay Company remained the only armed men may be found. 100 of the Royal Canadian Rifles were sent round to Fort Garry via Hudson Bay. Macdougall. arms.'ST. and to give them such orders and instructions from time to time. and all cattle. On December 1st. with Major C." Colonel Dennis. as second in H. Crofton.said being. horses. to hire. crossed the frontier and. Col. and knowing the first of December had originally been decided upon as the date for the transfer of the country from the Hudson Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada. he to have the immediate command. Reporting that night to Mr. but. being out of direct communication British territory. equip and provision a sufficient' force within the said Territories and with the said force to attack. considering services in that to . as may be found necessary." etc. arm. being relievetl in 1848 by a force of 56 men despatched by the same route. with their surveying empower you as such to raise. Lord Selkirk led a military expedition to Manitoba via the Great Lakes. in assuming the and authority of lieutenant-governor in virtue of a commission issued to him at Ottawa.E. C.M. and on the 2nd he reached the Stone Fort. ammunition and supplies. former issued to officer of The commission explaining his Colonel Dennis. house.. proceeded: —"I and mand. wagons. organize. pull down or break into any . expected to and (I) for that purpose. W. he retained to serve as a permanent guard for it the fort. and I hereby authorize you. but unfortunately. do hereby Hart. to assist in organizing the forces. Meantime Riel constituted authority in the colony. Royah Artillery anfl (ith Foot was sent from England to Fort Garry via Hudson Bay. in and for the Northwest Territories. sleighs or other vehicles which may be required for the use of the force to be raised as aforesaid. hour's drill. -Col. As a matter of fact the date for this event had been postponed. In 1817 and with the force aforesaid. with of those of his party. and I further authorize you to appoint as many officers and deputies under you. two auxiliary Swiss corps (lisbanded in Canada after the war of 1812.sembled. etc. a large By eight o'clock that evening there were 70 young men assembled the room in with Ottawa. fort. This was surely a comprehensive enough commission.safer to avail himself of their way rather than to have them exposed any actual fighting. most of the surveyors having been through the military schools which had been conducted by the imperial troops. and disturbing the public peace. The expected proclamation by the Queen announcing the transfer of Rupert's Land to the Dominion of Canada had not been received. so authorize and parties. oflScers.i persons under command of Colonel . the duties Colonel Dennis lost no time in proceeding to give to his orders.E. Riel having the chief supply of arms and ammunition in the country under his hands.(1).. which was increased by a assumed authority conferred by his own commission. as such Lieutenant and Conservator of the Peace. buildings of the fort.

I now call and order the loyal party in the Northwest Territories to cease from further action imder the appeal to arms made by me. Major Boulton and down the party in arms. the first militia enrolled in what is now the Province of Manitoba. Winnipeg to leave the town and establish themselves at Kildonan school-house. would. etc. Schultz and his tion drawn and use into the conflict. in a in his sympathizers. There was a very general response former officials of the colony to continue to discharge as previous to the 1st to the call. fested a disposition to take possession of these valuable stores. Schultz (afterwards Sir John) was the leading spirit in the colony in opposition to the Riel movement" and in his warehouse was stored a large quantity of Canadian government provisions brought from the east to supply the various survey parties and the workmen on the government roads. told the men off into guards. December 4th. Dennis taking to abandon the premises and stores and withdraw to the Scotch church. was not to be hastily risked. but the territory itself. relieve the situation from much embarrassment and so contribute to bring about peace and save the country from what will otherwise end in universal ruin and devastation. and. of the force Dennis feared that the presence on Dr. under Canadian authority. Among the white population were many loyal British subjects who rightly doubted the legality of the position of either Mr. many of them but recently in contact with the white inhabitants of the neighboring states. While matters were in this condition things came to a crisis in Winnipeg. Hon. without imnccessary delay. Dennis reiterated his orders to the "enrolled Canadians" in were the Indians. The same night orders arrived from Lieut . Macdougall a proclamation directing the and council cannot disguise from you the weight of . 9th. This force had but a chequered and brief career. without warrant or instructions." In short. made prisoners is a matter of circumstances. Colonel Dennis received from Mr. — — — the misguided people now in arms. the average number a days' service performed by those enrolled being four. and feeling that to abandon for the present the call on the loyal to arms. even under the sanction of law. of such a force But as the organizaby you was. Schultz's premises. while to protect them the enrolled volunteers and others had assembled and established themselves in the warehouse and other buildings in the vicinity. and by Thursday. Stone Fort to consult with Dennis. Secretary of State. Tuesday. under the the men persisted in remaining. went on to "Under the belief that the French party are sincere in their desire for peace. created great consternation. telegraphic tion. and. would provoke a The next day Boulton proceeded to the collision. which. Macdougall. On the evening of the 6th. I am commanded to assure you that the grave occurrences which you report have occasioned here The exertion of military force against great anxiety. it had an opposite effect on the timorous and indifferent. wrote Mr. and meantime he urged caution upon But so much drilling and organizing his subordinates. to Her Majesty. having become convinced that it was useless longer to entertain any expectation of being enabled to get a reliable force with which to put The activity of Colonel Dennis." That was only forty-five years ago. Joseph Howe.-Col. in such close proximity to Riel's headquarters. Macdougall in part: "As it would appear from these documents that you have used the Queen's name without her authority attributed to Her Majesty acts which she has not yet performed and organized an armed force within the territory of the Hudson-Bay Company. considering the fearful consecjuences which might ensue sisting in his orders for the abandonment of the posi- tion in Winnipeg. their several duties instant. Dr. Riel slim community could not go on unnoticed. How Dr. Dennis was anxious to avoid a collision until he had a sufficiently large and well-formed force in hand to guarantee complete success. the latter per- had been postponed until the Hudson Bay Company was prepared to transfer not only its own rights. December 7th. entirely illegal. surrendered and were how they were surrounded. Riel had manigenerous response. for the transfer of authority command. 96 . and in these days of direct rail. Major Boulton arrived. it is almost hard to believe that of and telephonic communicait was December 18th before Mr. governor-general Canadian history. December 4th. Macdougall's report of his doings in the first that month reached Ottawa.and drill them.responsibility you have incurred. Dennis issued a proclamation their officers caused much stir throughout the country. as may be supposed. while this encouraged the French half-breeds and other disaffected. When the it report reached the capital. in view of such communications. Macdougall or Colonel Dermis. party" to confer with Mr. Saturday. after reciting the expressed wish of the "French and particularly in Fort Garry and Winnipeg. and there was an unexpectedly called Nothing succeeds like success. where they were to serve as an outpost and rendezvous for the loyal in case of any demonstration being made by Riel's party on the lower settlement. and I call on the French say: — party to satisfy the people of their sincerity in wishing for a peaceable ending of all these troubles by sending a deputation to the lieutenant-governor at Pembina.

were given by government. of in pay and allowances for the officers should be the same as laid down in paragraph 286 in the "Rules and Regulations for the Active Militia. that the rate of number at of prizes (to be given to those drill. under their own officers. privates.\- way and conand usages of Canada. It was further recommended that the men so selected should be between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years. which was duly approved of by an der-in-Council. enlistment. the other from the Church of Rome. until the militia battalions remaining as a garrison with rank of captain. it was agreed by the Dominion government to raise and despatch a military contingent. 1870. quartermaster-ser- When Scotia the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Dominion Confederation. 1. Early in the spring of 1870. and it was further by the introduction. the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario. dated 26th August. to sign a service roll and be regularly attested before a magistrate to serve for one conjunction with a portion of year at least. $15 per month. 350. 20. and five at 600 yards. and one more in addition if required by government." with free rations the annual the highest shooting figures of merit). 350. one surgeon. and more than that. one adjutant The expedition reached Fort Garry without mishap on August 24. then observed in the regular army. geant. 1870. and the chain of rivers and lakes so frequently used by the old fur traders. Chap. in month. Militia These two battalions were raised under the Dominion Act. to the Fort Garry. $12 per month. The amounts published these prizes. for Fort Garry. dated 16th April. 15 rounds per man in all and with view to the encouragement of this most important part of military training. the first battalion of which corps formed part of the expedition. and each company of fifty non-commissioned officers and men. according to the strength of the active militia in the seven military districts forming system of target practice by companies in succession. in commissioned officers and men. In May 20th. Voyageurs. Or- and adopted. under supervision. A near the expiration of their term of couple of small companies. on the system. During 1870 an important step forward was taken the training of the active force. non- command of Major Irvine. 1st Ontario Battalion be designated respectively the 1st or Active Militia. $18 per month. accordance with instructions received. October 5th. $13 Each nonper month. 1870. 330. for the first time. of good character. $18 per month. 10. one from in the each battalion. a certain . five at 400. The staff of each battalion consisted of one lieut. -colonel. $18 per month. at the annual drill. of a regular recommended that two chaplains should be appointed to accompany this force. and as the service upon which they were about to be employed required more than ordinary strength and power of endurance. Colonel Robertson Ross. in addition to his pay. 4 seven-pounders. five rounds at 200. (Rifles). In that report it was recommended that the Dominion contingent should consist of two battalions of riflemen. sergeants. one lieutenant and one ensign to each company. and left there Her Majesty's regular troops. one quartermaster-sergeant. Departvia the lakes. one armoury sergeant and one paymaster's clerk. $20 per and men ^as follows: month. 31 Vic. each corps to consist of seven companies. the regular troops returned from Fort Garry. 40. if possible drawn in equal proportions. armed and drilled before the Canadian government had the least authority in the colony. and the officers pay of the General Orders. or encamped. 350 men. a strict medical examination was necessary. who obtained. each man firing. thus making the strength of each battalion 375. 1870. submitted a scheme of organization for the Dominion force required (750 men). the men l)eing required. hospital sergeant. color sergeant." wore a uniform in all essential respects similar to that of the 60th Royal Rifles. corporals and buglers. Royal Artillery. armour sergeant. 60th Rifles. as far as circumstances would admit. The force was mobilized at Toronto. staff sergeants. $18 per schools of military instruction in connection with the . to Landing (Port Arthur). were then re-enlisted for service province. became part of the $20 per month. Prince Arthur's the Kaministiqua River — mental (Rifles). The detail was as follows: Seven companies of the 1st Battalion. one from the Church of England. one hospital sergeant. including officers. free rations and lodgings. 20 men. having one captain. the two battalions of was raised in an absolutely irregular trary to the laws Canadian militia which formed part of Colonel Garnet Wolseley's historic expedition of 1870. 2nd Quebec Battalion Ontario Battalion of Rifles and the 2nd or Quebec Battalion. raised. Royal Engineers. one major. There was no doubt as to the legal status or the practical efficiency of the next Canadian militia units seen in the Red River Valley. commissioned officer and man receiving. and being "Rifles. moreover. It was recommended that the officers and men for these battalions should be allowed to volunteer from existing corps of active militia. with other details were when on the march non-commissioned Sergeant-major. and left at Fort Garrj^ under one sergeant-major. one paymaster. Corps Details. the adjutant-general of militia. paymaster's clerk.280 miles distant.

of the Royal Army Clothing Factory at Pimlico. In Nova Scotia the attendance 1869. under contracts for delivery." more in accordance with the requirements of modern warfare.B. and instruction moreover of both field and garrison batteries.000 to 45. and to supply the arms. Capitation grants of five dollars to each effective decisions for the supply of articles required for Canada. in view of the fact that army many of these "camps of exercise. (hitherto the similarity in colour of clothing would. The better inspection. the commandant. eight first. on the 20th January and 1st of February. and Hahfax. or imder the orders of the inspector of artillery and warlike stores. and other information relating to the several descriptions of Act should apply to Manitoba at once. while giving confidence to the latter. in all its details. John. Statutes of No. the other at Quebec. Among the most prominent of the measures adopted. in cases of invasion. John. During 1870 the question of uniforms for the militia was carefully gone into. by nearly the whole of the infantry. on concert with the actual service. The inauguration of a uniform and systematic mode of carrying out the annual drill of the active militia in was was adopted. by material being procured and made up system then prevailing at Pimlico. three of whom received first the assent April 14. as required from time to time. At St. then deputy adjutant-general of militia at headquarters.$500 army clothing then in use in in England. with blue facings. 2nd. 4th. in cases of practised mostly in infantry exercises). qualified in the annual class firing was manufactured directly Canada. calculated to increase the efficiency of the active militia. decisions as to durability of materials taken into wear by the army from year — (Col. of such officers and men of artillery corps.-Colonel Walker Powell. and placed in every district imder the command of those officers appointed for the purpose. blue with buff facings. 4th Battalion. paid and supplied as if regiments of Her Majesty's regular army were stationed in the country. all of which proved of much value to making of not less than 30 members raised. and received This provided that the Militia certificates. many measures were introduced. 3rd. and the total of strength the active militia was increased from 40. may be mentioned: 1st. for artillery. firing creditably at target practice the annual allowance green. was despatched to England for an examination. volunteer and of ten dollais to each and enabled him form an opinion for future reference. cloth army and shell. The performance.000 men. either by contract. the consideration that uniformity with that worn by regiments of Her Majesty's regular imjxjrtant.. while at the same time the government in Canada. a considerable saving was effected by procuring the supplies for the militia from manufacturers who were under contract with the Imperial government. N.. or During the year 1871. The establishment of two schools of artillery. and. Each province was to be created a separate military district. and eighty second class certificates having been granted regular of perience Canada had the advantage accruing from the exof the Royal Army Clothing Factory in to year. blue. by the commandant. and that they would. affording means for the complete training in artillery exercises. respectively. of shot as were attached thereto. prevent any undue advantage the annual training went through a short course of instruction in " being taken as against the militia. during the year 1870 was moderately fair. for cavalry. An amendment Chapter xvii) to the Militia Act (34 Victoria. N. and as cloth such as that required was only made in England. of a prescribed course . 117 of the Revised the a 1871 authorized enrollment of volunteer corps. and thus. the great majority of the troops assembled at these camps being concentrated with rapidity.army were established at St. one at Kingston. a list of the prices at which materials were being supplied to the Imperial government. and according to the It may of clothing to be worn by the active militia of Canada Dominion. were granted class certificates. The colours then adopted were scarlet. At the time the Pacific Province entered Confed- eration the militia organization of British Columbia was very simple and crude. at the time of attack by an enemy. and to British Columbia whenever that colony should become part of the Dominion of Canada. with scarlet facings. towards the cost of establishment. 60th Rifles. was effected by. be well to state that when the description and the military organization of the under supervision of the government. for infantry. Powell's Report). with scarlet facings. sixty cadets was passed during 1871.B. at the annual training. N. rifle gun drill " at various forts and batteries. with very high recommendations from Colonel Hawley. the colony to for each corps make grant of . for rifles. as to whether cloth and clothing of the descriptions required for the militia could be satisfactorily in "marksman" provided for. Many batteries of garrison artillery. under the command of specially trained officers of the Royal Artillery. and Lieut . or other necessity. act in militia. and as similar cloth and these colours could not at the time be satisfactorily manufactured it was found that the manufacture of and army clothing were special branches. from which depot he obtained patterns of cloth and clothing.S..

The Act. was undertalien this year. in Manitoba. November 6.-Col. three weeks from it During its first mobilization was placed temporarily under command of the D. the Militia Act was extended to Prince Edward Island. conveyed them back to United States territory. but Lieut. June. Chap. marched Chapter 36. as the passed. 24 Victoria. assumed the responsibility of selecting and despatching the Wimbledon each year. An amending act.). rison of Halifax. the adjutant-general received instruc- by an Order-in-Council to organize and desroute. Chapter 36. Major Irvine. battalion and company the districts created. the Hon. Alex. but a force of the 20th U. a finally assented to bill presented and 26. then just admitted to Confederation. to provided for the in The first Canadian in team to participate in establishment of volunteer companies connection matches partment. of the National Rifle Association went to with militia battalions be trained 20 days 14 Victoria. half in Ontario. an old colonial statute 20 George III.-Col. Chap.-Col. Colonel Robertson Ross made a reconnais- regulations. S. The Act 3 William IV. Royal Northwest Mounted Police. passed at the same session. but it A military expedition to Manitoba. Paul. 6. 10. minister of militia.A. to assist Her its connection with the national defensive force Majesty's subjects resident in that province. bill which. three troops or divisions were organized from drafts from the east. the issuing of orders to mobilize the force.G. 584 government money prizes. arrived out the militia in anticipation of riots without waiting for rioting to occur. taking the leaders prisoners. as the Act 36 Victoria. Prince Edward Island has had a legally established militia since 1780. 11. 3. Thomas Scott. Lieut. the last Imperial regular corps in garrison at Quebec. for Chapter provided the organization of the number of men available for the defence of the country. Wm. was the first permanent commissioner. shewing a large increase in the parliament a 35. In the autunm of 1873. marched towards the threatened point.A. Infantry. W. 46. three new divisions tion. with the Snider rifle. Osborne Smith. October 20. being awarded to the successful corncompetitors. hardships greater even than those met by Wolseley's expedition the year previous had to be surmounted. under revised In 1872. the Hon.-Col. Macdonald. R. with a force of some 200 men. 1874. G. introduced into the House of for Commons of a bill pro- the establishment a military college in "after the model of the one at West Point the United States. May viding 5. destination." The resolutions were adopted with- out amendment. amended the Militia Act to provide that magistrates could call has been very intimate. and and. 30. via Chicago and St. Chap. commanding "A" Battery and school of artillery. A salaried Inspector was provided for out of the'Citadel and embarked on atransport. Mackenzie sucRoss. the Royal Military College at Kingston opened with a class of eighteen cadets. unarmed. October 16. providing that all male persons between 16 and 60 years should bear arms. ceeded as Prime Minister to Sir John A. Sir John A. (now Major-General Sir George French. Chap. year. By the Act 37 Victoria. "B" BatApart from the gartery taking charge of the Citadel. Manitoba was converted into military district No. and regimental. 99 team. passed in 1873. Owing to the late season. the nucleus of first the present permanent force. and placed under command of Lieut. October tions 12. orders were issued providing for organization of "A" and "B" Batteries. 1876. provided that the Militia would only be called out for training or muster except in cases of emergency. crossed the Manitoba frontier near Fort Pembina and seized a Hudson Bay post. Fielden. May Act 37 Victoria. safely at its but November 18. 1871. sance of the great Northwest to report upon the best means of providing for the opening up of that comitry and May 3. the command 275 being held by Lieut. The same date British Columbia was constituted military the district No. Winnipeg being the point of mobilizaDuring the summer of 1874. Meanwhile the Fenians. under Lt. followed the Fenians across the lines. provided for the enroU- . A. a military patch to Fort Garry. II. divided the militia into two classes. the 1st battalion of service units. various units to be called out once a 6. the The Act the of Victoria. including the service companies and some local militia. Wheaton. no British regulars remained rifle in Canada. They were considered rather as schools of artillery than as In November. with appropriate badges. under General O'Neil. A. all above 45 years of age to form the second class or reserve. French. via the expedition consisting of Dawson officers and men.-Col. R. 1873. the 60th Royal Rifles. This force has always been quite distinct from the active militia. Chap. 1872. 1873. 1871. being sent by the Militia DeThe following year the D. 36 Vic.of target practice. who had been identified with the eastern raids in 1866 and 1870. Chap. Macdonald introduced in During the year the second periodical enrolment of the reserve militia was made. were mobilized at Toronto and despatched to Manitoba. The formed part of the expedition were 200 riflemen who recruited half in Quebec. in repelling Fenian invasion.

C.. Hutton.V. D. September 19th. Major-General R. August 11th..B... 1.C.. 2. 7. D. H. C. April 20th. 8. IMajor-General Ivor John Caradoc Herbert. 1902. C..C. 19(MI to July 19.B. 6.G. C. 1899. T. the Earl of Dundonald. A. 3. C. 1902 to June 15th. 5.. July 19th. Major-General the Rt.B. 1884. 11th. Major-General Richard Georjjfe Amherst Luard. July 20th. 1904. 1890. 188'! to June 30th.B. Major-General William Julius Gascoig-ne. 100 . July 12th.M.S. C. 1st. H. November 20th.B. 1898. 1898 to Feb.. Hon.M..GENERAL OFFICERS COMMANDING THE MILITIA OF CANADA Lieut-General Sir Edward Selby-Smyth. Jul}' 1880 to April 30th. 4. K.O. O'Grady Haly. 1895 to June 30th. 1890. 1875 to May 31st.G. Middleton. Lieut-General Sir Frederick D.. 1880.O. C. Major-General E.

assent 8.333 miles across the prairie and "C" at Toronto. 1882. troop of permanent cavalry He will have the rank of majorfor general in the militia. in 1874. cartridge government Quebec. provided for the estab- 60. P. marching . 1883. "B. Major Hebert succumbed to the campaign. the Island Militia into Active and Sedentary. H. John's. "being raised as follows: Selby-Smyth. Chap. Chap. J. "B"at St.W. 1877. In accordance with this Act. Major-General Edward "The Infantry School Corps. new was complicated on accoiuit the non-completion . In 1883. -Col. 29 Victoria. The original cavalry troop (hussars) was raised at Quebec. which the other officers Body Guard. Surgeon-Major J. the Hon. Ottawa. 1883. London. N. shall manent batteries were brigaded to form "The Regiment of Canadian Artillery under command of the inspector of artillery. Captains Mackay. a concession to the respect and veneration held by the Indians for the British troops their forefathers had fought along with in the olden days. struction at the new connected with were held in 1884 and 1886. and an "Engineer Branch" June. A grant of one pound sterling a year was granted to each uniformed volunteer militiaman. providing that the militia might be called out and paid for duty at the opening and closing of parliament. militia. and orders were at once issued for the calling out of several corps of the active militia.. Aumond. Colonel Walker Powell.) at Duck Lake. 1882. Canadian Artillery. (late Sir A. and first known as " The Cavalry School Corps. had held the "A" Company Que.-Col.) introduced a including "A" and "B" of Batteries and "C" situation Company of 101 the Infantry School Corps. the new minister of militia." Battery." Provision was also at headquarters. comprising the men between the years of of 45 and to drill An toria. commanding companies. and for guarding Act (43 Victoria. attached with authority to the Royal Artillery. forever set at rest ^'ictoria. to Fort Qu'Appelle.A. 1874.P. Kennedy. and the establishment of a military school in connection with each unit. The Active Militia consisted "Volunteer lishment of actually "C" battery. was given Chapter which provided: — "There to the Act 38 Victoria. ' appointment of adjutant-general. be ap- pointed to command an officer holding the rank of General orders of Dec. 7th Fusiliers. P. Governor-General's Foot Guards. charged with the militarj' command and discolonel or superior thereto in cipline of the militia.C. but was 1887 before the battery was although special courses of artillery school init more than 10 days a year. "B" Battery. order of August 10. the Militia Act was amended bj' 40 Victoria. Hebert. the lat- Chapter 11. Macdonald again acceded 1883." who were B. *In July. L. C.C. made an adjutant-general and the first three companies of permanent infantry. organized. 21. A. who since October 1.M. Neilson. and in John A. another During the Soudan campaign of 1884-85 the active was represented in the field by Major (now Colonel) James Frederick Wilson of "A" Battery. Under this act schools of milnot itary instruction were established. Sir to power. factory embodiment The same year the was established at Major Crozier's force of mounted police and Prince Albert volunteers (enlisted as special constables of the N. demi-battery April 29. at Vicit Militia" and "Regular Militia. and F. being appointed adjutant-general. which more clearly defined the responsibility of mimicipalities in regard to the pay of troops on service in aid of the civil power.. at Fredericton. the three per- April 8.. Denison. O. R. word May in 17. for attendance upon the governor-general. was appointed to the command. all question as to the practical Another Act (45 Chapter 10) assented to military utility of the active militia.. organization of the first provided for the Her Majesty's regular army. Lieut. — armouries. all military buildings and was transferred from the public works department. 90th Winnipeg Rifles. provided that the enrollment of the was received of the action between the rebels and active militia should be considered as an the meaning of the Militia Act. 1884.. April 28. The Canadian Voyageurs (378 men) raised for this campaign by the imperial government through the governor-general and his personal staff. In 1885 occurred the Northwest Rebellion." the infantry companies.B. March 27. ter A new Act. 1875. was commanded militia by Lieut. This same year the " Provisional Force " maintained This in Manitoba ever since 1870 was disbanded. Chapter 40. in of artillery 1872 consisted of a and a battalion of rifles (300 officers and men). on one occasion. H. the care of fortifications to the militia established. 1880. force which performed much hard service. J. being borrowed from the active militia as follows: Medical Officer. April 21. F.ment of volunteer corps. In 1873 the dismounted force was transformed from rifles into red-coated infantry. Governor-General's all amendment 2) to the Militia became law. 16 times divided bill consolidating each year. to be mustered 2. Quartermaster and Paymaster. The Caron.and Major P. all the existing Acts affecting the which (May 17) became law as 46 Victoria.

000 men.000 per allowances.R.. providing that in addition to the salary of the general officer commanding the militia. and in January. "An Act respecting the Statutes. During the campaign 251 officers. July 13. Canadian general arrangements have been made for a course of instruction in staff duties to take place under the direction of the Military College.. there were on active service 1. -Col. Cut Knife Hill (May 2) 8 killed. So that the on service included 5. a veteran officer of the Nova Scotia Militia. battery of artillery. came into power. 1897. ($4. Act of 1883. (500 officers and men with one gun. tions. including two machine guns 586 total force two old district staff officers transferred to the Infantry Reserve of officers. being awarded was were the portfolio of Minister of Militia. Chapter 23. R. a great deal of exposure and some long. In January. to) remained in force imtil the passage of the Act at present governing the force. W.). 1899. This Act. General Order of 13th February. J. " their services district being no longer required. was completely suppressed and all the leaders killed or made prisoners by July 2. orders will be issued daily from headquarters on and after Wednesday. the troops having in frightfully cold weather across several unto completed gaps through the bleak. announced that "In order to meet an urgent want and to con- under an order dated September 1887-88. the Honourable Dr.I. Chapter 41.clusive of the Mounted Police. H. and in the latter year the new School of Infantry connected there- with organized. after the defeat of the former Conservative administration at the polls. and now the Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles. Ont. 1898. Three complete staffs had to be extemporized in the field and a fourth at the base. At the session of 1898 a bill was passed. 141 horses and 6 guns were sent from Nova Scotia. C. Copies of the daily orders will be printed and issued bi-weekly." while three old officers purchased during the campaign. 18. During "D" company of the Infantry School Corps was raised at London. there might be paid to that officer $2.000 per annum). Borden. was organized next and terminating on or about 31st May following. The equipment was proved to be defective. In 1886.C." Orders of June. the fighting capacity of the Notwithstanding the vastness of the field of operaIndians and Half- the rebellion Breeds. 1897. Neilson. Major R.). very awkward fighting. In December. Lieut. 445 horses and 2 guns The question In July.C. K. 40 wounded. and three district staff officers were permitted to retire retaining rank. Major-General Sir Fred. Royal commencing 1st February During the latter part of 1885. with some minor amendments incorporated. F. battalion of infantry. Kingston. 10. from Manitoba and the North-West Territories. Cartwright. horses and 9 guns. and the Militia and other independent units. In addition. hard marches.-Colonel D. 11 and 12) 8 killed. Systems of transport and supply had to be organized and many most essential articles of equipment purchased. — artillery. director-general of medical orders: of a staff.G. rocky desert north The campaign was prolific of many of Lake Superior. 1. Chapter 19. later changed to Dragoons. and the field organization about as bad as it could be. Sundays and public holidays excepted. 1899. (now Sir Frederick Borden. who were placed during the campaign under the general officer commanding the militia.A. 100 officers. A. the following appeared in general — "As a preliminar}' step towards the formation staff. provided for the organization of "The Canadian Militia Army Medical Department" 102 . of seven district paymasters and superintendents of stores were cancelled.456 officers and men. 1896. acquitted themof the Militia march couple of ferred and Defence of Canada). and the remoteness of the front from the base.Canadian Pacific Railway. 1899.042 non-commissioned officers and men. 3 commanding were retired with graSeptember the same year the appointments tuities.C. Frenchman's Butte (May 28). there was a consolidation of the Dominion form to the requirements of the military service in the Dominion. was appointed assistant adjutant-general at headquarters. as 61 Victoria. One for each regiment of cavalry and as follows: . with a amendments (which will be presently re- selves well. Quebec and Ontario to the Northwest. L. ex. 14 wounded.Middleton. Macdonald was appointed chief superintendent of stores. but the militia and the Mounted Police who were on duty with them. February 15. 3. The present government. The campaign revealed many glaring defects. the School of Mounted Infantry at Winnipeg.B. annum in lieu of wounded. The militia casualty lists of the actions in participated which the active were as follows: —Fish Creek (April 24) 10 killed. of a reorganization of the staff soon afterwards taken up. Batoche (May 9. assented to June 13.. commandant. 1899. The total strength of the permanent corps was limited to 1. 1898. The waste of time and money was very extensive.563 rank and file. 46 wounded. the position of deputy-assistant adjutant-general at headquarters was abolished. February.M. was drafted as a new Act (49 Victoria. and Surgeon Lieut. R. 4 Edward VII.

2. No. thus relieving the service in the field the regular regiment at the time in garrison. 1902. 62 officers 103 .R. and the recognition of the colonial militia militias as part and parcel of the armed forces of the empire. and many corps maintained bearer sections. 1900. January and February. South African Constabulary. 275 officers and men. were as follows: the Royal Regiment of Canadian Infantry.C. — "63-64 Victoria. may be higher in appointed. an Act of some importance affecting the militia: Canadian militiamen during cam- paigns in the Free State and Transvaal. under command of Colonel Lord Aylmer. 1900. Company. but not any case than that of major-general. In 1797. On the return of the 79. 1. Strathcona's Horse.. on account ticipation the par- Canadian contingents. Brigade Division of Royal Canadian Artillery. Even before the passing of this Act. March 1901. a strong detachment of the active militia. 1900. May 8th to 2. Each unit was allowed a surgeon. of The South African war. no less than 310 officers and men remained in South Africa. 539 officers and men. died from disease or accidentally killed. 1900. Previously the honorary rank of lieutenant-colonel was the highest which could be granted under such circumstances. officers of is called out for active service in the rank superior to that of colonel. 65. October 30. 539 officers and men This makes a grand each. and the larger ones assistant surgeons. adjutantgeneral. 1.including Militia Army Medical Staff Service and Regimental Medical Service. draft to replace casualties in the 2nd Battalion R. and men.349 officers and men. which performed garrison duty at Halifax. The amendment left originally provided for This Act amended. the Dominion Government raised and equipped the 3rd (Special Service) Battalion of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Infantry. 1900. draft to reinforce Strathcona's Horse. 1900. May 1. marks an therein of the epoch the in the history of the militia. 901 officers and men. 2nd Regiment 29." instead of deputy adjutants-general. 2nd Battalion Canadian Mounted (subsequently designated "The Canadian Rifles Mounted Rifles"). Canadian Mounted Rifles. February 21st. January. wounded. missing.. with permission to join vari: — ous military bodies. to reference the distinguished services Space forbids any rendered by the trying The casualties among the Canadian contingents in South Africa were as follows Killed or died of wounds. 103 officers and men. To this date there had been no organized medical service except a provisional one organized during the Northwest Rebellion. March 16. N. designated the Royal Canadian Dragoons). total of 7. providing for the granting of the honorary rank of colonel to officers placed upon the retired list.200 officers and men.I. 197. 51 officers and men. In 1900. 1900. 1902. the officers commanding districts had been designated as " District Officers Commanding. Militia The strength of the various Canadian contingents end the Chapter 18: Act was passed.039 officers — of the Act which deputy adjutants-general being appointed to command districts.Section 41 and men.3rd. 548 officers and men. the military spirit aroused in the Dominion. Section 45 was also amended. January 28th. January 27. 1902. An Act to Am- despatched to South Africa with the dates of their sail2nd (Special Service) Battalion of ing. various contingents. 1st Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles (from August 1. 1899. 10 Field Hospital the designation or name of office of district command- ing officers in the hands of the government. 5th and 6th Regiments Canadian Mounted Rifles. 4th. 375 officers and men. March 16.S. was sent celebration of the to London to assist in the official Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. 3rd. Section 47 was also amended to provide that when ever the militia field. In addition.

few months of the present century saw arrangements made by the Militia Department for the establishment in Canada of the first headquarters. ^""^ISi^iS^SiF^ CHAPTER The Canadian izations IX RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Militia Becomes an Effective Army. About that time Sir Charles Ross happened ham 104 . and Paymaster and Honorary Major J. V. Union THE beginning of the twentieth century found the full 1901. -Colonel to corps. an assistant adjutant-general.=iSJ:) -. vacated his appointment April 30. The Minister of Militia was in England in 1900.O. and went to the Birmingham small arms people and tried to induce that company to come to Canada. A school of musketry.A. to come out here and start a factory. to purchase rifles through the imperial govern- was appointed to the vacancy.s. D.E. July 1. Canadian Army Service Corps. attached manufactory for to the quartermaster-general's department.G.-Col. Cartwright. was of established. was appointed deputy adjutant-general vice Cartwright. when the Dominion gov^ernment wanted ment. Lieut. precisely the same rifle if in Canada as is used by the British army. or any other small-arms manufacturers in Engand. with the rank of major. Lieut.C. W. Ross Rifle Company at Quebec. the production of military small arms. and in May. if possible. was found impossible to prevail upon the BirmingSmall Arms Company. Foster. to make as soon as possible some arrangement by which rifles could be manufactured in Canada. Major Biggar was. Vidal.y ^llii^. promoted Lieut.=:-syii erj. was gazetted to be deputy assistant adjutant-general for Borden thought that it was the duty government. H. was appointed assistant first and during the year 1901 there were several new appointments at headquarters created.. R. He quite recognized Sir Frederick and of the the desirability of having.. R.A. R. In July. In the year 1900. in Noveml^er. having accepted employment in the intelligence department at the War Office. Jack Flying in North —Canada Assumes the Whole Responsibility of Keeping America. quartermaster-general. The Rutherford. he realized would be better that been in the meantime made for the organization of the they should have the same It rifles as the imperial troops.G.-Col. Departmental Organthe AND Arsenals. H.y >^K5is^.jy=i«^.G. pro- R.st British Regulars. February 6. imder the command of the inspector of musketry. Cotton.C. the works of the Colonel W. B. R. B. under the circumstances. — Departure of the La. L.C. Rivers. 8.vj ^j^^^'g^m^m^^mmm^^f v/)=^-7 c^j.A. with the command the appointment of assistant quartermaster- general at headquarters. A. with the status it was impossible to secure a thousand rifles in Great Britain during the time of the South African war. was appointed intelligence officer at adjutant-general for artillery at headquarters. Col. With its Own Staff. A. Provision having called out for war. The same month Lieut. W. army service corps duties at head- because the militia of this country should ever be it quarters. district No. Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel reorganization of the militia staff in gress.. Biggar.-Col..A. for artillery. from the 15th Regiment. was appointed inspector of musketry. H.

After the reception of this report the minister had no hesitation about entering into a contract for the purto various tests chase of sufficient Ro. the intelligence for. map guiding for and intelligence.R. thing to recommend. first He had not then come to Canada for the the Army Service Corps (British) was appointed time. was increased. tenant-Colonel B. C. the formation militia. the council of the D. Sir Frederick Borden appointed a committee composed of Genercl Otter. from the reserve of July. military intelligence and military of provided (1) April 22. Major G. To be Corps. M. rifles similar to what are being manufactured in Quebec now. 1903. clothing. and on the part of the government to accept. -Colonel Henry Smith was ap- pointed military secretary at headquarters. Canadian Engineer 1st July. provided for the organization of the Signalling Corps.000. the formation of the Ordnance Stores Corps was provided for in orders. for many year. and hold periodical Corps of Guides. reading. In February. the rifles company agreeing erected in Canada. shall issue general orders. had spent a great deal of money there in developing water-powers and establishing electrical works. Anderson. the output of which was under a million rounds of cartridges a year. 1903.ss rifles to re-arm the militia. Fiset. care and issue of arms. of the Marine Department. He explained to the minister that he had a rifle factory in the United States. it was decided to transfer the custody.. the capacity of the Dominion arsenal at Quebec. another veteran rifle shot. and the authorized establishment of warrant officers. Maunsell. The organization of the military staff at headcjuarters up to that date was outlined in a minute of Council dated October 29. from the civil to the military branch thereof. 1903. 1903. scouting. October 23.. was of director-general of secretary.000 or 12. sketching.S. 1st To be list. And With a view to placing the administration of the Department of Militia and Defence upon a more satisfactory and systematic basis. but had been hving in British Columbia. A. assistant director-general of ordnance: LieuJ. He shall shall be the principal all the reconnaissance. so that it has an output of 10. 1903. He said that he would be willing to establish a factory to manufacture rifles for Canada with the same bore and to use the same cartridge as the Lee-Enfield It seemed to Sir Frederick that it was a patriotic rifle. hence the organization of the "Ordnance Stores Corps.000 a month. a unit to be specially trained duties of inspections of the militia. and Major Gaudet. and the following staff appointments gazetted: To be director-general of ordnance: Colonel Donald A. A. Commissions in the Ordnance Stores Corps were granted to oflicers serving in the Military Stores Branch of the Department of Militia and Defence. Gibson. and who had served with great distinction in various responsible staff appoint- ments during the South African war. About the same time. mider the same conditions as to qualifications and length of service as applied to the other units of the permanent force." which was forriied from the officers and men previously employed in the Military Stores Branch of the Department of Militia and Defence. Canadian Engineer Corps. an other e. subjected and reported favourably upon it.A. Major W. Major and Lieutenant-Colonel E. equipment and military stores of all descriptions. and was selling sporting rifles. of Toronto.xpert mark. an abstract: The general the military officer commanding shall be charged of with command and discipline the By of the in general order 61 of April.sman Col. Macdonald. The year 1903 was a particularly important one in the development of the headquarters staff. officer each district. 1st Hamilton. and director of intelligence at headcjuarters.000 and its capacity is very considerably above that quantity. officers. Lieut. tenant-colonel Weatherbe. this opportunity to secure a factory which would turn out rifles for Canada. Col. which was promulgated as General Order 159.. Donaldson. Lieut-Col. non-commissioned officers aiid men was recruited from the former employees of that branch. and be charged with the with a director of intelligence at headquarters and a district control of the branches of the adjutant-general. 1903. superintendent of the Dominion arsenal.O.S. or 2. Of this order the following " is 1. As to the rifle itself. military adviser of the Minister of Militia and Defence on military questions.000. He was introduced to Sir Frederick liorden and brought other letters from the most reputable men in Canada. engineer. This committee examined the Ross it rifle. to make the at a factory to be so the Ross rifle factory came to be established Quebec with a normal capacity of 1. To be assistant director-general of engineer services: S. Samuel Hughes.to be here. I. Orders of October 24. military 105 He shall be charged with the . (1) . M.000 upon emergency. from the unattached of engineer services: Lieu- 1st July. of October 15. was appointed staff adjutant of medical at services.s president of July. Denny and the general supervision branches. the other Now Fresid^t of the Council of the Dominion Rifle Association.. and a crack shot. P. director-general P.

Colonel Patrick Leonard McDougall (later. Colonel George Futvoyne was Deputy Minister. General Sir P. Colonel B.1. Inspector General. Nov. 1st. Adjutant-General. 1904 o. Colonel Louis Felix Pinault. 1869. when he was appointed to the command. Deputy Minister of Militia. 1898. 1868 to Jan.Hrick Robertson Ross was Adjutant-General of Militia. October ist. in command of the Imperial Forces in North America) 2. 1875 to January ist. L. NoTK. Vidal. 6.M. Nov. Adjutant-General. to April 19th. Major-General Rt. 1875 to 1907. McDoiigall. Deputy Minister of Militia. Feb. Nov. 4th. 4. January ist. 1874 . 106 . 1st. Hon.— Colonel P. when he was appointed Inspector-General. Colonel Walker Powell.!. 1896 to Nov. 1875. Adjutant-General of Canadian Militia. Colonel Charles Eufjene Panet. ist. 7th. ist. May sth. C. 1904 to April ist. 1875. ist. 1898 to December. Adjutant-General. i86<) to Aup. 3. 187. Lord Aylmer.G. 1904 to April ist. i6tli. 22nd. 1896. 1907. 1868 to May 4lh. H. Dec. April 2ist.. May 29th. 1906. and Charles Selby-Smyth from Oct.

etc. new he The quartermaster-general of under the Militia Bill to parliament. The subject was referred to the Defence Committee.. yearly. that the existing "3. who sites for barracks. numerous changes already made or deemed to be necessary in the militia system. was borrowed from the War Office. the British Empire. includes and retains many of its provisions I may say that we have examined. Times have changed since the existing law was enacted Canada has grown and the militia force has grown. with economy. September this year. be charged with the collection of information on the military resources of Canada. to the Staff College. 1903. the adjutant-general shall act for him. consequently left for England in November. and with military honours and rewards. Colonel Evans and Colonel Drury had already attended the manoeuvres held in the in There shall be a military secretary who shall.. forage. promotions and retirements of officers of the militia. under the supervision of the general officer commanding. and with the ^election and proposal to the Minister and Defence of fit and proper persons to be recommended for commissions hi the militia. who shall. a shall. and it has been found impossible to carry militia practically the . There shall be a services officer director-general of engineer under the supervision of the general commanding. under the control of the general commanding. Among the more important omissions from the present law is.general distribution and localization of the of Militia militia. He shall be charjjed with the preparation of mother country. the British government invited the Minister of Militia to proceed to England to the ([uestion plans for defence and for the and maintenance and mobilization of the militia. and foreign countries. There shall be a director-general of ordnance. March 17. etc. there have been imit. In the organization absence of the general officer commanding. After the certain duce there have been changes made portant additions to omissions in certain of the provisions of the existing law. "2. I commanding and advising head of the be found that in the Bill which now intro- department direct. forces of the large. 1903. etc. in the first place. military education and training of warrant officers. under the supervision of the general etc.. supervision the general officer commanding. Sir Frederick Borden submitted. " (c) On the invitation of the imperial government. " (a) discuss the question of defence with the Defence mittee. militia existing law. and for military honours and rewards. in view of contemplated changes in the Dominion Militia Act. be charged with the selection of shall. The director-general of medical services shall." The principle and other heads officer of of having the ciuartermaster-general what are called departments the in the I thought it better to bring in an entirely new Bill. u^ider the supervision of the general this Bill the best there " It will is in them all. under the control of the general officer interior officers. and indeed it was on the statute-book of old Canada long before that date. be charged more particularly to deal with appointments. Instead of amending the present Act. who shall. which provides for the repeal of the existing law. Let me law say. 1904. Colonel Otter. Com- The adjutant-general shall be charged. and. commanding. 107 . In introducing it. which had reweaknesses in the orgaiuzation. One immediate result was that arrangements were made with the imperial authorities to admit a certain number of Canadian officers. officer on our militia system advantageously under the commanding. etc. etc. " 5. and the organization of the militia department in October. and of the empire at of effecting an improvement in those respects had been a very live one in Oreat Britain. besides other duties. be charged with supplying the with warlike stores. etc. in part: " charged with supplying the militia with food. not only the imperial laws and the laws of other colonies of the empire. same law which has been on the statute-book since Confederation. be charged with the administration of the medical establishments. be stated. etc. and we have endeavoured to incorporate in imperial service. met the Defence Committee and made a number of arrangements mutually advantageous to the mother country to and endeavour bring the and men "(b) There shall be a director-general of military intelligence officer and tp Canada. Dominion and Sir Frederick Borden British systems into uniformity. This is due to the fact that a Bill will be introduced by vealed South African war. "4. in the is first place. and there have been important from it. was similar to that of the War Office at that date. fuel. under the control of the general officer commanding. and to bring the law more in accordance with modern requirements in Canada and in touch with the system south of England On account of the either prevailing or to be introduced in England. non-commissioned officers of the militia. of fit and proper officers for promotions for staff and other military appointments. but which. the disappearance of any reference to the naval militia. but the laws of other countries as well. of course. and of the defensive more particularly the administration. etc.

Therefore. is with reference to the powers of the im- entirely within the present commanding the imperial troops at Halifax. at the last session of parliament. posed to adopt the rate of pay of the Northwest immediately take command of the whole militia of Mounted country. This provision is not Bill. during the winter of 1904. despatched officers and men on an instructional cruise on the D. he. because this can be better done on the second reading. document and it thought that we might re-enact but it is a very long being changed from time to time. I am happy to be able to say that this Bill provides that while the pay shall begin as it does now at fifty cents a day. 1905. "The next change militia. he a man of senior rank.the Minister of Marine (Hon. regulations we shall made in Canada first rely in future upon the of will for the administration the militia of Canada.v the active Minister of Marine had had the crews of the fisheries jjrotective cruisers organized and drilled on a naval system. Prt?fontaine died suddenly at Paris. 108 . army of the same rank as a Canadian of officer in the militia of but of junior date appointment. the imperial officer commanding the imperial troops at Halifax. Alread. Mr. and increase at the rate of five largely in the Bill I am now proposing to the King's Regula- cents each year until it reaches seventy-five cents as tions — Under the law as now exists King's the made a part of the law of Canada. proposed to increase the permanent force of the militia to 2. Pr(5fontaine. take his position as head of the forces in this country. is I may militia.G. although in a the provision in the In the near future the population of this country will be double the population of the country at the time the provision was made. and the militia of the country will have to take the responsibility of maintaining order there. and depots will be required. cruiser "Canada" to the West Indies.000. The new Bill omits this restriction and leaves it open to a Canadian or to any qualified person within the British empire to be appointed by the government as commanding officer The next important omission of the Canadian militia. which shall be laid on the table of the House. would perial officer of demands "Another change which I propose the permanent force. the one upon which we must Halifax. while on a trip to Europe on business connected with his <lepartment. I been made it is will mention some alterations which have First. no matter how junior he might be. refers to the it pay stands at forty It is pro- cents a day. is in the rate of pay of the active That matter has been discussed here on many occasions. eliminated from the present Bill. and. a Canadian officer as our militia. but I may say that the permanent force is the teaching force of this country. by virtue of his seniority.sent law that restriction which prevents the appointment of commanding officer of Army Act in this country. perhaps a matter of minor importance liill is present British the next omission from the present law by which an officer of the British officer. takes precedence of the Canadian Canada. Unfortunately. we were taking a sum of money "The next important in the present not included it addition of 500 I men to the permanent BUI. the It was at is is "The next important omission from the pre. in case of war. The pay is to begin at fifty cents a day. and therefore it is exceedingly desirable that it should be composed of first-class men. " One other omission is made. done at the suggestion and under the advice of the Colonial Defence Committee and of the say that this Admiralty. time of war. and gradually as the country becomes settled the Northwest Mounted Police will proceed to other spheres of usefulness. Owing to the lateness of the session it was left over until the following one. and as he contemplated making the crews of the departmental fleet the regularly enrolled nucleus of the new naval militia. Mr. and Regulations are ( ) The question of the orfcanization of a Canadian Naval Militia was taken up energetically by the Hon. who prepared an elaborate naval militia bill. allowing for an increase year by year until at the end of three years $1 a day may be paid to men who have shown by their good conduct and their maximum. after taking the best advice I could get in this country.000. The existing Militia Act provides that was thought wiser to adopt the British Army Act rather than to attempt to re-enact a similar Act here at present "Now. Mr. and gave notice of its introduction during the seysioii of 1905. it There is no reference the depend for the training of the active militia. and no one below the rank of colonel in the British army shall be appointed general officer commanding the militia of Canada. December 25. but which exists in the law as think this increase of 1. This has been found to be troublesome and cumbrous. Under the law as it now stands. there shall be a provision by regulation. no one but an imperial officer. now stands. in different provisions of the law.000 will for an So that be considered to be to pay force. That provision has been and no allusion what- ever is made If to the general officer is commanding he would at in need not stop here to argue the point. that I explained of their appointment. Pr6fontaine) which will to add to the difficulties of the administration of the meet all the requirements in this regard. except that the Army Act apply. so included in the present officers that in futiu'e imperial who come here to serve in Canada will rank with officers of the Canadian militia according to the date provision which is In fact. Since then the organization of the naval militia has remained in abeyance. Police as that of the I permanent force of this Canada over the head of the general officer commanding the militia of this country. place in the Northwest. —military men will consider sense it is it important. At present of the country. The present law provides for 1. The Northwest and Columbia have since that time become parts Important settlements are taking of the Dominion. (1). with certain good-conduct pay.

but that the conduct of Lord Dundonald was in direct violation of the principles of military discipline and the rules of the service. law provides for sixteen days. and subversive of the principles of constitutional government. and may be furnished with arms. sufficient number to be utilized. July 11. have had many in this House on this matter. It not compulsory. had been in existence in Canada. that the Hon. known vision for giving aid to the civil It is power it in time of proposed to amend the law as now stands by providing that the active militia shall only be used in the suppression of riots or in aid of the civil power in what is Uundonald Incident. The minister may (a) authorize boys over 12 years of age who are attending school to be formed into school cadet corps. '"74. commanding the militia. but it will be possible. the parliament. While the bill was still under discussion. The government's attention was drawn to the matter in parliament on June 9. 1904. acrimonious discussion was precipitated by Another change which has been made in the proriot. I shall at first call attention to the pro- officer commanding Bill the militia. This will be found necessary under the proposed increase of the militia at times of camp. used language reflecting upon the conduct of a member of the government in as the " when the permanent force is not available. Cadet corps shall be drilled and trained as prescribed. minister of militia. and which. All cadet corps shall be subject to the authority and imder the orders of the district officer com- manding. in "There are many difficulties which I think act against the public interest in the endeavour to work out this system. thought it advisable to provide. which War as a result of the adoption by the Office in London government of the ment on all for known as the Esher Comwas appointed by the Balfour governthe purpose of investigating and reporting into senior cadet corps. to make that extension of time. He explained that the system in force since Confedera- country. One of these difficulties is that there has been absolute want of continuity under the existing system. an order in coimcil was passed dispensing with Lord Dundonald's services as general officers of in this Bill. an entirely at the new system was adopted report of the committee mittee. a course which had resulted from difficulties which were found to exist in working out the complicated system which had obtained in England.proficiency in " rifle shooting that they have earned is it. provision would be made for the enrolment of cadets. difficulties which will be overcome entirely or very largely by the new system. indicating the greatly increased interest taken by the country's men and of their constituents in the once-neglected question before national defence. and continued. Each new general officer commanding who comes to this country tion part: — 109 . for the drill to be extended in certain cases to thirty days. (c) authorize senior cadet corps or any portion thereof to be attached to any War The Office. We This regrettable incident resulted in the discussion on the Militia being pcolonged. (b) authorize boys over 14 years of age and under 18 years of age to be formed visions in reference to cadets. " I if at any time it might be necessary. I cannot do better than read the clauses: '"73. or not connection with the efficiency filling of military appointments. Sir Frederick outlined in parliament the principal changes he proposed to make in the bill. but it was thought desirable that power should be given to the govern- ment. in the new Militia Bill then before parliament. in view of the course which had been pursued by the War Office." The Earl of Dundonald. but bill was somewhat had not operated satisfactory. now come to the additions to the law proposed had determined the selection of some of the a newly organized cavalry regiment." A protracted debate took public place on this bill. if ocfcasion The present requires. the machinery by which the government of Canada might follow the example of the imperial government. and after investigation. at a dinner tendered to him by the officers of the Montreal division. and for some time speeches assumed a rather bitter tone. It is not probable that that will be exceeded. a lengthy. June 4. and it was prodiscussions mised that when the new Bill was proposed. and training. Sir Frederick Borden. " One other alteration proposes to extend the period charging that political intrigue rather than military for is annual drill from sixteen days to thirty days. to some extent. While able. This report pro- portion of the active militia for the purpose of drill vided for a practical reconstruction of the results War Office. for distinguished service in the of officers to ment seemed to be so far satisfactory by July. who have held the highest executive appointments on the headquarters staff. ammunition and equipment under the conditions prescribed ' "There is a provision in the Bill for the appoint- rank as brigadier-generals temporarily. '"75. matters connected with the organization of the and making a report. There is a fiu^ther provision that the rank of major-general may be conferred upon colonels on retirement. but it has been the custom to make the period twelve days. taking the ground that not only was there no justification for the specific reflections made.

: —Brigadierofficer. and shall define their duties and authority. except some of the generals commanding in chief in General Orders of June 15. as prescribed. and properly so. means will be found to compare new what in amended by the Minister of Militia and was assented to as Act 4. may and establish a we not be able to go as far in in this country headquarters district staff. There shall hold "The minister be for the time being will be the chairman be. adjutant-general. (temporarily) chief of the general staff. The duties and authority of each of the officers to in the two next preceding by the Governor in Council. Everything that is done at that council will be made a matter of record. under (1) Appeared as "There shall be. rate. 1904. subject to the regulations quarters is concerned the conditions are similar to and under the direction of the minister. 1904. 1904. England called the army council. would act as officer Canadian donald.s "36. provided that Colonel the Right Honourable Matthew. The centralization would be carried out to some extent. C. must have The same order contained the following General P. perhaps not to the same extent as in England. and such oflficer will be the adjutant-general. brigadier-general appointed with rank of the Canadian forces while so em- ployed. etc. of C. charged with the military command of known as the chief of the general staff. August 10th. commanding have reached. July 11 and (3rd Reading of Bill) Aug. subject to the regulations and under the direction of the militia council. may be (1) appointed an officer rank not Ijelow that of the colonel in the militia or in His Majesty's regular army. All my hon. army." who proposals with old proposals. and any difficulty at all charged with the military inspection of the militia. There would be a first military officer known as the chief of the general staff.. By G. Governor Council staff. the quartermaster-general major-general in the militia. Edward VII. those of the war office in England. The Governor in Council may on appoint a matters militia council to advise the minister all relating to the militia. will is Under the new- system there to be a militia council corresponding finally passed. The general staff. 1904.seems to be possessed with the idea that it is his duty to overturn and change everything done by his predecessor. Lake.000 per annum. and when changes are suggested. Lord Aylmer. as he is to-day the most important military officer in England. 166. who may be.B." in the bill as originally presented to the House. if they are ever to be fit to command. and there will be no general officer commanding here. would be the deputy minister and. by the minister. so that if there be a change of ministers or a change of officers. procedure and shall be as prescribed.O.s. Under the new system we would have more important commands than we have to-day. so that officers commanding districts would have much greater powers than they have at the present moment. 1111 . There are no records to show m detail the reasons for the conclusions which the different general officers experience in times of peace which will enable to perform the duties which may be required of in times of war. militia in succession to the Earl of retired. powers of the counci' which are referred to the council The composition. commanding the DunNovember 1. them them Hansard. or at any rate every conclusion of importance which is reached by that council will be made a matter of record. as " 32. friends who have written me on the subject and some of the most eminent military authorities agree that there will be no difficulty whatever in applying the system When it comes so far as the war office is concerned. some of the large districts. the record will remain there for the guidance of those who may come afterward.000 per annum. probably. the " I think that so far as the reconstitution of the head- "31. 2. Chief Staff is Southern Command. not exceeding $6. " with the rank of brigadiergeneral." in respectively referred sections shall be defined to the question of decentralization will it may be that 0. civilians The two addi- not exceeding $6. have the rank of and shall be paid at such shall is and the master-general of ordnance. the most important military officer in the country. Chapter 23. There is no commander in chief in England to-day. H. because these men. That composed of the minister of militia. in Great Britain. Lord Aylmer was appointed " Inspector-General of the Canadian Forces. and such officer shall be paid at such rate. the principal military officer will of the minister. as chairman of the council. I cannot see on that score. is prescribed." —See H. such rank to date from 2nd March. There may be appointed an officer who shall hold rank not below that of colonel in the militia or in His Majesty's regular army. bill The as thus council will be Among following: " its most important new provisions were the Section 7. N. with four military men and two additional civilians. they have gone England. I do not think that and may appoint a chief of the general staff and such policy can be carried out in coimection with the militia force as easily as in connection with the regular officers to the respective staffs as are deemed necessary. tional chief accountant of the department. who may "Section 30. Then there the militia." "Under the system there will be no general offioer commanding.

aV > ^m f- ^^5.M.. G. C.C Quarter master-General (Third (i. Adjutant-General (Second Military Member).O...D.C.s. Ill . p.G. I. Vice-President.G. Colonel F.M.. N. See'Frontispiece.H. Colonel W.G.M.c. O. C. etc. D. Sir F.S.. C. Lake. 4. A. Macdonald. 2. is President of the Militia Council. (1) Colonel E. Master-General of the Ordnance ( Fourth Military Member). Borden.C. (I) The Hon..^iBS^'- m9 Wk^ ^^ THE MILITIA COUNCIL 1. (First Military Member).O. K..C. W. Borden.. W.. Chief of the General Staff.A. P. 3.S. Accountant and Payma. H. 5. Minister of Mi>itia.S. H. Lessard.B. J. Deputy Minister of Militia.ster-General (Finance Member). Cotton.. Major-General P.B. Military Member). L.. Fiset. Colonel D. Eng-. Esq. A.S.

(with command Lieutenant-Colonel C. 2 military district: Colonel 1st W. Member—The Member Chief of the General To be director-general 1st of medical services: Colonel "1st Military December. dated the 17th November. dated Headquarters. C. dated December 28. dated The grouping of the military districts of eastern Canada into higher units had been advocated by 11-2 . W. 1904. Fiset. 1905.400 horses received 12 days training in district camps. During the year 1. provided for. the first general order of that year. 1904. non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the active militia.' and that be composed of the G. to be be as prescribed. and new lists providing establishments on a peace and war footing were issued. 'The Militia Council. 1904. 1st November. provided for the following appointments to the headquarters staff: members: "President Staff. and 979 officers.O. —^The Minister of Militia and Defence.S. Weatherbe. Cotton. The present order tration of the force of of things as regards the adminis- was inaugurated at the beginning 1905. under the provisions of section 35 of 1904.M. L.A. jl 904. from director-general of en1st December. "The Militia expedient that a W.G.provisions 1904. (with temporary rank of brigadier-general).. of section 47. 1904. " Civil — —The Adjutant-General. in addition to the com- mand of No. Eastern Ontario Command. (with substantive rank of colonel). 1904.M. officers commanding: Western Ontario Command To command.O. of O. from assistant directorgeneral of ordnance. 1905. the organization of the Militia Council was authorized: "On a report dated 15th November. B. 65.B. Otter. provided for the creation of the higher commands. p ovided for the following changes in the headquarters staff: on all matters relating to the which are referred to the Council by the minister. Colonel 15th November. —To command. it is — enacted as follows: 'The Governor in Council to advise the minister militia may appoint a Militia Council Canadian forces with the substantive rank of colonel. 3 military district: Lieutenant-Colonel efficiency of the several units of the militia by inducing men to continue to serve therein. to be master general Council that be it appointed accordingly. with a view to increasing the "Finance Member The Accountant of the Department of Militia and Defence. and May. 15th November. A number of sub-target guns were procured for the use of the militia in connection with musketry instruction.O. and title re- of the ordnance." G.C. sec. Macdonald. 1st May. -Colonel and Brevet Colonel B. I. To be director of artillery: Lieutenant-Colonel R. from assistant quartermaster 1st December. To be director of transport and supplies: LieutenantColonel J. R. In accordance with the new Militia Act an increased scale of pay for all ranks was authorized. Rutherford. — gineer services.' minister submits that it is quartermaster-general. 19. and general officer commanding the departure of Major-General Gascoigne. in addition to the command of No. Quebec Command To command. (with substantive rank of colonel). the whole of the regimental establishments of active militia were revised.G. by the Militia Act. C.S. reading as follows: By an Order in Comicil. : "2nd Military "3rd Military Member The Quartermaster-General. To be director of clothing and equipment Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. 1904. To be director of engineer services: Lieutenant- Colonel P. lery. D. 1904. A. 9 military district: Brevet Colonel C.. 1st December. Member —The Deputy Minister of Militia and Defence. May. 1st May... Vidal was appointed adjutant-general to the January 3rd. 1st No.B.D. D. General Order 167. and Brevet Colonel W. from assistant adjutant-general of artil1st December. 1905. "With a secretary to be nominated by the Minister of Militia and Defence from among the clerical staff of the Department of Militia and Defence. 12. H. D. in addition to — the command of No.C. 17. general. procedure and powers of the council shall Colonel D. and 1. Biggar. submitting that. 7. The composition.. Drury. During the year 1904. 1905. "4th Military Member—The Master -General of Ordnance.. A. 1904. Q.10S non-commissioned officers and men. which read as follows. 1905.O. H. as amended by an Order in Council dated the 7th December. the permanent force excepted. lirigadier-General in Lake had already served a term had temporarily acted as after Canada as quartermaster-general of militia with universal acceptance. D. Gordon. E. 1904. 1904. 1904.770 officers. April with the following 4. and 4. commends following be constituted under the it of The Militia Act. Militia Act. and efficiency pay for warrant officers. Ottawa..G.032 horses (city corps) at local headquarters. from the Minister of Militia and Defence.997 non-commissioned officers and men. In the same order Lieut. 5 military district: Lieutenant-Colonel and Brevet Colonel L. November 15. Buchan. — Maritime Provinces of substantive rank of colonel) in addition to the Command —To command. Donaldson.

During the year.. been appointed a major-general in His Majesty's rearmy from the 2. satisfactory. Ont. Indeed. from of view.B. principal medical officer. Ordnance Stores Corps officer. Five additional companies were added to the Royal Canadian Regiment. their physique being much above the average for infantry of the line. and and infantry. for the additional force required in con- The recruiting them. 8. It lies affords excellent ranges for both artillery upon the Ottawa river. promotion and pension. The Imperial government granted the non-commissioned officers and men (ree discharges. This was no douijt largely attributable to the efficiency Two additional companies were formed to replace the of the two companies pay introduced in 1904. which was approved by him and To the carrying out of that laid before parliament. and especially at the camps of instruction. about eight miles by ten. and the class of recruits obtained was good. the department carried out the lery sent to Halifax Royal Canadian Garrison from Quebec. Canada thus relieved the British taxpayer of the burden of any military expenditure whattress Ontario Command.3rd March.successive 1 G. During 1905. Artil- An increase in the strength of the Royal Canadian project for acquiring a suitable territory for a central Engineers was authorized. and suitable buildings. for service in the engineer. the On her them event in charge of large bodies of troops approximating to the commands which they would of of exercise in the war. and. the introduction of a consequence of the decision of the Dominion to assume the entire defence of the Dominion. having general militia policy. 1905. in point of it was necessary permanent force. with permission to enlist in the permanent force. H. and were organized to reinforce the five old companies. Command. Heads of departments: — District to obtain. deputy-assistant-adjutant- Owing to this large augmentation. Nos. Lake. with the mother country treated Canada with liberality.. roughly speaking. The objects duties of 6 and 7. was satisfactory staff officer. granted the rank of ma or-general (temporary) in the militia But by a military far the jX)int most important event in 1905. The following were allotted officers: staff officers and heads these of departments for each of commands: —Chief — Staff senior numbers. in and Nos. The Dominion government also arranged similarly to assume control of Esquimault. relieving militia decentralization.000of in all ranks. Steps have since been taken to prepare occupation. Command. ranges. Command. 1905. the Dominion government undertaking to give them in the permanent force the rank they held in the army. under the provisions of paragraph 47 of the Militia Act. on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. which were recruited as nearly as possible to their full strength. C. N. 1905. senior paymaster. near Pembroke.900 than that of aiiy previous year. Army senior Service Corps officer. was highly into brigades. Incidentally the creation of these commands opened up a far more attractive professional career for officers of ability than it had hitherto been possible to offer thorized from 2. erected. members of the Militia May 16. up to date. and is. principal -veterinary officer. the total number of men trained reached a higher figure by 4. it was military staff clerks as a separate unit of the force. the Western took over from His Majesty's regular troops the responsibility for the maintenance of the Imperial forN. is l)eing secured. the cavalry and infantry were organized and the Royal Canadian Field Artillery was reorganized as Horse Artillery. 3 and the Eastern Ontario of Halifax. staff-sergeants and sergeants. object headquarters of a great mass of detail questions which could be far better government dealt with locally. the portion of the pens on earned in the army to be borne by the Imperial government. and to count their army service towards pay.000 to necessary) 5. is. the following appeared in orders: — " Brig- Council submitted to the minister a memorandum on adie -General (temporary) P. part. military for years previously. and 2 districts became 4. Nos. general. secondly. complete. thirdly. C. It training camp." .. and is confirmed in his appoint- ment 113 of chief of tlie general staff. In . and fully equipped in every respect. O. by placing ever for military purposes within her borders. the month of April. and recruiting was actively commenced nection with the gar ison at Halifax. non-commissioned officers and men from the Imperial army. Nos. policy the efforts of the department have been steadily gular directed with satisfactory results. the military for regular found necessary to organize a corps of permanent with a strength of one warrant officer and thirty also etc. the Quebec 9 and 12.. was the fact that the Dominion from the above date. land at Petawawa. the Maritime Provinces of this organization were. to afford entirely the first. in handing over the fortresses free of charge. the control of which is now hands of Canada. a few officers. 5. selected officers of the militia practice in the higher command and administration. an increase of the permanent force was auIn (if system of administration which would be the same both for peace and war.lune. The attendance at annual drill during 1905. The new camp ground situated in the county of Renfrew.S.

Major and Brevet LieutenantGwatkin, Manchester regiment, appeared in orders as being appointed "Director of Operations and Staff Duties on the General Staff," with the temporary rank of Lieutenant-colonel in the militia, taking rank and precedence in the militia
October 23,




change of selected officers with the governments of India and Australia. Captain J. H. Elmsley, Royal Canadian Dragoons, was attached to the Indian army for a year, while Lieut.-Col. O. B. S. F. Shore, D.S.O., 18th 'Tiwana'
Lancers, was sent to the Canadian militia to


from Jan. 6, 1904, that being the date o rank as lieutenant-colonel.



Similarly Lieutenant E. Clairmonte, Royal Canadian

In connection with the transfer of the fortress of Halifax to the Dominion government, it was found necessary to temporarily retain the services of Major-

Forces and Lieutenant P.

was attached to the Australian Permanent S. Long-Innes, Royal Aus-

tralian Artillery, took his place.

General Sir Charles S. B. Parsons, K.C.M.G., commanding, and a numbe; of his subordinate officers
after the date fixed for the

withdrawal of the British


and arrangements having been made with the

was hoped that the new scheme would afford Dominion an opportunity of studying the military systems of other portions of the empire and of widening their military knowledge and exofficers of the

Imperial government, they were temporarily taken on the st ength of the Canadian militia. (See G.O.
296, Dec.
9, 1905).

perience thereby.


this year a

considerable improvement was

effected in the training system of the active militia.

This transfer of a
in their


of senior Imperial officers,


ranks, to the Canadian militia


Steps were taken at the camps to eliminate as far as possible all movements not of general utility, with a

sizes the great


the status of the national

force from the days when the militia was a mere auxiliary of the regular army, whose chief usefulness

war time was the

raising of recruits to

form pro-

visional battalions.

Dominion of Canada, of the garrison, fortifications and military buildings of the Imperial fortress at Halifax, N.S., which was nearing completion at the end of 1905, was practically com-



to the

pleted during 1906. Similarly the coaling station at


entirely taken over

Esquimault, B.C., from the Imperial troops during

the year.

The formal transfer of the two fortresses took place on January 18, 1906. The command of Halifax being assumed by Col. C. W. Drury, C.B., commanding Maritime Provinces; that of Esquimault by Col. J. G. Holmes, commanding M.D. No. 11. The increase to the permanent force, required in order to enable the infantry, artillery and engineers to






Halifax and Esquimalt, proved difficult. Recruiting suffered seriously from the state of the labour market

and the universal demand for labour at high wages. To meet the resulting shortage of men, until such time as the classes from which recruits are drawii in this country become better aware of the advantages offered bv military service, the experiment was tried of enlisting volunteers from certain British regular regiments, which, during the year, were in process of dis-

view to giving more attention to essentials, and with good results. As city corps generally suffer from too constant drill in drill-halls and too little work in the opportunity to remedy this defect was field, an offered by giving permission to city corps to form provisional battalions for four days attendance at the district camps. During the year 1906, 1,950 officers, 24,112 noncommissioned officers and men, and 6,567 horses received 12 days training in district camps; and 912 officers, 12,330 non-commissioned officers and men, and 284 horses similar training at local headquarters. 162 officers, 1,334 non-commissioned officers and men, and 64 horses received less than 12 days training. Although authority was obtained from parliament in 1905 to raise the establishment of the permanent force to a maximum not exceeding 5,000 men, in order to provide for the garrisons of Halifax and Esquimalt and other requirements, it was decided that the increase should only proceed gradually, and as funds were available. For the year 1906 it was determined that the numbers should not, for financial reasons, exceed the following: Royal Canadian Dragoons, 200 all ranks; Royal Canadian Mounted Rifles, 120; Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, 258; Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery, 790; Royal Canadian Engineers, 300; Royal Canadian Regiment, 1,067; Army Service Corps, 100; Army Medical Corps, 100; Ordnance Stores Corps,

120; total, 3,055.

bandment, direct into the permanent force. The Army Council was good enough to give its consent. A new departure was made during the year by the completion of arrangements for the temporary inter-

the Ross

The permanent force was served during the year with rifle, Mark II, and many rifle associations with the same rifle, Mark I.
Complaints, as to these






issued to the militia), according to the annual

report of the Militia Council, did not appear to be


frequent than those

made about

other service

(a) Additional pay funds for the permanent force consequent upon the increase in the establishment.






1904-5, the average strength

was about 1,200


being rapidly remedied.


In 1905-6 the average was about 1,000 greater,


As this rifle aims at being a modification of all modern patterns of small-arms, its introduction revealed the weak points inherent in new models. They are now well known, and good progress has been made towards remedying them. A very careful and thorough inspection is made, during manufacture, of components, and of the finished rifle. The materials entering into the composition of the rifle are carefully tested, and
defects, as far as possible, obviated.

the total strength June 30, 1906, including about 70

semi-military employees at Halifax, standing at 2,448.

Larger expenditure for clothing consequent upon
.$220,000 paid to re-imburse the Imperial governfor garrisoning Halifax

the augmentation of the force.

In addition to the
at the factory

above, investigations have been



the inspector of small-arms on the following


points, in the matter of


which some defects have shown Sights, bands, butt plates, magazine feed
of the field batteries were completely

six months after Canada agreed to assume the cost; $200,000 being taken from the vote for "pay," and $20,000 from the vote for "supplies" for the permanent force. This was due to the fact that it was not possible to replace all at once the Imperial troops by Canadian ones; the exchange had to be





1905, the date from which

carried out gradually.




statement given

in the

annual report of the Militia

The remainder

Council for the year ending December 31, 1906, shows,
detail, the

re-armed with 12-pr. B.L. guns during the year, and This the full complement of ammunition completed.

expenditures on account of the militia
years 1896-97 to 1905-06 inclusive.

during the


from the fi^d forces the 9-pr. R.M.L. This gun being obsolete, it is not proposed As, however, the to re-i.ssue it a.s a service weapon. 12-pr. gun is being replaced in other armies by a more modem quick-firing weapon, a supply of the new 18-pr. q.f. gun adopted for the British service has been ordered from England, the delivery of which is shortly


For the




years of this period the

expenditures were as follows:

S 41,353 265,476





The expenditure on account of the militia for 1905-6 amounted to $5,594,009 or .$1,644,167 in excess of the amount expended during 1904-5, the increase being Permanent force, $1,014,166; distributed as follows:

Pa.v of headquarters an»i district staffs. Pay of Permanent P^orce. including officers, n.c.o.'s and men attaclied, l^ards of honour and military survey Allowances for care of arms, drill instruction and postage to Active Militia .\nnual drill, including supplies and





Salaries and wages of civil employees Military properties maintenance .....

— construction — — ranges



430,168 67,868
39,101 73,491

454,357 86.495 39.203 191,858
76,104 85,171

809,924 7 2,603 50.523 254.427 132 747 174.980 429,727 463,668 84,856 45,825 290,037 1,092,128 41,470 179,256








Warlike and other stores
Clothing and necessaries for Permanent
Provisions and supplies for Permanent

military properties, $48,600; defence, Escjuimalt,


arsenal, $64,-


39,824 36,035 72,520 110,783 131,551



Transport and freight, other than an-

militia, $80,000; allowances,$76,000;

sundry, $81,638,

Grants to



and bands.



permanent force, which amount did not include contingent $1,014,166, expenses, such as transport, &c., was due to the Canadian government taking over the fortresses at at Halifax and Esquimalt, the two garrisons requiring between them about 1.500 men and entailing the


increase in expenditure on the

Miscellaneous votes

43,998 39,950 59,616 58,492 745,965 5,158 45,123 45,119

48,046 128,140

Halifax, provisional garrison



S2, 197,559


following extra expenditure:


$908,682 expenses in connection with special service in South


and Halifax provisional garrison not included.


Manufacturer of Military Clothing

Q Uniforms of every description made on short notice

^ Tenders furnished on


Office: 326






Factory: 337 Notre






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: : : : . Ottawa. and on the Pacific Ocean to China. BREECHES MAKER V As we have been established 20 years in • it puts us the Civil a position to know and requirements of the public. Military Only the best g'oods kept in stock which insures us the best customers. : : : : The FASTEST and most luxuriously furnished Steamers between Victoria. IMPERIAL LIMITED SUPERB SLEEPING trains leave Montreal daily. Me. 1907. GOWLER Catherine St. the Kootenay Mining Regions.. i WINNIPEG. N. INGLIS Established 1875 both of these get the former and V* V sure to follow. Worcester. Vancouver and the Pacific Coast. the Mountains of British Columbia. the Timiskaming. and the principal Atlantic seaside resorts. Marie. Mass. the Laurentiaiis. en route to the Yukon. Springfield. B. PTITT.ICAMADIANI ACROSS CANADA FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN FAST TRAINS Vacific/ ^ RAILWAY to Quebec. : : DOUBLE DAILY TRANSCONTINENTAL TRAIN SERVICE Comnnencing June 2nd. Liverpool. Boston. : : Tailor 487 St. St. and Minneapolis. For illustrated pamphlets apply to oity office. General Passenger Agent. on the inland waters of British Columbia. John in winter. New York. and DININQ CARS. R. French River. Muskoka Lakes. unrivalled for scenic grandeur. Niagara Falls. MANITOBA 288 Portage Avenue Price List - Telephone 580 and Estimates on Application . Vancouver and Seattle.. London. Sault Ste. New Ontario. Portland. St. via Honolulu and Suva. and St. Mississaga. Detroit. Passenger Traffic Manager. Halifax. Paul. J.. Montreal ROBERT KERR. Toronto. or to any a^ent of the Canadian Pacific Railway or to WM. Eastern Townships. and the most modern type of first-class passenger cars. Montreal QUALITY AND SATISFACTION You want the latter is R. in summer. FAST STEAMSHIP SERVICE on the Upper Lakes (Owen Sound to Fort William). James Street. Australia. John. 129 St. Japan. crossing the Continent in AYz days. Montreal. Montreal and Quebec. Chicago. Kawartha Lakes. West - Wholesale and Retail MONTREAL WINNIPEG I GROCER AND BUTCHER 90 DISRAELI ST. and on the Atlantic Ocean between Bristol. and to Skagway. J. Winnipeg and the Western Prairies.

prompt refund is made. 6 Over $10. You obtain a receipt with each order.00 and under. who must have Expedious Service. " can be purchased at any office of the in any place in Canada. James St. C. Lowest Rates and Undoubted Responsibility. CASHED "AT PAR" PRACTICALLY EVERYWHERE 'St™bT»"ks' Richelieu & Ontario Navigation "NIAGARA TO THE SEA" Company Toronto and Montreal Line Through Lake Ontario. A. 10 cts. HENRY.. sary to fill out an application.00 to in Proportion. always appeals to the prog^ressive merchant. 15 cts. OUR MONEY ORDERS Company in Canada.00. thence to points on the world's famous Saguenay River Trips from One Hour to a Week's Duration For Further Particulars Apply to JOS.00. 50. resulting' from the experience of over Half a Century. 128 St. 3 to $10. one of the Pioneer Express Companies of the World in the handling of Freight and Valuables of every description. stolen or delayed. ADVANTAGES— Cheap.Canadian Express Company An improved and perfected system of Transportation in all its branches. . Traffic Manager.00 " Larger Amounts 30. United : States or Europe at the following rates Over 5. Not necesconvenient method of remitting through the mails. the Thousand Islands and all the Rapids Montreal-Quebec Line A cool and refreshing night's these cities ride between Saguenay Line From Quebec down the Lower St. F DOLAN. If the money orders are lost. payable cts.00.. P. all of which are abundantly afforded by the CANADIAN EXPRESS COMPANY. Lawrence to Murray Bay and Tadousac. to $30. Most Safe and Satisfactory.00 $5. or THOS.

QUEBEC. Box 244. Limited MEDLANDS' LIMITED Wholesale and Retail Grocers Agents MANUFACTURERS OF Steam and Power Pumps for any service. Brass Founders. Mill and Lumbermen's Supplies Oils. MONTREAL. J. 41 Craig Street Brass Signs. 39 St. Rubenstein Bros. P R.. WINNIPEG. B.^ ^^g Darling Brothers. Man. E. Montreal Toronto Winnipeg . Paints & Varnishes WINNIPEG. MONTREAL. Main 860 Gold and Nickel Platers. Silver. O.. Agents and Manufacturers for the Webster Vacuum Heating Apparatus. Phone Main 1122. Limited : : 1 28 King St. Feed Water Heaters Sole and Steam Specialties. Steamship. 131 Napoleon St. Manitoba.JOS. NIXON "V^ Manufacturers -° '"?&'^i Post Office Letter Boxes Grocer and Importer of Table Delicacies Tel. (Opposite C. Sacrament Street. Bricklayer Brick. W. Mason. TORONTO. SPEIRS Canadian General Supply Co. 267 Portage Avenue. p. Avenue Block. : : Wallacebuig Sugar Co. Phones Main ' I 7400 7401 BRANCH p^^^g Branch 7+4 ' ^ 2"''''" '^• p^j. QUEBEC. CHEVALIER CONTRACTOR NAPOLEON RENAUD CONTRACTOR Plasterer. T. Station) Established 1864 E. Manufacturers* and Commission Agents BAKER AND CONFECTIONER Railway. Stone and Plaster 44 Renaud Avenue.

. loaded under expert supervision with in Nobel's Empire Bulk Smokeless Powder. is Ltd. made by the Dominion Cartridge Co. are the trap shot's The shell.Richardson Revolvers and DOMINION CARTRIDGE COMPANY. Pistols. a deep cupped. Montreal. Montreal. Colt. 4 Hospital Street... Great range is given with minimum recoil and absolutely no variation on account of temperature. . "Dominion" metallic Ltd. Smith dr Wesson..IN the North' West. LIMITED. SOVEREIGN SHELLS ideal. waterproof one. Ammunition is the brand most often called for. Marlin. More than half of all the Ammunition used in Canada is made by the Dominion Cartridge Co. where life or death often hangs on a shot. Stevens and Savage Johnson and Harrington &. the best the world. DOMINION AMMUNITION is made to fit all popular fire-arms: Iver Rifles. Winchester.

CANADA .. LTD T. Gas.. COTTER. Ventilating and Mechanical Draft Apparatus. - - - WINNIPEG. WITHY & - HALIFAX. - AGENTS FURNES5. NOVA SCOTIA CO. PHONE. Nfld. -WESTERN AGENTS FOR- Phoenix Automatic Sprinkler Systems Sanitary Plumbers. R. HALIFAX AND HAVRE For information r eg ar ding Rates of Freig h ^ apply to t^ Passage^ Ftc.Regular' Sailings Between HALIFAX AND LONDON HALIFAX [AND LIVERPOOL HALIFAX AND ST. 207 FORT ST. COTTER BR05. Steam and Hot Water Fitters. JOHN'S. COTTER. 520.

CONTRACTOR SANITARY ST. SfEEL.. I • * * * MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS Sovereign Bank Building. J. BURROUGHES & WATTS. 12 Cathcart Street. BUTCHER. &c. Emery Cloth. Ont. t • Montreal. COR. • • Cutlers to His Majesty Ltd.. Lawrence Market TORONTO. I # * * * » * * * # « * 71 VICTORIA SBSIDKXOB LOMBARD 223 EUCLID AVE. &c. Montreal ¥ Toronto. ONT. GOLDSWORTHY & SONS. &c. CALCUTT I ¥ • * * LUMBER DEALER ! t =AND= • ==IMPORTER 0F== IRISH PUBLIC CONTRACTOR <^4 LINENS * • t ¥ * t I • •k * ¥ • • • Quebec Bank Chambers. &c. and Phone Main 651 "Retail "Butchers Poultry & Game in Season 2 & 72 St. Files.. W. * J^)f)^)f4*)f***)f****>^+**>^>^>^****>^*If****)f4**>^***)^>^*>^*)^*****4•* • * JAMES HUnON & - REPRESENTING: Ltd..BERRY. Razors. Ctd. Spring Steel. Tyres.* * * F. PEECH & TOZER. t f • * * ¥ ¥ ARTHUR BRYCE ' ¥ * * * * J. &c.. V. JOSEPH RODGERS & SONS. Billiard Tables. Que. Steel Axles. Phillips Square. PHONE MAIN * ' TORONTO 4 775 **#»*****************# ************* * * * * * « » * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * « * » ^ ^ * * * * * * * * * * * * JOHN MALLON & Vifhole-rale Co. Telephone Up 2488 •'•¥**)<->HH«*)^)<)•>^*>^*>^**^c^*>^*•*•)••***-^t>^A^^' ^kkM^^^t^^^^^¥•k¥1^^¥*k>^^^P^^^^A¥¥¥^^^^^¥'^•k¥^^>^^*•k*if . . Emery.. & S. 1 1 2 Toronto Street. CO. THOS.

Cut Glass. Detroit and Chicago. parlor -jfftrc i^^--"0.t. First-class coaches. T. LEVIS. General Passenger and Ticket Agent. ************************************** CUDDY & BRODEUR Importers and Wholesale Dealers in CO. 4^^4^4:4. BELL. QUE. DAVIE & SONS. 5C»i 1*4 •-*- man cars and library cars and on this train. 9n min. Passenger Traffic Manager. and we can give to our customers assorted stock to select from on account of our a Patent Slip and Docks.. Bronzes and Fancy Goods.^Jl!^if. Montreal. DAVIE. ^ ^ at Machine Shop ST. Time. 327 St. Crockery. TWO MONTREAL. ************************************** Established in 1892. 20 9:00 a.******************************************************i:***************^ t * The only double Niagara est trains in the Canada's Double Track Railway track railway between Montreal. Burners. Pull- FEATURES OF THE GRAND TRUNK ARE: Excellent Road>bed. 13 hrs.^ . min. to Detroit. Glassware. THE "INTERNATIONAL LIMITED" (The Railway Greyhound of Canada) G. Chimneys.'. cafe. Lawrence Blvd. DAVIS.jf. T. TORONTO cbdb********** ************************** ' * ************************************** . at Cable Address: JOSEPH DE LEVIS.^4. Electroliers.4. Toronto. 50 ^ VKBJJ^^^h . Lamps. Punctual Trains and Best Equipment.^4^if. Montreal 4:4::|c4:o|: E.4c:t^4:'4^4^4^^^4^4^^4^4^4^4^^4^4^4^4^'^^^4^4^4^'1^^'4^4^4^4^^^'4^4^^4^4^4^4^4C'4^4^^4^4^4^4^4^ ^4. Polite '^ '^I'^UflSHHSS Fast and Attentive Employees. Salvage Steamer Twin Screw Strathcona" "Lord * * Steam Pumps and ail necessary gear for floating and assisting Stranded Vessels very well Also Ship Builders and Ship Repairers RETAIL STORES 533 St. China. CANADA. LEVIS. Cutlen.:$. W. The finest and fastDominion are operated over these lines. GEO. Catherine St. We control the sales of several makers in England and on the continent. to Toronto.^:f. Beautiful Scenery. ^ li' A ^^^^^^^^^^HEr^> 44- Mp''^Leaves Montreal every day 7 hrs. Powers Contractor Windsor * & Woodley * * * * * * * LEVIS QUE. * ^ * ****»************************+****+* ************************************** ************************************** Thos. Hotel Silverware.m. E. Falls.

O.Dominion Bridge Company. MAN. British British Coluinbia. and WINNIPEG. by Dominion Bridge Company. General Offices and Works ' ' at LACHINE LOCKS> at ' ' P. ONT.. Limited. LIMITED MANUFACTURERS OF BRIDGES ^ STRUCTURAL METAL WORK Combined Railway and Highway Bridge over Built the Fraser River at for the New Westminster. Government of Columbia. . Branches TORONTO. 1905.

Grain and Hay Merchants of Winnipeg Stock Foods All Varieties of I Cor. WINNIPEG. MANITOBA xiii . PHONES M 2007 - TORONTO M 4626 MONTREAL.' ' SPECIALTIES: Machine Brushes Moulders' Brushes Factory Brushes jewellers' SKEDDEN BRUSH LIMITED ESTABLISHED 1895 Co. and WILTONOLAFSON BROS. Flour and Feed. Successors to PHONE 2699 G. •<©•<&# <§> D. KING and JAMES STS. UP 3157 marine Work and Heavy Concrete tion Construc: . ^ ^ The Leading Produce. Loom Du^ers t t I #> Wheel Brushes Painters' Standard Household Brushes Brushes Rifle Brushes HAMILTON ONT. E. & CO. Dock Pile Sub- Driving. BETHl'NE ^ JNO. QUE. A. : : 287a BLEURY STREET <§> 307 LOGAN AVE. . RUSSELL General Contractor PLUMBING HEATING AND VENTILATION DHOMcc /residence - Crib and Building.

C^PUM.. Upper Town. Ontario Bk. CORNWALL. D. National Park Bank. T. IN THE UNITED STATES: NEW YORK.M. ST. YARMOUTH. Stavert. \ Agents. and Superintendent of Branches. KELOWNA. T. James Ross. FREDERICTON.C. Greata. Hon.. E.98 HEAD OFFICE— MONTREAL. ST. GODERICH. The National City Bank. Marine Natl. PICTON. SARNIA.. JIKRE. Clouston. BANKERS New " " " IN THE UNITED STATES: Boston. Sir George . ' BROCKVILLE. Reid.MONTON. Point St. IN GREAT BRITAIN: E. Hon. PROV.A. Greenshields. WOODSTOCK. TORONTO.00 11. PORT HOOD. Fort Rougfe " BRIDGEWATEP.000. . Bank of Montrkal. K. N. The Bank ok England. " AMHERST. Ltd. . " HOLSTEIN. Bank ok Montreal. General Manager. West and Br.) INCORPORATED BY ACT OF PARLIAMENT. Macdonald. Anglo-Calikornian Bank. S. Contitieud. The British Linrn Co. COOKSHIRE. Ltd. Alta. -^ \ BRANCHES: IN CANADA: prov. Hf. MOLINEUX. CALGARY. OF BRITISH COLUMBIA GLACE BAY. Bckkalo.. Henri West End Westmount " QUEBEC. LUNENBURG. Wash. Meredith. BATHURST. J Pine Street. INDIAN HEAD.G. BELLEVILLE. FE. PROV. Hunter.N FALLS. First National Bank. Bank. Esq. MONTREAL. The Bank ok New York.689. CHATHAM. 31 J. Honorary President. Clouston. IN ST. Charles SUDBURY MARYS. Richmond SAWYERVlLLE. Alta. Alta. Esq. F. BKANTFORl). Man.MANVILLE. ( . Bank ok Montreal IN MEXICO: MEXICO. KINGSTON. KING CITY. Branch LINnS. Bog. . CHICAGO. MAHONE BAY. S. B. F. Manager.\. " York. J. RAYMOND. HAMILTON. AURORA. Ltd. Col Branches. Macnider. SYDNEY. W'ellington St. 46-47 ThiL-. DESERONTO. ARMSTRONG. GRAND " " '* DANVILLE.. WOLFVILLE. NEW DENVER. " PORT ARTHUR. Man. Ontario Bk. Man. alliston. R. SHEDIAC. ( The Bank ok Liverpool. D.M. BRANDON. JOHNS Bay of Islands BIRCHY COVE. Esq. VICTORIA. GREENWOOD. Ste. Sliertnan Ave. OF St. PROV. Maritime Provinces British Columbia Inspector N. NEWMARKET OTTAWA. NELSON. G. TRENTON. HARTLAND. Hochelaera. Bank of Montreal. Angus. WESTMINSTER Carlton St.BANK OF MONTREAL (established 1817. OF NOVA SCOTIA WINNIPEG. PERTH. Ontario PETERBORO. Sask. Esq. " Westminster VERNON. T. Rt.G.bden. and Manager at Montreal. Sir William C. " The Union ok London and Smith's Bank. E. V.tdiK-etlle Street. Hon. A. OF NEW BRUNSWICK NORTHWEST PROVINCES Conlinued. Ltd. LETHBRIDGE. of ontario. Alta. Anne de Bellevue St.\thcona and Mou. Inspector Maritime I^ovinces and Newfoundland Branches. Vice-President. ( w i^. NEWTOUNDLAKD: Bank ok Montreal. . The The The The Merchants National Bank.C.Man. Ontario Bank Branch " " '" Papineaii Ave. Superintendent of Branches Superintendent of Branches W. [all paid up) UNDIVIDED PROFITS. B. Manager. " The National Provincial Bank ok Eng. LONDON. J. Ave. E. QUEENSVILLE. ^ A. Drummond. Clarke. ^i^ivcn. F R. BOVV.000. CHILLIWACK. Sask. QUEBEC BUCKINGHAM. GRAND FALLS. ALMONTE. N. SASKATOON.MOUNT FOREST. COLLINGVVOOD. Ontario Bk. Inspector Ontario Branches. LONDON.C. CANSO. PORT HOPE. STRATFORD. Man. National Bank ok Commerce in New York. hRASERVILLE. MILLBROOK. FORT WILLIAM. Taylor. REST. Esq. Saunders. E. ED. GUELPH. Yon^e St. Sask.xt Royal.00 422. OF PROV. San Francisco. Branch PARIS. Winslow. HALIFAX. S. ROSENFELD. TWEED. Assistant General Manager. ALTONA.B. ' Scotland. ROSSLAND. Logan Ave. SUMMERLAND. PROV. WALLACEBURG. Branch LAKE MEGANTIC. PROV. W. G.mpanv Bank. President. " Continued. Queen St. A. P. Man. Y. VANCOUVER. R. Sweeny.000. M. . Hk Bmnch EGLINTOiX.NELO. RHGINA.VY. W. \ . MONCTON. BOARD OF DIRECTORS Lord Str. ' " " Seigneurs St. LEVIS. C. Mackay. JOHN. WATERFORD. C. . OF ONTARIO. OAKVILLE.400. " CHATHAM. North End EN DERBY. PORTAGE LA PRAIRIE. SPOKANE. E. Paterson. . Esq. Chief Inspector. Branches. H. R. Bank St.. ICDMUNDSTON. Ltd. NICOLA. BcKFALO. $14. Robt. NEW BRUNSWICK NORTHWEST PROVINCES AN DOVER. " The London and Westminster Bank. BANKERS IN GREAT BRITAIN Liverpool ' i London. WARSAW. Manager.


Collars Horse Clothing and Saddlery Hardware ALSO MANUFACTURERS OF All kinds of Military Saddles & Equipments TOKONTO AND WINNIPEG . HARNESS MFG. CO.ADAMS BROS. LIMITED MANUFACTURERS OF All kinds of Harness Saddles.

1 76 Front Street East. ED'IJ ngine builders PACKING HOUSE AND ABATTOIR MACHINERY _ and supplies. SWORDS. e n1 «i J \ -^^^^^ \ ^^ ^^r THE MITCHELL RIFLE SIGHT Gives Full Satisfaction because This it is true and easily set SIGHT enjoys world-wide endorsation IS A BOOKLET YOURS FOR THE ASKING Rifle Sights Canada Arms and It's Limited. Equipment & Trimmings ALWAYS ON HAND.27 and Insurance Co. & Machinists Company Manager Tbone {Main 2099 JOHN WHITFIELD. MiLiTAiJY ZIMMERMAN & AND ALL KINDS OF Co. Whitfield Stump Extractor Fire Escapes. Malt Kiln Floors. Price List and Estimates on Application. - Hydrants. Bridge Bolts. THE BOILER INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY OF CANADA Q as Issues Policies of Insurance covering All damage resulting Loss of Property as well from Loss of Life and Personal Injuries due to Steam Boiler Explosions. North.89 Head Office : CANADA LIFE BUILDING' TORONTO. Combined Assets amount to Surplus for Benefit of Policyholders $2..092. TORONTO. . "Boiler Inspection jis Policie-t are guaranteed by The Hartford Steam $4. and every Description of Iron Work for Builders. the "Best Confederation Life Building.053. SAM BROWNE BELTS. '^"V^r^nTl'^SlTreZ'i:fJi'^i%°^?r''' The John Whitfield filV/T L''i. SPECIAL MACHINERY MADE AND REPAIRED. Valves. 38 James St. Chains and Mining Drills. HAMILTON. High.A. XShere is TORONTO. Ont.705.Class Civil and Military Tailors and Breeches Makers =^^=^^—^= Can.111. NAVAL PATTERN CAPS.

his best to He did for induce one of the English factories to establish a branch tiie in Canada the manufacture of of Lee-Enfields. Briefly." and that connection would like to submit the advisability m n as«Hsnssffissaffissisisisissssffiffisnaii«ssiSBiii3isissasas'V]iss:«iaisss. Sir Frederick had on occasion found it m m impossible to obtain a sufficient supply of Lee-Enfields from England. m ^The feet that the Ross Rifle fires the same .303 ammunition as the Lee-Enfield Sir Frederick was no doubt an important consideration with and his advisers. but failed. He then resolved to use a rifle Canadian make.« 8B n n 9 m m m m m 1[The history of the adoption of the Ross Rifle as the reflects great credit arm of the Canadian Militia on Sir Frederick Borden and his advisers. tWhy it was adopted has been told by Sir Frederick in the House of Commons and again at the recent Colonial Conference in London. when the subject of Imperial defence came up for discussion. n m m Another consideration of probably greater importance was stated by him at the conference in these words: in "The maintenance 1 of the Empire rests primarily on supremacy atsea. This resolution led to the adoption of the Ross Rifle.ssi!iisss!gstfij!aaassa:£a»assisi»ssHsi . and to the erection of the extensive plant at Quebec for its manufacture.

factories.. was approved Iw Mr. Governments should be urged to arrange for local manufacture and provision rather than rely on the resources of the United Kingdom. Deaken.scries e. fThe arm adopted was no untried ced to take out a . it was in accordfuice with the opinion of the Imperial authorities it is who stated in a paper on the Equipment of Colonial Forces. which be able to manufacture arms. TfThis weighty view Moreover.xperiinent. Sir Charles Ross commenm m of patents throughout the world on a straight pull breech mechanism. Later this system was adopted by the Austrian Government under m m the name of the "System Maunlicher. m . n i * s ffl i m i I « ffi m B ffl ffl I ffi « . in and which will thus render those communities safer lost the event of the sea control being temporarily by England." and this all the military forces of the Austrian Empire armed with weapon.m n s m m m the necessity perhaps shall —for the estabhshment in the different dominions of etc. of Australia. In 1895. that most desirable that the area and therefore Colonial m m 'M of supply of warlike appliances should be as wide as possible.

nsBsss't. Anderson. M. Colonel Colonel M. P. consisting of Colonel W.. Giljson. M. and Major F. Lieutenant-Colonel W. who reported in favour of the Ross Rifle and suggested certain modifications which. as can be delivered from the rifle as a result of the rapidity with which the magazine can be filled and the breech mechanism operated by the soldier while in the firing position. were desirable in an arm to meet the special re([uirenients of the Canadian service. Otter.nnsssnsns-na^naisffinaaBSinmnnmmiasKS^sn^fflnafflaxi^fflffiniiiififeHffl^HisifflffliinKtPiERSiffinmBfflnaaffifflffi .sed rate of progress towards. Lieutenant- Sam Hughes. of Militia. Gaudet. It is established m m that twice as many shots may be put on a target with the straight pull Ross Rifle that preceded it. hicrea. I).P. always accompanying the introduction growing popularity of the ^[Instructions in efficiency rifle of a new arm. ^The results of this far sighted policy are just beginning to be seen at large and appreciated ffl m by the country who have seen the clamor of adverse criticism.mmmsmmmmm% m m 1[A most exhaustive series of tests of the rifle was made by a Board convened for that purpose by the Minister J.m s^wmmmsmmi^mmmi*mmmmmmmmmmmmwimmmmmmmi«mmmmmm\mmmmmmmwimmmmmmmMi^Kmmmmmmm». musketry practice are reporting from the use by their classes resulting of the new rifles. in their opinion. subside and give way before the with the militia. President Members.

This establishment is complete in every respect. A large factory filled with marvellous automatic machinery and precision tools operated by a force of skilled Canadian artizans who have been specially trained to carry on this work. and defended by the guns most impreg- nable fortress in America a large plant has been established for the manufacture of small arms. Situated in Quebec. performing every steel one of the thousand and one operations required to convert raw into the highest type of and wood magazine rifle.BiSMBiBlilfflBHIiaiailfflfflifflfflBBfflaifflfflBfflBBSlffliifflfflrtaigBllffiffifflSlSSI HffifflaiaiBfflffl i llffiBffiEfflBBBSlBBfflffilSKSSBffiBSlSffiB S m ffl I ffi m m m m m m m TfBut the great increase of this formidable in- military strength gained is by Canada by the adoption weapon of only secondary importance to the advantage obtained by establishing within her borders a most complete and modern plant for the production of this most important of warlike material. m # * * . of that m m m 1 on the historic Plains of Abraham.

SffiffiS9S«ss«ffisssssss9SiisssssseBsss»ss9n«!iss^nssffis§esssiBSgia9aeiB»Sffi8engBaisa8BnaeBeffiniE 'I ffl S i I ! ! 1 I i : i =^^^=^^^^^ Held in Reserve for Ross Rifle « Company » i i n i I s I BBBsssissigiffissssiasssiisisiiissaaisisississiiisaiffiffisnseBsssiiiHfflsisaaffisssHsssiiiaBBffissBiissn .

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m m m m m m m m m m m s m m m m m m Held in Reserve for Ross Rifle m Company a MM «ssss9'«si!gssisssi«i«i«i«nS9Siiisffiifisnas!asiass9n^ssi!sssniisffiai9«aias»issai%ss9BBssiiiffiSffis«ssss .

naiisssiii3aias^i3iasa3i:«°ias9'iBSS«9Si^L«'S:«s^:iisgas»«[sssnaaiisi«'ii':«^»:««sfflii«si«iiiisasss»snaaS9BS i i Held in Reserve for Ross Rifle Company m i .

hass9ssiisssiisisssiffiii!S3i99ass[isissiais>i3iiiiiBsisississii9sisiisisiisissiassa9asssssis%iia]asiissi[«isaii][«ia i ! S S m I 1 1 ffi i I m m m m m 3 S ffi Held in Reserve for Ross Rifle Company m m i 9 i SB sissisisiisaissiiissi!esffisseB!issiffi9Bin%iiisiesffl§gaiBSSBi99BseBHisiieaassiasi£Sisnssisssaesissi£9ssffiss»sissassEi .




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