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Charter granted to London Company in 1604 by King James I, Godspeed, Discovery, and Susan Constant left England and landed in Jamestown, VA in 1607 ii. Colony mostly al men, inadequate diets contributed to disease, by 1608 colony had almost failed (poor leadership, location, disease, food) except Capt. John Smith saved it by imposing work and order and organizing raids against Indians b. Reorganization i. London Company became Virginia Company 1609, gained expanded charter, sold stock, wish to grew VA colony with land grants to planters ii. Winter of 1609-1610= starving time iii. First governor Lord De La Warr arrived 1609, established harsh discipline w/ work gangs iv. Communal system didn’t work well, Governor Dale thought better off with personal incentive to work and private ownership c. Tobacco i. 1612 VA planter John Rolfe began to grow tobacco, cultivation spread, created a tobacco economy that was profitable, uncertain, and high labor and land demands, created need for territorial expansion d. Expansion i. Tobacco still not enough to make profits, 1618 campaign to attract settlers ii. Headright system- land grants to new settles, encouraged family groups to migrate together, rewarded those who paid for passages of others iii. Company brought women and skilled workers, allowed for a share in selfgovt (VA House of Burgesses met July 30, 1619) iv. 1919 saw arrival of first Negro slaves on Dutch ship, but palnters continued to favor indentured servants until at least 1670s b/c cheaper and more abundant v. Colony grew b/c Indians suppressed, Sir Thomas Dale led assaults, huge uprising staged by Powhatans in 1622 but eventually put down, again 1644 vi. By 1624 Virginia Company defunct, lost all funds, charter revoked by James I and colony put under control of crown e. Exchanges of Agricultural Tech i. Survival of Jamestown result of agricultural tech developed by Indians and borrowed by English, such as value of corn w/ its high yields, beans alongside corn to enrich soil f. Maryland and the Calverts i. Dream of George Calvert (first Lord Baltimore) as speculative venture + retreat for English Cath. oppressed by Anglican church, 1632 son Cecilius (second Lord Balt) got charter from king, made complete sovereigns of new land 1
ii. 1634 Lord Balt named brother Leonard Calvert governor, settlers arrived in Maryland iii. Calverts invested heavily, needed many settlers to make profit, encouraged Prot. as well as Catholics (Cath became minority), “Act Concerning Religion” granted toleration; yet politics in MD plagued by tension btwn Catholic minority and Prot. majority, civil war 1655 iv. Proprietor was absolute monarch, Lord Balt. granted land to relatives and other English aristocrats, labor shortages required headright system g. Turbulent Virginia i. Mid 17th century VA colony had larger pop, complexity and profitability of economy, debates over how to deal with Indians ii. Sir William Berkeley apptd governor by King Charles I 1642, put down 1644 Indian uprising and agreed to not cross settlement line. Impossible to protect Indian territory b/c of growth of VA after Cromwell’s victory in English Civil War and flight of opponents to colony 1. Choice lands along river occupied, new arrivals pressed westward iii. At first vote extended to all, later only to landowners and elections rare, led to recent settlers in “back country” to be underrepresented h. Bacon’s Rebellion i. Nathaniel Bacon and other members of backcountry gentry disagreed on policies toward natives, backcountry in constant danger from Indian attack b/c on land reserved to natives by treaty, believed east. aristocracy wanted to protect dominance by holding down white settlers in west ii. Bacon on governors council, in 1675 led counter-attacks against Indians against governors orders, kicked off council, unauthorized assault on Indians became a military challenge to colonial govt iii. Bacon’s army marched on Jamestown twice, died suddenly iv. Rebellion showed unwillingness of settlers to abide by agreements with natives, also potential for instability in colony’s large population of free, landless men eager for land and against landed gentry—common interest in east and west aristocracy to prevent social unrest, led to African slave trade growing 2. The Growth of New England a. Plymouth Plantation i. 1608 Pilgrims (Separatists from Ang. Chur) went to Holland to seek freedom, unhappy with children entering Dutch society ii. Leaders obtained permission from VA Company to settle in VA, king would “not molest them”. William Bradford was their leader and historian iii. Left 1620 aboard Mayflower with 35 “saints” (members of church) and 67 “strangers”, original destination Hudson River but ended up @ Cape Cod iv. Land outside of London Company’s territory, therefore signed Mayflower Compact to establish a civil govt and give allegiance to king v. Found cleared land from Indians killed by disease, natives provided assistance (Squanto), Indians weaker than Southern counterparts, 1622 2
Miles Standish imposed discipline on Pilgrims to grow corn, develop fur trade vi. William Bradford elected governor, sought legal permission for colony from Council for New England, ended communal labor and distributed land privately, paid off colonies debt b. b)The Massachusetts Bay Experiment i. Puritans persecuted by James I, and afterward by Charles I who was trying to restore Catholicism to England. 1629 sought charter for land in Massachusetts, some members of Massachusetts Bay Company saw themselves as something more than a business venture, creating a haven for Puritans in N.E. ii. Governor John Winthrop led seventeen ships in 1630, Boston became company headquarters and capital but many colonists moved into a number of other new towns in E. Mass. iii. Mass. Bay Company became colonial govt, corporate board of directors gave way to elections by male citizens. Didn’t separate from Anglican church but more leeway in church than centralized structure in England, “congregation church” iv. Mass Puritans serous and pious ppl, led lies of thrift and hard work, “city upon a hill” (Winthrop). Clergy and govt worked close together, taxes supported church, dissidents little freedom, Mass a “theocracy” v. Large number of families ensured feeling of commitment to community and sense of order, allowed pop to reproduce very quickly c. Expansion of New England i. As more ppl arrived many didn’t accept all religious tenets of colony’s leaders, Connecticut Valley attracted settlers b/c of fertile land and less religious ii. Thomas Hooker led congregation to Hartford, established Fundamental Orders of Connecticut- created govt with more men given right to vote and hold off iii. Fundamental Orders of New Haven established New Haven b/c viewed Boston as lacking in religious orthodoxy, later made Connect. with Hartford (royal) iv. Rhode Island origins in Roger Williams, minister from MA who John Winthrop and others viewed as heretic. Was a Separatist, called for sep of church and state, banished + created Providence, 1644 obtained charter from Parliament to establish govt, “liberty in religious concernments” v. Anne Hutchinson believed that Mass clergy were not among elect and ad no right to spiritual office, went against assumptions of proper role of women in Puritan society. Developed large following from women who wanted active role in religious affairs, and those opposed to oppressive colonial govt 1. Unorthodoxy challenged religious beliefs + social order of Puritans, banished and moved to Rhode Island, 3
vi. Followers of Hutchinson moved to New Hampshire and Maine, established in 1629 by Captain John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges who received grant from Council for New England (former Plymouth Company) d. Settlers and Natives i. Natives less powerful rivals to N.E. settlers, small to begin with and nearly extinguished by epidemics ii. Provided assistance to settlers, whites learned about local food crops + technique, trade with Indians created fortune iii. Peaceful relations did not last, whites appetite for land grew as pop increased, livestock required more land to graze. Character of conflict and white bruatity emerged in part out of Puritan attitude toward Natives now seen as “heathens” and “savages’ e. e)The Pequot War, King Philip’s War, and Technology of Battle i. First major conflict 1637 w/ settlers in Connecticut Valley and Pequot Indians over trade w/ Dutch and land, English allied with rival Indians to Pequots. Capt John Mason killed many Indians, Pequots almost wiped out ii. Most prolonged and deadly encounter began n 1675 btwn chief of Wampanoags under chief named King Philip, believed only armed resistance could protect land from English invasion and imposition of English law 1. for three years natives destroyed towns, Mass economy and society weakened, white settlers eventually fought back 2. 1676 joined with rival Indians, Wampanoags shortly defeated, pop decimated and made powerless iii. Settlements still remained in danger from surviving Indians, & new competition from French and Dutch iv. Indians had made effective use of new weapon technology: flintlock rifle, which allowed them to inflict higher amounts of casualties. But Indians were no match for advante of English in numbers and firepower 3. The Restoration Colonies a. The English Civil War i. Charles I dissolved Parliament 1629 and ruled as absolute monarch, 1642 some members organized military challenge to king. Cavaliers (king, Cath) vs. Roundheads (Parl, Puritans + Prot). 1649 king defeated ii. After Cromwell’s death in 1658, Stuart Restoration put Charles II back on throne, rewarded courtiers with grants of land. Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania all chartered as proprietary ventures b. The Carolinas i. Carved out of Virginia and given to eight proprietors 1663, proposed to sell or give land away using headrights and collect annual payments (quitrents), freedom of worship to Christians, but efforts failed ii. Anthony Ashley Cooper (Lord Shaftesbury) financed migration from England 1670, founded Charleston 1690. Wanted planned and ordered
named their territory New Jersey. S=Charles Town. in William Penn found son of Navy admiral and Quaker. PA prospered but was not without conflict. trade. most ppl settled within Hudson valley iv. Margaret Fell ii. but also wanted it to be a “holy experiment” 1. poor. much of which was claimed by Dutch. Dutch “patrons” (large landowners”. democratic. Diverse colony w/ may ppl. By 1690s ppl upset by power of proprietor. Rice principal crop iii. no class distinction. SC close ties to overpopulated Barbados where slavery had taken root. New York. 1664 Chalres II gave brother James duke of York territory btwn Connecticut and Deleware River. They were unpopular. After death of father 1681 claimed debt owed by Charles II in form of a large grant of territory w/ Penn having virtual total authority iv. Became New York ii. aristocratic. fur traders w/ Iroquois ties iii. Borderland and Middle Grounds a.community. south believed govt unresponsive. became cosmopolitan. with help of John Locke drew up Fundamental Constitution for Caroline 1669. and New Jersey i. befriended Indians and always paid them for land 2. prosperous. “lower counties” allowed own rep assembly— result was later Delaware 4. to find home for religion and distinctive social order. Society of Friends (Quakers) anarchistic. Tension btwn small N farmers and S wealthy planters. The Quaker Colonies i. New Netherland. also wealthy English landlords. Colony was growing and prosperous. Pennsylvania born out of effort of dissenting English Prt. Looked to America for asylum iii. settlers flocked there from Eur.brought with them slavebased plantation society iv. north and south separated socially and economically. Duke gave land to political allies in John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. 1702 ceded control back to crown d. but tension over power distribution. Led by George Fox. (1)Colony never united. some jailed.elaborate system of land distribution and social order 1.. pacifist. White Carribbean migrants. 1701 Penn agreed to Charter of Liberties establishing rep assembly with limited power of proprietor. after Coopers death in 1719 colonists seized col from prop. N=backwoods. Wanted colony of their own. Penn advertised PA (wanted profit). The Caribbean Islands 5 .tough profit seekers. granted religious toleration. but English fleet under Richard Nicolls forced New Amsterdam and Peter Stuvyesant to surrender it to English. Conflict part of wider commercial rivalry. 1682 founded Philadelphia. Created liberal Frame of Government with Rep assembly. king divided region into 2 royal colonies: North and South Carolina c.
claimed Louisiana 1682. settlements. plantation system provided models to mainland peoples c. Masters and Slaves in the Caribbean i. Caribbean connected to NA colonies. San Fernando (San Antonio) 1731 6 . wealthy returned to England. began to rely more heavily on enslaved African work force. turned to sugar cane and rum. Hispaniola. After Spain and Netherlands went to war 1621 English colonization increased thru 17th century raids by Spanish. Colonies built economy on exporting crops. still not as successful as Span in Mexico and other denser areas iii. community 1. Many white slave owners concluded cheaper to buy new slaves than to protect well-being.. Fearing French incursions west + displaced natives. principle source of slaves.i. Span began to fortify Texas by building forts. missionaries. Areas N of Mexico unimportant economically. rest forced to convert to Catholicism. family. no church. In C and S America Span established impressive empire. Sugar labor intensive and native population too small for workforce. Spanish claimed title to al islands but only settled Cuba. Dutch iii. forts (prestidos) trading areas led to decline in native population. Early 17th century migrants flocked to Caribbean. peopled by minorities. Started with indentured servants but work too hard. Islands became nearly deserted ii. Missions. Late 17th century early 18th cent Spanish considered greatest threat to northern borders French. Africans developed world of their own. Spanish wanted prosperous agricultural economy. Puerto Rico. missions. New Mexico after Pueblo revolt 1680 developed flourishing agriculture. English soon outnumbered b. sustained African religion and social traditions iii. The Southwestern Borderlands i. Portuguese. French traveled down Mississippi R. 1660s legal codes to regulate relations between master and slaves 1. planters found it necessary to import laborers 1. Establishing stable society and culture difficult b/c of harsh and deadly conditions. successful population. worked them to death ii. B4 settlers substantial Native populations. settlers prosperous. wiped out by Eur epidemics. Span began to colonize California after other Eur began to establish presence 1760s. French. used Indian laborers iv. soldiers ii. whites left behind were poor + mostly single and contributed little. tobacco and cotton unsuccessful. 1. large bonded African population led to fear of revolt.
Treaty recognized English lands 1676. In VA and New England settlers quickly established dominance and displaced natives. hostilities broke out in 1701 in Queen Anne’s War/ War of the Spanish Succession ended in 1713 iii. The Founding of Georgia i. fighting continued in 1686 w/ raid against Carolina. In these areas influence of colonial govt invisible. 1607 founding of Jamestown Span felt threatened. had own relationship with tribes 7 . 1740 Ogelthorpe failed assault on St Augustine. rest Mexican region Sonora. Spanish colonies in SW created les to increase wealth of empire than to defend it from threats by other Eur powers in NA. The Southeast Borderlands i. trustees removed limitation on individual landholdings. but helped create enduring society unlike those established by English. relied on natives and Africans. By 18th century Spanish settlers driven out of Florida. military and philanthropic motives. compact settlement to defend against Spanish and Indians. Founders group of unpaid trustees led by General James Oglethorpe. confinded to St Augustine and Pensacola. 1733 founded at mouth of Savanna R. stifled early development. Middle Grounds i. little success though v. Eventaully English prevailed.ppl demanded right to buy slaves. built forts. Florida claimed in 1560s missionaries and traders expanded north into Georgia. but in other areas balance of power more precarious iii.2. Struggle for NA not only among Eurs. few debtors released form jail so hundreds of impoverished ppl from England and Scotland as well as religious refugees from Switzerland and Germany settled colony vi. excluded Africans. 1751 gave control of colony to king who then allowed for representative assembly f. North Arizona part of N Mexico ruled by Santa Fe. George II granted trustees land. In western borders neither side dominant. Heavy Jesuit missionary presence. in “middle grounds” frequent conflict but each side had to make concessions. interested in economic success. regulated trade w/ Indians excluded catholics—all to prevent revolt/conflict v. English had always wanted to protect southern boundary e. restrictions on size of individual property. acquired Florida in Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War). area between Carolinas and Florida site of tension btwn Span English and Span French ii. Enlisted natives instead of displacing them d. Oglethorpe wanted colony south of Carolinas. but btwn Eurs and native populations ii. Direcy challenge to English in NA was Spanish in southeastern areas. Military barrier against Spanish and refuge for impoverished English to begin anew ii. intermarried iii. 1750 allowed slavery. prohibited rum. power of trustees vii. wanted prisoners and poor people in debt to be farmer-soldiers of the new colony iv.
French. 1679 Charles II tried to increase control over MA yb making New Hampshire a royal colony. had to deal with leaders thru gifts. encouraged and subsidized the development production of goods English needed b. Trade developed btwn them and non-English markets iii. dismissal of claims “rights of Englishmen”. Eliminated assemblies. Imperial reorganization some believed would increase colonial profits. by 19th century “middle grounds” collapsed. but foreigners had to be excluded ii. Dutch. but wanted them to moderate their own conflicts. but at times American colonists found it more profitable to trade w/ Spanish. became royal colony ii. The Drive for Reorganization i. but some for colonies as well: created important shipbuilding industry. but during Oliver Cromwell’’s Protectorate in 1650 + 1651 passed laws to keep Dutch ships out of English colonies. The Evolution of the British Empire a. Sir Edmund Andros. The “Glorious Revolution” 8 . many were solitary fur traders vi. power of govt. @ First govt made no effort to restrict. taxable. To Indians Eurs menacing and appealing. James II 1686 created Dominion of New England. Third 1673 created duties on coastal trade and allowed customs officials to enforce Acts iv. By mid 18th century French influence declinging and British settlers becoming dominant. offer gifts v. five years later after MA refused to enforce Navigation Acts Charles revoked Massachusetts corporation charter. mediation instead of simple commands and raw force vii. Govt sought to monopolize trade with its colonies. Feared powerful weapons. The Dominion of New England i. Rigid enforcement of Navigation Acts.iv. cememonies. stability btwn whites and Indians deteriorated. 17th century before English settlers French adept at beneficial relationships with tribes. Second 1663 all goods to Eur had to pass thru England on way. Charlies II adopted three Navigation Acts 1. source for raw materials. success of mercantilism. First 1660 allowed trade to occur only in British ships. and American influece grew. strengthened Anglican church c. Sotry of whites and Indians not only of conquest and subjugation but in some regions of difficult but stable acomodation and mutual adaption 5. 1688 NY and NJ as well. new settlers had difficulty adapting to these complex rituals. Laws advantage for England. combined govts of MA w/ rest of NE colonies. appt a single governor. Colonies= market for manufactured goods.
unseated unpopular viceroy. asserted idea that colonists had some rights within the empire 9 . 1715 5th Lord Baltimore became proprietor after joining Anglican Church v. drove out Lord Balt’s officials. Adros governed NY thru Captain Francis Nicholson (supported by wealthy merchants and fur traders). Colonies revived rep assemblies. Cath. practice religion in public. thru elected convention chose committee to govern and applied for chater. ministers. offical religion.i. Leisler charged with treason. Maryland ppl erroneously assumed Cath Lord Baltimore had sided with James II. 1688 daughter Mary and husband William of Orange assumed throne= bloodless coup ii. w/o Parliament. Bostonians heard of overthrow of James II. Cath prevented to hold office. James II ruled autocratically. replaced church membership w/ property ownership as basis 4 voting + office iii.except 1691 Plymouth + MA merged 2 royal colony. separate govts restored. Dominion of NE abolished. dissidents were led by Jacob Leisler who raised militia and captured city fort. 1691 William and Mary appd new governor. vote. charter restored General Court but governor too. drove Nicholson to exile. rivalry btwn “Leislerians” and “anti-Laslerians” dominated NY poitics for years iv. thwarted plan for colonial unification. so 1689 John Coode started revolt. 1691 William and Mary granted. Church of Eng.
led to increase in natural growth c. Medicine in the Colonies i. Provided means of coping with severe labor shortage. Inadequate food. The Beginnings of Slavery in British America 10 . source of social unrest iii. Most ppl treated themselves d. bleeding. food shelter. indentured servitude decreasing. in return received passage to America. high mortality rates. Most former servants formed large floating population of young single men. traveled from place to place. Family relationships and women status dictated by religion. Women and Families in New England i. life easer for whites e. Life of childbearing. But growth of population even after immigration. for servants hope to escape troubles. expulsion. High mortality rates led to many orphans. By late 17th cent ratio of males to females becoming more balanced. Humoralism led to purging. tools. life expectancy low.Chapter 3: Society and Culture in Provincial America 1. Women and families in the Chesapeake i. Had greater levels of freedom @ first b/c of ratio ii. 5 of which typically died in childhood or infancy. Young men and women bound themselves to masters for a fixed term of servitude. S= mortality rates high (infants too). masters received headrights. special courts and institutions to protect and control them. By 18th century life expectancy increasing. disease and salt-contaminated water. and land at end—in reality left with nothing at all 1. 1670s flow began to decline b/c of prosperity in England. decrease in birth rate b. no large population centers for epidemics= long lives. establish themselves ii. large number early deaths. S established churches weak. Family structure more stable + traditional. growth b/c immigration iii. women minority married young. much of life spent rearing and childbearing ii. frequent epidemics. Birth and Death i. and males clothing. children more likely to survive. midwives in childbirth and recommended herbs ii. more equal sex ratio. clean water. N= cool climate. premarital sex common. relatively disease-free. NE power in men who created patriarchal view of society f. average of 8 children. Indentured Servitude i. B/c of sex ration women married young. The Colonial Population a. 17th + 18th cent no concept of infection + sterilization. after 1650s natural increase= most growth ii.
The Colonial Economies a. applied like it had to natives. German. French Huguenots. number of Africans increased. 11 . Mid 1690s Royal African Company’s monopoly broken. craftsmen and artisans. Arduous + unhealthful. few cities. more diverse but conditions less favorable. Early 1740s indigo contributed to SC economy. prices fell. children= new work force 1. Changing Sources of European Immigration i. Indies to America) ii. South Carolina and Georgia staple was rice. large scale shipbuilding operations. BY early 18th century immigration from England in decline. Assumptions of white superior race. Welsh. no large local merchant communities b. 1640s MA metals industry w/ ironworks. Northern Economic and Technological Life i. Chesapeake. more in middle colonies. Swiss. hard to develop large-scale commercial farming. Early 18th century rigid distinction established btwn blacks and whites. Home industries. mills for grinding grain. whites refused to cultivate. high demand in England iii. Irish. Scottish. enabled some planters to grow enormously wealthy ii.i. not until 1670s did traders import blacks directly 2 (b4 mostly W. serve permanently.tobacco basis of economy. by late 17th century came to America w/ French and Dutch 1. Sugar economies of Caribbean + Brazil demanded slaves. Blacks showed greater resistance 2 disease. almost absolute authority of masters g. B/c of S dependence on cash crops developed less of a commercial or industrial economy. Scandinavian immigration increased 1. dependent on African labor more than elsewhere. German Protestants (many from Palatinate)settled in NY. middle colonies more suited 4 wheat ii. Demand for black servants to supplement scare southern labor supply. limited @ first b/c Atlantic slave trade did not serve American coloniesPortuguese to SA and Caribbean. PA (Dutch mispronunciation of Deutsch). established Presbyterianism as important religion there 2. The Southern Economy i. majority in S b/c flow of white laborers had all but stopped iii. Slave codes limited rights of blacks in law. Agriculture dominated. French. no necessity to free black workers. more adept at agricultural tasks than white 1. around 1710 Scotch-Irish immigrated + pushed out to edges of Eur settlementssignificant in NJ and PA. Small number in NE.result of better economic conditions and govt restrictions on emigration. bust and boom pattern.
lumber. The Rise of Consumerism i. Natural resources. Imposing order on trade difficult. Commerce eventually grew. west Africa. Industrial Revolution allowed England and Eur to produce more affordable goods. Some plantations enormous. impt commodities to trade c. Ignored and developed markets with other nations. large coastal trade w/ each other + W. largest enterprise was German Peter Hasenclever in NJ. The Extent and Limits of Technology i. Growth of consumption and refinement led cities to plan growth and ensure elegant public squares. mining. work force seldom more than 30 ppl ii. increasingly commercial society created social climate where buying goods considered social good. The Plantation i. inadequate transpiration facilities and energy supplies iv. sugar.but Iron Act of 1750 limited surpassing England iii. but couldn’t control markets. Few colonists self-sufficient in late 17th early 18th cent. especially in cities w/o estate to prove wealth iii. New merchant class developed in port cities (Boston. material goods ii. Biggest obstacles for industrialization were inadequate labor supply small domestic market. iv. access to market in England. Patterns of Society a. During 18th century commercial system stabilized. expanding transatlantic trade w/ England. production and markets of goods not guaranteed. parks. Economy precarious.Metal became important part of colonial economy. Merchants and traders began advertising iv.good years growers could earn great profit and expand. financed import of English manufactured goods vi. Philadelphia). trade in rum. Indies. difft forms of paper currency ineffective + could not be used for goods from abroad ii. such as tea. small competitive companies made stabilization more difficult iii. slaves. isolation ii. but most 17th cent plantations were rough and small estates. boulevards. higher profits. public stages for social display 3. when prices fell faced ruin 12 . New York. lack of ownership of tools b/c of poverty. At first no commonly accepted medium of exchange. Things once considered luxuries came to be seen as necessities once readily available. protected from competition by Navigation Acts. manufactured goods v. ability of ppl to acquire manufactured implements lagged behind capacity to produce them d. strive to become more educated v. fishing. Quality of possessions associated with virtue + refinement. Growing prosperity created new appetite and ability to satisfy. linens. Increasing division of societies by class. Eur continent. “Triangular trade”. Ppl lacked guns. plows. merchants expanded e. The Rise of Colonial Commerce i. ability to purchase and show goods impt to demonstrate class.
Some slaves learned skills. Commercial centers emerged along Atlantic by 1770s. witchcraft was mainstream e. Small farmers with few or no slaves formed majority b. needed help w/ farm. Center of industry such as ironworks and distilleries. ppl began farming further lands. Patriarchal society weakened by economic necessity. quickly crushed by whites. Boston. The Witchcraft Phenomenon i. forced to become self-contained communities.100 Africans rose up + attempted to flee to Florida. Philadelphia. wealthy landowners exercised greater social and economic influence. Strayed by pop increases. Reflection of highly religious character of society. religion w/ Christianity and African lore iii. Developed own languages. Gap btwn expectation of united community and reality of increasingly diverse and fluid one difficult for NEers to accept. eventually led to new town iv. The Puritan Community i. women more mobile than brothers b/c no inheritance iii. Arranged around a “common”.led to tensions that produced hysteria such as witchcraft (Satanic powers) in the 1680s and 1690s ii. vice. Plantation Slavery i. ½ lived w/ 50+ ii. ect. Cities i. Crime. self govt ii. Society highly stratified.iii. attempts at nuclear families made but members could be sold at any time. Most plantations far from towns. cultural activities. Salem. MA. set up own shops. Trading centers for farmers. mostly middle-aged. epidemics. Charles Town. ect. English primogeniture (passing of all to firstborn son) replaced by division amongst all sons. Occasional acts of individual resistance. childless widowed women who may have inherited property.New York. at least twice actual slave rebellions. Tight knit community controlled by layout. marts for international trade. some bought freedom c. Social unit of NE was town. led to extended families. Little colonial interference. power of church. some larger ones approached size of town iv. Other slaves tried to run away iv. By mid-18th cent ¾ blacks lived on plantations with 10+ slaves.accusations spread from W Indians to prominent ppl. applied for church of their own. This model would repeat itself. Puritan society no tolerance for “independent women” iii. d. moved houses to be closer. social station. In larger establishments society and culture developed btwn slaves. Newport (RI) ii. large social distinctions. advanced schools. town meeting. “covenant” of members bound all in religious + social commitment to unity. 13 . outlying fields divided by family size. leaders merchants w/ large estates. Stone Rebellion in SC 1739.
ignored except in VA and MA. Africans virtually no access to education ii.iii. The Pattern of Religions i. most founded by religious groups: Harvard (Puritans) created to train ministers. women’s rate lagged. Product of great scientific and intellectual discoveries in Eur in 17th cent. Vulnerable to fluctuations in trade. Church of England official religion for some colonies. commercial success created more secular outlook in urban areas. Awakenings and Enlightenments a. books from abroad= new ideas 4. movement west + scattered settlements= loss with organized religion. Americans believed they were re-creating institutions of Europe but b/c of lack of lawyers before 1700 English legal system was simplified. Concepts of Law and Politics i. Education i. liberal education. NEers viewed Cath French agents of Rome ii. MA 1647 law required each town to have a public school. Despite religious basis. became common procedure f. natural laws discovered that regulated nature. Value placed on scientific knowledge can be seen by rise of inoculation.rights to 14 . Early 18th cent some troubled w/ decline religious piety in society. Ppl should look at themselves for guidance to live and shape society. jeremiads= sermon of despair b. celebrated human reason + inquiry. Evangelists from England such as John and Charles Wesley. Didn’t challenge religion. Prominent members of society members of the Royal Society of London. Most white males were literate. George Whitfield spread revival. Places where new ideas could circulate. regular newspapers. appeal to women and younger sons b/c of rhetoric of potential for every person to break away from constraints and renew relationship with God ii. countryside effects muted. Began in 1730s climax 1740s. The Great Awakening i. Protestants extended toleration more readily to each other than to Roman Catholics. Most famously NE Congregationalist Jonathan Edward c. ii. Kings College (Columbia) and UPenn created as secular institutions e. not to God. spread by Cotton Mather and adopted in Boston 1720s. The Spread of Science i. William and Mary (Anglicans) Yale (Congregationalists). Reason and not just faith create progress and knowledge ii. insisted rational inquiry supported Christianity d. Six colleges by 1763. The Enlightenment i. Religious toleration flourished in America b/c of necessity.persecuted in MA after 1691 overthrow of proprietors. new spirit of religious fervor. Even b4 Enlightenment colonists placed high value on education.
expectations about rights of colonists began to take hold in America that policymakers in England did not share. had delegates to colonial assemblies filed role of Parliament. punishment different b/c of labor-scarce society. Provincial govts accustomed to acting pretty independently. apptd provincial governors powers were limited iii. Local communities ran own affairs. Few problems before 1760s b/c British did little to exert authority they believed they possessed 15 . Large degree of self-govt.trial by jury maintained but pleading and procedure simpler. govt criticism not libel if accurate ii.
pass laws. Saw themselves as little parliaments. Yet cnxns still forged. Indians.Chapter 4: Empire in Transition 1. French explorers had traveled down Mississippi R. French and Indian allies. Seigneuries (lords) held large estates. Loosening Ties a. delegation in Albany to Iroquois proposed establishing a general govt with power to govern relationships with Indians. but colony retaining constitution but power. “Middle ground” of interior occupied by French. British. After Glorious Revolution Parliamentary leaders less inclined to tighten imperial control b/c depended on support of merchants + landholders who feared taxes. English offered Indians more and better goods. The Struggle for the Continent a. Resistance centered in colonial legislatures. trade. checked governor power b. Atlantic settlement created roads. To secure holdings founded communities. King William’s War (1689-1687). colonial postal service ii. claimed right to tax. Colonists often felt stronger ties to England than to one another. gave much land to English 16 . Glorious Revolution led to William III and later Queen Anne to oppose French ii. Anglo-French Conflicts i.French developed closer relationships iv. held continental interior ii. missions. treasury. Colonial administration inefficient split btwn Board of Trade and Plantations. trading posts. By 1750s growing English and French settlements produced religious and commercial tensions. French offered tolerance + adjusted behavior to Indian patterns. This Albany Plan was rejected by all the colonies 2. Queen Anne’s War began 1701 brought border fighting w/ Spanish. fortresses. Creoles in S had plantation economy iii. most powerful tribal presence in NE. played French against English to maintain independence. diminished profits ii. Forged commercial relationship w/ Dutch and English. Ohio valley became battleground b. admiralty. and looked Westward. Loath to cooperate even against French and Indian threat. Privy Council. Treaty of Utrech 1713 ended conflicts. New France and the Iroquois Nation i. Still. Iroquois Confederacy a defensive alliance. Louis XIV sought greater empire. The Colonies Divided i. Many Royal officials in America apptd b/c of bribery or favoritism iii. approve appts. A Tradition of Neglect i.
Colonists had been forced to act in concert. F ceded Canada and land east of Miss. Resulted in King George’s War 1744-1748 iv. after poor French harvests 1756 suffered many defeats at hands of generals Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe thru 1758. seized supplies and forced shelter from colonists w/o compensation. Third phase Pitt relaxed policies. Local colony forces occupied with defending themselves against W. British did the same. attack. Colonists most on own w/ only moderate British assistance. French. return of authority to assemblies 1758 seemed to confirm illegitimacy of English interference in local affairs vii. The Great War for the Empire. Fall of Quebec 1759 by Wolfe resulted in surrender of French 1760 iv. By 1758 much friction iii. Second phase began 1756 when French and English opened official hostilities in Seven Years’ War. Conflict over trade btwn Spanish and English merged w/ conflict btwn French and English over Prussia + Austria. French built new fortresses in Ohio valley. Pitt didn’t pursue peace. War expanded England’s New World territory. Indian tribes’ (except Iroquois) raids who allied themselves with French after Fort Necessity defeat. enlarged English debt. Confed began to crumble 3. additional troops to America.navy prevented landing of larger French reinforcements. Iroquois balance of power disintegrated v. Burdens of Empire i.iii. reimbursed control. of State William Pitt began to bring most impt war effort in America under British control: forcibly enlisted colonists (impressments). now ppl argued land and population’s support and taxes were valuable 17 . Beginning 1757 British Sec. The New Imperialism a.The French and Indian War i. Disaster for Indians in Ohio Valley allied with French. relations in America btwn English. After. Iroquois passivity resulted in deteriorated English relationship. assaulted Fort Duquesne. Iroquois deteriorated. Realignment of allies. F counter-assault on his Fort Necessity resulted in its surrender c. First phase lasted from 1754 after For Necessity to expansion to Eur in 1756. but George III ascended throne and signed Peace of Paris 1763. 1754 VA sent militia under George Washington to challenge French. In past viewed colonies in terms of trade. After 1763 empire management more difficult. R v. returned military control to assemblies. Iroquois granted concessions to British. Iroquois hesitant to molest French but allied with English ii. 1. English officials angry at American ineptitude and few financial contributions vi. Finally tide in England’s favor. but failed Ohio R.
The Colonial Response i. British navy patrolled for smugglers. Mutiny Act of 1765 required colonists to assist in provisioning of army. suffered mental illness. other wanted English to control or make new colonies iii. Grenville stationed British troops in America. debted plantesr feared new taxes. English govt had vast war debt. New imperial program effort to reapply mercantilism. tension over “backcountry” settlers vi. Suppressed by governor vii. limit depopulation of coastal trade markets. Conflict over whether west should be settled or not. Restriction came at beginning of 18 . customs service enlarged. foreigners iii. troops in India added expense. New king George III 1760 determined to be active monarch. believed colonists indulged too long and should obey laws and pay cost of defending and administering empire b. no royal official substitutes. settlers swarmed over boundary. merchants opposed commercial + manufacturing restraint. unlike brother-in-law Pitt didn’t sympathize w/ American view. N. After 1763 common grievances began to counterbalance internal divisions. More land taken from natives but many tribes still supported it. Currency Act of 1764 disallowed use of paper currency by assemblies iv. English landlords + merchants objecting to tax increase. insecure 1. England couldn’t rely on cooperation of colonial govts. created unstable majority in Parliament. 1771 small-scale civil war after Regulators in NC opposed high taxes sheriffs apptd by governor collected + felt underrepresented. The British and the Tribes i. professionals depended on other colonists. small farmers feared taxes ad abolition of paper money. backcountry resented closing land speculation and fur trading. Apptd PM George Grenville 1763. land and fur speculation to British and not colonists ii. Territorial annexations of 1763 doubled size of British Emp in NA.ii. Proc failure. increased revenues. John Stuart (south) and Sir William Johnson (north) in charge of native affairs iii. colonial govts competed for jurisdiction. To prevent conflict w/ Indians from settlers moving to western lands issued Proclamation of 1763 forbidding settlers to advance beyond Appalachian line 1. Argued tax administered by London only effective way iv. Sugar Act 1764 tried to eliminate illegal sugar trade btwn colonies. new agreements failures as well c. immature. Allowed London to control westward movement. limited manufacturing ii. Colonists had trouble effectively resisting b/c on conflict amongst themselves. Stamp Act of 1765 imposed tax on all printed documents v.
Stamp Act repealed b/c boycott of 1764 Sugar Act expanded to other colonies. The Stamp Act Crisis i. but was incapacitated by illness to chairman of the exchequer Charles Townshend held real power ii. Summer 1765 riots broke out along coast led by new Sons of Liberty. Great political consequences. Stamp Act of 1765 affected all Americans. colonists objected b/c made contribution were mandatory. In MA James Otis called for intercolonial congress against tax. The Townshend Program i. MA Assembly lead opposition. paper. right to be taxed only by their own reps iii. but also conservative. new tax (Townshend Duties) on goods imported from England. Boston suffering worst economic problems viii. English merchants begged for repeal b/c of lost markets. stamps obvious attempt to tax w/o assemblies approval ii. Gov.to conserve liberties Americans believed already possessed 4. Landlords feared would lead to increased taxes on them. Boston crowd attacked Lt. Centered in Boston b/c that is where customs commissioners headquartered. Anglo-Americans accustomed to self-govt thru provincial assemblies and right to appropriate money for colonial govt. October 1765 Stamp Act Congress met in NY to petition king. Stirrings of Revolt a. urged all colonies stand up against every tax by Parl.past taxes to regulate commerce and not raise money. Negative rxn to appeasement in England. Colonists still objected b/c saw same purpose as to raise revenue w/o consent v. iv. Same time democratic. Believed “external” tax would be difft than Stamp Act’s “internal” tax iv. mostly political + ideological v. Other colonies railed to support MA 19 .tea.until Patrick Henry 1765 in VA House of Burgesses spoke against British authority. 1st problem Quartering Act. (Also. policies affected cities greatest where resistance first arose. 1767 disbanded NY assembly until colonists obeyed Mutiny Act. Sec of State for Colonies Lord Hillsborough said any assembly endorsing MA would be dissolved. Few colonists did more than grumble. Introduced resolutions known as “Virginia Resolves” declaring Americans possessed same rights as English. NY and MA refused iii. Economic burdens were light but colonists disturbed by precedent set. aided by Sons of Liberty. Declaratory Act asserted Parl. Marquis of Rockingham succeeded Grenville + convinced king to repeal it 1766. control over all colonies) b. Circumvention of assemblies by taxing public directly and paying royal officials unconditionally challenged basis of colonial power: public finance 1. British believed reasonable since troops protecting. king bowed and appt William Penn (Lord Chatham) PM. Some opposition b/c of wealth/power disparity.economic depression.
allowed company to sell tea for less than colonists + monopolize colonial tea trade. New concept that govt was necessary to protect individuals from evils of ppl. Duties except that on tea c. Incident transformed by local resistance leaders into “Boston Massacre”. based in Boston. 1773 East India Company had large stock of tea could not sell in England. ppl disturbed that king and ministers too powerful to be checked iii. not only iltellectuals but ordinary ppl haerd. scuffle ensued and British fired into crowd and killed 5 ppl iii. Whigs). politics. Americans believed in division of sov btwn Parl and assemblies. other networks of dissent spread 1770s d. ultimate authority e. Lord North repealed all Town. Paul Revere’s engraving pictured it as an organized assault on a peaceful crowd iv. Before news of repeal reached America impt event in MA. discussed. tavern conversation. Boston merchants organized boycott against products with T. March 5. Three years of calm but 1760s aroused ideological challenge to England. Tea Act of 1773 passed by Parl allowed company to export tea to America w/o paying navigation taxes paid by colonial merchants. Townshend attempted stronger enforcement of commercial regulations + stop smuggling thru new board of customs commissioners. Difft opinion of sovereignty. soldiers competed in labor market ii. The Boston Massacre i. The Philosophy of Revolt i. British believed must be a single. Ideas that would support revolution stemmed from religion (Puritans). used John Locke for arguments ii. Tensions ran high. “radical” opposed to GB govt (Scots. Enraged merchants 20 . Americans favored permanent inscription of govt powers iv. viewed events in moral terms. Duties. “no taxation w/o representation” absurd to English who employed “virtual representation” (all Parl members rep all interests of whole nation) vs American “actual” representative elected and accountable to community v. Apperant calm disguised sense of resentment at enforcement of Navigation Acts 1770s. B/c of Boston harassment of customs commissioners Brit govt placed regular troops in city. Samuel Adams leading figure in fomenting public outrage. Dissent leaflets and literature. English const an unwritten flexible changing set of principles.England sinful and corrupt. 1768 NY and Philadelphia joined nonimportation agreement vii. The Tea Excitement i. absorbed new ideas ii. 1767 T. Organized committee of correspondence 1772. but govt made up of ppl and therefore safeguards needed against abuses of power. died.vi. Basic principle was right of ppl to be taxed only with their consent. 1770 dockworkers + “liberty boys” pelted customs house sentries w/ rocks.
quartering of troops in empty houses vii. enforced boycotts ii. Massive boycott of tea followed iv. Cooperation and War a. First Continental Congress met Sept 1774 in Philadelphia (no delegates from Georgia). CC reaffirmed autonomous status within empire. 1773 Bostonians dressed as Mohawks boarded ships. indicating making CC a continuing organization iv. Enraged merchants. made 5 major decisions 1. would hinder western expansion viii. (Endorsed statement of grievances. called 4 repeal of oppressive legislation 3. royal officers could be tried in England or other colonies. Lord North colonists would be happy with reduced tea prices but resistance leaders argued it was another example of unconstitutional tax. VA 1774 governor dissolved assembly.1768 Samuel Adams called convention of delegates from towns to sit in place of dissolved General Court. reduced self-govt power. Coercive Acts didn’t isolate MA. made it a martyr. Late 1773 w/ popular support leaders planned to prevent E. Agreed to meet in spring. sparked new resistance 5. recognized legality of Rom Cath church. NY. December 16. Americans inflamed b/c feared was a plot to subject Americans to tyranny of pope. Example. issue. Nonimporation.iii. New Sources of Authority i. nonexportation. Philadelphia. nonconsumption agreement to stop all trade with Britain.plays of Mercy Otis Warren. declared economic war. 1775 Lord North passed 21 . Charleston stopped shipment. Daughters of Liberty v. revived taxation without rep. Edmund Burke for repeal of Coercive Acts. Quebec Act provided civil govt for French Roman-Caths of Canada. VA made first intercolonial committee which enabled cooperation btwn colonies. When Bostonians refused to pay for destroyed property George III and Lord North passed four Coercion Acts (Intolerable Acts to Americans) in 1774closed port of Boston. formed “Colonial Association” to enforce agreements 5. Recommended colonists make military preparations for defense of British attack against Boston 4. poured tea chests into harbor—“Boston tea party” vi. India Company from landing its cargoes in colonial ports. rump session issued call for Continental Congress iii. Sons of Liberty became source of power. Women role in resistance. Rejected plan for colonial union under British authority 2. In Eland Lord Chatham (William Pitt) urged withdrawal of American troops. Passage of authority from royal govt to colonists began on local level where history of autonomy strong. Committees of correspondence began 1772 in MA.
rallied thousands of colonists in north + south to rebel cause. On march back from hidden farmers harassed British army iii.Conciliatory Propositions. Farmers and townspeople of MA had been gathering arms and training “minutemen”. Lexington and Concord i. but colonists would tax themselves at Parls demand. Didn’t reach America until after first shot fired b. Rebels circulated their account of events. received orders from England to arrest rebel leaders Sam Adams and John Hancock in Lexington vicinity. IN Boston General Thomas Gage knoew of preparations. William Dawes and Paul revere road from Boston to warn of impending British attack. Heard of minutemen stock in nearby Concord and decided to act on April 18. 1775 ii.no direct Parl tax. At Lexington town common shots fired and minutemen fell. Some saw just another example of tension 22 .
1777 Articles of Confederation passed to confirm weak. led to increased foreign aid c. decentralized system in place. and ruling system. claimed sovereign “United States of America”. liberty. Most supplies captured from Brits or supplied by Eur nations ii. Most farmers + merchants preferred business w/ British who could pay for goods in gold and silver. anger over British recruitment of Indians. Public @ first fought not for independence but redress of grievances. then July 1775 “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms” iii. gunsmiths couldn’t meet demand for funs and ammunition. Dec. Most sought middle ground ii. Responses to Independence i. mercenaries. Olive Branch Petition” conciliatory appeal to king.Chapter 5: The American Revolution 1. 2nd Continental Congress (CC) agreed to support war. of the rights of Men. January 1776 Common Sense by Thomas Paine was revolutionary propaganda. then listed alleged crimes of king and Parliament iii. others wanted modest reforms in imperial relationship. July 4 1776 Declaration of Independence ii. Nation needed to raise. states considered centers of authority but war required central direction iii. slaves. Congress had no power to tax ppl + had to ask states for funds. Govt forced to borrowed $ from other nations 23 . argued that problem was not parliamentary acts but English constitution. GB no longer fit to rule b/c of brutality. organize. Continental Congress was main coordinator of war effort d. States drafted constitutions to replace loyal govts by 1781. inspired French Revolution’s Dec. CC recommended colonies establish independent govt’s from British. and pay for army. corruption b. Mobilizing for War i. called themselves Loyalists but independents called them Tories ii. One group led by John and Sam Adams favored full independence. Defining American War Aims i. 1)The States United a. Eventually issued paper money. disagreed on purpose. king. After Common Sense support grew. At news of Dec many rejoiced others disapproved b/c still had great loyalty to king. Financing problematic. restated contract theory of John Locke that govts formed to protect rights of “life. value of money plummeted. written mostly by Thomas Jefferson. and b/c GB rejected Olive Branch Petition and enacted “Prohibitory Act” w/ naval blockade iv. pursuit of happiness”. led to inflation. The Decision for Independence i. W/o British markets shortages of materials. Dec of Indep. later began to change reasons b/c cost of war too large for such modest aims. equip.
went into winter quarters at Valley Forge. Nova Scotia iii. at first successfulcaptured supplies of Fort Ticonderoga. Siege failed. British settled for winter in NJ leaving outpost of Hessians at Trenton. Seneca. PA iv. he provided the army and the ppl a symbol of stability around which they could rally. led to alliance btwn US and France vi. CC. Burgoyne forced to withdraw to Saratoga where Gates surrounded him and forced surrender of 5. The War for Independence a.000 landed in New York City under William Howe. But series of Patriot victories followed. held nation together 2. Canada not to become part of US iv. thru NJ. Campaign Patriot success.000 man army pushed backed from LI. The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic Region i. left Continental army unmolested in Valley Forge c. In north Americans invaded Canada. Washington defeated at Germanton in October. Americans rejected Howe’s offer or royal pardon. Heaviest British casualties of entire war occurred ii. force. British failure due to William Howe abandoning northern campaign and letting Burgoyne fight alone. By 1776 Brits concluded Boston not best place to wage war from b/c of geography and fervor.000 man army v. Battle of Bunker Hill fought June 1775. Christmas 1776 Washington attacked across Deleware iii. During summer 1776 British army of 32. Washington’s 19. Defeats led Congress to remove General Philip Schuyler and replace with Horatio Gates. rally Loyalists. The Iroquois and the British i. British John Burgoyne led British campaign in north. States used persuasion. NC. Cayuga). Captured city September. dislodged from capital. In new nation unsure of structure and govt. After Concord and Lexington American forces besieged army of General Thomas Gage in Boston. allowed Washington to retreat and regroup instead of finishing him. to PA ii. To correct problem of states controlling army units 1775 created Continental army w/ single commander. but Joseph and Mary Brant persuaded some tribes to support British (Mohawk. Clear conflict not local phenomenon around Boston but larger war b. end war quickly. March 1776 withdrew to Halifax. The First Phase: New England i. In south Patriots crushed uprising of Loyalists February 1776 at Moore’s Creek Bridge.iii. British evacuation not so much victory as changing English assumptions about war. Eur warfare was seasonal activity. Belived British victory would stem white movement onto tribal lands 24 . iIroquois Confederacy declared neutrality in 1776. Patriot General Benedict Arnold + Richard Montgomery threatened Quebec in order to remove British threat and recruit Canadians. British 1777 sought to capture Philadelphia to discourage Patriots. met in York. George Washington. drafts. After patriotic surge 1775 few American army volunteers.
In North fighting stalemate after British moved forces to New York. Segments of population previously apathetic now forced to involve themselves iv. scheme to betray Patriot fort at West Point was foiled v. Greene split army into small. NC in 1781 vii. Patriots=no threat to slavery iii. & New York f. and Admiral Francois Joseph Paul de Grasse all coordinated army and navy to surround British on peninsula viii. fast contingents and refrained from open battles. but Brits continued to hold seaports of Savannah. Winning the Peace i. Thru covert deals French supplied Americans supplies but would not officially recognize US diplomatically. Tuscarora. British emissaries in France began speaking to 25 . British forced moved from battle to battle 1778-1781. new form of combat. Securing Aid From Abroad i. tried to enlist loyalist dissidents believed to be centered in South to fight from within ii. Onondaga split) d. Failure of Brits to crush Continental army in mid-Atlandtic states + rebel victory at Saratoga was turning point ii. Fighting over. Some refused to rise up b/c of fear of Patriot reprisal + British attempts to free slaves in order to fight. Lord Cornwallis (Brit general for South) defeated Patriot Horatio Gates. but much less Loyalist sentiment than predicted. Most promising potential Ally was France where King Louis XVI and his Count de Vergennes eager to see Britain lose part of empire iii. British had to abandon Southern campaign after battle at Guilford Courth House. French Count Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau. After defeat at Saratoga and French intervention British govt put limit on commitment to conflict. Port of Charleston 1780. The Final Phase: The South i. after news of Saratoga in February France formally recognized US as nation. Cornwallis’s defeat let to outcry aginsnt war. Cornwallis surrendered October 17. navy e. Benedict Arnold became traitor.1. Won conventional battles but harassed as they moved thru countryside by Patriot guerillas. Allowed for expanded assistance. After Dec of Indep. Washington. Cornwalis ordered by Clinton to wait for ships at Yorktown. Charleston. Battle of King’s Mountain 1780 a Patriot victory. Nathanael Greene vi.money. Ben Franklin went to France. Lord North resigned and Lord Shelbrune succeeded. In South British captured Savannah 1778. 1781. US sent reps to Europe’s capitals to negotiate commercial treaties. Wilmington. munitions. led Washing to give command to Gen. Only 3 of 6 nations supported British(Oneida. British had disadvantage of enemy in hostile territory.
others who had lived in isolation of revolutionary ideas. in colonies where it was official religion (such as MA and VA). Catholic Church gained respect b/c most American Caths supported Patriot cause. white militia responded with attacks into Indian territories d. after they left estates and social and economic leadership vacancies iii. Loyalists and Minorities i. others merchants engaged in trade tied to imperial system.diplomats there (Ben Franklin. Some supported British b/c feared replacing ruling class whom they had developed limited trust with and who had fought against white expansion ii. War and Society a. John Jay). mothers. Women’s Rights and the Women’s Roles i. Treaty recognized US independence. harassed by legislative and judicial actions. from Atlantic to Mississippi River 3. few ministers remained. many Americans resented Mohawk and other Indians assistance to British and wanted to treat them as conquered people iii.fled to Canada or to England. French alliance brought Cath troops and ministers. This situation put slave dominated states like SC and Georgia to be ambivalent to revolution b/c opposed British emancipation efforts but feared revolution would foment slave rebellions c. Gratitude eroded hostility. Taxes to church halted. War led to some slaves to escape due to British presence in South + their policies meant to disrupt American war effort. In many cities and towns impoverished women class emerged 26 . Patriots and Brits wanted Indians to remain neutral. after war Vatican named Father John Caroll American archbishop b. John Adams. gave land from southern Canada to north boundary of Florida. Revolution increased deep divisions and made it difficult for tribes to form common front for resistance b/c of neutral and pro-Brit alliances iv. The War and Slavery i. sisters in charge of farms and businesses. Revolutionary ideas introduced slaves to idea of liberty. Anglicans were mostly Loyalists. others expected Brits to be victors ii. Most Loyalists of average means but many were wealthy. Patriot victory weaked natvies bc increased white demand for western lands. and by and large they did. Native Americans and the Revolution i. Hounded by Patriots. After war Indian and American fighting continued w/ Indian raids against froneir whites. Quakers weakened b/c their pacifism unpopular iv. support from England ceased. Final settlement Peace of Paris signed Sept 1783 when France and Spain also agreed to end hostilities ii.some officeholders in imperial govt. Up to 1/5 of white population Loyalists. Patriot men going off to fight eft wives.sometimes successful and other times not so much.
Revising State Governments i. Caribbean iii. Revolution encouraged ppl to reevaulate contributions of women b/c of womens participation in revolution and part general reevalutaion of American life after struggle.equality of opportunity b. The Creation of State Governments a. cleaning. Sometimes women chose. separation of executive from legislature ii.search for a cultural identity e. Except GA and PA upper and lower chambers. End of imperial relation in long run opened up enormous new areas of trade for nation b/c no more Brit regulations. Executive strengthened as rxn to weak governors. End of English imports thru prewar boycotts and war itself led to stimulation of domestic manufacturing of necessities. raised morale and performed necessary tasks on cooking. active citizenry important and could not be just a few powerful aristocrats and mass of dependent workers. New era for women did not arrive. The Assumptions of Republicanism i. South America.ii. Trade w/ Asia. other times forced to join camps of Patriot armies. Opposed Eur ideas of inherited aristocracy. Republicanism meant all power came from ppl. The First State Constitutions i.some like Abigail Adams called for modest expansion of women’s rights and protections. Rev did not change these legal customs v.idea of independent landowner was basic political ideology ii.special assembly to draft constitution that would never meet again iii. States decided tat constitutions had to be written b/c believed vagueness of England’s unwritten constitution produced corruption. believed power of executive had to be limited. desire for sufficiency grew 4. believed to be so b/c they were too democratic—steps taken to limit popular power ii. property requirements for voters c. no more access to markets of the empire including Britain itself.talents and energies of individuals and not birth would determine role in society. nursing. legal doctrines of English common law gave married women barely any rights. fixed salary + elected by ppl 27 . To protect constitutions from ordinary politics created the constitutional convention. Some women ended up in combat (legendary Molly Pitcher) iii. After revolution certain assumptions about women questioned. The War Economy i. No longer protection of trade by British navy. Privateering used by Americans to pretty on Brit commerce. ii. By late 1770s state govts divided and unstable. Others such as Judith Sargent Murray wanted equal education and rights iv.
Congress had power to conduct wars. Western land policies meant to bring order and stability to white settlement. Ordianance of 1785 Congress created surveying + sale system. no restitution to slave-owners. when Congress rejected plan they withdrew involvement from Confederation 28 . or levy taxes on ppl.Souterhn states blocked ratification. foreign relations. Group of nationalists led by Robert Morris.had no way to tax. 1784 John Adams sent to make deal but British refused ii. Treaty w/ Spain 1786 solidified Florida’s borders. Confederation had war bonds to be repaid. designated five territories that when had 60. and Daniel Shays i. Negations not continued until General Anthony Wayne defeated Indians 1794 at Battle of Fallen Timbers. appropriate money. enormous economic investments in slaves. Diplomatic Failures i. weakened Articles c. draft troops. were to be parceled and sold w/ some money going to create schools ii.. Debts. 1786 VA enacted Statue of Religious Liberty by Thomas Jefferson which called for separation of church and state ii. Series of treaties with Indians failed. Kentucky and Tennessee entrance conflict not resolved d. Toleration and Slavery i. slavery prohibited iii. articles ratified only after VA and NY gave up western land claims in 1781 b.000 ppl would become states. Slavery abolished in New England and PA b/c of Quakers. James Madison called for a 5% impost on imported goods. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 abandoned ten districts. areas north of Ohio R. and lack of alternatives 5. GB failed to live up to terms of peace treaty of 1783. states only paid 1/6 of requested funds ii. restrictions on access to empire’s markets. Articles of Confed adopted in 1777. Treaty of Grenville w/ Miami indians ceded lands e. The Search for A National Government a. The Confederation and the Northwest i. S of Ohio R. Alexander Hamilton. Indians and the Western Lands i. violence climaxed in early 1790s. Ordinance of 1784 divided western territory into 10 districts. owerd soldiers money. Each state had one vote. every southern state but SC and GA prohibited further importation of slaves from abroadslavery continued though b/c of racist assumptions about black inferiority.forces continued to occupy posts. Taxies. limited US rights to navigate Mississippi R. New states allowed complete religious freedom. chaotic. but many territories claimed by Confederation were also claimed by Indians ii. The Confederation i.d. foreign debt.would not regulate trade.
Some farmers rallied behind Daniel Shays. 1786 Shayites prevented debt collection. To pay war debts states increased taxes. when rebels advanced on Springfield state militia defeated them January 1787 29 . Boston legislature denounced them as traitors.iii. poor farmers burdened by their own debt and new taxes rioted throughout New England iv.
land owners wanted protection from mobs iii. Proposal by William Paterson of NJ would reform Confederation + give it power to tax. but during 1780s powerful groups began to want a national govt capable of dealing with nation’s problems. people owed money wanted states to stop issuing paper money and causing inflation. 1787 compromise accepted ii. Confederation had averted the danger of remote and tyrannical authority. educated. Proposal opposed by Delaware. A Divided Convention i. VA Plan supporters realized concessions to small states needed for agreement. national commercial policy. Edmund Randolph proposed a new nat’t govt with executive. other small states. conceded upper house be elected by state legislatures. 55 delegates from all but RI. In July grand committee established with Franklin as head. Reformers led by Alexander Hamilton called for convention. produced basis of “Great Compromise” where lower house would be based on populating with each slave counted as 3/5 o of a person in representation and direct taxation.Chapter 6: The Constitution and The New Republic 1. Compromise i.mainly economic that affected themselves ii.July 16. George Washington’s support of new convention in Philadelphia 1787 gave it credibility. Inter-state conference on trade held in MA advised congress to call a convention to “render the constitution… adequate to the exigencies of the union” in 1786 iv. VA delegation led by James Madison. legislature iv. Washington chosen as presiding officer. merchants wanted a single. VA Plan called for 2 house legislature w/ lower house based on population and upper house elected by lower house v. Advocates of Centralization i. The Constitution of 1787 30 . Constitution provided no definition of citizenship. in upper house each state had 2 reps. and propertied ii. each state at least 1 rep vii. NJ. of slaves counted in states population but feared would be taxed if states taxed based on population c. slave trade couldn’t be stopped for 20 years iii. VA Plan remained basis for discussion vi. Reps agreed legislature forbidden to tax exports b/c of Southern fear of interfering with cotton economy. Artisans wanted a single high national duty. feared disorders like Shay’s Rebellion spreading b. sessions closed to public and press iii. had plan drafted. Framing A New Government a. judiciary. absence of list of individual rights that would restrain powers of nat’l govt d. Tabled. mainly young. Questions of equal rep in upper house.
Leaders frightened of creating a tyrannical govt. potentially tyrannical central govt that would increase taxies. VA. Federalists and Antifederalists i. Biggest complaint was that Const lacked a bill of rights. Delegates decided that Constitution would come into existence when 9 of 13 states had ratified it thru conventions instead of unanimous state legislature approval required by Articles ii. Madison convinced others that large nation would produce less tyranny b/c many factions would check one from being too powerful v. MA ratified on assumption that bill of rights would be added Completing the Structure i. but also fear of the “mob” and “excess of democracy”. States and nat’l govt both had sovereignty from ppl and therefore Constitution could distribute powers btwn federal govt and states. Constitution signed on September 17. Antifederalists feared the state more than they did the ppl. James Madison created VA Plan. helped resolve question of sovereignty and of limiting power ii. called themselves Federalists. First Congress passed bill of rights 1789. vii. came from people. therefore natural rights had to be enumerated in order to be preserved iv. George Washington elected first president unanimously. any govt with central authority could not be trusted to protect citizens’ liberties. Had best political philosophers in Alexander Hamilton. 10th reserved powers to states unless specifically withheld from them or delegated to fed govt 31 f. Antifederalists believed Const would betray principles of Revolution by establish a strong. New govt could not flourish w/o participation of VA and NY. Delaware first to ratify. federal structure divided power btwn states and nation vi. nat’l and state. John Jay. favor the “well born”. James Madison. New Hampshire 9th state in June 1788.i. 1. Sovereignty at all levels. Wrote Federalist Papers arguing for Const under pseudonym Publius iii. First elections took place 1789.inauguration April 30. .but Constitution was “supreme law” iii. Federalists feared disorder. obliterate states. 10 ratified by states by end of 1791. NY. Separation of powers + checks and balances forced branches to compete. anarchy. power of masses. only House of Reps elected directly by ppl. supported by Washington and Franklin. feared concentrated power v. John Adams became VP. Federal govt had power to tax. believed small nation needed to stop corruption. Supporters of Const well organized. 1789 ii. regulate commerce. 1787 e. pass laws iv. control currency. Fear of despotism. Nine forbid Congress from infringing basic rights.
others argued Congress should exercise no powers Const did not assign it. Compromise w/ Virginians moved capital from Philadelphia to a southern location along Potomac R. Federalists and Republicans a. Madison. VA. manufacturing + merchants prospered. collect taxes and pay expenses v. Federalists dominated govt for 12 years under leadership of Treasurer Alexander Hamilton (Washington supported. The Republican Opposition 32 . attorney general Edmund Randolph 2. govt sales of Western land not enough.iii. Hamilton faced stiffer opposition to fed’l assumption of state debts b/c ppl of states with few debts (such as VA) would pay taxes to service large debts of other states (like MA). 13 district courts. excise tax on distillation. small farmers (maj of pop) complained of tax burden. Congress created departments of executive. Passage of excise tax and tariff 1792. Whole program won support of the influential population. therefore rich and powerful needed stake in its success iii. Believed stable and effective govt required enlightened ruling class.restored public credit.State led by Jefferson. Hamilton won out and current bondholders paid ii. + tariff. but avoided direct involvement) ii. Funding of debts required new revenue to pay bonds interest. Enacting the Federalist Program i. safe place for deposit of federal funds. would create new large national debt w/ continuous bonds issued to give wealthy stake iv. Bank bill most heated debate. Randolph.his 1791 “Report on Manufactures b.feeling Federalist program served interests not of ppl but of wealthy elites c. Bank of United States began operating 1791 under 20 yr charter iv. Few members opposed plan for funding nat’l debt. However. but disagreement over whether payment should be to original holders or to speculators who bought many bonds from originals during hard times of 1780s. NC. Treasury by Hamilton. Judiciary Act of 1789 created 6 member Supreme court. Jefferson. Hamilton proposed tax on alcohol distillersheavy toll on whiskey distillers of backcountry PA.& tariff on imports to raise $ + stimulate growth of industry. for VA support of bill iii. War by Henry Knox. Hamilton and the Federalists i. Sup Court had final decision in constitutionality of state laws iv. Creation of federal bank would fill absence of developed banking system. James Madison proposed dividing btwn two. taxes to state. Bill passed House and Senate. 3 courts of appeal. speculators. To do so made govt responsible for existing debt + states debts.
neither conceded right of other to exist. French rep to US Edmond Genet violated Neutrality Act and tried to recruit Americans to French cause. Washington called militia from 3 states. GB Royal Navy began seizing US ships trading w/ French in West Indies1794. B/c Federalist structures thought to resemble corrupt Brit govt and menacing structure. and rewards to supporters ii. Hamilton feared pro-French State Dept.VT 1791.factionalism known as “first party system” v.the Republican Party iii. influenced state and local elections iv. RI 1791 last of 13 colonies). Fed govt won loyalty of frontiersmen by accept territories as new states (NC 1789. anti-British feelings high.intimidation won allegiance ii. Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty i. Indians lived within US boundaries but offered some measure of sovereignty c. but eventually Madison and others convinced that Hamilton and Federalists had become a majority and used their power to control appts. and advanced 3. question of US neutrality arose in 1793 when French govt from revolution of 1789 went to war with GB ii. 1791 PA farmers refused to pay whiskey excise tax. Constitution recognized tribes as legal entities. Constitution did not address main issue of land. Hamilton concerned b/c war meant end to English imports. In 1791 GB sent first minister to US. Framers believed organized political parties dangerous. Maintaining Neutrality i. Clashes with natives raised question of Indians’ place of in federal structure. Kentucky 1792. trade or industry. By late 1790s Republicans creating even greater apparatus of partisan influence. Jefferson believed in an agrarian republic w/ independent farmer-citizens tilling own soil. critics felt only alternative vigorous opposition thru emergence of alternative political organization. Establishing National Sovereignty a. Securing the Frontier i.i. Didn’t oppose commerce. should be avoided would lead to factions (Madison Fed Papers #10).main revenue for financial system dependent from duties d. Both groups believed represented only legitimate interest group. Leaders of Repubs James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. but feared cities. offices. Native Americans and the New Nation i. Whiskey Rebellion collapsed. urban mobs. but not outright nations ii. had Washington send Chief Justice and Federalist John Jay to negotiate treaty with GB 33 . Tennessee 1796 b.US ships as privateers.correspondence btwn groups. raids against Spanish iii.
Republican leaders hoped for reversal from state legislatures iv. The Downfall of the Federalists a. Repression and Protest i. control of Indian raids from FL 4. Hamilton too many enemies so VP John Adams Fed candidate iii. KY adopt resolutions arguing when govt exercised undelegated powers. The Election of 1796 i.Jefferson running for Republicans. Alien Acts restricted places obstacles for foreigners becoming citizens. including French efforts to frustrate Federalist diplomatic program ii. Jay’s Treaty in 1794 failed to compensate Brit assaults on ships and withdrawal of Brit forces from frontier. strong Republicans opposition. deteriorated w/ France b/c of impressments of US ships and sailors ii. French foreign minister Talleyrand demanded loan and bribe.“XYZ Affair” caused outrage at France. John Marshall. therefore states could “nullify” the appropriate laws—only VA and KY did so 34 . became VP. new govt of Napoleon 1800 new commercial arrangements c. US relations w/ GB + Spain improved after treaties. but prevented war. Pinckney’s treaty 1795 recognized US right to Mississippi. Adams asked Congress to cut off trade. Sedition Act allowed govt to prosecute libelous or treasonous activity. satisfactory commercial relationship iii. cooperated w/ GB v.ii. to silence Republican opposition passed the Alien and Sedition Acts ii. American backlash followed b/c not enough Brit promises. Federalists could win majority of electors 1796 pres. Elbridge Gerry to negotiate iii. Conflict w/ France led to Federalist majority 1798. fed govt had breached contract. Republicans and some Federalists offered opposition but ultimately ratified by Senate iv.resulted in Jefferson finishing second. Adams cautious in implementation but still repressive. France reconciled. Federalists divided. Jay’s treaty allowed peace to be made with Spain b/c raised fears of Brit/American alliance in North America. its acts “void”. 1798 created Dept of Navy (very successful capturing French ships).but definitions allowed govt to stifle any opposition—Repubs fought back iii. election for Adams but factional fighting within party caused second candidate Thomas Pinckney to receive many votes. Hamilton still lead party b. Washington retired 1797. Adams turned over report of this to Congress w/ names deleted. Florida border. in “Farewell” worried over foreign influence on gov’t. iv. President Adam’s pursued reconciliation by appointing bi-partisan commission of Charles Pinckney. established American sovereignty over Northwest. Open expression of political rivalries after Washington. Jefferson + Madison had VA. The Quasi War with France i. Used Locke’s “compact theory”: states were part of contract. Federalist gained support for response iv.
the Tammany Society. After election only judiciary branch still Federalist. to serve as Repub political machine.Repubs eventually won the state and election iii. ultimately Hamilton and Federalists elected Jefferson iv. In partisan atmosphere Jefferson and Burr votes tied. believed new era would begin where true founding principles would govern 35 . Crucial contest in New York where Aaron Burr (candidate for VP) mobilized Rev War veterans. Republican viewed victory as savior from tyranny.Adams’ and Jefferson’s supporters showed no restraint or dignity in their assaults against other ii. By late 1790s national crisis b/c nation so politically divided d.v. the previous Federalist Congress had to choose between the two in a vote (H of Reps decides when no majority). The “Revolution” of 1800 i. 1800 pres election saw same candidates. Judiciary Act of 1801 had created many new positions which Adams had filled before leaving office v.
High literacy rate and large reading public due to wide circulation of newspapers and political pamphlets. Nationalism could be found in early American schoolbooks. Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason.American Spelling Book and American Dictionary of the English Languageestablished national standard of words and usage. private contribution + tuition necessary. Patterns of Education i. Republican vision included enlightened citizenry. History used to instill sense of nationalism d. ii. Medicine and Science i.Chapter 7: The Jeffersonian Era 1.no professional training iv. literary and artistic achievements to rival those of Europe ii. Doctors often used dangerous and useless treatments. Books and articles attacking religious “superstitions” popular. Cultural Aspirations in the New Nation i. some embraced “deism” ii. Medical profession used its new “scientific” method to justify expanding control to new care.literacy rate very small v. Revolution detached churches from govt + elevated liberty and reason. The Rise of Cultural Nationalism a. After Eur independence ppl wanted cultural independence.childbirths by doctor and not midwives c. American writers struggled to create strong native literature 1. Little professional education b. struggled w/ introduction of science and combating superstition. by 1790s few members of formal churches. trained students to become elite. wanted nationwide system of free public schools to create educated electorate required by republic ii. Noah Webster wanted patriot education. Few schools for poor iii. Most were aristocratic in outlook. simplified and Americanized system of spelling created iii. Mason Weems Life of Washington 1806. students mostly from prosperous. Most printers used cheaper English material. Most doctors learned from established practitioners. Washington Irving wrote American fold tales. Idea of “republican mother” to train new generation could not be ignorant. Higher education not public. fables. 36 . Charles Brockden Brown used novels to voice American themes 2. By 1815 no state had a comprehensive public school system. schooling primary by private institutions open only to those who could pay. Histories that glorified past. African Americans very little schooling. Attempts to educate “noble savages” in white culture and reform tribes.Mercy Otis Warren History of the Revolution 1805 emphasized heroism. late 18thcentury women began to have limited education to make them better wives and mothers. propertied families.Rip Van Winkle 3. Religious Skepticism i.
Samuel Slater built mill in RI 1790. Stirrings of Industrialism a. provided sense of order + social stability to ppl searching for identity v. Invented cotton gin in 1793. Skepticism led to “universalism” + “unitarianism”. Technology in America i. movement of industrial work out of home led to personal and social strains that religion was used to compensate for vi. New sects rejected predestination.missionaries active in south led to conversion. comeback starting 1801 e. later separate. The Second Great Awakening i. but immigrants introduced new machines to America. Jesus only great religious teacher not son of God iv. first factory in America ii. Spread of rationalism led to less commitment to organized churches + denominations considered too formal and traditional. Brit govt attempted to prevent spread of their tech. in North prophet Handsome Lake encouraged Christian missionaries and restoration of traditional Iroquois culture 2. combined piety w/ belief of God as active force whose grace achieved thru faith + works iv. America imported technological advances from England. new business led slavery became more important than ever. Eli Whitney revolutionized weapons making and iii.iii. Native American dislocation and defeats after Revolution created sense of crisis and led to Indian religious fervor. Revival led to rise of black preachers who interpreted religious message of salvation available to all into right to freedom vii.rejected predestination. reject skeptical rationalism. Presbyterian. salvation for all. American inventor Oliver Evans created automated flower mill. Accelerated growth of new sects as opposed to return to established churches. Second Great Awakening called individuals to readmit God + Christ into daily life. @ first within New England Congregational Church. “camp meetings” by evangelical ministers produced religious frenzy iii. Baptists. By 1800 awakening that began at Yale had spread throughout country and to the west. 37 . cotton gin allowed for easy separation of cotton seed from cotton allowed tremendous amount of cotton to be cleaned. Methodists (founded by John Wesley) successful at combating New Light dissenters (ppl who made religion more compatible w/ rationalism) ii. Women particularly drawn to revivalism b/c women more numerous in certain regions. Growth of textile industry in England created great demand for cotton. Origin 1790s from efforts to fight spread of religious rationalism.
Transportation Innovations i. The Rising Cities i. Jefferson the President a. Oliver Evans had invented efficient steam engine for boats and machinery. Won 1804 reelection easily b. War in Eur in 1790s led US merchants to take over most of trade btwn Eur and Western hemisphere iii. Washington and Adams had increased expenditures. Jefferson 1802 had Congress abolish all internal taxes leaving only land sales and customs duties. and diversions. Robert Fulton + Robert Livingston perfected steamboat and brought it to national attention w/ theirClermont v. made his image plain. elegance. debt. Congress 1789 passed tariff bills that favored American ships in American ports. Improvement in inter-state and interior transport led by improved river transport by new steamship iv. Industrialization required transporting raw materials to factories and finished goods to create large domestic market for mass-production.iv. In North cotton supply led NE entrepreneurs to create American textile industry in 1820s/30s. French architect Pierre L’Enfant designed city on grand scale. but b/c needed to turn profit were generally short and only in densely populated areas c. Political genius. stimulated growth of domestic shipping. Urban lifestyle produced affluent people who sought amenities. Turnpike era began 1792 w/ corporate construction of turnpikes. taxation. America remained largely rural and agrarian nation. halved debt ii. US lacked system ii. dress. disdain for pretension. horse racing 3.000 in 1800 census—yet there were signs of change ii. only 3% lived in towns of more than 8. His interchangeable parts for weapons invented during Quasi War w/ France adopted by other manufactures for other complicated products b. Jefferson acted in spirit of democratic simplicity. theater. The Federal City and the “People’s President” i. used appointments as political weapon. promoting overseas commerce instead of agriculture 38 . worked as leader of his party to give Republicans in Congress direction. Scaled down armed forces.music. Major US cities such as New York + Philadelphia large and complex enough to rival secondary cities of Europe iii. Dollars and Ships i. dancing.as N became increasingly industrial S more firmly wedded to agriculture v. cut govt spending. To enlarge American market US merchants looked to expand overseas trade. but Washington remained little more than provincial village w/ few public buildings ii. Eliminated aura of majesty surrounding presidency iii. cut navy due to fear of limiting civil liberty + civilian govt.
Chief Justice John Marshall presided over case. battled to give fed govt unity and strength. Judiciary remained in hands of Federalist judges. established judiciary as branch coequal w/ exec and legislature iv.apptd pro-French Robert Livingston minister. After failing to seize India Napoleon wanted power in New World.iii. alarmed n 1802 when Spanish intendant at New Orleans forbade transfer of American cargo to ocean going vessels (which was guaranteed in Pikcney Treaty of 1795). above partisan disagreement 4. Plans for American empire awry b/c army decimated by yellow fever. Tried to impeach justice Samuel Chase in 1805 but Republican Senate could not get 2/3 vote necessary. Case of Marbury v. pursued pro-French foreign policy. urged Congress to impeach obstructive judges. Doubling the National Domain a. Conflict With The Courts i. Enlarged courts power iii. reinforcements frozen b. disapproved of black Santo Domingo uprising iii. Nap offered sale of whole Louisiana Territory. Court asserted that the act of Congress was void. Jefferson unaware of Napoleon’s imperial agenda. built up navy after 1801 threats by pasha of Tripoli in Mediterranean following Jefferson’s end to paying ransom demanded by Barbary pirates c. 1800 Treaty of San Ildefonso granted French this Louisiana. Spain held areas west of Mississippi. congress repealed Judiciary Act of 1801 eliminating judgeships Adam’s filled before leaving office ii. in meantime expanded military and river fleet to give impression of New Orleans attack v. Madison 1803 btwn Justice of Peace William Marbury and Sec of State James Madison 1. At same time established US Military Academy @ West Point 1802. Santo Domingo (where slave revolt led by Toussaint L’ouverture put down) ii. The Louisiana Purchase 39 . Westerners demanded govt reopen river.this closed lower Miss. Jefferson and Napoleon i. Reconsidered position when heard of secret transfer of Louisiana and seizure of New Orleans. Jefferson assaulted last Federalist stronghold. Supreme Court ruled Congress exceeded its authority in creating a statute of the Judiciary Act of 1789 b/c Constitution had already defined judiciary 2. secured Franco-American settlement of 1800. Martinique. Jefferson ordered Livingston negotiate purchase of New Orleans.acquittal set precedent impeachment not purely a political weapon. to US shippers iv. Also held sugar-rich West Indian islands Guadeloupe.
NJ. Reelection of 1804 suggested nation approved of Jefferson’s acquisitions. state of US as stable and united nation 5. Jefferson unsure US had authority to accept offer b/c power not specifically granted in Constitution. Lewis and Clark set out 1804 from Mississippi R. “Conspiracy” showed perils of central govt that remained deliberately weak w/ vast tracts of nominally controlled land. residents into Union iii. Lewis and Clark Explore the West i. now political outcast. 1806 tried for treason. reached pacific fall 1805 iii. in St Louis w/ Indian Sacajawea as guide. fled NY for West and along with General James Wilkinson.i.O. Jefferson planned expedition across continent to Pacific Ocean in 1803 to gather geographical fats and investigate trade w/ Indians ii. December 1803 territory handed over from Spain to France then US iv. Indies ii. Hamilton mortally wounded vi. treaty signed April 1803 ii. governor of Louisiana Territory. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel 1804. Hamilton accused Burr of treason and negative remarks about character.Berlin (1806) + Milan (1807) Decrees 40 . Burr. but some NE Federalists known as Essex Junto felt expansion weakened power of Federalists + region . acquitted vii. Plan required support of NY. planned capture of Mexico from Spanish and possibly make his own empire. Turned to Vice President Aaron Burr (who had no prospect in own party after 1800 election deadlock) to be Federalist candidate for NY governor in 1804 iv. US shipping expanded to control trade btwn Eur and W. had to incorporate N. The Burr Conspiracy i. ultimately agreed constituted as treaty power. US paid $15 million to France. New England. Conflict on the Seas i. but leading NY Federalist Alexander Hamilton refused support iii. Napoleon’s Continental system forbade ships that had docked at any point in British ports from landing on continent. Jefferson dispatched other explorers to other parts of Louisiana Territory. Expansion and War a. Felt only answer secession and “Northern Confederacy” ii.Louisiana first. Livingston and James Monroe in Paris decided to proceed with sale of whole territory even though not authorized to do so by govt. admitted 1812 c. Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led two expeditions btwn Mississppi and Rocky Mts d. when Burr lost election blamed defeat on Hamilton’s malevolence v. Govt organized Louisiana territory like Northwest territory w/ various territories to eventually to become states.
e. c. Britain’s “orders in council” required goods to continent be in ships that had at least stopped in British ports. To prevent future incidents that might bring war Jefferson proposed The Embargo 1807. many deserted when possible and joined Americans. however.response to Nap’s “Continental System” iv. forced service called “impressments” used. 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe. Created national depression. William Henry Harrison had been a promoter of Western expansion (Harrison Land Law 1800). won election of 1808 but fierce opposition. Harrison defeated Prophet’s followers and destroyed tribal confederacy.b. Offered Indians ultimatum: become farmers and assimilate or move to West of Miss. Indians looked to Brits for protection ii. rejection of white culture. The Prophet was Indian leader inspired religious revival.prohibited US ship from leaving for any foreign port ii. After Chesapeake incident. 1807 Chesapeake-Leopard incident: Brit fired on US ship that refused search. By 1807 tribes mainly ceding land. thru 1812 continued to attack iii.to stop loss Brit claimed right to stop and search American merchant ships + reimpress deserters ii. US Minister James Monroe protested. 2 opened trade w/ GB + France but pres had power to prohibit commerce for belligerent behavior against neutral shipping v. named governor of Indiana 1801 by Jefferson. Starting 1809 began to unite tribes of Miss. ship-owners + merchants of NE (mainly Federalists) hardest hit-before iii. 1810 new Macon’s Bill No. After dislodgement by Americans. d. Napoleon announced France would no longer interfere. GB refused to renounce impressments “Peaceable Coercion” i. Prophet’s brother Tecumseh led joint effort to oppose white civilization ii. 41 . replaced with Non-Intercourse Act.led Jefferson to end Embargo. but England greater threat b/c greater sea power and the worse offender Impressment i. 1811 traveled south to add tribes of the South to alliance iii. American ships caught btwn countries. Brits began to renew Indian friendships to begin defense of invasion into Can Tecumseh and the Prophet i.reopened trade w/ all nations except GB + France iv. Brit Navy had terrible conditions. Jefferson’s Sec of State. James Madison. iii. Madison issued embargo against GB 1811 until it renounced restrictions of American shipping The “Indian Problem” and the British i. Attracted thousands from many tribes at Tippecanoe Creek. However. valley.
Spain Britain’s ally. Invasion f. January 1815 Andrew Jackson wildly successful at Battle of New Orleans. Speaker Henry Clay of Kentucky and John Calhoun of SC led Republicans in pressing for Canadian invasion. 1812 6. 1810 setters in W.some ardent nationalists seeking territorial expansion. On seas American frigates and privateers successful. Federalists led by Daniel Webtser led Congressional opposition. In NE opposition to war and Repub govt.after treaty signed c.Madison declared war June 18. This battle is what Francis Scott Key witnessed. President Madison agreed to annex territory. Americans at Fort McHenry in Baltimore repelled Brit attack in Sept. made pretext for war iii. encouraged by Brit agents—Americans believed end only thru Can. gain access to rivers w/ port access ii. US began to have success in Great Lakes. others defense of Republican values iv. landed armada in Chesapeake region. “Frontiersman” in N wanted Canada. By 1812 “war harks” elected during 1810 elections eager for war. Battles with the Tribes i. US failures 1812-1815 led to increased govt opposition. but by 1813 Brit navy (less occupied w/ Napoleon) devoted resources and imposed blockade ii. wrote “The Star-Spangled Banner” iii. Florida captured Spanish fort at Baton Rouge. Aug 1814 captured and burned Washington ii.Oliver Perry beat Brits at Put-InBay 1813.settlers. Americans forced to surrender Detroit and Fort Dearborn (Chicago) in first months. burned capital at York. Andrew Jackson defeated Creek Indians @ Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814. After Nap surrendered 1814 England prepared to invade US. those in S wanted to acquire Spanish Florida in order to stop Indian attacks. Battles With the British i. continued invasion into Florida and captured Pensacola Sept 1814 b. Dec 1814 convention at Hartford led to nothing b/c of news of Jackson’s smashing success at New Orleans. Brit also repelled in NY at Battle of Plattsburgh in Sept.disheartened Natives of Northwest and diminished ability to defend claims iii. William Henry Harrison victorious at Battle of the Thames. The War of 1812 a. The Revolt of New England i. Florida and War Fever i. Two days later news of peace treaty arrived d. The Peace Settlement 42 . Federalists in NE dreamed of separate nation to escape tyranny of slaveholders and backwoodsmen ii.
War disastrous to Natives. most important allies now gone from NW 43 . US believed w/ end of Eur conflict less commercial interference would occur iii. Henry Clay.US dropped call to end impressments. Aug 1814 John Quincy Adams.i. lands captured in fighting never restored. Treaty of Gent signed Dec 1814. Brit dropped call for Indian buffer in NW ii. Belgium w/ Brit diplomats. Final treaty did little but end fighting. Brit accepted b/c exhausted + indebted after Napoleonic conflict. free trade agreement 1815later RushBagot Agreement of 1817 led to disarmament on Great Lakes iv. Albert Gallatin met in Ghent.