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Chapter 1 Introduction
Q1 - Change is the only constant phenomenon, Comment. Give suitable examples from the daily life. A1:
Change is witnessed in our daily life, after the industrial revolution and the information technology revolutions the change becomes more fast and the quality has become the key for survival. Change could be seen clearly all over the globe, it could be seen in: People (people are changing) Level of education has been increased. The gap between people has been increased. Contribution of women in life has been increased. Industries (industries are changing) Competition has been increased. Productivity levels are increasing to meet the demand. Automation has become the backbone of large scale industries. The world (the world is changing) Environmental changes are increasing due to pollution. The world becomes look like a village as a result of the information technology revolution. Gap between developed and under developed rich and poor, is increasing which results in displeasure. Education (educational system is changing) Shifting from teaching to learning has been increased. Life- long learning has become essential. Specialization has been increased From all of the above we conclude that change is the only constant phenomenon.

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Q2 - Draw the quality grid that represents the different approaches to life and explain how everyone can be brought to a "quality living" from the different grid positions. A2:


2 Blind living 1 Treacherous living

4 Quality living 3 Careless living


Quality is defined as doing the right things the right way. One can choose the wrong things and do it the wrong way and be in quadrant 1 One can choose the wrong thing and do it the right way and be in quadrant 2 One can choose the right thing and do it the wrong way and be in quadrant 3 One can choose the right thing and do it the right way and be in quadrant 4 which is the quality The following table illustrates the quality grid and the results of each way of living
Grid quadrant 1 Treacherous living Both value system and attitude to be changed. Value system to be changed.

Grid quadrant 2

Blind living

Grid quadrant 3

Careless living

To be trained to choose the right method. Recommended as it.

Grid quadrant 4

Quality living

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Q3 - It is appropriate to analyze the national problems that our country faces so that they can be tackled appropriately. Define some of these basic problems. A3:
Due to continuous changes in the world, our country faces problems; national issues should be understood so that it can be tackled appropriately, national issues are highlighted as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Food security Unemployment Low productivity Energy resources Population growth

The reasons that Egypt faces these problems are as follows: Food problems due to: Non-use of modern technology Farming considered to be low grade job Unemployment problems due to: Miss matching between required qualifications from graduates and market Higher rates of population growth Low productivity problems due to: Excess wastage Non use of latest technology Energy resources problems due to: The descending in natural energy resources Inefficient machines and operations Population growth problems due to: Social constrains on birth control Missing vision among people to work for the progress of the nation All these problems makes implementation of quality principles is essential.

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Q4 - What are the two facets of quality in education? A4:

The two facets of quality in education could be noticed in: 1. Including quality management as a subject in the main courses. 2. Defining what are the quality methodologies and following them in every institution.

Q5 - Explain the different benefits of implementing quality management principles. A5:

Quality management has many advantages; the following graph illustrates the benefits of quality systems:

Increase in

System efficiency, Morale of workmen & Customer satisfaction

Decrease in Complains, Cost & Production time

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Q6 - The "Quality" itself is undergoing change. There has been shift in understanding "Quality". Discuss this shift in some details. Illustrate your answer with a suitable example. A6:
The following comparison between quality mission in the yesterdays and the 21st century illustrates the shift in understanding quality:

Quality in yesterdays
Product quality was the key. Focused on product and service. Corrective methods were followed. Responsibility lied with quality department. Quality was a function. Mainly the system was focused. Quality was considered to be a tool.

Quality in 21st century

Customer requirement is the key. Focused on all business tasks. Preventive methods are followed. Responsibility lies with every employee. Quality is strategy. Mainly both the system and human component are focused. Quality is considered to be a process philosophy.

Good example for the quality shift is the automotive industry, old fashion trends in such industry was focused on producing cars with specs and capacity that matches with the factory resources not with the customer demands, when technology and competition increase the industry has changed to meet the customer demands of quality.

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Q7 - Quality should encompass both efficiency and effectiveness. Discuss the difference between both of these two parameters. A7:
Efficiency means doing things right, effectiveness means doing the right things. Efficiency is all about how the producer has felt and effectiveness is all about how the user has felt. Hence quality has to include both efficiency and effectiveness.

Q8 - Every change is made effective by certain drivers. Hence, if quality management principles are to be followed in industries, many drivers may exist to promote the situation. Discuss some of these drivers. A8:
One or more of the following drivers are essential for implementing the quality principles:

Competition in the market

Market situation is the key issue for any industry. In the protected market manufacturers have been producing components as they wanted and were able to sell theirs in the market. The customers had no choice, but to buy whatever was given to them. But now open market is the order of the day. This situation is forcing every industry to go in for quality management principles.

Knowledge explosion
The knowledge explosion taking place in 21" century drives change towards quality initiatives in two ways: It helps in making people understand their ignorance in doing the right things, the right way. Once they realize their present position, they naturally wish to improve. It (knowledge explosion) helps in knowing the latest tools available for improvement to be used.

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Demand from stakeholders

If they demand for a change and want the quality management principles to be implemented in the company then the company is obligated to do the same. Hence this will also be an effective driver.

Promise of greater profit

Well established case studies with definite increase in profit because of quality management implementation will be an excellent driver

Desire to do better
This is an internal motivation/self motivation which some people have; there will be an inner desire to do better, this will drive people to go to quality implementation.

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Chapter 2 Principles of Quality Management

Q1 - Complete the following: A1:
Management includes functions such as finance, human resources, materials and scheduling. Conventional management system focused on each of these identities independently. In isolation they were analyzed and problems have been sorted out. However the effectiveness was found to be very low. Hence strategies such MBO (Management By Objectives) were introduced. Even this and many lacuna and did not provide the expected results. Late 20th century saw the emergence of new management principles called quality management. The term "quality" was given importance and had in its fold concepts such as: business improvement, return on investments, waste minimization, customer satisfaction, etc.

Q2 - List five different definitions for "Quality", Show the appropriate methodology needed to produce quality products and/or services. A2:
1. The first definition given was quality is conforming to specifications. This was given by Mr. Crosby. 2. The second definition given for quality was fitness for use. This was given by Mr. Juran. 3. The third definition given for quality was customer satisfaction. A product, which satisfies the customer, will have a great market. 4. The fourth definition given to quality was delighting the customer. Delightment is one step ahead of satisfaction. 5. The fifth definition given for quality is enchanting the customer. Enchanting is one step ahead of satisfaction. Producing goods conform to specifications, fitness for use, find what is best for the customer, and good after sales service, can be said to be the methodology to produce quality goods or services.

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Q3 - Write down the ISO definition for "Quality". A3:

The ISO definition (ISO 8402) for quality is stated as: Quality is conformance to requirements, the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

Q4 - When do you think "customer is king" concept fails? Illustrate your answer using a suitable example. A4:
The slogan customer is king only valid if the customer requirements/wants are realistic, reasonable, and correct, otherwise this slogan will fail. Consider an educational scene. In a classroom the customer is the student. The product is the knowledge disseminated. The people involved in the process of providing the knowledge to the student customers are the teachers. As per the slogan the teachers should do all that the student wants. If there is a world match being played on a day, every student will like to watch the match and hence a request for holiday. The slogan Indicates that the teacher should oblige. Only then the student customers will be happy. Which means that the slogan "customer is king" is not acceptable under these conditions.

Q5 - State parker's law? Define its importance as an appropriate marketing strategy. A5:
Parkar's law states that Everyone likes to do only what wants and not what should be done, Only if they like it, they will do it. Enchantment will be possible if the product manufacturers understand Parker's law and apply the same in their marketing strategies. It is clear that if one forces something by saying that it is best and it should be done, no one will be interested in doing it. Even if it is really good. Hence according to Parkar's law, the information has to be projected in such a way that the receiving party will appreciate and like it.

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Q6 - Explain the internal and external customer concept giving an industrial and an educational institution example. A6:

In the case of educational institutions:

The internal customers are shown in figure. Students are the customers of teachers while teachers, students and technical staff are customers of the ministerial staff. For technical staff, student and teachers are the customers.

The external customers for an educational institution as shown in figure are society, government, funding agencies, parents and industries the institution has to cater to the needs of all these customers.

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In the case of industrial institutions:

The internal customer for a person in the machine shop is the next Operator in the production line. As shown in the figure the lathe operator is the customer for the draftsman and so on.

Design team

Drafting team

Lathe operator

Drilling m/c operator

The external customers of a car tire manufacturing are as shown in Figure

Car owners

Car tire manufacturing unit

Car manufacturers


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Vision, Mission, Objectives, Goals, Targets, & Action Plans

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Q7 a-What is a vision statement and how it should be? b-The gap between a dream and a vision is filled with action plans. Comment. c-Describe some of the guidelines for establishing a vision statement showing its basic characteristics. d-Write down an appropriate vision statement for a manufacturing organization and another vision statement for a service organization. e-What are the basic organization's needs to establish a vision statement? A7:
a) It the answer of the question: What will the organization be in the future? Vision statement is written by looking ahead into the future. It is based on what the organization should achieve in another five to ten years. b) The gap between a dream and vision is filled with plan. Planning sets the direction and the speed of the progress. Effective utilization of time and resources is needed. Thus, it is more important on how effectively I utilize the little time available to me, and how effectively I utilize the fewer opportunities. c) General guide lines for vision statement: Involve as many employees as possible in the formulation of vision statement. It should be short and realistic to the present situation. Future oriented. Reflecting the uniqueness. Very clear and challenging. Setting high standard of excellence. d) Vision statements for a manufacturing organization: To be the company that best understands and satisfies the product, service and self-fulfillment needs of women globally. Avon Vision statements for service organization: "To be the most creative organization in the world." The BBC e) The basic organizations needs to establish a vision statement : Provide a direction, a sense of purpose. Encourage individuals to grow and become creative. Remove hardness and laziness Bring in synergic effect.

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Q8 -What is the mission statement? Discuss some of the basic guidelines to be considered when formulating a mission statement. Give an example for an educational institution. A8:
Mission statement should clarify how to reach the settled vision. It identifies the roles or activities to which an individual is committed and provides the overall direction for achieving the vision. General guidelines to be considered when formulating a mission statement: These statements should clearly indicate the important roles and the methodologies followed for fulfilling the vision. Mission statements should actualize the vision. These statements will carry information which needs to be fulfilled in the near future. Time factor may be brought in to make it more systematic. Mission statement example for an educational institution is given as follows: Update the students with the latest in technology. Have closer interaction with industries. Involve the students in applied research.

Q9 -Explain "SMART" goals. A9:

SMART goals are: S Specific goals M Measurable goals A Achievable goals R Realistic goals T Time bound goals Goals should be set to achieve something specific; it should not be vague. It should be explicit and written in clear words. It is always better to set measurable goals.

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Q10 - How will you differentiate a goal and a target? A10:

Goals are meaningful, clear-cut subsets of objectives. Goals are for a team of people involved and may be long term. But these should be made into few short term and person specific targets. Targets make individuals more comfortable with what he has to do within the time frame he has to accomplish.

Q11 - Name three most prominent quality gurus. What are the common messages from each? A11:
There are many theories postulated by quality experts. Three most prominent quality gurus are Deming, Philip Crosby and Juran. Common message from Gurus: There are no shortcuts to quality, prescribed procedures to be followed. No quick fixes it takes time to establish quality. Improvement requires full commitment and support from top. Extensive training needed. Participation of all employees is a must.

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Q12 - Give in few sentences, the focus of Deming, Crosby and Juran quality management principles. A12:
Some of the quality management principles of Deming:
Create constancy of purpose: Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service. Cease dependence on inspection: Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. End awarding business on price: End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price instead of minimize total cost. Move towards a single supplier for anyone item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.

Some of the quality management principles of Crosby:

Quality is free declares Philip Crosby. He continues to believe that quality means getting. It right the first time. Some of Crosbys steps to quality improvement are: Management commitment: Management Commitment can be accomplished by the following three steps: 1. A corporate policy on quality needs to be issued. 2. Quality should be made first item on the agenda of the regular Meetings 3. The CEO and other officials need to compose clear quality speeches in their minds. The cost of quality: Quality is measured by the by the COQ which is defined as the expense of Non conformance, the cost of doing things wrong. Zero defects planning: The ZD commitment represents a major step forward in the thrust and longevity of the quality management process it should be taken very seriously.

Some of the quality management principles of Juran:

Juran defines quality as Fitness for use which stresses the reliability of a product or service for users. Some of Jurans steps to quality improvement are: Build awareness of need and opportunity for improvement. Set goals for improvement. Organize to reach the goals (Establish a quality council, identify problems, select projects, appoint teams, designate facilitators).

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Q13 - Define some of the basic principles of the quality management. Explain briefly 3 out of them. A13:
Some of the basic principles of the quality management: 1. Vision based Vision will help the organization to stay focused. Without vision an organization will fail. Absence of vision will lead to confusion. 2. Customer focused Open economy has driven away monopoly. Without customers no business can exist. One dissatisfied customer can create havoc by unprecedented actions. 3. Prevention oriented Prevention is better than cure is a well acknowledged phrase. Prevention orientation will take one nearer to 'Zero Defects' status. Corrective approach calls for costly monitoring mechanism. 4. Data based analysis. 5. Continuous improvement strategies. 6. Documentation for traceability. 7. Reward/Recognition assured.

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Chapter 3 Total Quality Management Philosophy

Q1 - Explain how TQM evolved over the years, highlighting the special features and drawbacks in each of these stages. A1:
Evolution of TQM, as it has emerged in industries. Is shown in Fig. It started with inspection (INS) followed by Quality Control (QC), Quality Assurance (QA), and then Total Quality Management (TQM).

The main focus of each of these stages is: Inspection Identifying non-conformities. End of pipe approach. End justifies means. Quality control Process performance data. Quality planning. Statistical tools. Control instrumentation.

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Quality assurance Quality manuals. System certification. Quality costs. Documentation. Total quality management Customer focus. Employer involvement. Continuous improvement. Performance measurement. TQM is not a strategy or concept, it is a way of life.

Q2 - What is TQM philosophy? A2:

TQM is essentially a management philosophy where every individual in an organization is motivated to work towards a common vision, in an ideal environment, continuously improving their performance, resulting in better business opportunities. The key factors here are teamwork, continuous improvement and performance measurement.

Q3 - Write down a basic definition of TQM and give your comments about the critical factors to be governed based on this definition. A3:
A basic definition of TQM is as follows: TQM is an evolving system of practices, tools and training methods for managing companies to provide customer satisfaction in a rapidly changing world. Alan Graham, David Walden The key words in the above definition is that TQM must be evolving and focusing on customer satisfaction who has needs that change in a rapid way through the time.

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Q4 - Implementation of TQM requires a paradigm shift in many facets of organization's functioning, Comment. Give an analysis to some of the vital issues to be considered. A4:
Implementation of TQM requires a paradigm shift in many facets of organization's functioning. The shift has to be brought within system and human component. A few of the vital issues are highlighted here:

Chaltha hai attitude:

It refers to the quote its ok or good enough it reflects that the product or service is not of top quality, this attitude will keep one away from implementing TQM.

Interdependency promotes individualism and self pride, which is detrimental to quality management principles as it isnt promote team work, this attitude will keep one away from implementing TQM.

Long term focus:

Every industry is interested in immediate returns. But quality initiatives may take a little longer to payback, for a quality product profit margin is high, long term focus is essential for implementing TQM.

Lifelong learning:
This world has become so dynamic. If one keeps quiet for a few months without any learning, he is sure to become obsolete, lifelong learning focus is essential for implementing TQM.

A place for everything and everything in its place:

A mindset to keep things in order, and neat ambience are essential for implementing TQM.

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Q5 - Discuss the different stages of development during TQM implementation. Explain the key factors for stage wise development. A5:
The various stages that exist in an organization during TQM implementation are shown in Fig.

Stage I: There are few people who constantly work represented by arrows. There are several others who relax by doing very minimal work represented by dots. This is not a healthy situation for organizations.

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Stage II: That there are no dots meaning that no one is relaxing. But it has been noticed that the arrows are all focused in different directions this means there is no single focus for the organization. It is definitely better than the first stage as it does not contain any relaxing people. Stage III: The third stage has all arrows and the arrows are pointing towards the same direction It indicates that there is a common goal; every individual is motivated to focus on the same vision. This is the better of the previous two stages. Stage IV: In this stage the number of people remains the same but all the people are working as a team. In this stage a tremendous increase in productivity is noticed due to team work. When people work as a team, synergic effect set in and there is always five times greater effect as compared to people working as a group. The key factors for stage wise development are as follows:

Promotion from stage I to stage II will be possible when every individual is motivated to do their best utilizing all their potentials. Empowerment will be the key issue here. For movement to stage III, it requires a common vision. Generation of a common vision statement will motivate people to have a common focus and reach stage III. In order to reach stage IV, one has to work towards teaming up the people. This is a difficult job. Unless all the members of the organization work as a team, team work will be the key issue here.

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Q6 -Explain the transition TQM model. Define the critical factor in each of the system and human components. Illustrate your answer using a suitable diagram. A6:
The proposed Transition model is explained as shown in the figure:

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TQM transition model: Transition model depends on inspection. In the transition model all the TQM initiatives should have a focus on customers. In this model the three corner stones are: (a) Vision, (b) Continuous Improvement, and (c) Involvement of everyone. It is essential that these three factors are treated in the same order. Customer delightment has been termed as the key factor in this model. Once the vision statement is formulated, the next step is to concentrate on system perfection which is represented by continuous improvement. Irrespective of the type of the company, it is always system first and human next. The critical factors that affect the transition model are: Vision: Vision statement formulation is done by benchmarking with the others. System component (Continuous improvement): Continuous improvement strategy has been defined as the corner stone for representing the system component. System components include technologies, procedures, and resources such as machines, etc. Continuous improvement strategy makes industries produce better quality products at reduced costs. Critical factors in system component: The 5S scheme should be adopted. There should be enough opportunities to provide for introducing creative ideas in the system which is called, creativity. Deming wheel or cycle namely PDCA cycle is recommended. This will be helpful in sustaining the continuous improvement effort. Human component (Involvement of all): Involvement of everyone is the corner stone that represents the human component. Critical factors in system component: Team work and synergic effect has a vital role in human component. People attitude to be improved by bringing the sense of owing among everyone. Reward and suitable rewarding system is important in organizations

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Q7 -Explain giving examples why the checking process is essential in the Transition TQM model. In the absence of this process, what, according to you, will be the problem encountered during the implementation of TQM? A7:

The checking process includes performance appraisal of employees, administrative audit of funds, and evaluation of the TQM implementation, and necessary improvement measures are undertaken as and when required. The Deming wheel principle is indirectly used in the transition TQM model Once the checking process is over, depending on the outcome one can plan for maintain, or to change the strategy plan. In the absence of the checking process during the implementation of TQM, no necessary improvement measures will be undertaken.

Q8 - Explain the basic features of the integrated TQM model. Illustrate your answer with a suitable diagram. Define its system and human components. A8:

In the integrated TQM model all the corrective mechanisms of Transition model have been removed. There is no need for the said corrective mechanisms. There is no need for performance appraisal. In the Integrated TQM model shown in fig. three pronged approach is followed takes care of all the TQM principles

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Management Leadership incorporates: Proper vision. 100% commitment from management. Motivation to employees. Strategic planning. Product/Process excellence (System component of TQM): Continuous improvement. Preventive measures. Documentation. Data based approach. Human resource excellence (Human component of TQM): `Training Team building. Information flow/communication. Cross functional style.

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Chapter 4 Quality Planning

Q1 -Highlight the importance of planning in TQM implementation. Define the basic steps to be taken into consideration when creating a proper plan. A1:
Planning is an important component in every implementation process. The success or failure of any project mostly depends on the planning. A well planned project will be executed properly and pay high dividends. The major steps in a proper process are: 1. Knowing the current situation. 2. Deciding the proposed destination. 3. Bridging the gap.

Q2 - What is meant by "SWOT" analysis show how can it help in the planning process? Illustrate your answer with a suitable example. A2:
SWOT means: SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses; Opportunities and Threats. SWOT importance in the planning process: The analysis of strengths and weakness will give the true picture of the current situation. The analysis of opportunities will give realistic clues for deciding the destination. The analysis of Threats will help in various steps to be designed for bridging the gap effectively.

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The SWOT analysis shown in the following table is an example for an educational institute and industrial enterprise:

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Q3 - Proper planning and execution will save considerable amount of time and energy. Illustrate using an appropriate example. A3:
Proper planning and execution will save considerable amount of time and energy, we will find a good example for proper planning in the design of supply chain management in forecasting the customers demand for a certain product or service with poor planning and forecasting for customers demand the result will be wrong locations for all the facilities, which leads to higher costs and lower margin of profit.

Q4 - Strategy to be evolved in quality management depends on both strategic thinking and strategic planning. Define what is meant by each. Draw the strategic grid and explain its four quadrants. A4:
Strategic thinking attempts to determine the 'what' of corporate visioning. Strategic planning looks at 'how' to achieve that vision.
This is explained in strategic grid as shown in figure: Quadrant 1: Strategic thinking and planning is well done. In this quadrant there is a clear picture of the organization's future. This is practiced by successful companies.

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Quadrant 2: Successful strategic thinking but strategic planning is poor. There is a clear picture of the future, while implementation of the strategy is ineffective. Quadrant 3: Good strategic planning but poor strategic thinking. In this quadrant ongoing operations are managed successfully. But the organizations are uncertain about the future profile. Quadrant 4: Strategic thinking and strategic planning are poor. This quadrant depicts the uncertain vision of the future. Companies don't survive very long following this strategy.

Q5 - a. How do the four components of Deming wheel help in Quality improvement? b. In what way "Do" is different from "ACT" in Deming wheel? c. Explain how PDCA cycle reduces the time taken for process? Illustrate your answer with a suitable diagram. A5: a.
The four components of Deming cycle (PDCA cycle) namely Deming wheel or Continuous improvement cycle, here P stands for Plan, D stands for Doing, C for Checking, and A for Action. The theory is that one should Plan properly and Do things according to the plan, once it is over Check whether everything is okay. Checking is done with the results. Under Act one has to do: 1. Maintenance action if conformity persists. 2. Standardization of process if proved to be successful. 3. Improved implementation action if non-conformance exists. Thus Planning, Doing, Checking, and Acting are to be done continuously for improvement.

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b. In Deming wheel Do is implemented after planning, while Act is implemented after checking. c. The following figure illustrates the effect of the PDCA cycle on the time taken for the process:

Case 1

Case 2

If enough time is not allotted for planning, as in case 1, extra time has to be spent on doing, checking and in acting. Dealing with non conformities existing because of poor planning will consume more time. It is always good to spend enough time on planning and complete the project quickly, as in case 2.

Q6 -What are the basic factors needed to ensure effective planning? A6:
For planning to be effective: Forecasting should be realistic. Programming-should be the right thing. Scheduling-is doing the right way. Budgeting-should be optimistic.

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Q7 -A few mistakes committed quite often, makes the planning meeting a hoax. Give some examples of these mistakes. A7:
A few such mistakes are: Focus being lost and discussion on peripheral issues taking much time. Failure to send the agenda points to members well in advance. Chairman coming with an inner agenda and dominating the discussion. Only minority members taking part in discussion; in such cases sense of owning will not be there. Having the planning meeting at odd hours. Not giving enough time for discussion. Chairman not doing the homework of forecasting. Members having Chaltha Hai attitude. Minutes- not being circulated in time.

Q8 -Conventional organizations usually have a culture detrimental to quality management. Discuss some of these cultural aspects. A8:
Conventional organizations usually have a different culture detrimental to quality management in such organizations most of the people resort to: Blaming each other. Quick fix solutions. I know everything attitude. Somehow push the product in the market. Chaltha Hai attitude. Profit margin is the most important criteria. This is what we will do, if you like come to us otherwise go. Work for the rule. Selfish activities. 95% to 98% accuracy is good enough.

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Q9 - For TQM to be successful, quality culture should prevail in the organization. Management should take some steps to inculcate the quality culture. Define some of these steps. A9:
For TQM to be successful quality culture should prevail in the organization. Management should take steps to inculcate the quality culture, the following factors may be ensured: Every individual should be aware of the vision of the organization. Democratic leadership style should be followed in the organization. The environment both inside and outside the industry must be neat. Many organizations do not promote proactive culture. There fire fighting will be the order of the day. TQM culture requires proactive planning. The organization should have the culture of consistently measuring customer satisfaction. Data based approach should be followed in solving problems. PDCA cycle commonly called as Deming wheel is a useful tool. Everyone Should be working as per this tool and improving continuously. The benchmarking habit should be inculcated in every employee. World is changing rapidly. Everyday new developments are taking place. Hence learning should be continuous and a lifelong process.

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Chapter 5 Customer Orientation

Q1 - Customer focus is essential to the success of any organization. Discuss showing the basic elements of such focus. A1:
The individual who buys the products of any manufacturing organization is the most important person. Without the buyer the whole manufacturing process becomes meaningless. Hence every organization should focus on: 1. Attracting more customers. 2. Making them happy. 3. Retaining them. All the three factors are equally important. Even if one is neglected, the organization stands to lose heavily.

Q2 - What is the importance given for customers in Baldrige Quality award? A2:
The Baldrige Quality Award stresses on customer related issues. Out of 1000 pts, about 300 pts are attributed to customers.

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Q3 - List the basic types of customers. Give some suitable examples. A3:

In the case of educational institutions:

The internal customers are shown in figure. Students are the customers of teachers while teachers, students and technical staff are customers of the ministerial staff. For technical staff, student and teachers are the customers.

The external customers for an educational institution as shown in figure are society, government, funding agencies, parents and industries the institution has to cater to the needs of all these customers.

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Q4 - Using customer window explain, how business strategy can be oriented towards the basic types of customers. A4:
The customer window shown in the following figure highlights the
relationship between the perception of the customer about the products and the importance of those products.
Very good

Customer perception

Poor Not at all


Very much

Importance to customer

Quadrant I: (High priority to achieve) High perception + High product importance Quadrant II: Poor perception + High product importance In this case we must educate the customers on the importance of the products. Quadrant III: High perception + Poor product importance Quadrant III: Low perception + Poor product importance

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Q5 - Represent figuratively the customer satisfaction model and write down its main features. A5:

Delighted customers Type B customers Customers without expectations

Value addition Not available

Value addition Available

Type A customers Customers with expectations

Dissatisfied customers

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Type A: (customers who have expectations on value addition) When their expectations are met they will make no comments. When their expectations are not met they will become dissatisfied

Type B: (customers without any expectations on value addition) When there is no value addition, since there is no expectations

their satisfaction will be at normal. When there is some value addition, these customers become delighted. When there is a value addition in products or services delivered to customers who have no expectations, we have delighted customers. Quality strategy should hence be to provide value addition that is not expected by the customers, in such cases the curve becomes exponential, indicating that incremental unexpected value addition will bring in immense satisfaction to the customers.

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Q6 - Customer satisfaction level depends on the extent of the integration of three key factors (the interactive model). Define and analyze these three factors. Describe a strategy to be used to improve customer satisfaction. Describe the result of the missing links that may crop up. A6:
A three circle model is used to explain
the three key factors that constitute the customer satisfaction model (interactive model for customer satisfaction) as shown in the figure.

Customer satisfaction level depends on

the extent of the integration of the three key factors, namely human component, system component and needs of customers. Here human component refers to the quality culture among the employees of the organization. System component refers to the infrastructure. The rate of increase of customer satisfaction depends on the integration rate of the three key factors.

An appropriate strategy could be to:

1. Assess the expressed and unexpressed needs of the customers. 2. Train people to be quality conscious and let participative style are the way of life. 3. Go in for system perfection by ISO 9000 series certification procedures. 4. Monitor them and look for continuous improvement. In which case customer satisfaction is sure to be improved.

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The results of the missing links that may crop up: 1. Human component + System component + Needs of customers = highly effective organizations. 2. (System component + Needs of customers) Human component = Unacceptable situation for the customers, they look for a human touch. 3. (Human component + System component) Needs of customers = Efficient situation and expected outcome cannot be reached. 4. (Human component + Needs of customers) System component = this situation can be described as Rubber bondage, initially it will look to be good, but in the long run it will fail as it cannot sustain.

Q7 - Explain using improvised customer focus model how business can be improved. A7:
For proper systems, focusing on the needs of the customers with human
touch to make the overall process effective, an improved customer focus model is used as shown in the following figure:

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It is clearly shown that the first step in this model is to identify what type of
customers that I will deal with, and then identifying their needs. Sequencing and scheduling are both planning before the production of goods or services. There are two feedbacks from the customer after fulfilling the needs and the delivery process; these two feedbacks are the core for business improvement.

Q8 - Describe the customer retention model showing how can it affect profit. A8:
Customer retention is found to be directly proportional to the profit. If the
customers were retained it would result in additional sales. The customer retention model is shown in the following figure:

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The model describes that employee satisfaction in the company is the driver
for the whole exercise, if employees are not satisfied with the culture prevailing in the organization, customer retention will be impossible. Employee retention is an important criterion for maintaining external service quality. Employee retention is based on internal service quality.

Q9 - State some of the different customer - related slogans that may indicate the importance of customers. A9:
The following slogans may well indicate how important are both the internal
and external customers: 1. Customers are not dependent on us; we are dependent on them. 2. Customers are not an interruption of our work; they are the purpose of it. 3. Customers are not outsiders; they are part of our business. 4. Without customers we have to close down our business.

Q10 - How can we measure customer satisfaction? What are the possible methods of administering customer surveys? Define some of the basic characteristics to be considered when choosing the appropriate method; list some of the tools / sources of gathering information from customers. A9:
Customer satisfaction measurements is done using customer survey
methods, survey may be oral or in written form. Administering customer surveys may be interviewer administrated, machine administered or self-administered, each has its own merits and demerits. Appropriate methods can be chosen based on the following characteristics: Extent of control maintained. Co-operation rate. Cost. Possibilities of collection of observational data.

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Some of the tools/sources used for gathering information from customer are:
Surveys. Phone calls. Compliant reports. Sales force. Consultants.

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Chapter 7 Continuous Improvement Strategies

Q1 - List some of the basic tips which should be considered in implementing continuous improvement activities. A1:
The basic tips for continuous improvement activities are: 1. Start by questioning current practices. 2. Come away from conventional fixed ideas. 3. Think of how to do it, not why it cannot be done. 4. Do not seek perfection at the first instance. 5. If you make mistake; dont bother; correct it. 6. Do not spend money, use your wisdom. 7. Ask WHY? five times and seek root cause. 8. Seek the wisdom of ten people rather than the knowledge of one.

Q2 - What are the basic features of continuous improvement strategies? A2:

The key features of continuous improvement strategies are. 1. Accountability is built in. 2. Incorporation of systematic learning (Plan, Do, Check). 3. Decisions based on facts. 4. Diagnostic and remedial journey. 5. Involvement of everyone within an organization. 6. Linkage of improvement activity with organizational goal. 7. Processes are divided into clear deliverables. 8. Consideration of several solutions before implementing the best.

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Q3 - How can the Deming wheel be effectively used for continuous improvement? Explain the process? A3:
The four components of Deming (PDCA cycle) namely Continuous improvement cycle, here P stands for Plan, D stands for Doing, C for Checking, and A for Action.

The theory is that one should Plan properly and Do things according to the plan, once it is over Check whether everything is okay. Checking is done with the results. Under Act one has to do: 1. Maintenance action if conformity persists. 2. Standardization of process if proved to be successful. 3. Improved implementation action if non-conformance exists. In Deming wheel Do is implemented after planning, while Act is implemented after checking. Thus Planning, Doing, Checking, and Acting are to be done continuously for improvement.

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Q4 - Explain the zero defect model, Illustrate your answer figuratively. A4:
Zero defect models are a continuous improvement process, at every stage
attaining an improvement over the previous one. As shown in the figure, initially the current status of the process and the desired future status of the process to be clearly defined, the difference between these two indicate the quality improvement that has to be brought to the process.

Attaining zero defects is not a onetime affair. This is a slow process

requiring continuous improvement. Sustained efforts may result in zero defects in the long run.

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Q5 - Give two different definitions for benchmarking. Show some of its basic features. A5:
Definitions of benchmarking:
Benchmarking is the practice of being humble enough to admit that someone else is better at something, and wise enough to learn to how to match and even surpass them at it. Business Today Benchmarking is the process of identification, understanding, adopting and practicing the outstanding practice and processes from organizations anywhere in the world to help the organization to improve its performance. Business Today Benchmarking basic features: Benchmarking is not copying or imitating, this involves observing and learning from others. Benchmarking is not a time bound event. It is a continuous journey and an ongoing process without end, till the company existing. The more we split the process into small segments the more will be the value added to each individual process.

Q6 - What are the different sources of benchmarking? A6:

Companies have the dilemma of where to search for the best practices, so as
to compare their level with the best processes available. The main sources of benchmarking are tabulated as follows:

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Q7 - Explain the different activities involved in step model for benchmarking. Illustrate your answer graphically. A7:
The different activities involved in step model for benchmarking are as
follows: Planning: Identify benchmarking subject. Identify benchmarking partners. Determine data collection method. Collect data. Analysis: Determine current competitive gap. Project future performance. Integration: Communicate findings and gain acceptance. Establish functional goal. Action: Develop action plan. Implement plans and monitor progress. Recalibrate benchmark. Maturity: Attain leadership. Practice benchmarking continuously. The above steps can be graphically represented as follows:

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Q8 - Benchmarking involves the task of the company measuring its performance, and the information of how the competitors are performing? Discuss how this can be achieved? And how the gap can be determined? A8:
Benchmarking involves the task of the company measuring its own
performance; this may be done by documenting the companys work processes and methods. Documentation of these processes organizes the failure points and other major factors, which lead to the logical area of improvement in order to meet the customer requirements. If companies agree to share their information it is called collaborative benchmarking. But the above stated method may not be possible at all times. Hence, companies have to look for other available sources, the information of how the competitors performing can be obtained by the following methods:
Telephone interview. Mail survey. Personal interview. Direct observations. Company publications Reverse engineering Public seminars, addresses, articles, etc.

The gap, which has to be closed, is measured by analyzing the collected

companys data and competitors data. Take an example of percentage involvement, assume that the companys employee involvement is 25% and that of competitor is 75%, then:

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Q9 - Explain some of the different benchmarking metrics that can be used in educational institutions. A9:
Different benchmarking metrics that can be used in educational institutions
are as follows: Student related metrics: 5. Number of students per computer terminals. 6. Percentage pass or distinctions. Faculty related metrics: 1. Number of research papers per faculty per year. 2. Research grants per faculty at any time. Environment related metrics: 3. Number of community oriented programs/projects per year. 4. Additional of infrastructure facilities per year.

Q10 - What is meant by six sigma quality? Illustrate your answer with a suitable diagram. Discuss the benefits gained through the use of this methodology. A9:
In quality practice 6 means 3.4 parts per million, knowing that the mean
has been tuned to shift left or right by 1.5, the following figure illustrates this concept: e r h h

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Six sigma is a managerial technique used to reduce defects as much as

possible. Any company engaged Six sigma can expect to see: Improved customer satisfaction. Reduced cycle time. Increased productivity. Reduction in total defect. Improved process flow.

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Chapter 8 Preventive Techniques

Q1 Prevention is better than cue. Comment. Describe the validity of this proverb in the quality function. A1:
Correction will improve the performance but it will not ensure stopping the recurrence of the same problem. It is always better to be prepared and prevent rather than to repair, this will help in the continuous improvement concept, hence it is necessary that preventive methods are adopted in the quality function.

Q2 Define FMEA. What are its basic components? Discuss the different steps needed to accomplish it. A2:
A Failure Mode and Effect Analysis is an engineering technique used to define and eliminate known and potential failures in the system, design, or process before they reach the customer, it is a proactive technique. FMEA involves: Identifying known and potential failure mode. Identifying cause and effect of each failure mode. Prioritizing the failure mode according to RPN. Finding the preventive action for the failure mode. FMEA steps:
Select the team and brainstorm. Functional block diagram and process flowchart. Prioritize. Data collection. Analysis. Results. Confirm/Educate/Measure. Do it all over again.

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Q3 What is meant by Severity Analysis and how it (Severity) can be determined in FMEA? A3:
Severity analysis is the estimated extent of damage that the failure can cause to the system. Severity analysis can be determined with the aid of Pareto analysis. In which the vital few and the trivial many of these problems can be located.

Q4 Describe the method followed to calculate the risk priority number (RPN) in FMEA. What is its significance? Illustrate your answer with a suitable example. A4:
In the FMEA analysis the three factors namely Severity, Occurrence and
Detection have to be ranked individually in a ten-point scale, the risk priority number is calculated by multiplying the ranking of these three factors. This number will have a value between 1 and 1000 and will be helpful in identifying the proposed failure which will need immediate attention. An example for RPN & FMEA for an educational institution, the information has been collected from 15 students and 22 faculty members, they have been asked to rank the severity, occurrence and detection in respect of ten factors, the ranking method is as follows:

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RPN for the factors are tabulated as follows:

Then the FMEA chart highlights the recommended action for the identified failures as follows:

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In the same manner, all the possible failure modes can be addressed and
tackled. In this way FMEA can be used as an effective prevention tool.

Q5 What is meant by Poka Yoke? Give an industrial example, Explain how Poka Yoke practice can be used to prevent mistakes. A5:
Poka Yoke in Japanese means mistake proofing, it means making suitable
modifications in the process, components, equipments, etc. so that the mistakes can be avoided. An industrial example for the Poka Yoke method is the floppy holder in all computers. The floppy can be inserted only if the floppy is kept in the correct position, in all other possible positions the computer will not accept the floppy. Such methodology can be employed wherever necessary, so that the mistakes will and cannot occur.

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Chapter 9 Quality Ambience

Q1 What is meant by Quality Ambience? A1:
Quality ambience means that the surrounding atmosphere is good and conductive, by this way quality ambience can be guaranteed.

Q2 a. What is the slogan that is usually focused while following the 5S procedures for keeping the ambience neat, and what does 5S stand for? b. What are the advantages of implementing 5S? c. What would be the problems encountered if an organization does not implement 5S? d. What are the steps to be followed in 5S implementation? e. Describe the methodology needed to implement 5S in an office? A2:
a. A place for everything and everything in its place is the slogan that is usually focused while following the 5S procedures for keeping the ambient neat. The 5S is derived from the first letters of 5 Japanese words, it stands for: 1. SEIRI which means Cleaning Up. 2. SEITON which means Arranging. 3. SEISO which means Sweeping. 4. SEIKETSU which means Standardizing. 5. SHITSUKE which means Discipline.

b. Advantages of implementing the 5S:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Provides a conductive ambience for quality work. Contributes to safety of operations. Improves productivity. Facilitates visual control. Saves time.

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c. Problems encountered if not implementing the 5S: 1. Delayed processes resulting in delay in delivery. 2. Unexpected defects in the products. 3. Stressed employees working at lower efficiencies. 4. Dissatisfied customers. 5. Unsafe work place. d. Steps to be followed in 5S implementation: 1. The 5S concept must be conveyed to everyone in the organization. 2. Give training about the 5S. 3. Put up an action plan for 5S implementation by setting clear goals. e. The methodology needed to implement the 5S in an office: 1. Eliminate unwanted things and reduce the paper work SEIRI. 2. Sort out everything SEITON. 3. Cleaning should be periodical activity SEISO. 4. Develop specific policy and guidelines for work procedures for each worker; standardize the storage places & the improvement carried out so that the person who comes later on understands.

Q3 a. If you cannot manage your time, it will not be possible for you to be successful. Define the steps needed for effective time management. b. Some think that if they are busy, then they utilize time effectively. Comment. A3:
a. Steps needed for time management are: 1. Proper planning. 2. All activities have to be categorized based on their importance and urgency. 3. One activity at a time has to be taken and completed. b. To utilize time effectively one need not have to be busy but have to be smart in handling activities, there is no point in working harder when you dont know how to work smart.

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Q4 a. One of the main aspects of time management is prioritizing activities. Explain the prioritization chart for activities. b. which activities would you chooses first and why? Very urgent and less important. Most important and less urgent. A4:
a. The prioritization chart places the activities according to their importance and urgency: Quadrant I: most urgent & most important activities (Not required). Quadrant II: most important & least urgent activities (Best case). Quadrant III: most urgent but least important activities (Not required). Quadrant IV: least urgent & least important activities (Not required). b. Most important and less urgent activities (Quadrant II) is the best one as there is no delay in time for the most important activities.

Q5 List and explain some of the time wasters on the personal and organizational level? A5:
On the personal level common time wasters are: Lack of discipline. Indecision. Procrastination. Open door.

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On the organizational level, common time wasters are: Poor filing. Phone calls. Red tapism. Lack of priorities. Visitors.

Q6 How can an individual control and converse time? A6:

One can control time using the following techniques: Realistic scheduling. Screened calls. Being proactive. Learning to say no. One can conserve time using the following techniques: Having a daily plan. Concentrate on important issues and not on urgent ones. Distribute the 24 hours appropriately between work and home.

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Chapter 10 Human Dimensions of TQM

Q1 a. What are the five important factors that contribute to the success of quality management practices? What according to you is the most important one? Why? b. Write an essay on the dos and dont for the top management to keep the quality movement alive in the organization. A1:
a. The five important factors that contribute to the success of quality management practices are: 1. Top management commitment. 2. Involvement of employees. 3. Training on quality practices. 4. Conductive work culture. 5. Facilities for implementing quality practices. Top management commitment is the most important one as it is the main driver in the organization for quality culture. b. The top management must do the following to keep the quality movement alive in the organization: 1. The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) will initiate quality related activities in the organization. 2. Enough funds to be allocated for quality related functions. 3. Impart training on quality management to everyone in the organization. 4. Award scheme for quality work will be initiated by CEO. 5. CEO himself will follow quality practices in all his activities.

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The top management mustnt do the following to keep the quality movement alive in the organization: 1. After starting the quality movement in the organization, keeping away from day to day quality activities. 2. Trusting only a few people in the organization and expecting them to complete the quality functions in the organizations. 3. Asking the employees to do all the quality related extra work after office hours. 4. Putting other factors such as return on investment, productivity, etc. above quality initiatives. 5. Forcing everyone to follow quality management principles instead of understand the need for quality management.

Q2 a. Describe the main difference between leadership & management? b. What is the leadership strategy recommended in this quality era? c. What is the keyword in leadership? d. Define the main qualities which should be inherent in the leadership personality? e. Describe some of the myths of leadership prevailing in the organization? f. What are the appropriate ways of exercising control and command? g. Describe the main differences between empowered and non empowered culture? A2:
a. Leadership is considered as doing right things (effectiveness) while management is doing things right (efficiency).

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b. As shown in the figure the leadership strategy recommended in this quality era starting with concentrating on people building, improving their selfesteem & self worth, train them to work as a team, then using the team to achieve the target.

c. Influencing people is key word in leadership. d. A leader is said to be having many qualities, a few of them are cool temperament, maturity, endurance, tact, decisiveness, and integrity. e. Some of the myths about leadership are: Myth of Proprietorship, which assumes that the leader is the sole proprietor of the organization. Myth of Yes boss, which assumes that everyone in the organization must say yes to all that the leader says or does. Myth of Independence, which assumes that the leader work alone without a team. Myth of Double standard, which assumes that the leaders personal life has no bearing on leadership in the organization. Myth of Closed circle, which assumes that only setting aside someone beside the leader in the organization. Myth of God father, which assumes that the leader a supreme human being and everyone in the organization should come to him only.

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f. Controlling is a regulating, guiding, and preventing function, effective controlling steps are as follows: Define clear-cut objectives for every job. Better to give the objectives of every job function in writing. Have informal meetings and let them know their progress. When things go out of shape or fail, analyze and find out the lacuna in the system and redefine the objectives. Commanding is another function which is mostly misused by the present day leaders, the following points are to be taken care of in commanding: Tell what to do. Tell where to go. Tell what to take. Tell about the qualities required for the person to fulfil the job. g. Difference between empowered and non empowered culture are as follows:

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Q3 a. Discuss some of the factors to be considered during implementation of the change? b.Forces that motivate an organization for change are called as drivers of change. Discuss some of these drivers? c. Whenever a change is introduced it is sure to upset many people. Seldom,changes are adopted without resistence. Define some of these resistances to change? d.Highlight some of the qualities required for the change agent. e.Explain the step by step procedure for bringing effective change? A3:
a. Factors to be considered during implementation of the change: Whether it is externally imposed or self imposed. If it is self imposed change, it should be emerged from the employees rather than from the top. If it is not having the support of low cadre it is necessary to: Communicate clearly to all the employees about why the change & what are the outcome. Take one of the proposed changes and implement it in one division and let people see the benefits. Proactive steps should be taken to avoid the resistances to change from different people in different angle. b. A few drivers of change are: Competition in the market. Changing consumers demand. National agenda as environmental issues. Reduction in profit margin. Human resource problems. Technological advancements.

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c. A few of the common resistances to change are shown in the following slogans: It is Difficult to be understood. Old is better. If everything is ok, no need for change. The work load will be more. This change has failed elsewhere. d. Some of the qualities required for a change agent are: Self-esteem. Positive thinking. Open mind. Willingness to take risk. Creativity. e. The steps to be followed for bringing effective change are: Define the change. State how appropriate the change is. Collect the details of success stories where the same change was implemented in by some other organizations. Prepare the schedule for change giving time for each step of the change to accomplish itself. Never accept overnight changes.

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Q4 It is desirable that intrinsic motivation is present in every individual practicing quality management. Two important factors that determine intrinsic motivation are self-esteem and positive thinking. Define what is meant by each of these personal qualities and how it can help in TQM implementation? A4:
Self-esteem doesnt mean boasting, it is an honest assessment of ones own successes and internal strengths, if one has high self-esteem he will: Participate more freely. Be more confident. Take more risks. Be more outgoing. Be comfortable to take decisions. Ask for help without embarrassment. Take responsibility for different tasks. Positive thinking will be understood by following this exercise: One has to connect all the nine points using four straight lines without taking ones hand off, the lines can cut across but shouldnt be retracted. It can be noticed that all ho have the exercise will imagine a non-existent boundary surrounding the points. If one think out of the way thinking, without any constrains he can go beyond the nine points and he will be able to solve the problem. Fault finding habit is the main cause for not having positive thinking. A person who has good self-esteem & positive thinking he will be motivated to take up quality initiatives.

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Q5 a. Define the different objectives of quality circles? b.What does quality circle mean to the quality function? c. What are the different efforts that are to be taken up by the management to sustain quality circle movement? d.Describe figuratively the structure of the quality circle? e.Define some of the basic points that need to be given serious consideration while implementing quality circles? A5:
a. The different objectives of the quality circle are represented as follows:

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b. It is recommended that the quality circle be introduced in the organization for building the quality culture, quality circle is voluntary movement, employees in the organization should be motivated to join this movement. c. Extra efforts are to be taken up by the management (CEO) to sustain quality circle movement are: Attending quality circle presentations. Visiting shop floors. Himself being a model of quality living. Invariably stressing the need for quality in all the meetings. d. The structure of the quality circle is shown as follows:

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In an organization there will be a high level committee consisting of the CEO and two other senior members to monitor the quality circle activities and setting guidelines for effective functioning including rewarding system. Each quality circle has a leader and a deputy leader. For three or four quality circles there will be a facilator, whose job is to co-ordinate the functioning of the quality circles. Each quality circle will have members ranging from 5 to 8 in number. All must have volunteered to join this movement. e. The main advantages gained through the use of quality circles are: Inculcate team spirit among the circle members. Improve the problem solving capacity of members. Proved to be a good channel of upward communication in the organization. Cultivate a sense of owing among employees. f. Some of the basic points that need to be given serious consideration while implementing quality circles: Efforts should be taken in order to make everyone in the organization understand the principle of quality circles. It is totally voluntary; it shouldnt be forced on the employees. It requires long life time. Training is very important for successful implementation of quality circles.

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Chapter 11 Team Development

Q1 In this era the mandate before every employer is to bring in the effect of synergy in every function in the organization. i. What is the meant by Synergic? Give an example from your own experience? ii. Discuss the concept of dependence and interdependence through the different stages of individuals life? A1:
i. Synergic means that: Net is greater than the sum of the individuals, the increased output of the teamwork is referred to as the synergic effect, it is stated that if 2 horses can pull 2 tons of load at a time each individually, together they will be able to pull 21 tons of load, this five times greater output is the effect of teaming up. ii. Individuals pass through different stages of life, when the child is born, for everything it is dependent on others, during adolescent stage he tries to be independent, but when he matures to take up leadership rules, he has to realize the need for interdependency as it is the basic requirement for bringing synergy.

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Q2- a- Define briefly each of the following: i- A group ii- A team Illustrate your answer figuratively. b- Give a brief distinction between a group and a team. Show why teams are usually preferred over groups? c- When people are involved in teamwork, there are three types of focus that prevails? Explain how the focus for teams plays a major role in deciding the effectiveness of team? When do teams become unproductive? What do you recommend from this analysis? d- List some of the basic factors that influence togetherness in people? e- Define the different traits required for team members? f- Name five success criteria for teams. g- Define some of the metrics which can be used to measure team effectiveness? A2:
a. The following figure illustrates the different between Group & Team:

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i. Group is defined as a number of people gathered together to complete an assignment. ii.Team is defined as a number of people gathered together with common vision, and work interdependently to complete an assignment. b. Distinction between group & a Team:

Because of the following teams are preferred than groups: No synergic effect. Possibilities of formation of groups within group. Conflicts arising among members. Improper communication. Competition emerging within.

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c. Focus for teams:

when people are involved in a teamwork, there are three types of focus that prevails, first one is the personal focus where the individual gives importance to self needs, the second one is the social focus where the individual is concerned with the other members of the team, the third one is the professional focus where the output, target, and efficiency are thought of. Personal focus + Social focus only = unproductive team as professionalism will be missing. Personal focus + Professional focus = ineffective team, and there will be relationship problems. Professional focus + Social focus = Short lived teams due to the absence of personal focus. Hence it is necessary that all the three focuses should be present for a team to be effective. d. Factors that influence togetherness in people: Physical proximity. Common work area. Social/personal homogeneity. Personality type. Communication. Size of gathering. Purpose.

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e. Traits (Personal/Social/Professional) required for team members: Personal: Integrity. Non-egoistic. Unselfish. Social: Mutual trust. Understanding others. Equality. Professional: Skill to do the job. Problem solving ability. Knowledge about the assignment. f. Success criteria for teams: Group decision making. Free flow of communication. Skilled members. Intrinsic motivation. Synergic effect. g. Metrics for team effectiveness measurement: Improvement in net outcome. Interdependency level of members. Frequency of meetings.

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Q3- a- Describe the important of communication in everyone's life? b- What are the components of communication? c- The communicator has to study and understand the interest and the capacity of the recipient before communicating. Comment gives an appropriate example from your own experience? d- When one wishes to communicate something to another person? It is advised that he looks from the common area between them .Comment? e- Describe briefly a basic model for effective communication? f- One needs to be a good listener in addition to being a good talker. Describe some conditions to achieve this objective? A3:
a. It is said that every person spends around 30 to 40% of his lifetime communicating in one form or another, it is the single largest time consuming element in every \ones life. b. Communication involves making the recipient appreciate, understand, and apply the concepts received in his life. c. A communicator has to understand the recipient completely in order to make him conceive all the facts that is being projected, a proper example of communicating techniques is while presenting a new product design to top management if the presentation was bored, too long, and doesnt focus on the organizations vision it will not be appreciated even it is for a good and comprehensive new design.

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d. As shown in the figure when two individuals A and B wish to share points, it is advised that they look for the common area between them, when C doesnt exist, the communication becomes difficult and most of the time it will be ineffective, the bigger the area of C, the more effective will be the communication, this C represents the areas of common interest between the two individuals.

e. A model is presented for effective communication concentrates on six important aspects, they are: 1. Content, one should be clear about the content to be communicated. 2. Method, the method to be followed has to be selected on the background of the receiver. 3. Ambience, it has to be conductive and hostile. 4. Sender 5. Receiver, if there is no reason why it should be communicated; both the receiver and the sender will be disinterested. 6. Aim. f. One to be a good listener he should take care of the following: Be genuinely interested in listening. Look at the person always. Dont get distracted. As you listen keep assimilating the points. Dont stop the other person until it is necessary. Be patient. Be careful about the gesture that you make (it shouldnt give any negative signals).