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Future Trends and Technology Impacts in Human Resource Management Dr. Mark A. Revels, Professor Western Kentucky University Master Sergeant Jeffery C. Kane Northcentral University
Abstract Future trends in Human Resource Management will be dictated by eight critical areas. The eight areas work individually and jointly and consist of the following; (a) historical trends, (b) perceptions of change, (c) future trends, (d) recruiting and retaining quality employees, (e) requirements for future management and leadership, (f) composition of tomorrow workforce, (g) consideration for business growth, and (h) strategies for continuous improvement. As management prepares itself and organization for the future, the key to success will be to look to the past for proven principles to effectively lead organizations. The past provides the clues to address future challenges and trends that organizations will encounter and management must use the past as a gauge to test the validity of these challenges and trends. Management while preparing for the future must be keenly aware of the labor force and its composition. Due to generational shifts and influx of (a) minorities, (b) women and (c) immigrants to the workforce, management will have to address the capabilities and limitations of the workforce to ensure organizational success. Management must also conduct a self assessment to ensure they meet the requirements necessary of them to lead organizations, employees and grow a business in the future while maintaining a productive environment. Lastly, in order to capitalize on effectiveness and efficiency, management will need to assess their organizations status of continuous improvement and a manner in which to move forward. Management’s focus on the eight critical areas will help to illuminate a path for future success. Future Trends in Human Resource Management The evolution of management theory is a continuous process based on the lessons learned from the past. Through the lessons of the past, present day managers have the benefit of better preparation in which to lead in the global market. As innovation and technology drive the global market, managers must be able to synchronize individual and organizations goals in order to achieve success. A critical component to this success is the engagement of employees, or as Drucker (2006) stated, “the key to greatness is to look for people’s potential and spend time developing it” (p. 152). As managers navigate their organizations in the global market, they must remain keenly aware of the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Through the vigilance of management, organizations will be prepared to embrace innovation, advances in technology and competition in the competitive global market.
Each notable figure and culture bestowed a breadth of knowledge that was continually improved upon to provide what we currently know as management theory (Wren. 13-14). From the fall of the Roman Empire to the beginning of industrialization in Europe. Plato. Management has been a part of every individual’s life in some form since time immemorial. a semblance of order was established to shape a society and provide ideas for future growth of management theory.114 Historical Evolution of Management The future of management theory has evolved from the contributions and lessons learned from the past. 2005. p. 2005). a military strategist. Sun Tzu. The foundations which were established by Hammurabi enabled the expansion of management theory not only in his society but in others as well. and (d) delegation of authority (Wren. The hardy stock of the Roman Empire capitalized upon thought and action and nearly conquered the world. management theories evolved at a parallel rate. (b) established hierarchy. Through the code of laws issued. 2005). 2005). Market ethic stressed the importance of management creativity and innovation as it related to improving their . and (d) specialization of labor (Wren. which has served as a precursor to human resource management. and (d) effective communication (Wren. famous for their building prowess recognized the fact that one person possessed only a limited ability to effectively control a group of people. The input of the Egyptians is based on supervisory span of control. management theory was further developed based on lessons from the past and the situation faced. Aristotle and Xenophon contributed the ideas of (a) organizational structure. capitalized on the Egyptian rule of ten and developed (a) elaborate transportation systems. The Protestant and Liberty ethics focused on the individual. personal behavior. The basis of Hammurabi’s contributions is centered on his edict of a code of laws. (b) foreign trade. The Romans. interpersonal relations. The Egyptians. (c) division of labor. punishments. however. it did not gain credence until the contributions of Hammurabi. The code outlined 282 laws which “governed business dealings. (c) joint-stock companies. The uniting of various management principles set in motion the contributions of the Middle Ages. 16). (c) deliberately planned operations. This rule would latter prove useful in the Roman Empire in their business and military endeavors thus proving the validity of this management technique. 2005. Rome’s ability to use their military enabled the further expansion of management evolution by combining precepts of various cultures with their own. 2005). From the contributions of Hammurabi arose the new ideas from great Chinese thinkers Sun Tzu and Confucius. (b) diversity. the Egyptians proceeded to clearly identify supervisors by their manner of dress and instituted “the rule of ten” (Wren. Management theory has developed over the course of the last several thousand years across a variety of cultures and continents. Socrates. imparting the importance of (a) divisions. As the cultures continued to develop and time passed. thought without action can only secure the status of a society for so long and Greece eventually fell to Rome. The great thinkers of Greece. and a host of other societal matters” (Wren. Confucius added the ideas of effective human resource management through the capable recruiting and advancement of employees based on merit and proven ability (Wren). p. However. The contributions of Sun Tzu and Confucius helped to further build upon Hammurabi’s contributions and transcended a cultural divide to impact Egyptian management theories. Armed with this understanding. The Catholic Church developed the necessity of a hierarchy and authority within organizations. The view of the Market ethic shifted focus from individual rights to a management focus and what a manger needed to improve their abilities. by way of military force.
resulting in an even greater emergence of more effective theories based on the past. 2009). These areas are (a) innovation. issues arose in regards to labor management.115 organization (Wren. and (e) organizational environmental theories came to fruition (Evolution of Management Theory. 2005). working conditions and efficiency of production. Simultaneously in the United States (US). akin to scientific management. (c) behavioral. through its many experiments illustrated the importance of the relationship between management and employees. (b) technology. Based on the past. which provided management the opportunity to look to the past for proven methods to apply to their current situation. Perceptions of Change As management theory has evolved. Contributions during this time resulted from the likes of McCallum who advocated organizational specificity and information management and Andrew Carnegie who promoted performance measurement. The first Industrial Revolution which lasted 100 years began in 1760 and introduced advances in (a) factory systems. The close of the Middle Ages ushered in the first Industrial Revolution. Their contributions also helped in the understanding of organizational and human resource management. (d) labor relations and (e) opportunities for continuous improvement (Cetron & Davies. Ure and Dupin presented theories to help in the advancement of industry and quell labor discontent. From 1890 until 2000. and (d) management innovation initially in Europe (Wren. Babbage. (c) technology. During this span of 44 years. (c) global market competition. To help counter these issues thinkers like Owen. Lastly. Management science. (b) administrative. depicted the importance of management’s abilities to leverage quantitative techniques to best use organizational resources. cross cultural boundaries thus not receiving the fad moniker. 1998). documentation of management theory has proved invaluable. 2005). The study of the past is critical to acknowledge as it lends credence to proven practices and gives rise to the new perceptions of management theory and its change in the future. it was determined through scientific means as to the best way to increase efficiency. These five areas will work . The second Industrial Revolution which mainly occurred in the US happened between 1870 and 1914 (Mokyr. Behavioral management. managers and management thinkers will continue to look to the past for insight to provide the best manner in which to move forward. Scientific management defined the relationship between people and tasks. This period of massive industrial growth and management theory refinement set the conditions for the 20th century management revolution. Within the last 100 years. Looking at the past has provided managers of today the opportunity to improve their current situation at a faster rate than previously seen. the past has served as a precursor to the future. cost controls and lines of authority (Wren. the perception of change in the future will involve five key areas. The overview of the evolution of management theory and its various applications are important to recognize. organizational environment management encompassed external factors that set the condition for operations outside of the organization (Evolution of Management Theory. industrialization took hold and refinement to management theory occurred based on the lessons from Europe. It was during these 110 years in which (a) scientific. (b) industry. 2005). 2005). industry and management theory progressed rapidly which allowed the US to become a worldwide industrial leader. The recognition of the management evolution illustrates how proven principles can stand the test of time. management theory made its largest and most documented advances. As management continues to evolve. However. (d) management science. 2009). Administrative management described the manner in which to create a more efficient organizational structure.
Progression in innovation will lead to an even greater transformation of technology as change occurs. 2008). 2005). Change will continue to occur in the ideas of work and the manner in which it is performed as well as obtaining the most efficient labor force (Heskett. The ability of the internet to effectively link organizations and societies simultaneously. The final factor to consider in determining change rests in the theory of continuous improvement. 318) and will help to shape perceptions of change and help to shape future organizations. management must be aware of the risks as well. However. there will be a further decentralization of authority in which individuals and smaller teams will shoulder more responsibility. 2005). As the future of management evolves.116 independently as well as collectively in determining the perceptions of management change in the future. 2005). The advancement in the global market and presented threats are analogous to the opportunities and threats of the Roman Empire (Wren. (b) currency fluctuation. Apart from the many potential benefits a competitive and cooperative global market presents. As organizational structures become smaller and more decentralized. Due to the change in the dynamic of the work force and restructuring of organizations. 2005). perseverance and innovation will result in success for those willing to take the risks within the global market. This innovation will mainly result in organizations which are information based and pass information more effectively via technological means with a further decentralization of authority (Cetron & Davies. throughout the world. The global market will be marked by an increase in competition as well as organizational cooperation based on the advancement of technology (Heskett. the . This linking of organizations and societies will allow for a more fluid flow of information which will quicken with each new generation (Cetron & Davies. The innovation that will occur will be closely tied to the advancements in technology which will work in unison to produce the future trends of management. 2005). change cannot occur without innovation in organizations which spurs the change to management theory. 2005). (c) infrastructure and (d) cultural mores (Cetron & Davies. 2005). As labor relations and human resource management continue to evolve it is important to keep labor in the forefront of the decision making process as labor ultimately contributes to organization success or failure. As history proves. As progression occurs in management theory it will necessitate the increase in training and education of labor in order to remain current on specified duties and increase their professional knowledge base (Cetron & Davies. the underlying threat which has continued to grow more pervasive is the threat of terrorism and its implications (Heskett. 2008). will result in an even greater transparency of individual and organizational conduct (Heskett. Just as the past has proved. a greater risk is posed due to (a) unstable governments. Labor relations and human resource management is an ever present issues that must be addressed in order for organizations to succeed. Wren (2005) paraphrasing Barnard stated that “the determination of authority remains with the individual” (p. 2005). 2005). The perception of change regarding innovation is the most critical component to the evolution of management. the likes of McCallum and Barnard stressed the need for the efficient transfer of information both internal and external of the organization (Wren. As organizations enter new or underdeveloped areas. Information based organizations are not new as history has shown. The idea of education of management and the labor force is reminiscent of the work of Dupin and Ure approximately 150 years ago (Wren. Technological advancement will also support the innovation of information transfer and decentralization of authority as advocated by McCallum and Barnard.
and (c) innovation (Levinson. Strategies such as Lean. 2005). (c) global market competition. is a process of thinking which generates transformative change. (d) labor relations and (e) opportunities for continuous improvement will facilitate the advancement of organizations and management change. new trends in management theory will occur which will be history based but applicable to the given time. Through there are mixed opinions as to the benefits of Theory Z application. there will be a greater need for engaged employees who are innovative and able to seamlessly transfer knowledge and information. (b) employee engagement. Theory Z is a cross cultural combination of American and Japanese management philosophies melded together which stresses the importance of individualism within a group context. As advances in technology lead to a greater exchange of information internal and external of an organization. The process involves a collective focus on a problem or issue. quality products and to engage the workforce. Pacioli and McCallum who advocated rudimentary forms of knowledge and information exchange to better serve organizations (Wren. The benefit of these continuous improvement strategies is based in efficient work. 2005). One future trend in management theory will be an increase in the application of Knowledge Management. preparations must be addressed in order to best manage the exchange of information and knowledge vital to an organization. the tenets of a more humanistic approach to employee empowerment within in a group setting is essential as organizations become more decentralized. The basis of Theory Z can be found in the work of McGregor and his origination of Theories X and Y (Wren. The recognition of managing knowledge resources can trace it roots to the like of the Egyptians. more art than science. 2007). information and data collection and the determination of . design thinking will emerge as a viable management theory in which to spur future innovation. Trends in Management Theory The future trends in management theory that will occur will be based in management theories and are focused on (a) information and knowledge flow. Six Sigma. These same attributes were first recognized by Taylor and his application of scientific management (Wren. Design thinking.117 necessity of effective and efficient work will remain paramount. and (c) higher quality products (Theory Z. The critical element of employee engagement through the use of management theories and techniques must be recognized to further the advancement of management in the future. As organizations expand across the global market and become more decentralized. and Total Quality Management (TQM) will continue to evolve and be improved upon (Alukal. 1). Based on these perceptions of change. p. (b) empowerment. 2006). Theory Z calls for a humanistic style approach to management that would increase (a) employee engagement. 2005). (b) technology. knowledge management in conjunction with the application of Theory Z must be utilized in order to achieve optimal results. The application of Knowledge Management is critical to the relevance of Theory Z and its employment. The perception of future change is grounded in (a) innovation. Knowledge Management is “the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge based assets” (Levinson. Working in unison with knowledge management and Theory Z. Management must also attend to the role of employees within this exchange. Continuous improvement strategies must continue forward grounded in proven principles and remain adaptive to the current situation. As knowledge and information lie with the employees of an organization. 2006). Looking to the past will provide future management theorists and practitioners the best opportunity for success and management evolution. 2007.
an increase in efficiency and full employee engagement (Joni.118 the best course of action (Hyer. The four generations of workers are based on the years in which they were born and are classified as. Essential to the process of recruiting quality employees. Design thinking is very similar to scientific management in its approach to gaining new insights on products or processes through the collection of data and information in an attempt to further improve efficiency (Wren. innovation and technological applications during their tenure while remaining engaged. The first challenge that management must face in the future regarding recruitment of quality employees is the workforce consisting of four generations of workers. creative and innovative. and how it shapes the recruitment process. Theory Z and design thinking are essential for innovation within an organization by means of keeping employees fully engaged. 2010). As management prepares to recruit employees for future employment. 2007). they are also separated by (a) experience. Most important is the acknowledgement of the employee’s potential in the desired position and their ability to effectively operate within the work environment and social climate (Westerman & Yamamura. management must ensure that the environment offered is conducive to achieving results to gain the most potential out of employees. A generation is distinguished by age. Additionally. is the determination of their ability to perform and excel within the organizational environment and social climate. (b) baby boomers (1946-1960). (c) generation x (1961-1979). it is critical to ensure the potential hire is a correct match for the position and organization (Westerman & Yamamura. (d) social attitudes. two factors must be considered. Taylor. 2006). 2007). and (d) generation y (1980 and after) (Simón. The theories of knowledge management. As management theory embraces future opportunities. Future trends in management theory is a vast realm in which only proven principles of the past joined with modern applications will endure. 2005). management must work in unison with human resources in order to best outline the guidance for recruiting which will better serve the decision making process. Since the work environment and social climate impact employee outlook and performance. 2005). The tenets of recruiting quality employees can be traced back to prominent figures such as Owen. management will better serve their employees and organization and set the conditions for successful future operations. (b) values. managers must be prepared for challenges as well. Conversely. 2007). By addressing these factors. The connection of workforce generational gaps and operating environment within an organization will present challenges to management in the future. (a) traditional (before 1946). One such management challenge is the recruiting and retaining of quality employees. Management must be aware of the impact these factors of separation have on organizations. (c) beliefs. Prior to the official declaration of human resources management. These factors are workforce composition and organizational environment. The history of management defines the importance of . Design thinking results in a future orientated approach to innovation. Employees must be able to cope with change. (e) capabilities. and (f) limitations. Therefore it is incumbent on management to look to the past for clues as to the best manner in which to successfully meet these challenges. Recruiting Quality Employees The search for quality employees has always been an area in which management has focused a considerable amount of energy. these management thinkers instilled the importance of quality recruiting as well as matching employees to jobs. Fayol and Follett (Wren.
The multifaceted approach of CSC involves (a) online courses. Proactive organizational plans that management must institute include. employees will have the ability to pursue outside of work endeavors to assist in the balance of individuals lives and make them more productive while at work (Business Week. 2006). The mutually valuable investment of learning is beneficial to both parties and defines the commitment between the employer and employee thus strengthening the retention bond. enthusiastic employees work collaboratively to deliver value to customers around the world” (CSC. one of which is the retaining of quality employees. management must then be able to meet the challenge of retaining them. management must ensure the correct environment to keep employees happy and healthy. management will be better suited to provide an organizational environment in which employees are happy. By providing these opportunities. (b) trust and respect coupled with active listening. The establishment of personal and professional development programs within an organization is critical to build a positive organizational environment in which to retain quality employees. a global organization. In order to mitigate the associated retention challenges. time is fleeting and management must ensure that it is managed properly. (b) technical certifications. (d) innovation. In order to bolster positive work environment. Jaffee (2001) states that “lifelong learning requires commitment and investment not only on the part of the provider of educational opportunities. 2001).119 recruiting quality employees as organizations move into the future. Management’s ability to provide a positive environment in which . productive and virtually void of turnover. and (e) team building exercises (Solish. Another facet to a positive work environment for the employee is time. CSC. (d) special assignments. (e) mentorship. One facet of a positive organizational environment is the types of relationships built within an organization and the affects they have on others. (b) a nurturing environment that produces positive relationships. (c) creativity. (c) classroom instruction. (e) self-worth and (f) fulfillment (Jaffee. 1) therefore. management will face a myriad of challenges. The setting of this environment will enable the building of positive relationships. and (f) coaching which provide employees with an array of options and opportunities (CSC). (a) personal and professional development. (c) genuine concern for others. p. but also on the part of the student” (p. Retaining Quality Employees In the future. Heap (2001) states “the health of people depends on what happens in organizations and what they do” (p. By remaining proactive and using insights from the past. 1). Once quality employees are recruited. 2009). 3). Acknowledging the importance of a positive organizational environment in which employees thrive is another critical element in the process of retaining quality employees. (d) collaborative work projects. The environment in which positive relationships should be built is one of (a) harmony. Investment by management into the education and development of human capital will provide more engaged employees and a higher return on organizational investment in the future. expresses their investment in education by stating “CSC is dedicated to providing employees with opportunities to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to grow and succeed in their career. management must look to incentives for time off and flexible work schedules. management must remain proactive and institute organizational plans which will best serve the employees making this challenge negligible. Management must be willing to make an investment in the human capital of their organizations in order to help facilitate future growth. 2010. Our highly skilled.
a more dynamic. parameters and guidelines for acceptable and secure functioning. they must embody certain requirements to effectively lead organizations and use lessons from the past as a guide. management will better serve their employees thus rendering them more engaged and productive. will contribute to a more productive and efficient organization. ethical. respect and capitalize on the different backgrounds in our society in terms of race.120 employees time is recognized and honored. 2005). thus staying ahead of the competition. Management and leadership of organizations have varying opinions as to the definition and application of CSR. By enacting these strategies. Adaptation to the advances in technology is a critical requirement for managers and leaders to lead organizations in the future. The ability of management and leadership to operate in these functioning areas will dictate the success or failure of their organizations. 1). The assimilation and recognition of technological innovations and advances and their implications on organizations will help management to be proactive in their future preparations. The integration of diversity is critical in that “85% of the new entrants into the workforce in the next decade will be women. As a result. The last facet in managements quest for developing a positive organization is the commitment to identify the value of each employees self worth. As management prepares for the future. 2010. 2004). By applying Carroll’s four dimensional approaches. Management thinkers and theorists like Ure and Dupin stressed the need for education of employees to further expand their skills. p. The essence of integration is the need for management and leadership to “recognize. minorities and immigrants” (Gorham. they must look to the past for insights and proven principles of employee retention. Ideally. management and leadership must meet certain requirements to effectively lead these organizations. Management must be able to display the assimilation of both tacit and explicit knowledge of technology in order to properly lead their organizations (Beu & Leonard. management and leadership must be adept in three functioning areas. (a) technological adaptation. a positive example will be set in which all stakeholders of an organization will . management must provide “levels of expectancy. and discretionary expectations that society has of organizations” (p. ethnicity and gender” (p. 1). and unlimited potential for creative growth (p. diverse and realistic organization will develop which will be better suited to excel in global markets. The requirement for management and leadership is to motivate organizations to accept and welcome new advances and recognize their potential benefits. 1). legal. future management will be best suited to embrace the view of Carroll (1979) who stated that “the social responsibility of business encompasses the economic. Future Requirements for Management and Leadership In order for management to effectively lead an organization into the future. (b) embodiment of cultural diversity. With organizations changing in the future. To facilitate the transition into the future. Carmichael (2010) asserts that in order for employees self worth to actualize within an organization. and advocated education for both management and employees resulting in a more engaged and productive workforce (Wren. The last requirement that management and leadership must embody in the future is the application of CSR within their organizations. The understanding of technology and its effects on organizational systems and processes is critical. and (c) corporate social responsibility (CSR). 500). Another requirement of management and leadership in the future is the understanding and integration of cultural diversity within organizations.
2007). As organizations progress into the future. management must be able to effectively and efficiency mange the diversity of attitudes. management must recognize the signs of discord due to generational misunderstandings which have the potential to severely impact organizational climate and productivity (Westerman & Yamamura. Composition of Tomorrows Workforce The composition of tomorrows workforce will differ from that of today due to the retirement of traditional workers. The composition of tomorrow’s workforce will undergo numerous changes which management must be prepared to meet. 2005). they must also look to the past for proven practices in which to capitalize upon. demographics will experience as noticeable shift as well resulting in changes to age. To help alleviate this stress. Additionally. they must look to incentives and retention programs to ensure they do not lose quality employees (Hewitt Associates. 45 percent of the workforce is comprised of generations X and Y. 2010). those born prior to 1946. ethics and beliefs of four generations. and will increase as traditional workers retire (Westerman & Yamamura. Y. the past offers clues for management in the shifting dynamic of the workforce. it was only those who were proactive and embraced these innovations that found success and continued to thrive. The shift in composition due to rapid advances in technology is akin to the shift from the farm to the factory with the advent of the Industrial Revolution (Wren. The history of CSR is relatively shorter and gained momentum from the likes of Owen and Lowell. The application of Carroll’s view of CSR coupled with strict oversight and transparency will ensure positive results for organizations. 2007). As management leads organizations into the future they must keep a watchful on the composition of the workforce and remain engaged with the employees to create a positive organizational climate. In order to mitigate the risks of generational differences. and Z. The workforce of tomorrow will be comprised of baby boomers and generations X. management must be engaged with employees and look for signal to avert potential problems.121 benefit. organizations will thrive. Currently. 2010). 2009). Changes in the dynamic of the workforce will result in a technologically driven workforce that is able to process more information than previous generations (Trunk. Cultural diversity has been a part of organizational composition since trade occurred in foreign lands and transportation of goods began. Composition of tomorrow’s workforce is just one of the many . As management and leadership face the necessary requirements to lead organizations into the future. The exit of traditional workers will help to usher in the entrance of generation Z workers thereby making generation X and Y the largest segment. Technological adaptation has occurred since the beginning of civilization. As the generations shift within the workforce and composition changes. management must be concerned with the composition and abilities of tomorrow’s workforce. diversity and gender (Hewitt Associates. with their understanding and applications of socially responsible principles have proved successful for many organizations since (Wren. 2005). The exit of a generation from the workforce will open new opportunities for the X and Y generations as well as set the conditions of the entrance of generation Z into the workforce. Management must also look at organizational policies and procedures to ensure they are meeting the needs of their employees across generational boundaries. The future of management and leadership contains many challenges and opportunities. As the four generations co-mingle in the workforce. by understanding and applying the three functional areas. Apart from generational gaps in the workforce.
By reengineering current processes the business will be better suited to refocus efforts on specified tasks that will benefit all stakeholders and produce lasting growth. policies and personnel procedures must be addressed as well. there are many areas in which a growing business could focus their efforts. It is also important to consider the change in personnel procedures and the impacts it will have on the organizational climate.122 concerns of management in the future. policies pertaining to personnel should be of the utmost importance. business process reengineering (BPR) needs to occur. the realignment of processes. Business policies can cover a large variety of topics within a business that outline established written or unwritten practices with the type and nature depending on the business itself (Small Business Dictionary. 2010). creativity and harmony will allow business to grow. BPR is the “analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises” to produce more efficient and effective results (SearchCIO. With knowledge gained. Once a determination has been made as to processes that need to be improved with a desired end state in mind. it is imperative that they are written into policy as this will assist in enforcing compliance and protect the business (Management Help. 2010). Therefore. however as the workforce composition changes due to the generational shift. Ideally. management must then analyze the current processes being executed to determine if they meet the needs of future growth. The identification and reengineering of business processes is an essential element in the growth of a business as well as beneficial for organizational climate. It is essential as a business grows. (d) use of facilities. 2010). in conjunction with policy revision based on finds will help to dictate shifts in personnel procedures. 2010). and (f) communications (Businesslink. 2004). A manager focusing on the growth of their business must have tacit and explicit knowledge of all processes within their organization. management must then be able to focus their efforts on business policies and their affect on the business. customers and the organization. The refinement of personnel procedures as a result of changes to processes and policies is the final element for the future growth of business. In order to help facilitate this growth. policies and procedures and provide a positive work environment. . 2010). the impacts need to be positive in nature. management must have a keen understanding of all facets of the business. revisions to personnel procedures occur in order to remain current with laws as well as innovation (Consultant Matters. In order to effect changes in personnel procedures. (e) training and performance standards. (c) conduct. (b) health and safety. the determination of business process improvement for growth. management will need to assess current policies in place to see which are viable and which need modification to coincide with the growth of the business. As businesses begin to grow. with the employee in mind and results in more efficient and effective produces to help sustain growth. refine processes. in order to fully understand the scope of capabilities and limitations (Beu & Leonard. The diverse nature of business policy without the focused attention of management could result in wasted effort. A keen understanding of one’s business coupled with providing a positive work environment that invokes innovation. Growing a Business in the Future The key to success for future growth of business rests in the ability of management to spur new ideas. Within business policy. Varying types of policies include (a) personnel. After improving business processes to match the innovation of the current time.
2003). and (g) defects (Lean innovation. Introduction and implementation of Total Quality Management. technology. TQM is the final strategy to implement because of its all encompassing nature. methodology and philosophy (p. Continuous Improvement. (a) overproduction. 2010). 2010). The benefits are further passed down to the customers.4 defects per million opportunities” through the use of metrics. TQM is “a management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives” (Isixsigma. 1). LEAN. The shift in the workforce to accommodate generational changes will require implementation of practices and processes that reduce the burden of employees and result in higher quality. Six Sigma. Six Sigma. 2010). An organization that couples Lean and Six Sigma together as part of their CI program will benefit from the reduction of waste and more efficient processes. New to Six Sigma. In order to achieve total customer satisfaction and organizational objectives. seven key areas are addressed that impact and involve the workforce. Combining Lean and its principles of waste reduction with Six Sigma and process refinement the next logical step in the CI chain is the implementation of TQM. policies and personnel have been ever present in the evolution of management theory and will remain long into the future. The first strategy used in achieving CI in tomorrow’s workforce is the implementation of the Lean philosophy. the organizational climate will improve due a more engaged workforce. p. It is through proper preparation and the use of proven practices that will help to facilitate growth and ensure success. Introduction and implementation of Total Quality Management. The seven types of waste or muda are. As refinements are made to the CI process. five areas of capabilities must be assessed. Total Quality Management. supply generation. which will improve the organizational climate and result in more savings thereby increasing profits. In conjunction with Lean. (b) waiting. The Lean philosophy involves a “system of techniques and activities for running a manufacturing or service operation” with the focus of “the elimination of all non-value adding activities and waste from the business” (ASQ. With Lean’s focus being the reduction of waste. the next CI initiative is the introduction of Six Sigma to improve organizational processes. The implementation of Lean and its focus on the reduction of waste. 2010). The three key CI strategies that management must implement in the future to achieve success are Lean. By properly training the future workforce in the Lean principles and applications as well as gaining the commitment of the employees in this endeavor. The capabilities that need to be assessed are “demand generation. 1). and Total Quality Management (TQM) (ASQ.123 The growing of a business in the future will contain many challenges that can be easily averted. operations and people capabilities” (Isixsigma. 2010). The use of Six Sigma is a tool to further engage employees through teamwork during the refinement of processes which is beneficial in workforce cohesion (ASQ. 2010. The refinement of processes is done with the goal of achieving “3. Six Sigma is “a methodology that uses data and statistical analysis to measure and improve a company’s operational performance by identifying and eliminating defects in manufacturing and service related processes” (Isixsigma. 2010). CI is “the seeking of small improvements in processes and products. Continuous Improvement Achieving continuous improvement (CI) in tomorrow’s workforce will result from necessity and innovation. (f) motion. . Refinements to procedures. with the objective of increasing quality and reducing waste” (BNET. The essence of TQM is future focused and aimed at long term success through the satisfaction of the customer (ASQ. (c) transport. (e) inventory. management will be well served to implement the Six Sigma philosophy into their CI program as well. (d) extra processing. 2010.
March 17).124 p.businesslink.org/learn-about-quality/total-qualitymanagement/overview/overview. doi: 10. (b) workforce composition. Retrieved from http://www.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCES&itemId =1073791959 Business Week. H. Set up employment policies for your business. a positive organizational climate and greater customer satisfaction.com/managing/content/mar2009/ca20090327_734197. The increasing call for work-life balance. Evangelism of great works in management: How the gospel is spread. All about lean. (g) processes.proxy1.asq.edu/pqdweb?did=991049161&sid=1&Fmt=2&client Id=52110&RQT=309&VName=PQD ASQ. CI has been a part of business innovation since the beginning of civilization. however. Six Sigma and TQM are critical strategies for organizations to implement as they move towards the future. The work of Taylor who was later followed by Shewart. Continuous improvement. Retrieved from http://dictionary.asq. (h) options for continued improvement. it became more documented in the early 1900’s with the introduction of scientific management. 1226-1239. G.org/learn-aboutquality/lean/overview/overview.umi. & Leonard. management must look inward to ensure that they meet the requirements needed to lead an organization into the future and are prepared to take on the new and challenging opportunities which lie ahead. Conclusion The evolution of management theory is based on lessons learned from the past with the application of innovation and technology to current and future situations. Retrieved from http://www.htm?cha n=careers_special+report+--+work-life+balance_special+report+--+work-life+balance . Retrieved from http://proquest. management will be better prepared in the planning process for the CI process. 2010.com/definition/continuous+improvement. Six sigma.html ASQ. Retrieved January 21. Management must assess their organization in terms of (a) personnel.html Businesslink. (2009. S.html Beu. Implementation of CI initiatives facilitates future success. Lean. D. Retrieved from http://www. Continuous improvement. from http://www. 2005).asq.asq. preparation is essential to ensure success.com. (2010).businessweek. (2010). (2010). (2004). Future trends in the evolution of management theory are rooted in the past. Retrieved from http://www. (f) procedures.html ASQ. In addition. References Alukal. and (i) relationship with the customer. (e) policies.org/learn-aboutquality/continuous-improvement/verview/overview. Total quality management. 42(10). The implementation of CI strategies is based on proven principles that have stood the test of time.gov.bnet.1108/00251740410568935 BNET. N. 74-75. As organizations move forward. Retrieved from http://www. 39(2). (2006). (2010). (d) organizational capabilities and limitations. Management Decision. The combination of Lean. (2010). 1). Through the assessment of organizational capabilities. Deming and Juran helped to usher in the age of quality management which benefited organizations (Wren.html ASQ. (2010).ncu. Quality Progress. with success of future operations dependent on the use of proven principles.org/learn-about-quality/sixsigma/overview/overview.
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