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Megan Medeiros Chapter 27: Sections III-IV 1. Define fascism. Why did the fascists find success in Italy?

Fascism is a term used to describe a number of right-wing dictatorships in the interwar years. It was mainly antidemocratic, anti-Marxist, parliamentarian, and frequently antisemitic. They claimed to hold back the spread of Bolshevism and sought to make the world safe for the middle class, small businesses, small farmers, and owners of moderate amounts of property. It generally rejected liberalism and were invariably nationalistic in response to the feared international expansion of communism. The fascist governments were usually characterized by terrorism and police surveillance and were rooted in the base of mass part politics. Fascism found success in Italy for many reasons, one being the nonfascist politician's ineptitude and their belief that Mussolini's ministry would be brief. Also the postwar Italian political turmoil touched almost every social group and parliamentary and constitutional government failed to be capable of dealing with this unrest. Mussolini's politics also successfully consolidated his power and deflated his enemies through violence, terror, and secret police. 2. Benito Mussolini, Fascist Doctrine. a. Why did he consider pacifism to be an enemy of fascism? He believes that not only is there no possibility of perpetual peace, but there is also no utility for it. Pacifism is, he believes, is the renunciation of the struggle and an act of cowardice in the face of sacrifice. Courage puts a stamp of nobility on any person who owns it. Because Fascism accepts life and loves it, and because life is duty and struggle and conquest which requires the education of combat and the acceptance of risks, he sees pacifism as hostile to fascist doctrine. b. Why did he attack Marxism? Marxism is the complete opposite of fascism. He believes that Marxist doctrines about the history of mankind is insufficient and an absurd delusion. He denies that class warfare reduces people to puppets waiting for the waves of chance and that is cannot be a preponderate force in the transformation of society. c. How did he view rule and equality? He denies the practical application of majorities because he does not believe that it should rule for the simple fact that it is a majority and as a result it cannot direct human society. He believes numbers alone cannot govern by periodical consolidation, and he affirms the beneficial and fruitful inequality of mankind. He denies the absurd conventional truth of political liberty, which is

dressed in the garb of collective irresponsibility, and the myth of happiness and indefinite progress. d. What was the relationship between the individual and the state? He believed that the State is absolute, in comparison to the individual and equality, and that they are only to be conceived or defined in their relation to the state. The deciding power is not the individual, but the State alone. 3. Why does the text refer to England and France as the joyless victors? Both countries, though victorious in the war, lost vast numbers of men, their economies were weakened, and their overseas empires were much diminished. Their democracies went through severe political and social unrest. France had to find a new allies, but the Little Entente was neither united or reliable. Their quest for reparations caused England to become more suspicious of France and more sympathetic to Germany. Great Britain saw widespread inflation, the collapse of the Liberal party and the rise of the Labour party. It faced imperial troubles with India, where they no longer had total free access to her markets, as well as Ireland, which became independent.