BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

MPP 3063 SEMINAR IN MANAGEMENT THOUGHT

11. ISLAMIC MANAGEMENT THEORY: MUHAMMAD IQBAL [1290-1938]

PREPARED BY:

MOHAMMAD AFIQ BIN MOHD ISMAIL AHMAD PAZIL BIN MD ISA SAIDI BIN MD REJAB MOHAMAD HASBUL ASYRAF BIN MOHD ZAKI RAMLI BIN SULAIMAN

M0910066-04 M0910548-04 M0910648-04 M0910650-04 A0911068-04

PREPARED FOR: HAJJAH SHAHRIZA BINTI OSMAN LECTURER OF KULIYYAH MUAMALAT

DUE DATE: 19 MARCH 2012

4.1. Last Five Years IQBAL FAMILY ASSESSMENT OF IQBAL THOUGHT CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 15 16 3. Iqbal to Europe 2. 6.CONTENTS 1.1.1. [2] . The Early Time EDUCATION 2. 2. 5. In 1908: Involved In The Indian Subcontinent IN THE POLITICAL ARENA: IQBAL ROLE IN INDIA 3. IQBAL: A DYNAMIC AND OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION REFORMER 1. 7.2.

while his father. which inhabited the hills of Kashmir.1. that why Iqbal eventually also involved in the political arena. in the era of the birth of Iqbal. Instead. He continued to play its role to increase knowledge and improve Muslim spirit and strive for independence. Shaikh Rafiq. not only that. Around the year 1909. In that era. especially of the upper class and middle have changed their paradigm. Iqbal grandfather started the business as a seller of a famous Kashmiri shawl cloth fine. but left behind and marginalized in the mainstream of development through a policy driven by British capitalism. Nur Muhammad. Iqbal formed early thinking is inclined to religion. he also fought the Muslims the poor and marginalized in the international arena. lack of unity and leadership that truly competent. He is originally from Brahmin descent.1. [3] . which was then a center of trade industry of Punjab. from Sapru caste. namely the formation of a separate state for Muslims in India to free them from the clutches of the dominant Hindu. IQBAL: A DYNAMIC AND OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION REFORMER Before examining the Iqbal thought and its contribution to the rise of Islam and Muslims progress in India and internationally. compared with Hindus who managed to extend their influence in the administration and economy under British protection. 1. The Muslims positions are weak. The Early Time Muhammad Iqbal was born in Sialkot. Afghanistan and others. some of the Muslims. His family moved from Kashmir has been in the trade in Sialkot. For example. In this context. political and economic position of people of high caste Hindu who has risen far ahead because they not only work with the British. but also in cahoots with the colonial authorities to diminish the influence of the Muslims. They began to demand their rights as Muslims who are under British rule. is only appropriate if we look first Muslim state in India at the late-century 19M. Punjab on 9 November. 1877. Subsequently. for example by entering politics. the whole India was already under British control the Muslims were weak. His father Shaikh Nur Muhammad was a Sufi who is very concerned about spiritual values. Under the care of father and his teacher Maulvi Mir Hasan. he has defended the fate of Muslims in Palestine. known as a skilled seamstress. They not only lose political power. he also played an active role in politics and led to the outbreak of the theory of two countries.

his thought expands in more detail later. After graduating from high school in 1892. EDUCATION Iqbal was a very smart student which his initially learning began in the mosque. 2.2. Some of the subject he has to focus on is the Bachelor in Literature. Iqbal was moved to Lahore and entered the Oriental College. on the advice from Arnoid. In the meantime. He claimed to be students of philosophy at the University Cambride. Iqbal not only write poems. he obtained a master's degree in philosophy from the University of Munich. published in Urdu language for the first time in 1901. titled. Finally. „Ilm al-Iqtisad. At primary school level he has managed to produce quality poems in the local language and Urdu language which is the most important language in the arts in India at that time. based on the same thesis.1. he was appointed as assistant lecturer in Arabic at the University Oriental College (formerly Oriental colleges only). heading to England to further his studies. an institution of higher education the best in the Indian sub-continent. After graduation. But in the same year he also moved to Government College. Lahore. In May the same year. Iqbal to Europe In 1905. his former school earlier. In addition. In the year 1899. Philosophy Arabic and English. While there he increased experience and knowledge is a wide scope and also he has more free movement without the supervision of a member of his family or his teachers earlier. which is located in Cambride and enter Lincorn's Inn. he also taught English and philosophy at Government College. Iqbal entered the Scoth Mission College at Sialkot to continue his study at a higher level. a famous law school in town of London as a student of law. At the same time he was asked to teach history and economics. also he even produced a book titled economy. he was awarded a scholarship to the Master (Master of Arts) degree in philosophy. [4] . For three years in Europe. Iqbal has obtained a Master of Arts in philosophy and also won a gold medal as best student in the field study. “the development of methaphysic in Persia”. In 1895. especially British law. Iqbal went to Europe.

the alteration of poetry. two Muslim thinkers. At the same time he is allowed to exercise his duties as a lawyer. which he teaches English literature and philosophy. in 1908 and subsequently. he attended the Islamic Muktar. In 1933. he traveled to Afghanistan with Sayyid Sulaiman Nadwi and Sir Sayyid Ross Mas'ud. king of Afghanistan. 3. His work is so amazing because it is a work that not only complete. But in the end by a busy. the capital of Palestine. IN THE POLITICAL ARENA: IQBAL ROLE IN INDIA At the end of his life.The thesis was published in London in 1908. For example. Iqbal has won a seat in Lahore. held in Jerusalem. to discuss the question of the formation of the University Kabul. In 1908: Involved In The Indian Subcontinent After graduation. on the invitation of Muhammad Nadir Shah. He uses the spare time to write quality poem. On the effort. by getting a higher vote. 2. He joined the electoral reforms introduced in the Punjab under the Montagu-chelmford when persuaded by friends and supporters. Iqbal has been active in politics. he is prominent in the areas most beloved. [5] . in November 1926. he left his position as professor in 1909 and continues to focus on his career as a lawyer until 1934. Iqbal back to India. Iqbal and Muslims worldwide Iqbal also involves itself in issues involving the sub-continent Muslims outside India. Meanwhile. In all three activities. the 5675 votes against his opponents who only got 2498 votes. he championed a seat for Muslim Lahore. which was dominated by British colonialists. but the first time written in English on the development of Persian metaphysical in the country from the time of (Zoroaster) until bha'ullah (second founder of the Bahai teachings) to now it remains as the most important monograph and unparalleled ever written on this subject in English. this means that the political representation of Muslims in India has been added to strengthen their voice against the Hindu community that has indeed had a strong influence. Lahore.2. he became a professor at the Government College.

Even from this example. which is on a parcel of land endowment given by Niyaz 'Ali Khan. In fact. which is only a few hours before the last breath. Iqbal health is deteriorating. An asthma attack that makes his physical condition weakened but his mind still sound and vigorous. he is to have a desire to establish a new university and looking for advice from them on ways to capitalize on the best value from the Western and Islam.Known at that time. an admirer of Iqbal and influential landowners in the district of Gurdaspur. Yes! We are the new age children. Religious ideas and political will stay fresh and popular among the Muslim people. 3.1. England. On 20 April 1938. the Islamic Foundation in Markfield. The poem reads as follows: We are not the afghan or Turkey It is not from the mainland of Central Asia. Iqbal read a poem in Persian language to Hasan Akhtar. Last Five Years After returning from Afghanistan. We owned the same park. This institution was founded in Pathankot. an institution focusing on Islamic studies combined with studies on contemporary science as a measure to develop the modern-day Muslims. Among the last and most important task which he is contribute is construct Idarah Dar al-Islam. Forbidden for us to race and skin color differences. Afghanistan is going reform process. Muslim Institutes in Karachi and the International Institute of Islamic Tought in Washington DC. his young admirer. then has appeared many similar institutions in the world of Islam. This is a very important step because it opens up the intellectual horizon of a wider Muslims to understand the position of Islam in the modern world and prepare them to deal with ghazwu al-fikriy (severe mental and cultural) from the west. [6] . such as the Muslim Institute in London. Its king wants to develop other aspects of education and the country as a measure to develop the country.

As a lawyer. he has been married for the first time with Karim Bibi. Iqbal finally have peace of mind and had two children. In fact. Iqbal married to Sardar Begum through his family selection also in 1909. Iqbal income as a professor and a lawyer is not so good.Iqbal works which aims to develop the eastern people Asrar-i Khudi (1915) . IQBAL FAMILY Iqbal was married 3 times. but only his son Aftab Iqbal who survived and continued to grow to become a lawyer like his father. the life of Iqbal and his first wife is not happy due to the background and patterns of thought or different interests. For the second time.To his son Pas Chih Bayad Kard (1936) .What should then be done: O people of the East? Armaghan-i Hijaz (1938) . This couple has three children. the daughter of Khan Bahadur who was a wealthy doctor from Gujarat. But the third wife died in 1924. the nephew of a rich merchant from Ludhana.The Secrets of the Self Rumuz-i Bekhudi (1918) .Persian Psalms Javidnama (1932) . However.Message from the East Zabur-i Ajam (1927) . Javid Iqbal and a daughter. In 1892. he liked to help the poor. With Sardar Begum.The Mysteries of Selflessness Payam-i Mashriq (1923) .Gift from Hijaz 4. In the meantime. [7] . he declined to impose higher fees on its customers. named Munirah. Subsequently he was married to Mukhtar Begum.

they rejected all reforms in the field of Syari‟ah Law that it did not allow any differences of opinion. Iqbal argued that Syari‟at Islam is not static. In this case. but can be expanded in accordance with the times. Rasyid Rida and others he felt that the backwardness of Muslims during the last five hundred years is due to rigidity in mind. conservative people fled to the laws and make it as a tool to force Muslims to bow and obedient generally to the authorities without any discussion. He also stressed that the door of ijtihad was never closed. To avoid further disintegration among Muslims. ASSESSMENT OF IQBAL THOUGHT Although Iqbal was a poet and philosopher. Muslims must devote their attention to God and to distance themselves from worldly delights. the practice of ijtihad directly overlooked. This. according to him. Iqbal said the conservative people strive to maintain uniformity of social life for all Muslims. Like other reformers. Another reason why the Muslims regress according to Iqbal because of the influence of zuhud found in the teachings of tasawwuf. Therefore. and adhere to the laws that have been determined in the past. The first figures who oppose the idea that all hukm matters were discussed and resolved by the four schools of fiqh and thus are no longer required ijtihad is Ibn Taymiyyah who was born at 1263M. they logically become weak and backward. the Iqbal argument will eventually lead to a condition that the Muslims less concerned with social issues in Islam. Thus. that the disunity would threaten the stability of Islam as a political union. Iqbal also said the main reason leading to the fall of the Muslims is the destruction city of Baghdad as a center of Muslim thought in the progress of the mid century of 13M. the actual views expressed by Iqbal is not new. but unlike the position of other reformers. According to the doctrine that emphasizes zuhud.5. Next is the same has been championed by Shaikh Muhammad ibn 'Abdul Wahhab (the founder of Wahhabi [8] . Iqbal influence towards them on Muslim backwardness and progress influential in the reform movement in the Muslim world. Meanwhile. Therefore. In the meantime. reformers such as al-Afghani. He said the development of Islamic law has come to a conservative group has suppressed rationalize posed by Muktazilah (Rationalists) to avoid what they fear. Muhammad 'Abduh. To preserve the union. which is five years after the fall of Baghdad.

people who do not concern and do not read the signs that God created to guide or seek instruction will continue to stay blind to the reality of lives and future. that is not rigid. the change of day and night and so on. Obviously. This means that every person is entitled for ijtihad. Such conditions clearly happening right now in our own community so that people who are ignorant of religion (ie the [9] . moon. This case we need to understand and be used as guidance in life if we truly believe and want happiness. said Iqbal taught about dynamism. In the Qur‟an there are the images of nature and the changes that occur with the will of God himself. stars. That was his sense of dynamism because there is nothing about the world is immortal. Ijtihad he added an important position in managing innovation in Islam. Egyptian and others. Sometimes. Islam. the task to interpret Islam can not be left with very lax and done by anyone regardless of faith. changes occur in human life are of course in the world and ijihad sensible thing to do to overcome the problems of life that appear from time to time. However. Qur‟an is always organized application of common sense towards the ayah or signs that are in the universe like sun. Iqbal views on Islam and the dynamism that is true and proper. We as humans must use intelligence to know the environmental conditions and the changes that occur around us. While the principles that apply in addressing the question of motion and change is the ijtihad. Hence. Next.movement). that there was a motion and change in human social life. In modern times. However. a lot ijtihad carried out in the Turkish Empire 'Ottoman. for Iqbal ijtihad is the human rights for people. But he acknowledges the dynamism of Islam. but we must be more careful in dealing with questions of life that may take. According to Iqbal. Clearly. the view in the case of Iqbal is quite liberal. people are developing and there were times when they will withdraw and then replaced by other races. every nation has a certain time and turn in life. According to the Qur'an. in fact. piety and knowledge of the correct as this will legislate chaos to man himself. he asserts that according to the Islamic world is not static. Each story of the nature phenomena presented God as Creator and Administrator of the whole world has its own wisdom and teaching. Iqbal explained that the progress and setbacks created by God alternate among the nations of the world. He stressed that the Islamic concept of nature is dynamic and constantly evolving.

prolonged confusion and disagreement continues. while the law of life is created. Iqbal argued. [10] . but he was in favor of socialism. In Islam it is stated that if a Muslim leader who is not willing to rule with justice and preserve the prosperity of the people with such leaders should cease to be 'leaders'. ignorance. he said that should be taken by the Muslims from the West is their knowledge only. disease and take steps to ensure a good standard of living". He showed sympathy for the socialist movement in the West and Russia. leaders need to be honest and truly ready dedicated to the people. protect them from hunger. For him. no position and not able to. but should be enjoyed by all Muslims in the state where social justice are upheld in accordance with Islamic teachings. He argues that the essence of life is movement. But in his idea of renewal. Iqbal calls upon Muslims who had left behind to rise and create a new world for them. he said that the land and the revenue derived therefrom shall be shared with and not dominated by a few people like the capitalists. he thrust Muslims to move and do not stay frozen or folded. understand the dynamics that portrayed by Iqbal. Iqbal suggested that the government has a broad function to further the social status of Muslims. He also said that according to Islamic socialism private land ownership and the means of production of another is not fair. making him is a very important person in the reform movement among Muslims in India. Western according to his assessment has heavily influenced by materialism and have begun to leave the religion that mankind needs to survive and divide. Iqbal did not think that the Western can be used as a model. He also stressed that national treasures are not belonging to the elite people only. As a result. As such. In this regard. Therefore. especially for the poor. "In a country like this. Thus. "Is the duty of an Islamic state to guarantee social security to all classes of people. there are similarities between Islam and socialism because they oppose the oppression of the poor and the workers (labor). View that he thought it appropriate to point out that for some people to overcome exploitation of other human beings. capitalism and Western imperialism can not be accepted. Although Iqbal reject capitalism. Instead. He also added. In his poem.Muslims) even allowed to speak and give opinions about Islam. However. In discussing socialism the form of Islam he wants. he stressed that the two. but this situation legislate and the collapse of the real error. he argues that the land and revenue from land was a gift that comes from nature.

Islam does not prevent private property by members of the community. First of all. Once the property is acquired.belongs to Allah. In the meantime. said: What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships. for him socialism is according to Islamic. said: [11] . creating a waqf property and so forth for the benefit of other members of society. Islam against the monopoly (amassing) against the property by some rich people (capitalists). alms (property or income contributed voluntarily). we must be careful in following Iqbal argument on socialism.However.. the accumulation of wealth and its distribution must be controlled according to the Islamic economic policy to the implementation of all this is the case with more than fair. This is correct. In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. For example. the individual is also required to carry out its social responsibility with the obligatory zakat. the needy and the wayfarer.to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans. Islam also forbids waste. And fear Allah.W.T. For example.W. particularly the poor and destitute. the private ownership is permitted as long as the individuals involved seek and undertake property by way of fair and lawful source. In this case.T. God S. and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. for Allah is strict in Punishment (Al-Hashr: 7) Therefore. God S. So take what the Messenger assigns to you. but there are some aspects of the philosophical schools which also happens in line with Islamic requirements.

his views changed. However. religion and culture and mutual hostile to each other. This expectation is clearly wrong. If he is still alive after World War II or was able to study the history of central Asia. For example. But. Before leaving for Europe. Iqbal does not receive all the philosophical isms that come from the West. (Al-Isra ': 26-27) An extension of this directive. and to the wayfarer: But squander not (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. at an early stage in the poems. He rejected nationalism because he realizes it is not easy to create unity among the two different races. Materialism remains the major steps the country's support to date. then after returning from Europe. based on his understanding of socialism. the logic of those who follow the steps of Satan will receive punishment from God himself for doing bad things more evil. Nationalism as he met in Europe to expose the fact that there is a germ-seed of materialism and atheism in the ism. of course. Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones. [12] . and the Evil One is to his Lord (himself) ungrateful. waste remain in place and use of property prefers the powerful desires. But unfortunately the socialist system was practiced in Russia and other countries do not take into account the question of halal and haram. as (also) to those in want.And render to the kindred their due rights. as well as that done by the capitalist West. Clearly. he in favor of the unity and independence of India and organized the unity between the Muslims with the Hindu community. Iqbal hope that one day Russia will accept Islam. no division of property through a system similar to the charity. Iqbal may be so against Russia because he was not seeing the same disadvantages of socialism as violent and greedy Western capitalists. However. It is becoming more serious because both the philosophy is the greatest threat to humanity. indeed he is India nationalism. the policy of Machiavelli also defended the interests of socialism that being practiced. his position will change. an Islamic territory occupied by Russia more closely.

Based on this. it has become popular with the favorable response from the Muslims when they fought back by Iqbal Muslim development programs more concrete. To achieve this. Iqbal not stop and went through various stages of evolution of thought in his life time and only in the last years of his life he was able to establish of his soul the clear and true Islamic concept.In addition. many of his ideas influences by foreign were mixed with Islamic views. he was suspicious that behind organized of Indian nationalism it lies the concept in the form of the new Hinduism. He also recognized that these figures have been given a major contribution to the struggle of Islam through the poem. Thus. Maulana Sayid Abul A'la al-Maududi (1903-1979). but in his opinion there is always the color of 'Muslim nationalism' that can not be avoided by him. This idea was actually voiced by Sir Sayid Ahmad Khan a few years ago. the idea received overwhelming response of the Muslims because it promises freedom from oppression and persecution of the Hindu militant groups. In addition. The idea was popularized by Iqbal that well-known also as the idea of the two countries. he built a modern center of Islamic learning and integrated in Pathankot. At the beginning of his life. Northern Frontier District. In the meantime. He requires that Pakistan really stand on the basis of the tenets of Islam with Islam as the basis of the constitution. 1. sometimes abuse the freedom [13] . Related to the Iqbal thoughts and struggles. Sind and Baluchistan. we find that Iqbal really is a pan-Islamists. This is obviously caused by certain factors. an independent and Islamic nature. Islamic Republic of Pakistan that has been fought by Iqbal as part of the wider Islamic world. he finally chose to fight for a separate state for Muslims to include Punjab. he also said even though Iqbal was a genius (a very smart man). not to mention Hindu leaders in India's Congress party is fighting aggressively to uphold the Hindu domination over the Muslims. In addition. In most of the time of his life. not nationalist. In this context. Since this is why he was hesitant to criticize the Islamic leaders and thinkers of modernist Islam. admits it is appropriate. His vision is to build the country named Pakistan. a Mujadid and friends of Iqbal. he should be a strong attachment to the concepts of unification of various races. 2. However. but there is some confusion on his idea. In fact. he is aware that in this scenario. a minority of Muslims will remain oppressed and peace will not be achieved.

Many historical and political factors that lead to feelings of deep sympathy of Muslims from India and Pakistan towards Turkey. but in general Iqbal stood in defense of Islam and its followers not only in India but also internationally. that the poem. In the meantime. Iqbal finally lost his temper and denounced the reform programs in public Ataturk. then the scholars and thinkers of the Turkish anti-Islam and reject his deeds. According to Iqbal. he had gone too far (diverge). With mental and emotional background that so. Given that Kamal Ataturk had saved Turkey. without being sell with obscene cheap. a Muslim country which was once general of wobbling pushed by the colonial administration. the position of Iqbal in his struggle until 1930. can be used in a well and built to defend freedom and justice. which is to defend and support the leaders. With the positive changes. This opinion has not been denied at all. reforms of Ataturk in Turkey is no more than trying to imitate the Western materialist culture blindly and mechanically without any pattern of constructive creativity. Thus.to poetry. He also proved by the enforcement poem that art. [14] . then own up to the year 1930 Iqbal also praised Ataturk and try to find reasons to justify the Ataturk reforms in the Republic of Turkey. there are errors in thinking as it mentioned. although their activities are not Islamic. Muslims after once colonized by the British show love to the rest of their greatness that was lost and by the act or by any means to defend it. 3. Iqbal acknowledged that Islamic law still great. Although. when awareness of the true Islam to overcome his personal influence of Western liberalism that has also influenced his soul.

Although there is some mistake about Iqbal thought in the early struggles to describe his personality as a modernist. In the meantime. Iqbal also lay the foundation for shaping the country by forming a center of modern Islamic learning. as was the case with race in the days of asabiyyah. Kashmir. but will lead to disunity among Muslims themselves. Iqbal has called for Muslims in India and elsewhere to maintain their Islamic identity. Afghanistan and others. which combines Islamic studies with the study of current issues related to social sciences so that Muslims can develop with Islamic value and also successfully in address the problems in modern times. and that is not Iqbal fault. they've established a despotic system of government and socialist-style secular under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. he revealed also a philosophy of life that is full seeds of destruction. and arrogance.6. Summit separated of Islamic for Muslims in India. we find that he had always been a fighter and dynamic. As an educated secular elites and against a background of western luxuries either as landlord or industrial tycoons would be hard for them to fully appreciate the Muslims was fought by Iqbal. He called for the rights of the people in this territory are returned in the conferences that he attends. At the same time. bold and persistent reformer. The question is. Not just that. Pakistan did not practice the true Islamic way of life and such a coup-prone military interchangeably. which is known later as Pakistan. Iqbal during his lifetime also gives attention to the problems of Muslims in Palestine. ethnic and sectarian strife. This was also expressed through poems or poems he publishes itself. CONCLUSION After studying about the thought of Iqbal and his struggling to defend Muslims both in India and overseas. but without neglecting the advancement of education offered by the West. but at the end of his life he has really turned into a pan-Islamist who fought for unity and freedom of Muslims from the foreign colonization and domination of Hindus in India. but in consequence failure of the national leaders who lead the Muslim League and other parties to embrace the idea that has been presented by these figures. [15] . but will lead to nationalism that not only wrong in Islam that emphasizes Islamic brotherhood.

(1992). Through his actions. ISLAM DAN IDEALISME ZAMAN MODEN: KRISIS DAN ANCAMAN. Since young. Bhd. justice. Shah Alam: Karisma Publications Sdn. FILOSOF-PENYAIR DARI SIALKOT.iium.muslimphilosophy. Iqbal was a dynamic leader and courageous reformer. his poetic invention brings people to the growing awareness that higher spiritual and holy.edu. which is in the form of cheap love and adulation of obscenity. he had to learn and know the people in the West. In the early stages. freedom and peace.com/ip/rep/H037. Iqbal reject capitalism based on usury and full with poor and minority workers who are rich. H & Lynda. can be used as a vehicle to fight for Islam with his message of truth. Bandung: Mizan. Besides that.php/Islam/article/viewFile/271/115 http://www. http://en. He was mature and smart enough to recognize the harm of the material civilization.my/jiasia/ojs-2. he freed poetry from the worship of desire. (2010).In addition. Iqbal also wrote two melodious poems and enthusiastic to be a song that is played in India. Iqbal also prove that art. 7.2/index. His ideas through composing poetry also raise awareness among Muslims in India to continue to fight until they achieve independence.wikipedia.htm [16] . F. literature that oriented poetry.org/wiki/Muhammad_Iqbal http://www. BIBLIOGRAPHY Jamil. his struggle towards humanitarian ideals and being an intellectual construct. Malik.

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