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Nonlinear Dynamics 14: 211229, 1997. c 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

Chaotic Dynamics of a Harmonically Excited Spring-Pendulum System with Internal Resonance


WON KYOUNG LEE
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan 712-749, Korea

HAE DONG PARK


Institute of Research and Development, Unison Industrial Co. Ltd., Cheonan 330-220, Korea (Received: 25 February 1997; accepted: 24 March 1997)

Abstract. An investigation into chaotic responses of a weakly nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom system is made. The specic system examined is a harmonically excited spring pendulum system, which is known to be a good model for a variety of engineering systems, including ship motions with nonlinear coupling between pitching and rolling motions. By the method of multiple scales the original nonautonomous system is reduced to an approximate autonomous system of amplitude and phase variables. The approximate system is shown to have Hopf bifurcation and a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaotic motions. In order to examine what happens in the original system when the approximate system exhibits chaos, we compare the largest Lyapunov exponents for both systems. Key words: Spring-pendulum system, chaos, Lyapunov exponent.

1. Introduction When it is difcult to solve an engineering problem directly, we usually transform the original system into an approximate system, and judge the solution of the original system in view of the solution of the approximate system. However, we cannot say that the solution of the approximate system completely reects the solution of the original system because there exists some missing information because of the approximation. For example, consider the analysis of a weakly nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom vibratory system. The system can be expressed by a state equation as follows:

_ x = fx; t;

x 2 Rn ;

(1)

where the dot denotes the derivative with respect to time t, n = 2N , N = the number of degrees of freedom, and x = fx1 ; x2 ; : : : ; xn gT represents the state vector. Using a proper co-ordinate transformation and an approximate method we can transform the original nonautonomous system (1) into an approximate autonomous system as follows:

_ p = gp;

where p = fp1 ; p2 ; : : : ; pn gT is a state vector. For convenience, consider a two-degree-of-freedom system with the co-ordinate transformation

p 2 Rn ;

(2)

x1 = p1 cos t + p2 sin t;
Contributed by Professor A. K. Bajaj.

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W. K. Lee and H. D. Park

x2 = , p1 sin t + p2 cos t; x3 = p3 cos k t + p4 sin k t; x4 = ,k p3 sin k t + k p4 cos k t;

(3)

where is the frequency of the harmonic excitation and k is a rational number. The rst two relations of Equation (3) show that the p1 p2 plane rotates with the angular velocity with respect to the x1 x2 plane. The last two relations show that the p3 p4 plane rotates with the angular velocity k with respect to the x3 x4 plane. It is conjectured that an equilibrium solution, a periodic solution, and chaos in the approximate system (2) have a correspondence to a periodic solution, a quasi-periodic solution, and chaos, respectively, in the original system (1). Now we need to check if this conjecture is valid. Many investigators have studied chaos in weakly nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom systems with internal resonance. For instances, a spherical pendulum system [1], quadratically coupled oscillators with 1:2 internal resonance [2], cubic nonlinear oscillators with 1:3 internal resonance [3], a harmonically excited elastic beam with 1:1 internal resonance [4], parametrically excited oscillators [5], innitely long cylindrical shells [6, 7] and quadratic nonlinear oscillators with three mode interactions [8] have been studied. Nayfeh and co-workers reported that they experimentally found chaos in such systems [911]. For a comprehensive review of responses of weakly nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom systems with internal resonance, the reader is referred to a review article by Nayfeh and Balachandran [12]. Such works can be summarized as follows: after reducing the approximate systems and examining the stability of the equilibrium solutions of the systems, they have found Hopf bifurcations and a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos. By these works, many of them conjectured that chaos in the approximate systems implies chaos in the original systems. Tousi and Bajaj [3] pointed out: We can, however, only speculate on the relationship between chaotic motions of the averaged system and the motions of the coupled oscillators and further study is needed. The reason why they made this statement is that there is no theorem clearly stating the relationship between chaotic solutions of the approximate system and solutions of original system. In this light, Bajaj and his colleagues have made extensive investigations to show that there seems to be a qualitative correspondence between chaotic solutions of the approximate system and those of original system, for stretched strings [1315] and a two-degree-of-freedom system [1618]. In this paper, to examine further if chaos in the approximate system implies chaos in the original system, we examine how the largest Lyapunov exponents of attractors in both systems depend on the forcing amplitude. The specic system examined is a harmonically excited spring-pendulum system with internal resonance. Since the system is known to be a good model for a variety of engineering systems, including ships motions with nonlinear coupling between pitching and rolling motions [19, 20], many authors have studied the system [2131]. Considering resonance conditions (!1  2!2 and  !1 , where !1 , !2 , and denote natural frequencies of the spring and pendulum modes and the excitation frequency, respectively), Lee [32] and Lee and Hsu [33] found that the system can have two stable steady-state periodic solutions. They obtained domains of attraction to describe the set of initial states eventually attracted to each stable solution. In this study an internal resonance condition (!1  2!2 ) and two external resonance conditions (  !1 and  !2) are considered. Using the method of multiple scales, we

Harmonically Excited Spring-Pendulum System

213

Figure 1. A harmonically excited spring-pendulum system.

transform the original nonautonomous system into an approximate autonomous system. The approximate system is shown to have Hopf bifurcation and a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos. The long-term behaviors of both systems are compared by examining the largest Lyapunov exponents for both systems. 2. Equations of Motion of a Harmonically Excited Spring-Pendulum System Consider the planar motion of a mass, m, attached to one end of a massless linear spring of stiffness k and unstretched length l0 (see Figure 1). The statically stretched length l is given by

spring extensional and pendulum angular motions, respectively. They are both taken to be zero at the stable static equilibrium position. A moment M t = M0 cos t acts about the point O and a force F = F0 cos t acts on the mass m in the x-direction (F t has no moment about O). The moment M t is carried by a massless rigid bar (not shown in the gure), along which the spring extensional motion occurs. Linear viscous damping forces c1 dx=dt and c2 d'=dt    are considered to be present in both spring and pendulum motions, respectively. We can write the equations of motion as follows:
2 x + c1 x + !1 x , 1 + x'2 + !2 1 , cos ' = f1 cos t; _ 2 _ 1 + x2' + c2 ' + 21 + xx' + !2 1 + x sin ' = f2 cos t; _ __ 2

l = l0 + xst;  (4) where xst = mg=k is the static deection due to gravity. The variables x and ' describe the  

(5)

where
2 2 !1 = k=m; !2 = g=l; c1 = c1 =m; c2 = c2=ml2 ;   f1 = F0 =ml; f2 = M0=ml2 ; x = x=l: 

(6)

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W. K. Lee and H. D. Park

cn = "cn ; fn = "2f^n ; n = 1; 2: ^ The parameters, !1 , !2 , c1 , c2 , f1 , f2 and ^ ^ ^ ^

The co-ordinates x and ' are normal co-ordinates corresponding to the linearized system whose natural frequencies in spring and pendulum modes are !1 and !2 , respectively. Motions in some small neighborhood of the static equilibrium position are considered so that the amplitude of the response is assumed to be of order of a small parameter ", 0 " 1. The linear viscous damping forces and the exciting forces are assumed to be of the order of "2 such that (7)

are of the order of 1. The behavior of such a system can be very complex, especially when the natural frequencies and the forcing frequency satisfy certain internal and external resonance conditions. Here, we assume that !1  2!2 and  !s (s = 1; 2). From Equations (4) and (6), we nd that the internal resonance condition !1  2!2 is realized when l0 =l  3=4. To describe how close the frequencies are to the resonance conditions we introduce detuning parameters: 2!2

where 1 and 2 are called the internal and external detuning parameters, respectively, and ^1 and ^2 are of the order of 1. 3. Analysis The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a uniformly valid, asymptotic expansion of the solution for Equation (5) in the case of 2!2  !1 and  !s (s = 1; 2). For the rst approximation, we introduce two time scales:

= !1 + = !s +

= !1 + " ^1 ; s = 1; 2; 2 = !s + " ^ 2 ;
1

(8)

T0 = t; T1 = "t: (9) The fast scale T0 is associated with the relatively fast changes in response, and the slow scale T1 is associated with the relatively slow changes in amplitudes and phases. We seek an asymptotic solution of Equation (5) for small but nite x and ' in the form of xt; " = "x1T0 ; T1  + "2 x2 T0; T1  + O"3 ; 't; " = "'1 T0 ; T1  + "2 '2 T0; T1  + O"3 : (10) Derivatives with respect to t are then transformed into 2 d=dt = D0 + "D1 ; d2 =dt2 = D0 + 2"D0 D1 ; (11)
where

D0 = @=@T0 ; D1 = @=@T1 : (12) Terms of O "2  and the higher order in Equation (11) have been neglected. Substituting these expressions into Equation (5) and equating coefcients of equal powers of " lead to O" 2 2 D0 x1 + !1 x1 = 0; 2 2 D0 '1 + !2 '1 = 0:

(13)

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O"2 
2 2 2 ^ D0 x2 + !1 x2 = ,2D0D1x1 + D0 '1 2 , c1 D0 x1 , !2 '2 =2 + f^1 cos T0; 1 2 2 D0 '2 + !2 '2 = ,2D0D1'1 , 2D0 x1D0 '1 , c2 D0 '1 ^ 2 2 , !2 x1'1 , 2x1D0 '1 + f^2 cos T0:

(14)

The general solution of Equation (13) can be written in the form

x1 = A1 T1  expi!1T0  + c:c:; '1 = A2 T1  expi!2T0  + c:c:;


where c.c. represents the complex conjugate. Substituting Equation (15) into Equation (14), we have

(15)

^ 2 2 D0 x2 + !1 x2 = f1 expi T0  , i!1 2D1A1 + c1 A1 expi!1 T0 ^ 2 ^ 2 2 ^ D0 '2 + !2 '2 = f2 expi T0  , i!2 2D1A2 + c2 A2 expi!2 T0 2 + !22!1 + !2A1 A2 exp i!1 + !2T0  , !22!1 , !2A1 A2 exp i!1 , !2T0 + c:c:; (16)  where An denotes the complex conjugate of An . The functions A1 and A2 are to be determined  , !2 3A2 expi2!2T0  , A2 A2 + c:c:; 2 2
2

by satisfying the solvability conditions for boundedness of the solution. The form of solvability conditions depends on the resonance conditions. Inspection of Equation (16) shows that there exists an internal resonance if 2!2  !1 and an external resonance if  !1 or  !2 . In view of Equation (8), the solvability conditions (the conditions for the elimination of secular terms) can be written as

d An = "2i!n D1 An + O"2 ; dt The nonlinear terms 2i!n


2 ,3=2!2 A2 expi ^1 T1 and 2  ,!22!1 , !2A1 A2 exp,i ^1 T1

(17) 2 where ns is the Kronecker delta. Using Equation (11) we can express the derivative of An with respect to t as follows:

^ 2 = ,i!1c1A1 + 1s f1 expi ^2 T1 , 3 !2 A2 expi ^1 T1; ^ 2 2 2  2i!2 D1 A2 = ,i!2 c2 A2 , !2 2!1 , !2 A1 A2 exp,i ^1 T1  ^ ^ + 2s f2 expi ^2 T1;
2i!1 D1 A1

n = 1; 2:

(18)

(19)

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are due to the internal resonance. In the case of no internal resonance, therefore, none of the nonlinear terms appears in the solvability conditions. Deleting the nonlinear terms, solving Equation (17) for A1 and A2 , and substituting the result into Equations (15) and (9) we can see that the rst approximation is essentially the solution of the linearized system of Equation (5) [34]. Let

a1 = "a1; a2 = "a2; ^ ^ A1 = ^1=2 expi 1 ; A2 = ^2 =2 expi 2 ; a a


and the modied phase variables
1

(20)

where a1 and a2 are of the order of 1. Introducing polar forms for the complex amplitudes ^ ^ (21)

= , s + ^2T1;

=2 2,

+ ^1T1 ; s = 1; 2:

(22)

We have
2 D1 a1 = , 1 c1 a1 , 3!2 a2 sin 2 + ^ ^ ^ 8! ^ 2 2 1 2 2 1s 1s

a1 D1 1 = 3! a2 cos 2 , ^ ^ 8!1 2

f^1 cos ; 1 2!1

f^1 sin ; 1 2 !1 f^2 sin ; 1 2 !2


(23)

^ ^^ 4 a^ D1 a2 = , 1 c2 a2 , 1 !2 , 2!1^1a2 sin 2 + 2

2s

a2 D1 2 = , 1 !2 , 2!1^1a2 cos 2 , ^ a^ 4


3.1. FOR THE CASE OF

2s

f^2 cos : 1 2 !2

 !1 (s = 1)

Substituting s = 1 into Equations (22) and (23), and using Equation (17), we can have a system of autonomous ordinary differential equations in amplitude an and phase n for n = 1; 2.
2 a1 = , 1 c1 a1 , 3!2 a2 sin 2 + 2f1 sin 1 ; _ 2 8!1 2 !1 2 a1 _ 1 = 2 a1 , 3!2 a2 cos 2 + 2f1 cos 1 ; 8!1 2 !1

a2 = , 1 c2 a2 + 1 2!1 , !2a1 a2 sin 2; _ 2 4 a1 a2 _ 2 = a2


"
1 1

a ,

2 3!2 8!1

a ,
2 2

1 2!1 , !2a2 cos 1 2

f1 cos 2+ 2 !1


1

(24)

where a dot denotes the differentiation with respect to t.

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Substituting Equations (15), (18) and (21) into Equation (10), and neglecting terms of O"2 , we have

x = a1 exp i t , 1 + c:c: = a1 cos t , 1; 2 a2 exp i t , 1 , 2  + c:c: = a cos t , '= 2 2 2 2 2

, 2 : 2

(25)

Equation (25) shows that each of the equilibrium states of the autonomous system (24) corresponds to a steady-state solution of the nonautonomous system (5). When the condition for steady-state solutions is satised, that is, a1 = a2 = _ 1 = _ 2 = 0, we have three possible _ _ steady-state solutions for Equation (5): 1. One harmonic solution

a11 = q
sin and

2 !14 2 + c2  1 c1 ; 11 = q 2 4 2 + c2 1

f1

; a21 = 0;
cos
11

= ,q

2 4
2 2

+ c2 1

(26)

21

is indeterminate.

2. Two second order subharmonic solutions

 2 , 12 + c2 a12 = 2! , ! =2 2 ; a2 2 , 21a2 + 0 = 0; 22 22 1 2   2 !1 c a + 3!2 a2 sin sin 12 = f1 1 12 4!1 22 22 ;   2 !1 ,2 a + 3!2 a2 cos cos 12 = 2 12 22 ; f1 4!1 22 c2 sin 22 = q ; cos 22 = q  2 , 1 2 ; 2  2 , 12 + c2  2 , 12 + c2 2 2 2 2 1 = 4f2 22 2 , 1 , c1c2 g ; 0 = 164 2 + c21a12 , a11 ; f3!2 =!12!1 , !2=2g 3!2 =!1 2 where the second subscripts of a and are used to denote the:

(27)

1. harmonic, and 2. second order subharmonic solutions. In order to express the autonomous system (24) in terms of the Cartesian co-ordinates pn , we let
1 2

= ^2 T1 , 1 ; =
1 2

^2 , ^1T1 , 1  1 , 2 : 2

(28)

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Substituting Equation (28) into Equation (21), we have A1 = 1 a1 exp i^2 T1 , 1  = 1 ^1 , ip2 expi ^2 T1 ; ^ p ^ 2 2  1  1 1 A2 = 2 a2 exp i 2 ^2 , ^1T1 , 2  1 , 2  ^

=
where

1 2

^3 , ip4  exp i 1 ^2 , ^1 T1 p ^ 2

(29)

p1 = a1 cos 1 ; p2 = a1 sin 1; ^ ^ ^ ^ p3 = a2 cos 1  1 , 2 ; p4 = a2 sin 1  1 , 2 : ^ ^ ^ ^ (30) 2 2 If we let pn = "pn , then pn are of the order of 1. Substituting Equation (17) into Equation (18) ^ ^
2 p1 = , 1 c1 p1 , 2p2 + 3!2 p3p4; _ 2 4! 1

and using Equation (20), we have

2 p2 = , 1 c1 p2 + 2p1 , 3!2 p2 , p2  + 2f1 ; _ 3 4 2 8! ! 1 1

p3 = , 1 c2 p3 , 1  2 , 1p4 , 1 2!1 , !2p1 p4 , p2p3; _ 2 2 4 p4 = , 1 c2 p4 + 1  2 , 1p3 , 1 2!1 , !2p1 p3 + p2p4: _ 2 2 4 x = p1 cos t + p2 sin t;
1 ' = p3 cos 2 t + p4 sin 1 t: 2 _ _ _ _ Solving the algebraic equations p1 = p2 = p3 = p4 = 0, we have a harmonic solution ,2 2 f p11 = ! c2 + f1 2 ; p21 = ! cc1+14 2 ; 2 4 (32) (31) The system (31) corresponds to the system (24) and the approximate solution (25) becomes

which corresponds to Equation (26). The subharmonic solutions (p3 6= 0, p4 6= 0) can be obtained from Equations (27) and (30). As shown in Lee [32], and Lee and Hsu [33], the above results are in agreement with the results obtained by the method of harmonic balance to the rst approximation. 3.2. FOR THE CASE OF

p31 = 0; p41 = 0;

(33)

Substituting s = 2 into Equations (22) and (23), we obtain a system of autonomous ordinary differential equations
2 a1 = , 1 c1 a1 , 3!2 a2 sin 2 ; _ 2 8! 2 1

 !2 (s = 2)

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a2 _ 1 = 2 a2 , 1 2!1 , !2a1 a2 cos 2 + 2f2 cos 1 ; 4 !2 a2 = , 1 c2 a2 + 1 2!1 , !2a1 a2 sin 2 + 2f2 sin 1; _ 2 4 !2  2  f 3!2 2 1 2 a1 a2 _ 2 = 1a1 a2 , 8! a2 , 2 2!1 , !2a1 a2 cos 2 , !2 a1 cos 1: 1 2 O"2 , we have x = a1 exp i2 t , 2 , 2 1 + c:c: = a1 cos2 t , 2 , 2 1; 2 ' = a2 exp i t , 2 + c:c: = a2 cos t , 2: 2
_ To obtain the steady-state solutions, solving a1

(34)

Substituting Equations (15), (18) and (21) into Equation (10), and neglecting terms of

(35)

= a2 = _ 1 = _ 2 = 0, we have _ 4! q a3 + 1a2 + 2a1 + 3 = 0; a2 = 3!1 42 2 + 1 2 + c2 a1 ; 1 1 2 1 2 2   1 2!1c1 a2 1 sin 1 = f2 !2c2a2 + 3!2a2 2!1 , !2 ;   1 4!1a2 1 cos 1 = f 3! a 2!1 , !22 2 + 1  , 2!2 2a2 ;
2 2 2

cos

= 8!1a1 2 2 + 1 ; 2 2
3!2 a2 4f4
2

sin

= , 4!1c1 a1 ; 2 2
3!2 a2

1 = , 3 = ,

2 2q2 + 1 , c1c2 g ;  = 44 2 + c2  ; 2 2 2!1 , !22 2 + c2 2!1 , !2 42 2 , 1  1

3 qf2 : !12!1 , !22 42 2 + 12 + c2 1


2

(36)

In this case, the solution of a2 = 0 does not exist. In order to express the autonomous system (34) in terms of the Cartesian co-ordinates pn , we let
1 2

= 2 ^2 + ^1T1 , 2 1 + 2; = ^2 T1 , 1 :

(37)

Substituting Equation (37) into Equation (21), we have

A1 = 1 ^1 , ip2  exp i2 ^2 + ^1T1 ; p ^ 2 A2 = 1 ^3 , ip4  expi ^2 T1; p ^ 2


(38)

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and use Equation (38), we have

p1 = a1 cos2 1 + 2; p2 = a1 sin2 1 + 2 ; ^ ^ ^ ^ p3 = a2 cos 1 ; p4 = a2 sin 1: ^ ^ ^ ^ (39) ^ ^ If we let pn = "pn , where pn are of the order of 1, substitute Equation (17) into Equation (18)
2 p1 = , 1 c1 p1 , 2 2 + 1p2 + 3!2 p3p4; _ 2 4! 1

2 p2 = , 1 c1 p2 + 2 2 + 1p2 , 3!2 p2 , p2; _ 3 4 2 8! 1

p4 = , 1 c2 p4 + 2p3 , 1 2!1 , !2p1 p3 + p2p4 + 2f2 : _ 2 4 !


2

p3 = , 1 c2 p3 , 2p4 , 1 2!1 , !2p1 p4 , p2p3; _ 2 4

(40)

The system (40) corresponds to the system (34) and the approximate solution (35) becomes

x = p1 cos 2 t + p2 sin 2 t; ' = p3 cos t + p4 sin t:


4. Numerical Results 4.1. FOR THE CASE OF

(41)

 !1
2

To obtain the numerical results, we have chosen the following values for the system parameters

!1 = 1:0;

= 0:03;

= 0:004; c1 = c2 = 0:005; f2 = 0:0:

Using Equations (26) and (27), we have plotted the response curves shown in Figure 2, where solid and dotted lines denote stable and unstable solutions, respectively, and a1 and a2 are the modal amplitudes and f1 is the amplitude of the external excitation. In this gure, f1A and f1B represent the pitchfork and Hopf bifurcation points, respectively. While the amplitude a11 of the resonantly excited mode (spring mode) of the harmonic solution is proportional to f1 , the amplitude a21 of pendulum mode is identically zero. For the subharmonic solution, the amplitude a21 of the resonantly excited mode is independent of f1 , while the amplitude a22 of the pendulum mode, which is not resonantly excited, depends on f1. This has been called the saturation phenomenon [34]. Due to the Hopf bifurcation at f1B , when f1 f1B , there is no stable steady-state periodic solution, thus the long-term response is aperiodic. That is, the motion may be quasi-periodic or chaotic. While the equilibrium solution of the approximate system (31), which corresponds to the steady-state subharmonic solution, loses its stability at f1B , a stable periodic solution (a limit cycle) of system (31) is generated. In order to examine the behavior of the periodic solutions of the approximate system (31) for f1 f1B , we generate a Poincar map in the e space (p-phase space) by using a hyperplane p2 = ,0:5p1 + 0:0004. The bifurcation diagram in Figure 3 shows the relation between f1 and p1 of stable periodic solutions in the map. The

Harmonically Excited Spring-Pendulum System

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f1:0; 0:03; 0:004; 0:005; 0:005; 0:0g, stable; - - - unstable.

Figure 2. Modal amplitudes as functions of the amplitude of the excitation, f1 , for !1 ;

; 2 ; c1 ; c2 ; f2 g

Figure 3. Bifurcation diagram for the Poincar map of the solution of the approximate system (31). Steady-state e behavior as a function of f1 showing a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations.

diagram also shows the period-doubling bifurcation leading to the chaotic motions. The phase trajectory of a chaotic motion projected onto p1 p3 plane is shown in Figure 4. From the above results, the approximate system (31) is shown to have the Hopf bifurcation and a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaotic motions. Now we examine what happens in the original system (5) for the case where the approximate system has chaotic motions. Since system (5) is periodic with period T = 2= , we can generate a Poincar e map by inspecting the phase projection only at the specic times t = mT (m an integer). The results in Figures 5a and 6a, represent, respectively, invariant circles and a chaotic motion.

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Figure 4. Phase plots for the chaotic motion at f1

= 0:000497.

Figure 5. Projection of Poincar map and time history of a quasi-periodic solution of the original system (5); e f1 = 0:000364. (a) Projection of Poincar map in the (x') plane, (b) time history of x. e

Figures 5b and 6b show the time histories corresponding to the Poincar maps in Figures 5a e and 6a, respectively. Similar Poincar maps and corresponding time histories have been found e in an autoparametric system [18]. In order to show quantitatively that the motion shown in Figures 6a and 6b is truly chaotic, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponents of several long-term responses for the approximate and original systems [3538]. The results are shown in Table 1. In principle, the response is chaotic if the corresponding exponent is positive. Here the values in Table 1 are so small that we have some troubles in judging the occurrence of chaos. Therefore, we draw the exponents as a function of f1 to compare the quantitative

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223

Figure 6. Projection of Poincar map and time history of a chaotic motion of the original system (5); f1 e (a) Projection of Poincar map in the (x') plane, (b) time history of x. e Table 1. Values of Lyapunov exponents for the approximate and original system ( !1 ).

= 0:00055.

f1
0.000364 0.0004 0.00044 0.00047 0.000483 0.0004846 0.0004849 0.000497 0.00055

Largest Lyapunov exponents Approximate system Original system 0:6760 0:2794 0:4873 0:4427 0:9452 0:6528 0:6818 0:2831 0:7423

 10,6  10,5  10,5  10,5  10,5  10,6  10,7  10,3  10,3

0:3675 0:5221 0:1624 0:2093 0:7670 0:2132 0:3321 0:3137 0:7210

 10,5  10,6  10,4  10,4  10,5  10,4  10,4  10,3  10,3

characteristics of the long-term behaviors of both systems. Figures 7 and 8 represent the exponents corresponding to the approximate and original systems, respectively. It is easily observed in both gures that widths of the regions where the periodic solutions exist, coincide. The results in Figures 7 and 8 look similar except in detail. The similar behaviors of both exponents tell us that the approximate system (31) reects very well the behavior of the original system (5) in the case of chaotic responses as well as for regular responses. This is in accord with what Bajaj and his colleagues [1317] have found. 4.2. FOR THE CASE OF

 !2
2

For this case the system parameters chosen are as follows:

!1 = 0:5;

= ,0:01;

= 0:005; c1 = c2 = 0:005; f1 = 0:0:

Since the procedure followed is similar to the case of  !1, we will avoid similar explanations whenever possible. Using Equation (36) we plot the response curves shown in

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Figure 7. Lyapunov exponent versus f1 for the solutions of the approximate system (31).

Figure 8. Lyapunov exponent versus f1 for the solutions of the original system (5).

Figure 9. In this gure, the saddle-node bifurcation and saturation phenomenon are not found, but a Hopf bifurcation occurs at the forcing amplitude f2 = f2B . In order to examine the behavior of the periodic solutions of the approximate system (40), for f2 f2B , we generate a Poincar map in the space (p-phase space) by using a hyperplane e p2 = ,0:2p1 + 0:037. The bifurcation diagram in Figure 10 shows the relation between the forcing amplitude f2 and Cartesian co-ordinate p1 of stable periodic solutions in the map. The diagram also shows a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to the chaotic motions. The phase trajectory of a chaotic motion projected onto the p1 p3 plane is shown in Figure 11. From the above results, the approximate system (40) is shown to have a Hopf bifurcation and a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaotic motions. Poincar maps e of long-term responses of the original system (5) are shown in Figures 12a and 13a, which represent, respectively, an invariant circle and a chaotic motion. Figures 12b and 13b show the time histories corresponding to the Poincar maps in Figures 12a and 13a, respectively. e The phase plot in Figure 11 is very similar to the Poincar map in Figure 13a. This similarity e

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225

f0:5; ,0:01; 0:005; 0:005; 0:005; 0:0g, stable; - - - unstable.

Figure 9. Modal amplitudes as functions of the amplitude of the excitation, f2 , for !2 ;

; 2 ; c1 ; c2 ; f1 g

Figure 10. Bifurcation diagram for the Poincar map of the solution of the approximate system (40). Steady-state e behavior as a function of f2 showing a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations.

comes from the fact that the approximate system (40) is an approximation of the Poincar map e of the original system (5). We can see from Equation (41) that the smallest common period of x and ' is T = 2= , the mapping time. We have to note that in the case of  !1 , the smallest common period of x and ' is 2T , two times of the mapping time, as shown in Equation (32). This may be one reason of dissimilarity between the phase plot in Figure 4 and the Poincar map in Figure 6a. e

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Figure 11. Phase plots for the chaotic motion at f2

= 0:000886.

Figure 12. Projection of Poincar map and time history of a quasi-periodic solution of the original system (5); e f2 = 0:0007. (a) Projection of Poincar map in the (x') plane, (b) time history of x. e

The largest Lyapunov exponents of several long-term responses for the approximate and original systems are calculated and shown in Table 2. Here the values are very small, as they are in the Table 1. Figures 14 and 15 show how both exponents corresponding to the approximate and original systems, respectively, change as f2 varies. The comparison between Figures 10 and 14 tells us that the exponent goes down to zero whenever periodic solution of the system (40) exists. Even though the behaviors of the exponents in Figures 14 and 15 are not as close as in the case of  !1 , there exist some obvious intervals where the exponents for the original system are positive. Therefore, we can say that the approximate system (40) reects very well the

Harmonically Excited Spring-Pendulum System

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Figure 13. Projection of Poincar map and time history of a chaotic motion of the original system (5); f2 e 0:000873. (a) Projection of Poincar map in the (x') plane, (b) time history of x. e Table 2. Values of Lyapunov exponents for the approxi!2 ). mate and original system (

f2
0.0006 0.0007 0.00083 0.00087 0.000873 0.000874 0.000886 0.001

Largest Lyapunov exponents Approximate system Original system 0:2335 0:1058 0:3696 0:2099 0:2879 0:1629 0:2194 0:1131

 10,4  10,4  10,4  10,5  10,5  10,4  10,3  10,4

0:3514 0:4514 0:6977 0:5196 0:5913 0:6589 0:5824 0:2398

 10,4  10,4  10,4  10,3  10,3  10,3  10,3  10,4

Figure 14. Lyapunov exponent versus f2 for the solutions of the approximate system (40).

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Figure 15. Lyapunov exponent versus f2 for the solutions of the original system (5).

behavior of the original system (5) in the case of chaotic responses as well as regular ones, if we recognize that the asymptotic approximation cannot reproduce all the details of dynamics of the original system. For the sake of a good agreement between both exponents, we may need a higher order expansion. 5. Concluding Remarks In order to investigate the chaotic responses for a weakly nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom system, we examined a harmonically excited spring-pendulum system with internal resonance. The approximate autonomous system obtained from the original nonautonomous system is shown to have Hopf bifurcation and a sequence of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaotic motions. By examining the largest Lyapunov exponents of both systems we observed that the approximate system very well reects the dynamics of the original system in the cases of chaotic responses as well as regular ones. Acknowledgements This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant No. MSM-8519950. We gratefully acknowledge Professor Bajaj who brought some references [1316] to our attention and gave us particularly useful suggestions. We also would like to thank the reviewers for their helpful comments on this paper. References
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