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**DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
**

S . MARSILI-LIBELLI

Department of Systems and Computers, University of Florence, via di S. Marta, 3-50139 Florence, Italy

(Received 19 April 1992; infinalform 21 December 1992) Secondary sedimentation plays a fundamental role in biological wastewater treatment processes where activated sludges arc used. In addition to water clarification and sludge compaction, the secondary settler is used as a dynamic storage for the biomass in the system. This role is important for process control since displacing sludge from the settler to the oxidation tank is the main way to adjust process conditions in the short time-scale. The scope of this paper is to present a model for the time-varying behaviour of the total activated mass, taking into account the coupling between the aeration tank and the secondary settler. Numerical simulations show that the model can reproduce any relevant feature of the real system and can be used in control strategy design for sludge management. KEY WORDS: Sedimentation, thickening, activated sludges, wastewater treatment, mathematical modelling.

INTRODUCTION The secondary settler plays a crucial role in biological wastewater treatment processes where activated sludges are used, separating the sludge floes from the treated water (clarzjkation) and compacting the sludge to be returned into the aerator (thickening). But a third and most important feature is to act as a mass storage for the activated sludge mass operating in the system. This role is important for process control. In fact, acting on the recycle flow, the sludge mass can be transferred from the secondav settler, where it is simply stored and inactive, back to the oxidation basin where it is active in degrading the incoming pollutant. Thus in the short time scale displacing sludge mass from the settler to the oxidation stage is one way to change process conditions. This paper presents a dynamic model for the transfer and accumulation of sludge mass in the secondary settler based on the theory of hindered settling. This theory, originating some decades ago from the pioneering work of Kynch’ has been widely used as a design , rationale for secondary settlers (see e.g. Keinath et al., 1977 and Lauria et al., 1977), but applications to the operational context were comparatively few. Tracy and Keinath2 produced the first dynamical model using a mass balance and the Kynch sedimentation law to derive a partial differential equation (PDE) which was then solved numerically through finite

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The aim of the modelling exercise is to describe the dynamics of mass storage in the secondary settler and how this influences the sludge concentration in the aeration tank through recycling. The theory of flocculent suspensions (sludges).~. Moreover the emphasis was primarily on the clarification aspect rather than on thickening and storage. the dependence of settling dynamics on currently available process indicators such as the Specific Stirred Volume Index (SSVI) is introduced with the final result of producing an operational model which can be used to predict and control the sludge accumulation in the secondary settler and the effect of sludge recycling in the oxidation basin. i. In this analysis the structural properties of the model and its qualitative behaviour were considered to be pre-eminent over any precise agreement with specific experimental data. An entirely different approach was followed by Olsson and Chapman 4 who used two “patched” black box models based on the experimental evidence that the dynamic response of the clarifier was nonsymmetrical. the assessment presented later in the paper can be considered of sufficient generality to adapt to any specific situation. developed primarily by Kynch’ and later advanced by Dick* and Shin and Dick’ is now briefly revisited. As the model is based on physical laws and parameter values well established in the literature. with clarification rather than thickening. again uses a multi-layered model as Tracy and Keinath2. Though relying heavily on the Kynch theory in deriving a settling velocity model. The main scope of this paper is to present a model for the time-varying behaviour of the total activated mass in the system taking into account the interactions between the aeration tank and the secondary settler when their combined dynamics is considered. depends on the sludge density X and its velocity v F. more limited clarifier model included in a general activated sludge system6. the rate of change of the density must equal the net flow. Though their work neatly solved the problem from a conceptual point of view.e. due to Takas et uZ. assessing the implications of all three. The model analyzes the three possible operating modes of critical loading. but introduces the refinement of choosing the boundaries in a way consistent to the physical properties of the suspension. a general dynamical model of sedimentation is outlined in broad structural terms before specifying an analytical form of the settling flux based upon the Vesilind7 equation. Stehfest3 proposed an elegant numerical method to solve these problems. Later.=Xv Writing a mass balance around a vertical cylinder of thickness dz between heights z and z+dz. flux of particles due to gravity sedimentation F. The model presented in this paper is based on an ordinary differential equation and represents an extension of a previous. Thus i .208 SMARSILI-LIBELLI differences. the resulting model was too complex to be incorporated into larger process schemes and had the typical numerical shortcomings of PDE-based models in terms of stability and boundary condition specifications. reducing the original PDE into a single ordinary differential equation (ODE) through the method of lines. It states that the solid . After briefly reviewing the Kynch theory of flocculent suspensions. the resulting model is prinarily aimed. The most recent contribution. as with Olsson and Chapman4. underloading and overloading. the responses for flow step increases and decreases differ.

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 209 y= F.(v. Solving for dz/dt and comparing with eq.F&z) dividing by dz yields the continuity equation dX_dF. (1) can be written as (2) (3) (4) where c=-aF$aX is defined as the upward propagation velocity of a layer of constant density X. at az which recalling eq. (1).(z+dx) . Conversely. In this sense sedimentation can be viewed as the upward motion of increasingly thicker layers.$ =5@ az X = const.t) and eliminating the common term X(z. Discontinuities occur whenever there is an abrupt change of concentration. 2’ . (3) no longer holds and must be replaced with a mass balance across the discontinuity xl(vl+u)=x. Equation (7) states that if the sedimentation velocity is a function of density alone.t+dt)=X(z. (7) . (4) yields ax 2 = . a layer of given concentration X propagates with constant velocity 5 This should not be confused with the downward motion of a single particle (v) appearing in eq.t) (5) Expanding the left-hand-side around X(z.+u) (8) ? d I I where the index ‘ 1’ refers to the layer above the discontinuity and ‘ to that below it. the downward motion of a layer at constant concentration X can be derived by the continuity equation X(z+dz.t) yields $dt+gdz=O (6) Equation (6) describes the dynamics at time t of a layer at height z and constant concentration X. * -. In this case the continuity eq.

Thus from eq. MARSILI-LIBELLI Equation (8) is satisfied in general for U#O. without any limiting discontinuity. the sedimentation will be discontinuous in the region from the initial concentration Xi (if Xi<Xr) to the point of tangency X. In practice this occurs when a high-density layer propagating upward overtakes a slower low-density layer above it. This is the case of Fig. Therefore in general the discontinuity is not at rest but moves with velocity u= F. (12) a discontinuity can be detected by inspection ofthe batch sedimentation curve. whereas there is continuous thickening when the curve is concave upwards. . (11) The necessary and sufficient condition for the occurrence of a discontinuity is related to the shape of the sedimentation curve as follows 2 >odgf<o (12) In other words a discontinuity can exists if the propagation velocity increases with density.-FZ x2-x1 if the difference in concentrations is “small” i. 2. Moreover.b where dFldX>O for all X implies 5x0. (15) exists and therefore no stable discontinuity can be sustained. and X2-X1 g dX eq. as shown in Fig. (9) can be written in incremental terms to yield .e. If there is a point of inflexion at density Xf. U=_dF./dX then . ?!&=_&I dx2 . If the incoming sludge concentration Xi is less than Xt the suspension will settle discontinuously to Xt and then continuously to the final underflow concentration X. Fr-F2 z dF.. 1.. If the underflow u is too large no solution to eq. In this case the settler operates as a funnel. This implies that the function FB(X) is concave towards the X axis. Discontinuous settling occurs for those concentration values for which the curve FB(X) is concave downwards. thus the discontinuity is not at rest but moves downward with velocity 5 eventually vanishing at the clarifier bottom.210 S. whereas there will be continuous thickening from Xt up to the final concentration Xr._ dx-5 (10) hence 5 can be regarded as the propagation velocity of an incremental discontinuity from density X to X + dX. thickening sludge to a more limited extent. since t=-dF. Equation (15) also shows that the limiting flux Ft can be determined graphically as the point on the curve tangent to the horizontal line.

This particular law was preferred to a power law as it yields better results for low densities.0 -_- c i I discontinuo& settling I xi - 0 10 xt 20 x (g I”) Figure 1 trations.0 1.) sludge concen- ANALYTICAL FORM OF SEDIMENTATION So far no special hypothesis was made as to the mathematical form of the sedimentation flux F&X). (16) where V. = V&e-ox . Substituting expression (16) into the eq.5 1 0. Among the many mathematical expressions which were proposed in the literature the following exponential expression will be used in the sequel as it was shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations7’9-‘2 F. and yet some general conclusions have been drawn. although it may not lend itself to neat closed form solution as is the case with a power law13.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 211 i . is the limit sedimentation velocity for diluted suspensions (X-+0) and a is a sedimentation parameter. especially regarding conditions for the existence of a discontinuity and its stability. 6. Now an analytical expression for the sedimentation flux Fg(X) is introduced.5 3. Batch sedimentation curve and graphical determination of limiting (Xt) and final (X.0 4. (14) yields ..

.0 0 30 / / / / / Glk flux I 5 10 .7. 15 x (g I") I 20 20 10 0 Figure 2 Continuous-flow sedimentation flux: a) Critical loading b) Underloading . x.5 0.0 2.5 5..xt .

. this represents the maximum stationary flux that the discontinuity can handle. Equation (18) has no analytical solution but can be solved numerically through an iteration scheme where the k-th approximation is obtained as X 1 =x k I . Likewise. (20) does not intersects the 45” line and again no solution exists. can be determined considering that at the bottom the total flux equals the bulk flux. of eq. (20) converges to a solution Xt. From Fig. Substituting this value back into eq.(df/dx) k-l (d2F/dX2)-’ k-l -aX k-l (20) _ u + VO(l-aX)e -aX k-l aV0( ax-2)e k-l = x The feasibility of the solution depends on the underflow u. As already stated..s. of eq. 3 it can be seen that one branch of the corresponding curve (dotted line) is parallel to the 45’ line whereas the second intersects this line for X<2/a. In fact a consistent (X>2/a) solution exists if and only if u is in the interval O<u<V0(1 -aX)emaX (21) Figure 3 shows the convergence of the iterative equation (20) for a choice of settling parameters a and V. i. and an initial guess greater than the 2/a limit. In fact when eq. (17) with respect to x $=VOe-ox(l -aX)+u=O The solution to eq.h. In fact the point X=2/a represents the inflexion point of the total flux curve and is independent of the underflow u.e.Xe-ox + Xu (17) The limiting concentration Xt is obtained by vanishing the derivative of eq. the stationary underflow sludge concentration X. this represents the concentration of the interface.. which is the range in which a feasible solution is sought. This is consistent with the qualitative reasoning of the previous section regarding the existence of a stable discontinuity. (18) is indeed a minimum since the second derivative J 2 3= (18) aV0e -oX(ax-2) (19) b c is always positive for X>2lo. Finally. (17) the limiting flux Ft is determined.h. (20) it can be seen that for u=O the only solution is X=1/a which is not in the feasible region.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 213 F = V. being less than the inflexion point X=2/a. By inspection ofthe r.s. for u greater than the upper limit of interval (21) the r.

* . .. . (22) (23) Tracy and Keinath14 made the assumption that the underflow concentration is not a dynamic variable in its own right as it may be algebraically related to the underflow velocity u.. . :: z w- 10 ...* 5 X.. 0 5 x 10 (9 I"1 15 20 Figure 3 Convergence scheme of the iterative equation (21).214 S. .* : :: : . and unlikely to observe. f(X) cl :: . ... Ft = Fb = X.a . : ..i . MARSILI-LIBELLI 20 15 . In other words it can follow immediately any change in u..’ ... /‘ = X .* :: . that Xr makes abrupt changes when the recycle is changed. Thus a lag can be introduced in order to model the recycle concentration as a dynamic variable dX 6 A L=-yxr+yP dt Qr (24) .. :: . . II . However it is unrealistic to assume..zr which yields X. .I . . ..

as shown in Fig. In this case the underflow u exceeds the upper bound (21) and no solution to the limiting flux equation exists. the case of a stable interface (G=O) was considered. This corresponds to a critically loaded clarifier where the incoming flux equals the limiting flux through the interface. (25) where the ascending flux F.Q/A . occurs. This means that dF/dX>O for all X which implies that d WdX<O. 2. as in Fig. Therefore the discontinuity is unstable and subsides until it reaches the clarifier bottom. Keinath et al.’ demonstrated that this condition is stable in the sense that whenever the recycle is changed the system will tend to readjust the limiting flux in order to restore the equilibrium. Now the two situations of underload and overload are analyzed. is defined as the difference between the surging flux X. the build-up zone absorbs the excess flux in case of overload. is greater than the limiting flux Ft sustained by the discontinuity. Overload: the opposite happens when the incoming flux exceeds the limiting flux Ft.b. This upper blanket will begin to rise and it may eventually flow over the weir. The upper zone contains clarified water which flows over the weir. The overload and underload situations are now analyzed. Figure 4 Activated sludge process scheme and zone partitioning of the secondaq settler.. whereas the bottom zone is where thickening from Xt to X. So far Underload: such a condition occurs when the withdrawal from the underflow F. In this case no discontinuity exists and only continuous sedimentation is possible. To do this the clarifier is partitioned in four operational zones.. the storage zone is where the discontinuous settling occurs and sludge mass is normally accumulated. 4. In this case the excess mass will accumulate between the feeding height and the thickening zone forming a second layer of partially thickened sludge. To model this situation a mass balance above the discontinuity yields Fi = Ft+ F.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 215 THICKENING .

. V.. xr] + [X.e-aX) . = X. . . .. to obtain the concentration in the build-up layer. 5 together with the 45” line and a sample .XUpVoe -a& 1 (27) (26) Equation (27) can then be solved in the only unknown X. To analyze its convergence properties eq.X..X. MARSILI-LIBELLI and the gravitational flux X.AF k-lQ x+VOe -aX(aX. Voe-oXUp Substituting yields Q $1 + r) Xi = [ VOX& -oXt + X. z .. = X. /.1) k-l (28) where AF=Fi-Ft is the excess flux not being absorbed by the discontinuity.216 S.. Again this can be done through an iterative procedure similar to that previously used for the limiting flux Ft. z .. and may represent a net sludge build up F. .V. (28) with AF as a parameter is plotted in Fig. 2 . (27) can be rewritten in the following iterative way X I =x k I X( $ . .. . The rhs of eq.V. 10 0 3 6 9 12 15 x (g I-‘ ) Figure 5 Convergence scheme of the iterative equation (28).

In addition. a mass balance below the discontinuity yields the dynamics of the stored mass M if Fi=XiQ( l+r)<F. It can be seen that the iterative scheme (28) converges for any value of AF>O thus yielding a unique value for the sludge concentration in the build-up zone X.AFt + AF. (critical loading) then $f = XiQ(1 + r) . a mass balance yields the following dynamics %=pXJ-p(l +r)Xi where V is the volume of the oxidation basin. This completes the description of the overload situation. (31) I . It should be stressed that biological growth of the sludge mass is deliberately ignored here in order to demonstrate how the model describes the sludge dynamics due to a mass transfer only. Hence the mass in the system is assumed to be constant. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR OF SEDIMENTATION Having specified the general behaviour and the mathematical form of the sedimentation process. (27) makes sense.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 217 iteration path starting with X>l/a.. With the nomenclature of Fig. 4 the following dynamic equations can then be written Oxidation Neglecting sludge kinetics and indicating the sludge concentration in the aerator as X1.. since only in this case eq.. no wastage from the settler underflow is considered.AF. Sedimentation Assuming that the incoming mass enters the thickening zone and is immediately thickened to Xt. Of course the analysis is restricted to positive values of AF. it is now possible to incorporate this into a continuous-flow activated sludge process including an oxidation stage and a secondary sedimentation. Q is the process flow rate and P-QN is the dilution rate. else if Fi>Ft (overloading) then 5 = XiQ( 1 + r) . Of course in a fully operational working model the sludge biodynamics consisting of growth and decay terms should be re-introduced.

This dependence was already acknowledged in section 3 where the sedimentation velocity depended on two parameters (V. (23) yields V+Xr0r-V$(1 +r)Xi+XiQ(l+r)-AFt=*Fi-*Ft=O (33) In the case of critical loading the discontinuity is the regulating element in the loop and Ft is the mass transfer rate which the discontinuity can handle. and the recycle ratio r. (29-30) in place of dXi/dt and dM/dt and considering eq. Hence for a given flow Q the amount of mass circulating in the system depends on the limiting flux F. The most widely used sludge sedimentation parameter is the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) defined as the ratio between the volume of sludge after 30 min .218 S. In fact V. possibly measurable on-line or at least frequently. this model deliberately neglects sludge growth and assumes a constant mass in the system. The question arising now is whether any further relation can be established between settling behaviour and overall sludge characteristics. of eqs. and CL are difficult to measure and though some experimental evidence exists that they change very little in time. it would be desirable to rely on some easily obtainable sludge index. SLUDGE SETTLEABILITY The physical characteristics of the sludge influence its settling properties. substituting the r. Again the reader is warned that in order to demonstrate the sludge movements due to sedimentation.s. and a). (32) taking the time derivative.h. consider that VXi+M=cost. which in turn determine the overall dynamic behaviour. MARSILI-LIBELLI To demonstrate that model (29-30) is in agreement with the constant biomass assumption. In fact T=O=Xiz(l +r)=Ft and (35) eliminating Xi yields which coincides with eq. (23).

27.9886 p2 = 0. = 9. spells.4.. and a values for the regressions (37-38). 80~99.99 .5 and al=1 1. The importance of SSVI in this study is to model the sludge blanket height. The question now arises as to what influences the settling characteristics. These were used to perform a linear regression between SSVI and the settling parameters V.‘.“. and CL obtaining a good degree of significance.0366 SSVI CL = 0. while a similar relationship with phosphorus content was obtained by Rachwal et al.9818 (37) (38) 1 These relationships were determined dividing a total of 773 SSVI data into four groups (60+79.e. i. Ghobrial16 states that they depend the loading conditions of the biological reactor. Therefore SVI is expressed in ml 8. the volume taken up by a given mass of sludge. but is subject to a normalized (1 rpm) stirring. In fact . 120+139) and using the average V.3 the following numerical values were found: a1=28. In the case of two medium-scale completely-mixed plants processing domestic sewage with F.72 F. take over because of their superior ability to reach for food. Microscopic examination revealed that the presence of Sphaerotilus natans was highly correlated with low F. This index was criticized as being density dependent and the Specific Stirred Volume Index (SSVI) was proposed instead. (40) can indeed be found. Though Chudoba” and Chudoba et aI.” conclude that no general relation can be established between SSVI and F. values between 0. Based on data both from literature and gathered directly from medium-scale completely-mixed activated sludge plant.15 where extensive data are supplied. here an inverse relation with the loading rate F.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 219 sedimentation and its dry weight. yet for completely-mixed they show that for medium-range F. To determine SSVI the sludge concentration is normalized to a prescribed value and the slurry is not at rest in the test jar. slow-growing filamentous bacteria.+F c with al and a2 numerical parameters. as the high value of the correlation p shows V. lOOtl19. (39) This dependence was then extended to a dynamic relationship using predictive models based on time series analysis and neural network models. is used SSVI=a. This was also noticed by Tsugura et al. A detailed description of the test equipment can be found in White”. but gives no quantitative relationship whereas Capodaglio et aLI7 have proposed a linear relationship between SSVI and F. The advantage of using SSVI instead of SVI is thoroughly treated by Rachwal et a1. SSVI = 145.127-0. as this is not a primary factor influencing filamentous bacterial growth. mainly responsible for poor settling. This has some theoretical justification in the fact that when the food is scarce. This can be related to soluble degradable substrate input through an hyperbolic relation. as shown by Chudoba”.277+0.1 and 0. values a relation such as eq. 18.0011 SSVI p2 = -0.

a reference height. is constant.1 i 0. h=ho+& where h is the sludge blanket height and h.4 d-’ 0. this can be related to the blanket height through a very simple algebraic relation is used .5 11. (40) the settling parameters V. 7 shows how the system responds to changes in the recycle ratio r. The simulation of Fig.8. MARSILI-LIBELLI Table 1 Process parameters A G r FC 800 m’ ai a2 Y 1200 m3 m3 h-’ 100 0. (37-38). At the beginning of the simulation the recycle is quickly decreased and then slowly increased again. and o. with a faster response for the increasing flow. the sludge concentration in the aeration tank Xi decreases due to hydraulic dilution and so does the return sludge X. but in the long term biological growth does represent a major contribution to sludge dynamics and cannot be neglected. In the beginning a short overload occurs as the critical flux corresponding to the new recycle is not large enough to accommodate the incoming mass. are obtained through eqs. The process parameters used in the simulation are summarized in Table 1. Since F. Since the aim of these simulations is to show the biomass movement in the systems. Due to the difficulty in accommodating the abrupt flow increase there is a short period of overload at the leading edge ofthe flow step. Since the model so far considers the accumulated sludge M as a state variable. all biological side-processes have been intentionally neglected and only mass displacements are considered. DYNAMIC MODEL BEHAVIOUR In order to test the model behaviour three different situations were simulated as shown in Fig. 6. the sludge blanket height is proportional to the accumulated mass and follows the same behaviour..220 S. 4 this is an acceptable approximation in the short term. 6 with r being kept constant. which this model does not take into account. It can be seen that the step flow perturbation produces a net build-up in accumulated mass.25 0. An asymmetric behaviour is apparent. It should be remembered that once a SSVI values is obtained from eq. This could be eliminated by increasing the recycle and/or wastage or allowing for long term sludge compression.3 d-’ ml g-’ 28. As already discussed in Sect. Likewise.5 h-’ Settler surface Aeration tank volume Process flow recycle ratio Loading factor SSVI parameter SSVI parameter underflow concentration time constant c this is the most important secondary settler control parameter and the one which is most easily monitored in terms of sludge blanket height. for example the top of the thickening layer of Fig.7. 4. In the first example a step variation of the process flow Q was introduced and the effect of biomass concentration and accumulated sludge is shown in Fig. .

. .. .. . . .i .<’ 5 -0 z Q) > .. . . ..... .. . . .. \ ‘ ..8 \ \ ____:j ’: y.. . .' .......<' o- \ (__ .~.... O1 0 .. .. .. ... . ... -. ' .. ma '!....... Overload I I I Q I I I 0 20 40 60 80 100 T i m e (mid Figure 6 Simulation of an input flow step change from 100 m3 h-’ to 200 m3 h-l. . d---------* *... I : . . . . X 11 E O 0 m 2 . .... --__ -----____________ Sbh _____ x. ......’ _p- \ -_ Sbh '_ --___-_ c 1 I I I I I I 0 50 100 150 200 250 T i m e (mid Figure 7 Effect of recycle variations on the process conditions. ... . . .DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 15Ll()m <5>.. . ’ \_d . 20 715%ok>.. ... . . ~~. ... ...

variations. Given the rather high uncertainty and the variability of the loading rate. MARSILI-LIBELLI 130 i 6 m 110 E 2 v) 90 70 -7 0. l&Ill ' I I I 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (mid Figure 8 Influence of loading rate Fc variations on Specific Stirred Volume Index (SSVI) and Sludge blanket height (Sbh).__ V0 I I I a*\ .LY 0 rc -L---------L-~.222 S.. CONCLUSION The dynamic behaviour of the secondary settler was modelled relying on the Kynch theory and taking into account the interaction with the oxidation tank. The upper part of Fig. decreases as a consequence of the reduced recycle. In this analysis the influence . It can be seen that the effect of this disturbance is more pronounced for low values of F. Soon after the settler adjusts itself to the new condition and normal operation is resumed. Eventually an equilibrium is reached and the system settles again at a new Ft value corresponding to the new critical loading condition. During the simulation F.5 u l. causing the incoming sludge concentration Xi to decrease. Lastly. 8 shows the Sludge blanket height (Sbh) dependence from the loading rate F. (the variations of a were negligible). which cause the highest variation of the sludge blanket height. through the Specific Stirred Volume Index (SSVI). 8 shows how this reflects on the variation of SSVI through the settling parameter V. Fig. . In fact the high input condition causing the overload cannot be sustained for long because the recycle concentration X. The fact that an overloaded settler can spontaneously turn into a critical one is a consequence ofthe constant mass assumption. was first increased and then decreased again. a random fluctuation was superimposed to the deterministic F.

2. and Schaefer. Sci.. R. 24.. 11. 112. identification and control of the activated sludge process” Adv. Div. Low&n M. Dick.. in BiochemicalEngineering/Biotechnology. (1977) “Activated sludge-unified system design and operation”J.. EE5: 829-849. Shin B. 25: 1217-1224. Tech. P. Vol. No. A. Karlsson U. Chichester. J. EE3: 505-526. Hanbury M. and Poduska R. (1986) “Flocculant settling dynamics under constant 1oading”J: Env. M. Olsson G. 17. and Keinath. Div. Env. Feng X. then assesses its numerical behaviour in describing the dynamics of the three possible loading conditions of the secondary settler (critical. _ . 103. Vol. (1952) “A theory of sedimentation” Trans. 106. 136: 291-308. D. V. 48: 166176. Novotny V. Dick and B. Marsh-Libelli S. K. eds. 75: 459467. ASCE. 6. 103. and Chapman D. 10.. Vol. T. No. by R. G. (1970) “Role of activated sludge final settling tanks” J. (1991) “Sludge bulking analysis and forecasting: application of system identification and artificial neural computing technologies” Wat.. No. some simulations were produced to show that the model was capable of describing a number of different practical situations. A.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SEDIMENTATION 223 l ofbiological factors such as sludge growth due to microbial activity was deliberately omitted in order to show the role of mass transfer and limiting flux. 4. (1978) “Importance of the clarification phase in biological process control” Wat. A. 10: 1263-1271. Eng. (1989) “Modelling. Dana C. Faraday Society.. 12. F. (R. D. (1968) Discussion of “Evaluation of activated sludge thickening theories”. Rex. Eng. 1. Lauria. Ryckman M. J. 12: 1009-1016.. Control. Vol. Relying on physical evidence and parameters drawn from the literature or obtained through direct experimentation. I. ASCE. Div. PolZut. No. Vol. J. (1985) “Modelling the dynamics of clarifier behaviour in activated sludge systems” Proc.): 405412. Molina L. Drake ed. B.. ASCE. 9.. Johnstone D.. J. D. SA2:423436. Ghobrial F.. 16. H. Oxford. Rex. underload) in a unified conceptual basis. 15. 7: 3342. 94: 185-191.. Vol. 13. Eng. Uunk. Vol. Under this hypothesis the paper first considers the structural properties of the model. (1991) “A dynamic model of the clarification-thickening process” Wut. Severin B. References Kynch G. H&man B. No. Nolasco D. (1978) “The application of settleability test for the control of the activated sludge plants” in Bulking of the activated sludgeplants: preventative and remedial methods (Chambers B. J. Jones H. M. Vol. &nit. D. 38: 89-148. EEl: 171-184. (199 1) “Prediction of activated sludge sedimentation based on sludge indices” Wat. Tracy. B. Vol. and Hofer D.. ASCE. ASCE. 14. Rex. T. Li P. (1977) “Activated sludge process design” J. EE4: 625-645. 7. Env. Div. (1973) “Dynamic model for thickening of activated sludge” AIChE Symposium Series (Water) 70.. No. 3: 160-l 64. J. No. No.. ASCE.. (1976) “Design and control of secondary settlement tanks” Wat. (1980) “Applicability of Kynch theory to flocculent suspensions” J.). T. K. Keinath. Patry G. Acknowledgement This research was partly supported by the Ministry of University and Scientific and Technological Research (MURST) under contract 09/02/000056 as part of the research project of national interest entitled “dynamic modelling of ecosystems”. Vol. overload.. and Tomlinson E.. Capodaglio A. Rachwal A. MC.. 8.. H. Tak&cs I. 5. Ellis Horwood Ltd.. Div. 25. J. W. M. 3.. Sun... C&chard D. and Dick R. I. S. No. Instrumentation and control of water and wastewater treatment and transport systems. J. 6. Pergamon Press. J. G. R. White M. Env. Eng. Thus it can assist in the design of control strategies for the biomass in the activated sludge system. Eng. Stehfest H. Ewing. I. (1984) “An operational dynamic model of the final clarifier” Trans. Vesilind A. H.

MARSILI-LIBELLI Tsugura H.‘) X. (R. (1985) “Control of activated sludge tilamentous bulking-VI: formulation of basic principles” Wat.‘) X. 19: 1017-1022. Grau P.. Drake ed. = Steady-state recycle sludge concentration (g 1. Fujimoto E.‘ ) F. S.. = Sludge concentration in the build-up zone (g 1-l) u = Downdraft velocity due to bulk flux (cm mid’ ) V = Aeration tank volume (m’ ) V. 19.): 509-512. 20. 19: 191-196.. Oxford. S. Res. Chudoba J. Rex. Iwahori K. Pergamon Press.‘ ) Fb = Bulk flux due to recycle (g cme2 mine’) F. Farkac J. (1985) “Development ofadvancedanalyzing system for sludge settleability” Proc. A. = Loading rate (Kg BOD Kg MLSS’ d-‘) Ft = Limiting flux (critical loading) (g cmm2 min. Chudoba J. NOMENCLATURE A = Settler surface (m’ ) al = SVI parameter (ml g-‘) a2 = SVI parameter (d-l) F = Total sedimentation flux (g cmm2 min. Vol. Instrumentation and control of water and wastewater treatment and transport systems. R.‘ ) 2 = Upward propagation velocity (cm mine’) a = Sedimentation parameter (1 g-‘) l3 = Aeration tank dilution rate (h-‘) y = Underflow concentration time constant (h“) .224 18.. = Ascending flux (g cmm2 min. (1985) “Control of activated sludge filamentous bulking: experimental verification of a kinetic selection theory” Wat. = Limit sedimentation velocity (cm min. Cech J..‘ ) h = Sludge blanket height (m) M = Total accumulated mass in the thickening zone (Kg) m. = Specific accumulated mass (Kg m”) Q = Process flow (m’ he’) r = Recycle ratio SVI = Sludge Volume Index (ml g-‘) SSVI = Specific Stirred Volume Index (ml g-‘) Xi = Sludge concentration in the aeration tank (g 1. Matsui S.. = Recycle sludge concentration (g I-‘) X’ = Limit sludge concentration at the discontinuity (g 1...‘) X. Vol.

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