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Huang Shao-Ping, Li Yong-Jian, Jin Guo-Bin, Li Ling

Dept.of Elect.and Information Eng. of Hunan Institute of Engineering Xiang'tanChina e-mail: hsp@hnie.edu.cn

AbstractThe Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a shunt device using power electronics to control power flow and improve transient stability on power grids. A model of a 100Mvar GTO-based STATCOM on a 500kV transmission system is built and its dynamic response is simulated. The GTObased STATCOM consists of a 48-pulse three-level inverter and its control system. The simulating result shows that the STATCOM has fine dynamic response and can regulate transmission system voltage efficaciously. KeywordsStatic Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM); 48pulse three-level inverter; dynamic response; simulation

a DC voltage source. In steady state the voltage V2 has to be phase shifted slightly behind V1 in order to compensate for transformer and VSC losses and to keep the capacitor charged. In steady state operation, V2 generated by the VSC is in phase with V1 (=0), so that only reactive power is flowing (P=0). If V2 is lower than V1, Q is flowing from V1 to V2. On the reverse, if V2 is higher than V1, Q is flowing from V2 to V1. The amount of reactive power is given by (1)

I.

INTRODUCTION

The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a shunt device of the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) family using power electronics to control power flow and improve transient stability on power grids [1]. The STATCOM regulates voltage at its terminal by controlling the amount of reactive power injected into or absorbed from the power system. When system voltage is low, the STATCOM generates reactive power (STATCOM capacitive). When system voltage is high, it absorbs reactive power (STATCOM inductive). Depending on the power rating of the STATCOM, different technologies are used for the power converter. High power STATCOM (several hundreds of Mvars) normally use GTO-based, square-wave voltage-sourced converters (VSC), while lower power STATCOM (tens of Mvars) use IGBTbased (or IGCT-based) pulse-width modulation (PWM) VSC. In this paper, using MATLAB/Simulink software, the model of a GTO-based STATCOM on a transmission system is built, and studying its dynamic performance. II .

OPERATING PRINCIPLE THE OF THE STATCOM

Figure 1. Sketch figure of operation Principle of the STATCOM The VSC uses forced-commutated power electronic devices to synthesize a voltage V2 from a DC voltage source. The active and reactive power transfer between a source V1 and a source V2. The GTO-based STATCOM uses square-wave inverters and special interconnection transformers. Typically four three-level inverters are used to build a 48-step voltage waveform. Special interconnection transformers are used to neutralize harmonics contained in the square waves generated by individual inverters. In this type of VSC, the fundamental component of voltage V2 is proportional to the voltage Vdc. Therefore Vdc has to be varied for controlling the reactive power. III .

MODELING

The principle of operation of the STATCOM can be explained on figure 1. The variation of reactive power is performed by means of a VSC connected on the secondary side of a coupling transformer. V1 represents the system voltage to be controlled and V2 is the voltage generated by the VSC.A capacitor connected on the DC side of the VSC acts as

This project is jointly supported by Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.07JJ6079) and The Open Fund Project of Key Laboratory in Hunan Universities

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The model of a 500kV power transmission system with the STATCOM is shown on figure 2.This 100Mvar STATCOM is used to regulate voltage at bus B1.The internal voltage of the equivalent system connected at bus B1 can be varied by means of a three-phase programmable voltage source block to observe the STATCOM dynamic response to changes in system voltage.

The STATCOM consists of a three-level 48-pulse inverter and two series-connected 3000F capacitors which act as a variable DC voltage source. The variable amplitude 60Hz voltage produced by the inverter is synthesized from the variable DC voltage which varies around 19.3kV.

B. 48-Pulse Three-Level Inverter The model of 48-Pulse three-level inverter is shown on figure 3. It consists of four 3-phase 3-level inverters coupled with four phase shifting transformers introducing phase shift of 7.5 degrees. Except for the 23rd and 25th harmonics, this transformer arrangement neutralizes all odd harmonics up to the 45th harmonic. Y and D transformer secondaries cancel harmonics 5+12n (5, 17, 29, 41,...) and 7+12n (7, 19,31, 43,...). In addition, the 15 phase shift between the two groups of transformers (Tr1Y and Tr1D leading by 7.5, Tr2Y and Tr2D lagging by 7.5) allows cancellation of harmonics 11+24n (11, 35,...) and 13+24n (13, 37,...).Considering that all 3n harmonics are not transmitted by the transformers (delta and ungrounded Y), the first harmonics that are not canceled by the transformers are therefore the 23rd, 25th, 47th and 49th harmonics. By choosing the appropriate conduction angle for the three-level inverter ( = 172.5), the 23rd and 25th harmonics can be minimized. The first significant harmonics generated by the inverter will then be 47th and 49th.Using a bipolar DC voltage, the STATCOM thus generates a 48-step voltage approximating a sine wave[2,3]. C. STATCOM Control System

The model of STATCOM Control System is shown figure 4.Its task is to increase or decrease the capacitor DC voltage, so that the generated AC voltage has the correct amplitude for the required reactive power. The control system must also keep the AC generated voltage in phase with the system voltage at the STATCOM connection bus to generate transformer and inverter losses).The control system uses the following modules: 1) PLL (phase locked loop) it synchronizes GTO pulses to the system voltage and provides a reference angle to the measurement system. 2) Measurement System it computes the positivesequence components of the STATCOM voltage and current, using phase-to-dq transformation and a running-window averaging. 3) Voltage regulation it is performed by two PI regulators: from the measured voltage Vmeas and the reference voltage Vref, the Voltage Regulator block (outer loop) computes the reactive current reference Iqref used by the current regulator block (inner loop). The output of the current regulator is the angle which is the phase shift of the inverter voltage with respect to the system voltage. This angle stays very close to zero except during short periods of time, as explained below.

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A voltage droop is incorporated in the voltage regulation to obtain a V-I characteristics with a slope (0.03 pu/100 MVA in this case). Therefore, when the STATCOM operating point

changes from fully capacitive (+100Mvar) to fully inductive (-100Mvar) the SVC voltage varies between 1-0.03=0.97pu and 1+0.03=1.03pu.

Figure 3.

4) Firing Pulses Generator it generates pulses for the four inverters from the PLL output (t) and the current regulator output ( angle). IV. SIMULATING

voltage at 0.979pu. The 95% settling time is approximately 47 ms. At this point the DC voltage has increased to 20.4kV. at t=0.2s the source voltage is increased to1.045pu of its nominal value. The STATCOM reacts by changing its operating point from capacitive to inductive to keep voltage at 1.021pu. At this point the STATCOM absorbs 72Mvar and the DC voltage has been lowered to 18.2kV. Observe on the first trace showing the STATCOM primary voltage and current that the current is changing from capacitive to inductive in approximately one cycle. at t=0.3s the source voltage in set back to its nominal value and the STATCOM operating point comes back to zero Mvar.

Open the programmable voltage source menu and look at the sequence of voltage steps that are programmed. Also, open the STATCOM Controller dialog box and verify that the STATCOM is in voltage regulation mode with a reference voltage of 1.0pu. Run the simulation and observe waveforms on the STATCOM scope block. Initially the programmable voltage source is set at 1.0491pu, resulting in a 1.0pu voltage at bus B1 when the STATCOM is out of service. As the reference voltage Vref is set to 1.0 pu, the STATCOM is initially floating (zero current).The DC voltage is 19.3kV. These waveforms are reproduced is shown figure 5. At t=0.1s, voltage is suddenly decreased by 4.5% (0.955pu of nominal voltage). The STATCOM reacts by generating reactive power (Q=+70Mvar) to keep

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V.

CONCLUSION

The 48-Pulse three-level GTO inverter whit shifting transformers can neutralize harmonics commendably, it can be used in high-power FACTS. The simulating result proves that the STATCOM has fine dynamic response and can regulate transmission system voltage efficaciously. REFERENCES

[1] N. G. Hingorani, L. Gyugyi . Understanding FACTS; Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. IEEE Press book, 2000. [2] Madhav DTbomas A Lipo. Hybrid multi-level power conversion system: A Competitive solution for High power applications[J]. IEEE Trans on lnd Appli200036(3):834-841. [3] W A HillC D Harbourt. Performance of medium voltage multi-level inverter [J].IEEE Industry Application Society Annual Meting(IAS) 19991186-1192.

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