Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

EVALUATING ABOVE-GRADE WIRE, CABLE, AND CONDUIT INSTALLATIONS

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Electrical File Reference: EEX-206.02

For additional information on this subject, contact PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire, Cable, and Conduit Installations

CONTENT

PAGE

INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 4 ABOVE-GRADE INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES: CONDUIT, CABLE TRAYS, AND EXPOSED CABLE ....................................................................................... 5 Conduit ................................................................................................................. 5 Rigid Steel ................................................................................................. 6 EMT ........................................................................................................... 7 Flexible Liquid-Tight................................................................................... 8 Cable Trays: Design, Construction, and Usage Requirements........................... 8 Aluminum................................................................................................... 9 Fiberglass ................................................................................................ 10 Exposed Cable: Uses and Routing Requirements............................................. 11 Metal-Clad/Armored................................................................................. 11 Routing Requirements ............................................................................. 12 DETERMINING CABLE TRAY INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS.............................. 13 Loading............................................................................................................... 14 Magnetic Heating Effects.................................................................................... 18 Circuit Separation ............................................................................................... 19 Grounding and Bonding Requirements and Methods........................................ 22 Tray Separation .................................................................................................. 23 Supports/Fastenings........................................................................................... 24 Tray Routing/Protection Covers.......................................................................... 26 Fittings, Bends, and Drops ................................................................................. 27 DETERMINING CONDUIT INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS.................................... 28 Conduit Types and Applications ......................................................................... 28 Conduit Sizing and Routing ................................................................................ 30 Conduit Fill............................................................................................... 30

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire, Cable, and Conduit Installations

Jam Ratio................................................................................................. 32 Cable Clearance Within the Conduit ........................................................ 33 Magnetic Heating Effects ......................................................................... 34 Conduit Clearances ................................................................................. 34 Fire Proofing ............................................................................................ 34 Conduit Bending ................................................................................................. 35 Minimum Bending Radii ........................................................................... 35 Conduit Threading .............................................................................................. 36 Indoor and Outdoor Conduit Terminations ......................................................... 38 Fittings ..................................................................................................... 38 Seals (Explosion Proof) ........................................................................... 39 Expansion Joints...................................................................................... 40 Conduit Supports................................................................................................ 40 DETERMINING CABLE PULLING REQUIREMENTS .................................................. 43 Rigging Procedures ............................................................................................ 43 Pulling Grips ............................................................................................ 47 Pulling Lines ............................................................................................ 48 Duct Lubricating....................................................................................... 49 Cable Pulling Parameters ................................................................................... 50 Maximum Pulling Tensions ...................................................................... 50 Sidewall Pressure .................................................................................... 64 Rigging Method Effects Calculation ......................................................... 68 DETERMINING HAZARDOUS AREA WIRING AND SEALING REQUIREMENTS ...... 73 Wiring ................................................................................................................. 74 Conduit Sealing .................................................................................................. 77 Cable Sealing ..................................................................................................... 80 List of Figures

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire, Cable, and Conduit Installations

Figure 1: Aluminum Cable Tray Load/Span Class Designation (from NEMA VE-1) ..... 15 Figure 2: Fiberglass Cable Tray Load/Span Data (from NEMA FG-1) ......................... 16 Figure 3: Fiberglass Cable Tray Temperature Correction for Allowable Working Load (from NEMA FG-1).................................................... 17 Figure 4: Minimum Circuit Separation Distances for Signal Cabling in Cable Tray (from SAES-J-902) ............................................. 21 Figure 5: Conduit Sizing Requirements........................................................................ 31 Figure 6: Allowable Percentage of Conduit Fill (from NEC, Chapter 9) ........................ 32 Figure 7: Required Dimensions of Conduit Threads (from UL 6) ................................. 37 Figure 8: Maximum Distance Between Rigid-Metal Conduit Supports ......................... 42 Figure 9: Dynamometer Used to Measure Pulling Tension .......................................... 45 Figure 10: Basket Grip on Cable .................................................................................. 47 Figure 11: Pulling Eye on Cable ................................................................................... 48 Figure 12: Cable Configurations................................................................................... 53 Figure 13: Vertical Conduit Bends................................................................................ 59 Figure 14: Example Pulling Tension Calculation............................................................. 61 Figure 15: Sidewall Pressure on Cable During a Pull...................................................... 65 Figure 16: Inside Radius of Standard Conduit Elbows.................................................... 67 Figure 17: Sample Rigging Methods Effects Calculation ................................................ 68

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.03 should also be considered. cable. and the installation method cost. and conduit installations for applicable use: o o o o o Above-grade Installation Techniques: Conduit. the Participant must have a thorough understanding of the types of installation techniques that are available. the below-ground cable installation methods that are covered in EEX 206. and Exposed Cable. installation topography. The optimal cable installation method is selected through an evaluation of the specific cable installation requirements. Determining Cable Tray Installation Requirements Determining Conduit Installation Requirements Determining Cable Pulling Requirements Determining Hazardous Area Wiring and Sealing Requirements Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4 . This Module provides information on the following topics that are pertinent to evaluate above-grade wire. cable. and conduit installations for applicability of use. and the methods that are used to determine the installation requirements for each type of installation. Cable Trays. As such. The cable installation methods that are described in this Module (e. the optimal cable installation method should be selected for the facility installation. In addition to the above-grade cable installation methods that are outlined in this Module. Cable.g.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. the minimum requirements of the various governing documents for each type of installation. cable trays and above-ground conduit) are all used for the same reason: to install cable so that the cable will function safely and adequately throughout its projected operating life. and Conduit Installations INTRODUCTION In order to evaluate various types of approved Saudi Aramco above-grade wire.

an open channel (cable tray). the cable use and installation environment). Conduit Cable Trays: Design. electrical metallic tubing (EMT). but this method is limited and is not covered in this course. and flexible liquid-tight. Saudi Aramco considers the additional cost of rigid steel conduit to be worth the added protection that rigid steel offers over IMC. the installation must comply with the applicable Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard (SAES). Cable can be installed in an enclosed channel (raceway). Cable. construction. The selected installation method is to a large degree a matter of the Proponent's preference. Rigid metal (bus ducts) can also be used to conduct electricity over short distances.g. This section of the Module describes the following above-grade installation techniques: o o o Conduit A conduit is defined as a metallic or nonmetallic tube that is used to protect electric wires and cables. The types of conduit that are used in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations are rigid steel. and Usage Requirements Exposed Cable: Uses and Routing Requirements Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 . in the title Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAESs). Saudi Aramco allows only metallic-type conduit systems to be used for above-grade conduit installations. or simply exposed to the elements. is a term that refers to the minimum mandatory requirements for the design. and Conduit Installations ABOVE-GRADE INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES: CONDUIT. Due to the nature of Saudi Aramco cable installations (e. maintenance.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Although there are various types of nonmetallic conduit systems that are available for use. Construction. and repair of equipment and facilities for Saudi Aramco. however. intermediate metallic conduit (IMC) is prohibited in all areas. AND EXPOSED CABLE There are several different installation techniques that can be used to install above-grade cable in Saudi Aramco facilities. CABLE TRAYS.. Standards.

Class II and Class III are locations where combustible dusts or fibers respectively exist. galvanized. Additional details on the construction of rigid-steel conduit systems that are used in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations are provided in the section of this Module that is titled "Determining Conduit Installation Requirements. rigid-steel conduit is rigid-steel conduit that has been dipped in molten zinc during the forming process. Rigid-steel conduit is manufactured in standard lengths of approximately three meters (ten feet) and is required to be threaded on both ends. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . and Conduit Installations Rigid Steel Rigid-steel conduit is medium-thickness water pipe that has been reamed out to eliminate burrs and rough edges. Hot-dipped. Each of these three classifications are. or a Division 2 location in which danger is not present under normal conditions but is likely to arise. Division 1 (hazardous) areas." and they are briefly described here for requirement clarification.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. broken down further into a Division 1 location in which danger is imminent at any or all times. A Class I classification describes a location in which flammable gases or vapors could be present.g. rigid-steel conduit is specified for all Saudi Aramco installations in which rigid-steel conduit is used." The requirements for the use of conduit and other equipment (e. The following are the requirements for the use of rigid-steel conduit in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations: o o o Rigid-steel conduit should be used when conduit is to be installed in Class I. hot-dipped.. Rigid-steel conduit should be used when conduit is installed above ground in outdoor industrial facilities. galvanized. cables and cable trays) are determined to some extent by the possibility of fire or explosive hazards. in turn. Rigid-steel conduit should be used when exceptional mechanical protection is required. Cable. The specific classes of hazardous locations are described in the section of this Module that is titled "Determining Hazardous Area Wiring and Sealing Requirements.

" EMT does not offer the same degree of mechanical strength as rigid-steel conduit. Cable. and Conduit Installations o Rigid-steel conduit should be used when conduit is installed in severe corrosive environments. The following are the requirements for the use of EMT in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations: o o o EMT is acceptable only in non-hazardous (classified).500 feet) from the shore line of the Red Sea. the conduit should be PVC-coated. Rigid-steel conduit should be PVC-coated when it is installed in offshore locations or when it is installed within one kilometer (3500 feet) from the shoreline of the Arabian Gulf or thee kilometers (10. o EMT EMT is similar in construction to rigid-steel conduit except that EMT is constructed of a much thinner material. indoor locations. EMT can also be referred to as thin-walled conduit.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. EMT should not be used where it will be subjected to severe physical damage. therefore. Additional details on the construction of EMT systems that are used in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations are provided in the section of this Module that is titled "Determining Conduit Installation Requirements. Unlike rigidsteel conduit. EMT is manufactured in standard lengths of approximately 3 meters (10 feet). EMT should not be used where corrosion can cause damage. EMT is not threaded (due to its thin wall). and it is joined by threadless couplings. the applications of EMT are limited when compared to rigid-steel conduit. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 .

When explosion-proof flexible fittings are necessary. ladder-type cable tray is authorized for use in special applications with the approval of the Proponent Operating Department Manager." The following are the requirements for the use of flexible liquidtight conduit in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations: o Flexible liquid-tight conduit should be used in all areas (except those areas that are classified as Class I. and Usage Requirements Cable tray is defined as a unit or an assembly of units or sections (and associated fittings) that is made of metal or some other noncombustible material and that forms a continuous rigid structure. Cable. Although Saudi Aramco standards specify the use of only copper-free. a Crouse-Hinds. Construction. fiberglass. Additional details on the use of systems that include flexible liquid-tight conduit in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations are provided in the section of this Module that is titled "Determining Conduit Installation Requirements. EC Series. and Conduit Installations Flexible Liquid-Tight Flexible liquid-tight conduit is constructed of a single strip of aluminum or galvanized steel that is spirally wound and interlocked. Explosion-proof flexible couplings should be used instead of flexible liquid-tight conduit in Class I. An outer jacket is used to make the flexible conduit assembly liquid-tight. ladder-type cable tray for Saudi Aramco above-grade installations. and they can be found in the form of ladders. aluminum. Division 1) for connections where vibration. Cable trays are used to support cables and raceways. This section describes the design and construction of both aluminum and fiberglass cable trays. troughs. Division 1 (hazardous) locations. and channels. The interlocked construction of flexible liquid-tight conduit provides a round cross-section that has a high degree of mechanical strength and great flexibility. or equivalent flexible conduit should be used. movement.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . o Cable Trays: Design. or adjustments will occur.

cable tray protective covers are required to allow for mechanical protection and solar radiation deflection for all outside cable tray installations. Division 2 (hazardous) areas. To facilitate the transmission of fault current. The maximum distance between the stainless steel bands is one band for every 1." The following are the requirements for the use of aluminum ladder-type cable tray in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations: o o o Cable tray is the preferred method of power distribution in Class I.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. If an outdoor cable tray installation contains only I&C cables. Because the aluminum cable trays could potentially become energized. Only ladder-type cable tray is authorized for Saudi Aramco abovegrade installations. and Conduit Installations Aluminum Aluminum ladder-type cable tray is a prefabricated metal structure that consists of two longitudinal side rails that are connected by individual transverse members at regularly spaced distances. Bonding is the method of joining together the cable tray lengths to ensure electrical continuity. Cable. and because cable trays are hung or mounted in specific lengths. There should always be at least two bands per length of cable tray.5 m (5 feet) of cover length. Cable tray should not be used where it will be subjected to severe physical damage. Additional details on the construction of aluminum ladder-type cable tray systems that are used in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations are provided in the section of this Module that is titled "Determining Cable Tray Installation Requirements. the cable tray lengths must be bonded together. louvered. they are grounded. and they should not have a black or dark surface that is exposed to the sun. Ventilated. the cable tray covers that are used can be of the solid (unventilated) type. Cable tray covers should be made of the same material that is used for the cable tray. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . Covers for aluminum cable tray should be fastened to the cable tray with stainless steel banding.

and Conduit Installations Fiberglass Fiberglass ladder-type cable tray is an assembly of fiberglassreinforced plastic tray sections and accessories that form a rigid structural system to support cable. Additional details on the construction of fiberglass. The fiberglass ladder-type cable tray is a prefabricated. Cable tray should not be used where it will be subjected to severe physical damage. fiberglass structure that consists of two longitudinal side rails that are connected by individual transverse members at regularly spaced distances. Outdoor. If an outdoor cable tray installation contains only instrument and control cables. Cable. Only ladder-type cable trays are authorized for Saudi Aramco above-grade installations. the cable tray covers that are used can be of the solid (unventilated) type. sunlight (UV)-resistant. Division 2 (hazardous) areas and in unclassified areas. o o Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . ladder-type cable tray systems are provided later in this Module.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. fiberglass cable tray installations should use covers that are made of the same material as the cable tray and that have provisions for ventilation. The following are the requirements for the use of fiberglass laddertype cable tray in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations: o Cable tray is the preferred method of power distribution in Class I.

e. Cable. The assembly is enclosed in a metallic sheath of interlocking tape or in a smooth. Type MC cable and armored cable are permitted to be installed exposed only when the cable will not be subject to damage by vehicular traffic or similar hazards. feeders. control. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . the routing or design of the cable installation may require the cable to be exposed (i. If a cable type other than MC or armored cable is installed. articles 501 through 504. the cable should not be installed so that it is exposed above ground. not enclosed in a raceway). According to the NEC. In cable tray. This section of the Module describes the construction.. Direct buried where identified for such use. the uses of Type MC cable include the following applications: o o o o o o o o o o o Services. and Conduit Installations Exposed Cable: Uses and Routing Requirements For some Saudi Aramco cable installations. As aerial cable on a messenger. corrugated tube. Indoors or outdoors. Cable types other than MC or armored cable should only be installed in cable trays. and routing requirements of metal-clad and armored cable that is used in Saudi Aramco installations. In any approved raceway. In dry locations. conduit. Type MC cable that is used for Saudi Aramco applications should be supplied with a PVC-jacketed aluminum sheath that meets UL 4 (0 to 2000 V) or UL 1072 (2001 to 35 kV) specifications. In hazardous locations as permitted by NEC (NFPA 70).Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Metal-Clad/Armored Type MC cable is a factory assembly of one or more conductors that are individually insulated. lighting. or flexible liquid-tight conduit. As an open run of cable. Power. and branch circuits. and signal circuits. metal-clad (Type MC) or armored (in accordance with IEC 60502) cable will be used. When the cable will be exposed. use. Where exposed or concealed.

If Type MC cable is installed as a branch circuit in a dwelling unit. cabinet. The IEC-armored cable is heavy duty. and Conduit Installations Type MC cable is always specified with a PVC jacket. The cable armor should be connected to all boxes. junction box. and it is considered to be equivalent to NEC Type MC cable. Type MC cable that is installed in a cable tray should comply with the installation requirements for cable tray. or fitting. Type AC (Armored Cable) cable that is described in NEC Article 333 is light-duty cable that is seldom used in Saudi Aramco installations. The armored cable that is widely used in Saudi Aramco installations is galvanized steel tape or steel wire-armored cable that is manufactured in accordance with IEC Article 502. Cable. and cabinets to provide effective electrical continuity throughout the installation. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . and the armor should be mechanically joined (bonded) through the installation so that is forms a continuous electric conductor. fittings.03. and is therefore suitable for installation in wet locations. Routing requirements for cable tray are discussed in the section of this Module that is titled "Determining Cable Tray Installation Requirements. and Conduit Installations.83 m (6 feet) unless the cable is fished.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. the cable should be secured within 305 mm (12 inches) of every outlet box. Suitable armored cable terminators should be used to terminate and ground the armor. Routing Requirements Specific installation routing requirements for Type MC cable are listed below: o Type MC cable should be supported and secured at intervals not greater than 1. o o Specific installation routing requirements for armored cable per IEC 502 are the same as for Type MC cables." The requirements for Type MC cable that is directly buried are discussed in Module EEX 206. Cable. Evaluating Underground Wire.

The cable tray should be large enough to account for future system growth.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. and placement. The cable tray that is selected should be able to adequately hold the cable (or group of cables) in the installation for the maximum operating life of the installation. with the approval of the Proponent Operating Department Manager. Cable. and Conduit Installations DETERMINING CABLE TRAY INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS Generally. aluminum ladder-type. bonding. there are many factors that should be taken into consideration in the selection of the type and size of the cable tray. but it should not be too large that the tray purchase becomes economically restrictive. the only type of cable tray that is authorized for use in Saudi Aramco installations is copper-free. and Drops Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 . This section of the Module provides information on the following topics that are pertinent to determining cable tray installation requirements: o o o o o o o o o Loading Size/Fill Magnetic Heating Effects Circuit Separation Grounding and Bonding Requirements and Methods Tray Separation Supports/Fastenings Tray Routing/Protection Covers Fittings. grounding. However. When a cable tray is chosen by the Electrical Engineer for use in a Saudi Aramco installation. There are also requirements that involve the tray installation support structure. Bends. fiberglass ladder-type cable tray can be used in special applications.

and Conduit Installations Loading Cable trays are classified in accordance with their allowable.5 safety factor.44 m (8 feet) 3. span is the term that is used to describe the distance between the cable tray supports.111.8 kg/m (100 pounds per linear foot) The support span categories that are specified for aluminum cable tray are as follows: o o o o 2. There are three working load categories and four support span categories for aluminum cable tray systems.148. as defined in NEMA VE-1.4 kg/m (50 pounds per linear foot) Class B .6 kg/m (75 pounds per linear foot) Class C . working-load capacity of aluminum and fiberglass cable tray is determined through division of the destruction load capacity of the cable tray (as determined by testing) by a unitless 1.66 m (12 feet) 4.09 m (20 feet) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . mechanical. mechanical. are classified in accordance with several load/span class designations.87 m (16 feet) 6. The allowable. The mechanical loading requirements for aluminum cable tray.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Cable. The working load categories that are specified for aluminum cable tray are as follows: o o o Class A .74. working-load capacity per unit of span length.

Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.8 74. ladder-type.66 3.6 kg/m (75 pounds per linear foot) Class C . and Conduit Installations The table that is shown in Figure 1 lists the class designations that are used to select aluminum.8 Support Span Feet 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 20 20 20 m 2.148.6 148.09 6. as defined in NEMA FG-1.6 148.74.8 74.44 2.111.09 m (20 feet).4 111. The working load categories that are specified for fiberglass cable tray are as follows: o o o Class A .8 kg/m (100 pounds per linear foot) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . The class designation is selected through determination of the amount of working load and the length of the support span.6 148.66 3.44 2. Cable.87 4.4 kg/m (50 pounds per linear foot) Class B .8 74.09 Class Designation 8A 8B 8V 12A 12B 12V 16A 16B 16V 20A 20B 20V Figure 1: Aluminum Cable Tray Load/Span Class Designation (from NEMA VE-1) The mechanical loading requirements for fiberglass cable tray.4 111. cable tray systems. are classified in accordance with three working load class designations that are based on a support span of 6. Load/Span Class Designations Working Load Lbs./ft 50 75 100 50 75 100 50 75 100 50 75 100 kg/m 74.87 6.4 111.87 4.66 4.6 148.44 3.09 6.4 111.

To account for future circuit growth. Support Span In Feet 20 18 16 14 12 10 Working Load in Lbs. the mechanical loading (working load) requirements for fiberglass cable tray vary as the support span distance varies. Details on the procedure to determine the amount of mechanical load that will be present on a given span of cable tray are provided in Work Aid 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Finally. as shown in Figure 2. an equivalent weight is added to the corrected combined cable weight to account for the effect of a 200-pound person standing on the cable tray at the center of the span. Cable./Linear Foot Class A 50 61 78 100 139 200 Class B 75 92 117 150 208 Class C 100 123 156 200 Figure 2: Fiberglass Cable Tray Load/Span Data (from NEMA FG-1) The amount of mechanical load that a given cable tray will be required to support is determined by the sum of the weight of the cables that will be installed in the cable tray (in pounds per foot). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . a 20 percent correction factor is applied to the combined cable weight. The class of fiberglass cable tray that should be used for a given installation is based on the mechanical load that the cable tray must support and the length of the support span that will be used. and Conduit Installations Unlike the load/span class designations that are used for aluminum cable tray.

or 87 mph. To determine the cable tray sizes that should be used for a given installation. the Electrical Engineer must evaluate the cable tray fill requirements.4 kPa (30 lbf/ft2).and multiple-conductor Type MV or Type MC cables that are greater than 2000 V. the allowable working load of a fiberglass cable tray should be reduced for Saudi Aramco installations in which the cable tray will be exposed to an average ambient temperature of 50 degrees C. a completed cable tray system should be able to withstand a horizontal wind force of 1. and Conduit Installations Because the strength properties of reinforced plastics are reduced when they are continuously exposed to elevated temperatures. Temperature in Degrees C 24 38 52 66 79 93 Temperature in Degrees F 75 100 125 150 175 200 Approximate Percent of Strength 100 90 78 68 60 52 Figure 3: Fiberglass Cable Tray Temperature Correction for Allowable Working Load (from NEMA FG-1) In addition to the mechanical loading requirements that have been previously discussed. which is approximately equivalent to a wind speed of 140 km/hr. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . The table in Figure 3 shows the approximate percent of strength that the fiberglass cable tray will possess at various temperatures. single conductor cables that are rated 2000 V or less. or single.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The fill requirements differ depending on whether the installation includes multiple-conductor cables that are rated 2000 V or less. Cable.

g. Although magnetic hysteresis will not occur in a nonferrous material. there will be no hysteresis heating effects. For Saudi Aramco cable tray installations. lighting. The heating occurs due to energy losses within the raceway as the elementary particles (each containing a magnetic field) that exist within the raceway seek to align themselves to the changing magnetic field. the cable dimensions (e. induced currents can exist in the nonferrous material if the material is also an electrical conductor (such as aluminum). and because neither material is ferrous. The fill requirements for single. Because only aluminum and fiberglass cable tray is authorized for use in Saudi Aramco installations.. and/or signal type cables) and the size of the cables. which include hysteresis heating and "induced current" heating. the growth correction factor recommended is 20 percent. Magnetic Heating Effects Metallic raceways are susceptible to magnetic heating effects. diameter or cross-sectional area) are added and the sum is multiplied by a growth correction factor. Induced current heating caused by alternating magnetic field that exists around the conductors in aluminum cable trays are not significant enough to be a problem. The fill requirements for single conductor cables that are rated 2000 V or less vary only with the size of the cables. control. To determine the correct cable tray size. Hysteresis heating is caused by the opposition that ferrous raceways offer to a changing magnetic field. and Conduit Installations The fill requirements for multiple-conductor cables that are rated 2000 V or less vary with the type of cable that is used (power. Work Aid 1 describes the procedure that is used to determine the size of a cable tray based on the fill requirements.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The 20 percent growth correction factor ensures that the cable tray can be used for an increase in load as a result of future expansions. Cable. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 .and multiple-conductor Type MV or Type MC cables that are rated for greater than 2000 V vary only with the diameter of the cables that are installed in the cable tray.

Circuit Separation Circuit separation requirements are established for safety and to minimize the effects of induced currents in adjacent instrument and control cables. the circuit separation requirements affect cable routing. fixed barrier. the circuit separation and cable placement requirements that must be observed are described below: Cables for light and power systems that are rated 600 V or less are permitted to occupy the same cable tray as long as all of the conductors are insulated for the maximum voltage that will exist for any of the cables that are within the cable tray. Cable. noncombustible. o Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 . neutral conductor (if any). and Conduit Installations There are design requirements that can minimize magnetic heating effects.g. When the cable tray systems that contain cables from different systems converge or use the same route. and equipment grounding conductor are grouped within the same raceway. induced current heating can be minimized. Cables for light and power systems that are rated above 600 V are not permitted to occupy the same cable tray as cables that are rated 600 V and below unless one of the following conditions is satisfied: o The cables that are rated above 600 V must be separated from the cables that are rated 600 V or below by a solid. Based on the voltages of the cables and the type of cable that is installed in the cable tray (e. and/or signal-type cables). All of the cables must be Type MC or armored. If the phase conductors. power. lighting.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.. When a single conductor that carries an alternating current passes through metal that has magnetic properties. control. the following actions can be taken to minimize the magnetic heating effects: o o Slots can be cut in the metal between the individual holes through which the conductors pass. All of the conductors can be passed through an insulating wall that is large enough for all of the conductors of the circuit.

If the insulation of the cables that are installed in the raceway is rated for at least 450 to 750 V. Differential relay circuits should be kept separate from all other circuits. there are no minimum circuit separation requirements between power and/or control conductors for dc or for ac circuits that carry power at voltages that are less than 1000 V. metering. or communication systems should not occupy the same cable tray as the conductors of lighting. alarm. or spot network substations should be kept separate. power systems control. or 24 V dc and above relay control systems. Cable. the minimum circuit separation distance that should exist between 125 V dc systems and RTD systems in cable tray is 6 inches (150 mm). the first system in the first column and the second system in the first row should be located. 120 V control. power. For example. and relaying circuits that are associated with one major piece of electrical equipment (such as a motor or a transformer) can be run within a single cable tray. If all of the cables are insulated for 600 V or more. To determine the minimum circuit separation distance that should be maintained between two systems. the intersection of the two systems in the table is the minimum circuit separation distance. o Circuit separation and placement requirements for instrument cables in Saudi Aramco installations are shown in Figure 4. instrumentation. and Conduit Installations Conductors that are used for signaling. Inter-tripping circuits that run between substations can also be run within one cable tray with the following exceptions: o Circuits that are associated with alternate power sources for primary selective. secondary selective.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 .

a minimum spacing of 2 m (6 feet) should be maintained between the signal cabling and the source of the electromagnetic field. when dc instrumentation and control signal cabling is routed past a source of strong electromagnetic fields (such as transformers. Also.Volt Pulse 0 0 0 0 4-20 mA Analog (24 VDC) 0 0 0 0 24 VDC 48 VDC 1 (25) 1 (25) 1 (25) 1 (25) 125 VDC 6 (150) 6 (150) 6 (150) 6 (150) 120 VAC 12 (300) 12 (300) 12 (300) 12 (300) >120 VAC 24 (600) 24 (600) 24 (600) 24 (600) 1 (25) 6 (150) 12 (300) 24 (600) 1 (25) 6 (150) 12 (300) 24 (600) 1 (25) 6 (150) 12 (300) 24 (600) 1 (25) 6 (150) 12 (300) 24 (600) 0 6 (150) 6 (150) 18 (450) 6 (150) 0 0 12 (300) 6 (150) 0 0 12 (300) 18 (450) 12 (300) 12 (300) 0 Note that all values are shown in inches (millimeters) Figure 4: Minimum Circuit Separation Distances for Signal Cabling in Cable Tray (from SAES-J-902) Cables that carry different signal types should also be routed so that they cross each other only at right angles. Control cables.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. and Conduit Installations RTD RTD Thermo Couple Milli-Volt Pulse 4-20 mA Analog (24 VDC) 24 VDC 48 VDC 125 VDC 120 VAC >120 VAC 0 0 0 0 Thermocouple 0 0 0 0 Milli. they should preferably be placed in the following order (from top to bottom in different trays as required): o o Power cables. motors. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . Cable. and generators that are rated greater than 100 kVA). When trays that contain different systems converge or use the same route.

and Conduit Installations o o o Grounding and Bonding Requirements and Methods Alarm circuits. and other electrical devices that are fed from a cable tray system should be structurally and mechanically connected and bonded to the cable tray system.. o Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 . cable armor. For safety and reliability. An equipment grounding conductor is not the same as a grounded conductor in that a grounding conductor carries only current during fault conditions while the grounded conductor may carry current under normal conditions. a grounding conductor should be installed in the same cable tray as the power conductors. the entire cable tray system is required to be mechanically and electrically connected to ensure that there is a path for electric fault current. there are various metallic support systems (e. switchgear. In most high-voltage power distribution cables. Thermocouple cables. For Saudi Aramco installations.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Dc electronic cables and pneumatic tubing (the pneumatic tubing should be separated from the dc circuit by a barrier). Equipment grounding describes the manner of grounding the support system equipment. cable tray. shields and cable trays) that could carry fault or induced currents. motor controllers. a conduit.g. The acceptable methods that are used to meet the grounding requirements for aluminum cable trays are listed as follows: o Enclosures of MCCs. Cable trays must be grounded and bonded so that freedom from dangerous electric shock voltages is ensured and that sufficient current-carrying capability is provided to accept the ground-fault current that is required by the overcurrent protection system. Cable. or cable shield should not be used as the sole means of grounding equipment. With some exceptions. Bonding describes the manner of electrically interconnecting the various segments of the support systems.

Bonding jumpers should be provided whenever a cable tray is insulated from its metallic supporting structure or whenever a cable tray expansion joint is used. and Conduit Installations o A metallic cable tray should be grounded at both of its end points. For separation between multiple horizontal cable tray systems. o o Tray Separation NEC Article 318 requires sufficient space around cable trays to permit adequate access for installation and maintaining the cables. The acceptable methods that are used to meet the bonding requirements for aluminum cable trays are listed as follows: o To prevent any faults that may occur within the cable tray system from arcing to ground. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23 .Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Saudi Aramco standards no longer specify distances (tray separation). Expansion fittings (or joints) are required to accommodate expansion and contraction due to ambient temperature changes. a minimum of 50 mm (2 inches) of separation should be provided between the cable tray side rails. The gap at expansion points depends on the spacing between these joints. A minimum of 25 mm (1 inch) of separation should be provided between any vertical support and a cable tray side rail. Cable. Bonding can be accomplished through use of metallic connections to the building or structural columns that support the cable trays. metallic cable trays should be bonded to the plant grounding system at maximum intervals of 25 m (84 feet). The following separation distances were specified before 1984 and can be used as guidelines if possible.

Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Cable tray supports that are installed in severe corrosive environments should be protected through use of one of the following methods: o o PVC-coated at the factory. The vertical space between a cable tray and a ceiling. The following were requirements of the standards prior to 1984 and can be used as guidelines if possible. The lower voltage cables are usually placed in the bottom cable trays. and the higher voltage cables in the upper cable trays. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 . Supports/Fastenings To ensure adequate support. the vertical space should be increased by 150 mm (6 inches). or other obstruction should be a minimum of 300 mm (12 inches). The separation between vertical-tiered cable trays should be at least 450 mm (18 inches) with a minimum clear space of 300 mm (12 inches). If the total width of the cable tray system exceeds 900 mm (36 inches). When cable tray is located over any electrical gear. cable tray supports should be constructed from hot-dip galvanized steel. If more than four cable trays are required. and Conduit Installations No more than four 750 mm (30 inch) cable trays or four 600 mm (24 inch) cable trays should be located adjacent to each other on one horizontal tier. if the total combined width of a given cable tray tier exceeds 900 mm (36 inches). the vertical clearance should be increased to 450 mm (18 inches). 600 to 900 mm (24 to 36 inches) of vertical separation should be maintained from the top of the electrical gear to the bottom of the cable tray. Coated in the field prior to installation. beam. Cable. a 450 mm (18 inch) spacing should be provided between each group of four cable tray units so that access is provided to each of the cable tray groups.

and Conduit Installations Indoor ceiling hangars that are used for cable tray supports should be made from 12 mm (1/2 inch) galvanized-steel rods. The hold-down clamps and fasteners should be used at all cable tray support points. For example. All supports that are used for cable trays should provide a minimum weight-bearing surface of 45 mm (1 and 3/4 inches) as well as provisions for hold-down clamps and fasteners. Cable trays should be supported from the structural steel of pipeways and buildings with noncombustible racks or hangers. Cable. expansion joints. Cable tray splice points should not be located directly over the cable tray supports. Cable ties in outdoor locations should be black. additional support should be provided for cantilever cable tray sections that are greater than 900 mm in length. All cables should be fastened to the cable tray every 1. Cantilever cable tray sections should be limited to a length of 900 mm (3 feet). and connectors should join the cable tray sections so that the rated vertical and horizontal load of the cable tray is not diminished. if there are 4 meters between cable supports. single conductor cables should be fastened in groups that include one conductor per phase or neutral to prevent current imbalance. When ceiling hangers are used to support the cable tray.4 m (8 feet) on vertical runs. the hangers should be spaced no more than 3 m (10 feet) apart. and they should also be resistant to UV radiation. Vertical cable tray systems should provide suitable methods of cable support through the use of cable hangers or metal clamps. and every 450 mm (18 inches) on cable tray bends (horizontal and vertical). When circuits in cable trays are paralleled. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 . and they should not be located at mid-span. the splice point should be within 1 meter of either cable support. Splice plates.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. every 450 mm (18 inches) on vertical cable tray runs. Vertical cable tray fasteners should not rely on friction to secure the cable tray to its supports. Cable tray supports should to be spaced a maximum of 6 m (20 feet) on horizontal runs or 2. Nylon cable ties can be used for most fastening applications. The ideal location for a cable tray splice point is within the one quarter points of the span as measured from the cable tray supports.8 m (6 feet) on horizontal cable tray runs.

the cables in the cable tray should be sealed with Nelson Electric MCT or equivalent cable transits. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . The extra space should allow for the future installation of the same basic type of cable tray and should be arranged so that the spare space will be unused and available for the future installation. For cable tray locations to which future cable installations will be added. When cable trays are routed under grid-type walkways. Cable.5 m (25 feet) horizontally to any fire hazardous equipment or other types of equipment that can produce temperatures that could damage the cables that are installed in the cable tray. Cable tray should be run parallel to the building structure or the building walls as applicable. cable tray should not be routed any closer than 7. process equipment. there are certain requirements for cable tray routing and cable tray protective covers. the cable tray should be completely enclosed in metal with a bushed steel conduit sleeve or similar device. Considerations that are taken into account when routing cable tray systems are utilization of building walls as structural support and the proximity to hazardous equipment. When cable trays are near areas that could be damaged by workers or by nearby equipment. Also. such as steam lines.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. and Conduit Installations Tray Routing/Protection Covers The following can be used as guidelines. The following circumstances would require the use of protective covers on a cable tray system: o o o When cable trays pass through walls. where possible. extra space should be provided in the cable tray. When cable trays pass through a combustible partition or wall. When installed. Cable trays should be located above all process piping and other process facilities. and grid-type walkways. these barriers should not hinder cable tray ventilation. barriers should be used to add additional protection to the cable tray. For Saudi Aramco installations. When cable trays are routed outdoors. When cable tray entry occurs in switch and control houses or when the cable tray passes through a fire wall.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire, Cable, and Conduit Installations

To allow for drainage, cable trays that enter a building should be sloped away from the building at a minimum rate of ten millimeters per meter of cable tray (1/8 inch per foot). A concrete curb or metal kick plate should be provided for cable tray that passes vertically through floors or platforms. To prevent contact with or damage to the exposed cables, the tray should also be covered on all sides to a distance of 1.8 m (6 feet) above the floor or platform. Although the cable trays will be provided with covers, cables that are installed in outdoor cable trays should have sunlight-resistant (UV radiation-resistant) jackets. Ventilated, louvered cable tray covers are required to provide mechanical protection and solar radiation deflection for all outside cable tray installations. Covers for aluminum cable tray should be fastened to the cable tray with stainless steel banding at a rate of one band per 1.5 m (5 feet) of cover length and at least two bands per length of tray. Cable tray covers should not have a black or dark surface that is exposed to the sun. Fittings, Bends, and Drops For Saudi Aramco cable tray installations, the cable trays require the use of specific fittings, elbows, bends, and drops. Recommendations: vertical and horizontal elbows should have a minimum radius of 300 mm (12 inches), but they should not be less than the minimum cable bending radii. For vertical drops that are greater than 1.5 m (5 feet), outside vertical elbows and drop out fittings should be used at the higher elevation. For vertical drops that are greater than 4.5 m (15 feet), inside vertical elbows should be used at the lower elevation. Horizontal elbows should be used for changes of direction that occur at the same elevation.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire, Cable, and Conduit Installations

DETERMINING CONDUIT INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS Prior to the installation of an above-grade conduit system, the Electrical Engineer should examine the various factors that will affect the installation. These factors include the type of equipment that is to be installed, the installation method that will be used, and the classification of the area in which the equipment will be installed. The requirements of SAES-P-104 (Wiring Methods and Materials) should be followed for Saudi Aramco above-grade conduit installations. The conduit installation method that is used (rigid-steel conduit, EMT, or flexible liquid-tight conduit) will affect the routing requirements of the installation. Other determinations, such as the correct size of the conduit for the installation, must also be made with respect to routing the conduit and cabling. The hazardous classification of the installation location determine the sealing and termination requirements. This section of the Module describes the following aspects of determining conduit installation requirements: o o o o o o Conduit Types and Applications Conduit Sizing and Routing Conduit Bending Conduit Threading Indoor and Outdoor Conduit Termination Conduit Supports

Conduit Types and Applications The types of conduit that are available for use by Saudi Aramco in above-grade conduit systems are rigid-steel conduit, EMT, and flexible liquid-tight conduit. IMC is prohibited for use in Saudi Aramco installations. The additional cost of rigid-steel conduit is considered to be worth the added protection that it offers over IMC.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire, Cable, and Conduit Installations

Hot-dipped, galvanized, rigid-steel conduit is specified for all Saudi Aramco installations in which rigid-steel conduit is used. The application requirements of rigid-steel conduit systems have been described previously in this module and are listed briefly as follows: o o o o o Used for Class I, Division 1 areas. Used when exceptional mechanical protection is required. Used when conduit is installed above ground in outdoor industrial facilities. Used when conduit is installed in severe corrosive environments If installed in severe corrosive environments, the rigid-steel conduit should be PVC-coated.

EMT does not offer the same degree of mechanical strength that is offered by rigid-steel conduit, and it should not be used where it is subjected to severe physical damage. EMT is only acceptable in nonhazardous, indoor locations, and it should not be used where corrosion can cause damage. The applications of flexible liquid-tight conduit are limited to connections in which vibration, movement, or adjustments will occur. Flexible liquid-tight conduit is allowed for use in all areas except Class I, Division 1 hazardous locations.

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire, Cable, and Conduit Installations

Conduit Sizing and Routing Two critical aspects of a conduit installation are conduit sizing and conduit routing. When the conduit size is chosen, the conduit inside diameter should be large enough to install all of the cables that were selected to be installed in that conduit without damage to any of the cables. The conduit should also be large enough to minimize any adverse heating effects on the conduit or on the cables that are contained within the conduit. When the conduit is installed, there are also routing and placement requirements that should be met. The routing requirements are important to minimize inter-conduit heating and conduit heating that results when a conduit is routed near process facility equipment that radiates heat.
Conduit Fill

Conduit fill is expressed as a percentage of the cross-sectional area of the conduit that the cables are allowed to occupy, and it depends on the number of conductors that are to be installed in the conduit. The allowable percentage of conduit fill is based on the combined heating effects of all of the cables that are installed in the conduit. Knowledge of the allowable percentage of conduit fill helps the Electrical Engineer to select the proper size of conduit for a particular installation.

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Work Aid 2 provides the tables and the details on the procedure that is used to size conduit for Saudi Aramco. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . or non-industrial areas EMT Size requirements are the same as those specified for rigid-steel conduit. Maximum Size Allowable Conduit Fill N/A Refer to Figure 6 Figure 5: Conduit Sizing Requirements To determine the allowable fill. and the allowable conduit fill. inside buildings. the references for each requirement are also listed. the total cross sectional area of all of the cables that will be contained in the conduit should be determined through use of the table of cable dimensions that is shown in Work Aid 2. Cable. The allowable percentage of conduit fill. See NEC Chapter 9 for additional information. prefabriacted skids. and Conduit Installations The table in Figure 5 describes the various size requirements that are specified for rigid-steel conduit. 4” Allowable conduit fill requirements are the same as those for rigidsteel conduit. is shown in Figure 6. the Electrical Engineer should first choose an applicable duct from the tables for selecting conduit size that are shown in Work Aid 2. Flexible Liquid Tight Conduit Size requirements are the same as those specified for rigid-steel conduit. Now that the cross-sectional area of the cables has been determined and the conduit has been chosen. based on the number of conductors that are to be installed in the conduit. Conduit Sizing Requirements Minimum Size Rigid-Steel Conduit ¾” except instrument panels. EMT.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Once the size of the conduit is selected. 4” All conduit fill requirements are the same as those specified for rigid-steel conduit. the maximum size of the conduit. the percentage fill of the conduit can be determined. above-grade installations. and flexible liquid-tight conduit. The size requirements include the minimum size of the conduit.

the cross-sectional area calculation shall be based on using the major diameter of the ellipse as a circle diameter. Depending on the size. and it will be explained in detail in that section of this Module. Chapter 9) Jam Ratio The natural weight of the cables that are contained in the conduit will cause them to settle to the lowest part of the conduit that the conduit space will allow. Percent of Cross Section of Conduit and Tubing for Conductors Number of Conductors All conductor types 1 5 3 2 31 Over 2 40 Note. If the percentage of fill of the conduit sealing exceeds 25%. and. For cables that have elliptical cross section. the wire fill of the conduit sealing must not exceed 25% based on the conduit size (i.. configuration.05 D d Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 . the ratio of the sum of the cross-sectional areas of wires and multi-conductor cables to the internal cross-sectional area of a conduit of the same trade size must not exceed 25%). and number of cables. Cable.e.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. the cables could get jammed in the conduit during installation. but it is also used in the conduit selection process. and Conduit Installations When conduit sealing fittings are used (type EYS or similar). so. oversized sealing fittings with reducers may be used in order to use the highest permissible conduit wire fill. Figure 6: Allowable Percentage of Conduit Fill (from NEC. The jam ratio provides a factor that describes the probability that the cable will jam during its installation in the conduit. it will be described briefly here. A useful unitless value that is used when cables are installed in conduit is called the "jam ratio. The jam ratio is the ratio of the conduit's inside diameter to the diameter of the largest cable that will be installed in the conduit. A multi-conductor cable of two or more conductors shall be treated as a single conductor cable for calculating percentage conduit fill area. The equation below is used to calculate the jam ratio: Jam Ratio = 1." The jam ratio is used primarily during cable pulling tension calculations.

0. Cable Clearance Within the Conduit If the jam ratio is greater than 3. the Electrical Engineer should evaluate the need to increase the size of the conduit. For a three cable installation (or three tripled conductors). the cable clearance is calculated using the following equation: D (D . For a single cable installation. Cable clearance is the distance between the uppermost cable in a conduit and the inside top of the conduit.d  2 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 . "d" is the diameter of the largest cable that is in the conduit. If the jam ratio is between 2.8 and 3.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.  2 2  D.366(d) + ⋅ 1. serious jamming is probable. jamming is not likely to occur. If jamming is probable.0. the cable clearance is calculated through use of the following equation: Clearance = D . Cable. if the jam ratio is between 2. A gap should be present between the uppermost cable in a conduit and the top of the conduit to prevent rubbing during pulls and to allow for expansion and contraction.d where: "D" is the conduit inside diameter.1.8.d)  d  Clearance = . "d" is the diameter of the largest cable that is in the conduit. jamming is probable. "1. and cable clearance can be ignored. and Conduit Installations where: "D" is the conduit inside diameter.5 and 2.05" includes a correction factor of 5% that accounts for the oval cross-section of conduit bends.

other conduit. Critical power and control cables are cables whose loss would render emergency shutdown. Fireproofing requirements are contained in SAES-B-006. which include induced current heating and hysteresis heating. When routing conduit for above-grade installations. Conduit should not be installed near ladder rungs or at platform levels so that the conduit restricts passage or interferes with existing steps. In order to avoid magnetic heating effects. stores. Conduit runs should be symmetrical and should be routed vertically. horizontally. the cable clearance is not satisfactory.. The conduit clearance is required to ensure that the conduit is not routed too close to process facility equipment that radiates heat. fire protection. Magnetic Heating Effects Metallic raceways are susceptible to magnetic heating effects. Fire-hazardous equipment is defined as equipment that processes. Conduit Clearances The conduit clearance is defined as the distance between the outside surface of a conduit and walls. Cable.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. and Conduit Installations The cable clearance should be maintained within a band of 6 to 25 mm (1/4 to 1 inch). proper conduit clearances should be established. and the Electrical Engineer should evaluate the need to increase the size of the conduit. e. or produces flammable materials. or alarm systems inoperative. As a guideline. within 7. Fire Proofing Fireproofing is required for critical power and control cables that are located above ground in a fire-hazardous zone. or other equipment.g. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . all phase and neutral conductors of a three phase system must be in one conduit. or if there are parallel conductors. or parallel to structure lines. If the cable clearance is less than 6 mm (1/4 inch).5 m (25 feet) horizontally of fire-hazardous equipment. each conduit must have all phases and neutral. the minimum clearance for conduits that cross or run parallel to process lines should be 150 mm (6 inches) for uninsulated process lines and 100 mm (4 inches) for insulated process lines.

To prevent damage to the cables during the installation process.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The minimum bending radii of the inner surface of a given cable is determined through use of a calculation in which a specific multiplication factor is multiplied by the overall diameter of the cable. enters." The minimum bending radius of any cable should not be exceeded when the cable is trained in a conduit. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 . Conduit Bending Conduit bending requirements for a given installation are designed so that the conduit is not injured during the installation and so that the internal diameter of the bent conduit is not effectively reduced. the construction of the cables (e. a minimum bending radius (curvature of bend) limits cable and wire bending. the act of bending may cause damage to the wire or cable that results in subsequent cable failure. the cable will usually have to be bent. The act of bending a wire or cable during the installation process is called "training. the minimum bending radii of the cables must also be considered during cable installation.. To prevent cable failure.g. insulation and shielding) places additional restrictions on the minimum bending radius that a cable can withstand before damage to the cable will occur. and Conduit Installations Fireproofing must provide a minimum of 15 minutes of protection to the integrity of the circuit against temperatures of 1100°C (2000°F) in accordance with UL 1709. Cable. or exits a conduit. Minimum Bending Radii If a wire or cable is bent too much. Minimum conduit bending radii requirements are based on the minimum cable training radii for the cable that is to be installed in the conduit and the physical size of the conduit. No more than four quarter conduit bends (360 degrees total) should be made in one run of conduit between pull points. As a cable passes. With large power distribution cables.

To ensure that damage will not occur to the cables when they are trained. After the conduit has been cut to the proper length. individual sections of EMT are only permitted to be joined through use of threadless couplings. Bends that are accomplished with a hand bender are measured from the inner surface of the conduit. A hand bender can be used to make field bends for conduit that is sized at 1-1/2 inches or less. and Conduit Installations Before the minimum bending radii of the conduit is specified. All field threads for rigid-steel conduit are required to be full and continuous. bends that are accomplished with a machine bender are measured from the center line of the conduit. the minimum cable training radii of the cables should be determined. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 . Cable. The procedure that is used to determine the cable minimum bending radii is provided in Work Aid 2. Field threads should be cut with a standard conduit cutting die that has a 3/4 inch taper per foot.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The proper length to which the rigid-steel is cut is dependent on the location and conditions of the conduit installation. A minimum thread engagement of five full threads should be made at all fittings. the conduit must be cut into proper lengths. Because EMT has a thin wall. running threads are not permitted for any application. it must be field-threaded and then chamfered (reamed) to remove the burrs and sharp edges that are formed during cutting. Raw threads should be protected from corrosion with CRC "Zinc-It" or an equivalent coating. The minimum conduit bending radii is selected from a table based on the size of the conduit that is used for the installation. Conduit Threading Rigid-steel conduit is required to be threaded on both ends for Saudi Aramco conduit installations. Work Aid 2 provides the procedure that is used to determine conduit bending requirements for Saudi Aramco above-grade installations. A bending machine should be used for conduit that is larger than 1-1/2 inches. Rigid-steel conduit is manufactured in standard lengths of 10 feet (3 m). All conduit threads must be tapered. During an installation. the minimum conduit bending radii should not be less than the minimum cable training radii.

7 26.79 0.95 15.2 19. Critical measurements include the effective length of the threads (L2).98 1.720 3.758 0.5 19.8 38.78 0.7 A minus tolerance of one thread applies to the total length of threads L4 Plus and minus tolerances of one turn apply to the pitch diameter E0 Figure 7: Required Dimensions of Conduit Threads (from UL 6) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 .2 26. Figure 7 describes the required dimensions of conduit threads for the various trade sizes of rigid-steel conduit. and Conduit Installations Rigid-metal conduit is available in sizes of 1/2 to 6 inches.269 2.71 0.334 5.1 136.68 0.557 1.4 13.968 1.5 31. Cable. All fittings and knockouts on boxes are identified by the trade size of the raceway for which the device is intended.5 14.41 0.0 30.4 0.9 97.3 29.03 1.7 43.20 1. and the required number of threads per inch of conduit.0 17.53 0.9 39.6 69.4 42.9 25.14 1.9 41. Conduit trade sizes are referred to as the approximate inside diameter of the raceway.5 45.796 2.3 18.57 1.7 49.5 0.72 0.60 0.68 1.8 33.6 57.84 1.06 1.25 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.51 10.838 4.5 110.30 1.41 1.9 163.76 1. the pitch diameter at the end of the conduit (E0).73 1.01 1.0 18.8 20.3 24.0 35.9 46.612 0.1 84.214 1.341 3.8 39.3 19.6 30. the total length of the threads (L4).63 1.55 0.391 6.1 24. L4 total length of threadsa Trade size of conduit in inches 3/8 ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 5 6 a b L2 effective length of threads inches mm E0 pitch diameter at end of conduit inchesb mmb Number of threads per inch 18 14 14 11 ½ 11 ½ 11 ½ 11 ½ 8 8 8 8 8 8 inches mm 0.446 15.

e. or other raceways (except cable trays). Conduit terminations are used to complete the conduit system through connection of the metal raceway (i. Cable. Conduit bodies are considered to be fittings and are allowed to contain splices if they have adequate volume. fittings. cast iron. are considered to be fittings. gray. or malleable iron that is either hot-dip galvanized or zinc electroplated (as supplied by the manufacturer). such as lock nuts. and threadless connectors. or pull point. junction point. and Conduit Installations Indoor and Outdoor Conduit Terminations Metal raceways should be mechanically joined to form a continuous electric conductor. outlet. bushings. EMT connectors and couplings. and they can include the use of insulated bushings and conduit seals. switch. fittings. Fittings are used to perform mechanical connections to conduit and associated conduit support equipment. Conduit systems can terminate at service entrance fittings. splittype retro-fit sealing fittings are allowed.. For the connection of conduit. Items. Conduit fittings should be made of cast or forged steel. for repair purposes. panels. cast iron. insulating grounding bushings should be installed on conduit that is inside of all boxes except where a threaded hub is provided as part of the conduit thread connection. Fittings A fitting is an accessory that is provided for a conduit system.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. conduit couplings. and cabinets for effective electrical continuity. However. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 . a box or fitting should be installed at each conductor splice connection point. Also. Outdoor conduit that terminates in the open should be equipped with a service entrance fitting. rigid-steel conduit or EMT) to the boxes. Only malleable iron sealing fittings are to be used for new installations. indoor conduit runs that terminate in the open should be equipped with an insulating bushing. and/or cabinets that are used in the conduit system. or access fittings. For example. raceways should also be connected to all boxes. Aluminum fittings are not allowed for use in Saudi Aramco conduit installations. EMT. pull boxes.

should be located within 450 mm (18 in. there are certain requirements that should be met. In additon. Cable. Do not pour sealing compound into draining chambers of EYD seals. Insulated grounding bushings should be installed on conduits inside of all boxes except where a threaded hub is provided as part of the conduit thread connection. Indoor conduit runs that terminate in the open should be equipped with an insulating bushing.) of an enclosure. For indoor and outdoor conduit terminations. when required. Outdoor conduit that terminates in the open should be equipped with a service entrance fitting. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 . All sealing compound should be mixed with clean fresh water. Seals. Seals (Explosion Proof) Explosion proof seals in a conduit system should only be provided where required by the NEC. the sealing compound (Chico “A” or equal) equal to the diameter of the conduit (but not less than 5/8 inch) should be poured into the seal. each conduit entering a process unit control house should be sealed outside the point of entry for above grade runs and inside at the point of entry for below grade runs. or stairwell. Cover openings should not be blocked by any structural steel or pipe that would prevent access to the interior of the fitting for maintenance. ladder. Non-required sealing is expensive and an operational problem since for any future circuit modifications the seal fitting must be cut out and. Vertical or horizontal conduit runs which require sealing should be sealed with combination vertical/horizontal seals.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. EYS or equal. After fixing the dam. and Conduit Installations All conduit fittings should be accessible from a platform. the conductors spliced or removed. Explosion proof seals should be filled as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) A dam of fiber (Chico “X” or equal) should be made around and between the wires to prevent the sealing compound from entering a conduit run.

Conduit Supports A conduit support is a mechanical device that provides structural strength for a vertical or horizontal conduit system. vertical conduit runs. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 . However. When only one expansion joint is used for a run of conduit. expansion joints should be considered. Conduit supports should be constructed of cast or forged steel. Cable.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Multiple expansion joints should be equally spaced in the straight run. Because a given run of conduit that is placed in an above-grade conduit installation will be exposed to considerable temperature fluctuations over a year. Additional expansion joints are required at intervals of 120 m (394 feet) unless the conduit run is supported by a steel structure such as a pipeway. the conduit expansion joints should be provided at the same location as the expansion joints that are provided for that steel structure. and they should be either hot-dip galvanized or zinc electroplated as supplied by the manufacturer. Expansion Joints An expansion joint is a mechanical device that is used to allow for the thermal expansion and contraction of a run of conduit. When a run of conduit is supported by a steel structure. expansion joints should not be used for long. cast iron. and Conduit Installations Wire fill of sealing fittings should not exceed 25% based on the size of the conduit. An expansion joint should be installed in any run of conduit that is over 60 m (197 feet) in length. or malleable iron. the expansion joint should be located at the midpoint of the straight run. the conduit should be offset whenever possible to allow for the expansion and contraction of the conduit.

U-bolts should also be used for the conduit support whenever the structure to which the conduit is mounted is subject to vibration. Also. The table in Figure 8 contains the maximum distance both in meters (m) and in feet (ft) for various conduit sizes. The clamp is used to equalize the expansion and contraction that occur at each expansion joint. Grouped conduit runs should be supported with suitable field fabricated hangars or Unistrut-type supports (or equivalent). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 . Single conduit runs on concrete or masonry should be supported with one-hole malleable clamps with expansion bolts. The minimum clearance for conduit that crosses or runs parallel to process lines is 150 mm (6 inches) for uninsulated process lines and 100 mm (4 inches) for insulated process lines. When expansion joints are used. one-hole malleable clamps with toggle bolts should be used. In straight conduit runs that include an expansion joint. The maximum distance that is allowed between rigid-metal conduit supports is dependent on the size of the conduit. the clamps and straps that are used for conduit supports should be made specifically for the trade size of the conduit. For single conduit runs on bare steel. Cable. All other conduit supports that are used when an expansion joint is present should be oversized conduit clamps that allow the conduit to move axially (along the axis). Ubolts or one-hole malleable clamps (bolted to steel) should be used. one normal size conduit clamp should be firmly attached at each midpoint between adjacent expansion joints. Clamps that rely on friction for their support on the base structure (such as Korns clamps) should not be used for the oversized clamps. Except when expansion joints are included in a straight run of conduit.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. one normal size conduit clamp should be firmly attached at the midpoints that exist between both ends of the conduit run and the adjacent expansion joints. If the conduit run is on hollow tile. U-bolt-type clamps that are securely bolted to the base structure are acceptable for use. Conduit runs should not be supported from process lines or other pipelines unless no other practical method is available. and Conduit Installations Conduit supports can be used for single conduit runs or for grouped conduit runs.

) ½ and ¾ 1 1 ¼ and 1 ½ 2 and 2 ½ 3 and larger M 3 3. the next clamp around the angle or bend should not be placed adjacent to the angle or bend. and Conduit Installations To ensure that the conduit system remains rigid and vibration-free. Max Distance Conduit Size (in.6 4. additional conduit supports may be required at bends.8 6. Cable. or fitting.2 4. Conduit supports should be located at a maximum of 1 m (3 feet) from each outlet box.0 ft. and fixtures. In order to allow the conduit to flex when a long horizontal run of conduit ends in an angle or a bend. fittings. junction box. 10 12 14 16 20 Figure 8: Maximum Distance Between Rigid-Metal Conduit Supports Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 .Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.

there are maximum pulling tensions that the cable can withstand without damage. Cable. it must be pulled from one end of the conduit to the other with a strong wire. and Conduit Installations DETERMINING CABLE PULLING REQUIREMENTS To install a cable into a conduit. or the pull point frequency can be changed. If the pulling tension calculation indicates that maximum tensions could be exceeded by the cable pull. the conduit configuration (e. turns or angles) can be altered.. the size of the conduit can be increased. a description of the cable rigging equipment and methods is necessary. These calculations are evaluated to ensure that maximum pulling tensions are not exceeded during a cable installation pull. There are various types of pulling equipment that can be used to pull a cable into a conduit. the type of cable that is to be installed.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Before the cable pulling parameters and pulling tension calculations are described. When a cable is pulled into a conduit. the Electrical Engineer selects a rigging method and then performs a pulling tension calculation. Calculations to determine the maximum pulling tensions that could occur with various conduit configuration and pulling equipment combinations are performed during the design phase of an installation. once the installation type (e. There are various ways to reduce the pulling tension for a given cable installation: the rigging equipment can be varied. Rigging Procedures Cable Pulling Parameters Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 .g. The configuration of the conduit. and the types of pulling equipment that are chosen for the installation should all be evaluated so that damage to the cable or to any installation equipment does not occur. design changes are made. Each different type of pulling equipment has a maximum pulling tension (or pulling force) that it can withstand.g. This section of the Module provides information on the following topics that are pertinent to determining cable pulling requirements: o o Rigging Procedures During the design phase of the wire or cable installation.. conduit) and the cable route have been chosen.

Hydraulic pulling equipment that has smooth. a steady pulling rate should be maintained.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. In general. during the pull. Cable pulling speed should never exceed 15 m/min (50 feet/min) and. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 . Pulling equipment will probably be required to install larger conductors or to install conductors in long runs so that a constant pulling tension can be maintained on the cables. whenever possible. the longer cables should be installed in the lower raceways. As much as possible. variable-speed control is a good choice for cable installations in above-grade conduit installations. Before the pulling operation begins. Suitable pulling equipment that is in good working condition should be on hand for the pulling operation. Care must also be taken when moving the cable reels into their proper positions. To ensure that the maximum allowable pulling tension for the installation is not accidentally exceeded. the direction of the pull should be checked to ensure that it is the direction that results in the minimum pulling tensions and sidewall pressures. the same relative position in the group should be maintained throughout the run. and the shorter cables should be installed in the upper raceways to facilitate the ease of installation. During cable installation. If the pull and cut method of installation is used. once the protective covering is removed from the reel. Cable. the cable is particularly vulnerable to mechanical damage. if at all possible. If the cables will be installed in a grouped conduit run. Smaller conductors that are installed in a short run can most likely be pulled in by hand. the conduit that will be used for the installation of a single cable should be identified throughout the entire length of the run to avoid cable crossovers during the installation process. the cable should not be pulled slower than 4. The pull and cut method is most often used for pulls at several different locations. cable damage can occur during the setup phase of a cable pull.5 m/min (15 feet/min). and Conduit Installations The method that is used to rig the cables for pulling in abovegrade conduit and cable tray systems depends on the length of the pull and the size of the conductors to be installed.

Figure 9: Dynamometer Used to Measure Pulling Tension Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 . The pulling tension equations should take into account any friction that results from the setup at the feed end of the conduit so that the maximum allowable installation tension is not exceeded. The equation that is used to determine the tension on the cable in the conduit is also shown in Figure 9. Figure 9 shows a method that could be used to attach the dynamometer at the discharge end of the conduit. and Conduit Installations The cable reels must be supported by an axle at the installation location so that the cable can be pulled with minimum friction. To measure the pulling tension that is applied to the cables. The dynamometer can be connected at the feed end of the conduit or at the discharge end of the conduit.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. An idler is attached to the dynamometer at the feed or discharge end of the conduit. the weight of the idler must be subtracted from the meter reading. a dynamometer is often used during the pulling operation. If the dynamometer is not zeroed with the idler attached. Cable. and the pulling line and/or cable is routed over the idler to allow the tension that is applied during the pulling operation to be measured.

for large conductors. Cable. the cable can be damaged if it bends below its minimum allowable bending radius. Short cable bends. the cables can be damaged from abrasion against the cable tray rungs. and sheaves should be used to prevent cable damage. dropped tools in the cable tray.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 . sheaves. and rollers that are used for cable installation in cable trays are undersized. Sidewall pressure (SP) is defined as the crushing force that is exerted on a cable as it is pulled around a bend section of conduit or duct. The cables should be continuously trained into the conduit in such a manner that the cable will not drag on the edge of the conduit. such as bent or burred metal. extreme care and good judgement should be exercised in their use. The Electrical Engineer should ensure that the diameter of the sheave that is used for the installation is large enough that the sidewall pressure that is exerted on the cable does not exceed limits. If the pulleys. The maximum pulling tension equations that are listed in the following sections should be followed for both conduit and cable tray systems. the cable reels should be set up in tandem. Cables should be laid out or pulled into cable tray runs. cable rollers. and they can lead to early failure of the installed cables. If the rollers that are used for the installation are too widely spaced. selection of the correct diameter sheave for the job ensures that the minimum-bending radius of the cable is maintained. by a large diameter sheave (pronounced "shiv"). and Conduit Installations When several single-conductor cables are to be pulled into a conduit or duct. and reversed bolts (heads on the outside of the cable tray rather than on the inside of the cable tray). sharp edges at the feed to the raceway. Rollers should be separated by a maximum distance of 3 m (10 feet) during cable pulls in cable trays. Sharp points in the cable tray. The cables should be fed into the conduit by hand or. can cause extensive cable damage during the cable pull. pulleys. Although quality sheaves are generally treated as frictionless (no effect on pulling tension). and cable crossovers should be prevented at the point where the cable enters the raceway. Supports should be used to alleviate stress on the cables where they enter the conduit or cable tray. In addition to reducing friction. When cable is pulled through a cable tray. and all of the cables should be simultaneously pulled into the conduit or duct.

The basket grip has a web-like grip that tightens as tension is applied to the pulling line. and Conduit Installations The remainder of this section of the Module provides information on the following topics that are pertinent to cable rigging procedures: o o o Pulling Grips Pulling Grips Pulling Lines Duct Lubricating Pulling grips are used to fasten the pulling line to the cable that is to be pulled into the raceway.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Long basket grips should be used to pull type MC cables. a swivel has been installed onto the pulling line where it attaches to the basket grip. To avoid cable twist during the pulling operation. A basket grip is a flexible metal device that slips over the end of the conductor that is to be pulled. There are two basic types of pulling grips that are frequently used for cable installations: basket grips and pulling eyes. Figure 10: Basket Grip on Cable Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 . a pulling line is attached to the basket grip so the cable can be pulled through the raceway. tape is applied over the armor and onto the conductors. To use the basket grip. Figure 10 shows how a typical metal basket grip is installed onto a cable. the armor is removed for a short distance. Cable. and the basket grip is placed onto the cable to allow the grip to squeeze both the armor and the conductors.

A pulling eye is a steel eye that is usually fastened directly to the cable conductors. Pulling eyes are sometimes used to pull larger sizes and long sections of cable. and Conduit Installations Because the conductor and the cable insulation are stressed during the pulling operation. and they are provided in various sizes. Pulling lines can be made of rope or wire. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 . a swivel is used to connect the pulling line to the pulling eye to avoid cable twist during the pulling operation. In Figure 11. The type of pulling line that is used for a given installation depends on the size of the conductor to be pulled. pulling eyes allow for a higher pulling tension than basket grips. Once the pulling operation is complete. Figure 11: Pulling Eye on Cable Pulling Lines A pulling line is used to pull the cable through the conduit or cable tray during the cable installation. Figure 11 shows how the cable conductors are securely fastened and solder-wiped to the shank of the pulling eye. Cable. Sufficient slack must be present at the pulling end so that the last 600 mm (2 feet) of cable beyond the basket grip can be removed before the cable is spliced or terminated.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. the parts of the cable that are directly affected by the basket grip should be removed before a splice or termination is installed. and the length of the pull. the type of pulling grip to be used. the pulling eye should be removed from the cable. Many manufacturers supply a pulling eye or pulling bolt to the leading end of the cable that is on the cable reel.

and Conduit Installations The pulling line is typically drawn into a conduit with a steel fishing wire or "snake. Increased friction during pulling can also cause an increase in the pulling tension that is applied to a cable during its installation. Any size wire from #14 up to #6 can be used for fishing. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 49 . Although the flat rectangular fishing wire is preferred because of the ease with which it can be run through a completed conduit system.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The idler is attached to a dynamometer to allow the tension on the pulling line to be evaluated throughout the pull. When the fishing wire is drawn through the conduit. Duct Lubricating To reduce friction during the pulling operation. lubrication should be liberally and continuously applied to conduit. Fishing wire is not required to pull cables through cable tray systems. After the pulling line is completely drawn through the affected raceway." Fishing wire is a tempered-steel wire that has a rectangular cross-section. the pulling line is attached to the fishing wire. Duct lubricant should not be applied to the first and last 15 meters (50 feet) of the cable for reasons of convenience and cleanliness in splicing operations. galvanized-steel wire can also be used for fishing. The fishing wire is then withdrawn from the conduit so that the pulling line is completely drawn through the conduit system. the pulling line is firmly attached to the pulling grip and to the pulling device through an idler. The use of minerallac #100 or equal lubricant is recommended for duct lubrication in Saudi Aramco above-grade conduit installations. Cable. Duct lubrication is not required during cable tray installations.

Next. the calculations are performed twice: once for a pull in one direction and again for the pull in the opposite direction. 50 . and Conduit Installations Cable Pulling Parameters Cable pulling parameters include maximum pulling tension and sidewall pressure calculations. the conditions of the pull should be changed. When the actual pulling tension exceeds the maximum allowable pulling tension for the installation. the maximum tension for the pulling device and the maximum tension that can be safely applied to the conductors should be calculated. When the pulling tensions are calculated for the pull.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. If the actual pulling tension that is calculated for the pull exceeds the maximum allowable pulling tension. Cable. The sidewall pressure calculation takes into account the stress effects that a bend in the conduit or cable tray has on the cable during the pulling operation. Decrease the allowable conduit fill. The most limiting maximum tension is used as the maximum allowable pulling tension (Tm). and cable clearance). The general procedure that is used to determine the cable pulling tensions and parameters is to calculate the pulling tensions for the entire length of the pull and then to determine whether the sidewall pressure is too great at the conduit bends. the jam ratio. the pulling tension (T) that is actually required to pull the cable through the raceway is calculated and compared to the maximum allowable pulling tension. The tension calculations take into account the maximum allowable tension that can be withstood by the pulling device and the conductors. the following actions should be considered: o o Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards Increase the bending radii that will be used for the conduit installation. This section of the Module describes cablepulling parameters in terms the following topics: o o o Maximum Pulling Tensions Maximum Pulling Tension Sidewall Pressure Rigging Method Effects Calculations After the size of the raceway has been determined (based on allowable fill.

Perform the pull in stages. care must be taken not to exceed the maximum pulling tension of any one cable during the pull. If different sizes of conductors are to be pulled into the same run of conduit. consideration should still be given to whether conductors that are of different sizes should be pulled at the same time for a given installation. Because a pulling rope under tension could possibly cut previously existing cables in conduit systems. Cable. but a simultaneous pull is not recommended if the dimensions of the conductors are significantly different. The equations that are used to determine the maximum allowable cable tension are as follows: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 51 . Different conductor sizes can be pulled at the same time. However. pulling additional cables into an existing conduit is generally not recommended.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The maximum pulling tension that can be applied when a basket grip is used over the outer jacket of a cable should not exceed 4450 N (1000 lbf) per cable (assuming that each cable has its own basket grip) in any case. The maximum allowable tension for the pulling device (Tdevice) is dependent on whether the pulling device is a pulling eye or a basket grip: o The maximum pulling tension that can be applied when a pulling eye is used should not exceed 22 kN (5000 lbf) per cable (assuming that each cable has its own pulling eye) for single-conductor cables or 27 kN (6000 lbf) per cable for multiple-conductor cables. and Conduit Installations o o o o Reduce the number of bends in the conduit. Decrease the length of the pull. Perform a reverse pull. o The maximum allowable tension for the cable (Tcable) is dependent on whether single conductor cables or multiple conductor cables are to be used in the installation.

multiplexed. the actual pulling tension for the installation is calculated and compared to the maximum allowable pulling tension. o The maximum pulling tension that can be applied to multiple conductors when there are more than three conductors (for cables that are in parallel.008 = 71 N mm 2 lbf • AREA (in cmil) cmil • AREA (in mm 2) o The maximum pulling tension that can be applied to multiple conductors when there are three or less conductors (for cables that are in parallel. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52 . or are multipleconductor cables) is calculated through use of the following equation: T cable = 0. Once the maximum allowable tension on the pulling device and the maximum allowable tension on the cable have been determined. the two values are compared. Cable. and Conduit Installations o The maximum pulling tension that can be applied to a single-conductor (copper conductor) cable is calculated through use of the following equation: T cable = 0. multiplexed. Next.8 • Σ T c Where Σ Tc is the summation of the maximum pulling tension for each individual cable. and the lowest of the two values is designated as the maximum allowable pulling tension for the installation (Tm).Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. or are multipleconductor cables) is calculated through use of the following equation: T cable = Σ T c Where Σ Tc is the summation of the maximum pulling tension for each individual cable.

a threecable installation (cradled or triangular configuration). a dual-cable installation. a three-cable installation will have a cradled configuration or a triangular configuration.5 or if assembled cables (triplexed cables) are to be pulled. The three-cable installation configurations are of special interest. the weight correction factor (w) is a calculated value that is used in the tension equations to account for the effect of cable configuration. Cable. If the jam ratio is less than 2. Figure 12: Cable Configurations Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53 . Figure 12 shows the various cable configurations that can occur for a single-cable installation.05 times the D/d ratio). and Conduit Installations The configuration of the cables that are being pulled into a conduit system affects the pulling tension calculations. the installation will result in a triangular configuration. and a cable installation for more than three cables (complex configuration). Based on the result of the jam ratio (recall that the jam ratio is equal to 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.

d  2 o The weight correction factor for complex cable configurations is as follows: ww = 1.4 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 54 .d o The weight correction factor for three cables with a cradled configuration is as follows: w =1+ 4  d  ⋅  3  D. and Conduit Installations The equations that are used to calculate the weight correction factor are selected based on the configuration of the cables for the installation. Cable.  D-d o The weight correction factor for three cables with a triangular configuration is as follows: w= 1  d  1.  D . The weight correction factor equations are as follows: o The weight correction factor for a single-cable configuration (including the case of a multiple-conductor cable) is as follows: w=1 o The weight correction factor for a dual-cable configuration is as follows: w= 1  d  1.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.

and Conduit Installations Another factor that is of critical importance to the tension equations is the cable weight (W). unit conversion factors are used to convert the given cable weight for a single cable to the correct units. To convert pounds per 1000 feet to pounds per foot.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. When values are given that are not in the same units as the pulling tension equations. the cable weight factor (W) (in newtons per meter) should be calculated. the units that are used for the cable weight factor are Newtons per meter (N/m) or pounds-force per foot (lbf/ft or lb/ft). the correct units must be used in the tension calculations. divide by 1000. the cable weight factor that is used in the pulling tension equations should be the sum of the individual cable weight factors. The following examples show how the cable weight factor (W) for a single 5 AWG copper conductor is determined: o If the cable weight that is specified by the manufacturer is 102 pounds per 1000 feet. one percent per conductor weight should be added. the cable weight factor (W) (in pounds-force per foot) should be calculated.6.489 N 102 lb ⋅ 14. Cable weight is the weight per unit length of the cable that will be pulled through the raceway. W= 102 lb 0.102 lb = 1000 ft ft o If the cable weight that is specified by the manufacturer is 102 pounds per 1000 feet. Cable. If the conductors are cabled (triplexed or quadraplexed). To convert pounds per 1000 feet to newtons per meter. W= 1.6 = 1000 ft m Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55 . Because weight is a measure of the force that is exerted on an object in the direction of the earth's gravitational pull. divide by 1000 and multiply by 14. When cables are to be installed in parallel (at the same time).

To convert grams per meter to pounds per foot. total assembly weight (newtons per meter or poundforce per foot.102 lb ⋅ = m ft 14. W= 152 g 0. multiply by 0. and Conduit Installations o If the cable weight that is specified by the manufacturer is 152 grams per meter. coefficient of dynamic friction = 0. Cable.0098 and divide by 14. The variables that are used in the pulling tension equations are defined as follows: Tin = tension into a section (newtons or pound-force). the cable weight factor (W) (in newtons per meter) should be calculated.5 in all cases (dimensionless). maximum allowable pulling tension for the installation (newtons or pound-force). straight-section length (meters or feet). W= 152 g 1. weight correction factor (dimensionless).0098 0.6. the pulling tension is evaluated along segments of the raceway through use of the information from a layout drawing. To convert grams per meter to newtons per meter.6 o If the cable weight that is specified by the manufacturer is 152 grams per meter.45 N). the cable weight factor (W) (in pounds-force per foot) should be calculated.489 N ⋅ 0. 1 lbf = 4. tension out of a section (newtons or pound-force). Tout = Tm w = = = = = µ W L Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56 .0098 = m m The pulling tension that will exist for a given above-grade conduit or cable tray installation is determined through use of various equations whose use is dependent on the type and direction of the pull.0098. multiply by 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.

θ φ R e The equations that are used to calculate the pulling tension that will exist for the various conduit and cable tray configurations are listed as follows: o Maximum Length of a Straight Section Pull: This equation is used to calculate the maximum length for a straight section pull that will not exceed the maximum allowable pulling tension for the installation.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. T out = WL(sin θ + w µ cos θ ) + T in Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57 . and Conduit Installations Lm = = = = = maximum length of straight-section pull (meters or feet). Cable. straight-section angle from horizontal (radians). bend-section radius (meters or feet). T out = w µ WL + T in o Pulling Up a Vertical Straight Section: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a vertical or incline straight section pull (pulling up). bend-section angle (radians). Lm = Tm wµW o Horizontal Straight Section: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a horizontal straight section pull. natural logarithm base.

Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. and Conduit Installations o Pulling Down a Vertical Straight Section: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a vertical or decline straight section pull (pulling down).WL(sin θ . this equation does not represent the sidewall pressure that is exerted on the cable. T out ≈ w T in ⋅ e µφ Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58 . Tout = Tin (cosh wµ ) + (sinh wµ ) ⋅ Tin + (WR) 2 2 o Horizontal Bend Approximations: It is common practice to use the following approximation for a horizontal bend provided that (Tin > 10 WR). Cable.w µ cos θ ) + T in o Horizontal Bend Section: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a horizontal bend. T out ≈ T in ⋅ e w µφ It is common practice to use the following approximation for a horizontal bend when Tin > 10 WR and w ≈ 1. T out = .

cos φ)]    Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59 . Figure 13: Vertical Conduit Bends The following equations are used for vertical concave up-bends and down-bends: o Pulling Up Through a Vertical Concave Up-Bend: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a vertical concave up-bend when pulling up through the bend. Cable. T out = (T in e w µφ  WR  2 w µφ -  1 = (w µ ) 2  ⋅ [2 w µ sin φ . This equation does not represent the sidewall pressure that is exerted on the cable. and Conduit Installations Figure 13 shows the difference between a vertical up-bend and a vertical down-bend in conduit.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.(1 .(w µ ) ) ⋅ (e .

µ = 0.5.cos φ)]    o Pulling Down Through a Vertical Concave Down-Bend: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a vertical concave down-bend when pulling down through the bend.5. and Conduit Installations o Pulling Down Through a Vertical Concave Up-Bend: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a vertical concave up-bend when pulling down through the bend.e .Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.(w µ ) ) ⋅ (1 .(w µ ) ) ⋅ (1 . This equation does not represent the sidewall pressure that is exerted on the cable.cos φ)]    o Pulling Up Through a Vertical Concave Down-Bend: This equation is used to calculate the pulling tension that will be felt at the end of a vertical concave down-bend when pulling up through the bend. This equation does not represent the sidewall pressure that is exerted on the cable. T out ≈ w T in ⋅ e µφ Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60 .e . w µφ T out = (T in e  WR  2 w µφ w µφ +  1 = (w µ ) 2 ⋅ [2 w µ e sin φ + (1 . This equation does not represent the sidewall pressure that is exerted on the cable. T out = (T in e w µφ  WR  2 w µφ +   1 = (w µ ) 2  ⋅ [2 w µ sin φ .e . and w ≈ 1. Cable.) T out ≈ T in ⋅ e w µφ It is common practice to use the following approximation for a vertical bend when Tin >10 WR.(w µ ) ) ⋅ (1 . w µφ T out = (T in e  WR  2 w µφ w µφ -  1 = (w µ ) 2 ⋅ [2 w µ e sin φ + (1 .(1 .cos φ)]   o Vertical Bend Approximations: (It is common practice to use the following approximation for a vertical bend when Tin > 10 WR and µ = 0.

Also. the NEC allows no more than four quarter conduit bends (360 degrees total) to be made in one run of conduit between pull points. When pulling cable in conduit. The tension is calculated for both directions to determine the direction of pull that causes the least amount of tension. A 90-degree bend will have a larger effect on the pulling tension than a 45-degree bend. The cable should be pulled through the bend in the direction that exerts the least amount of tension. and Conduit Installations When the tension equations are examined. it can be seen that a bend in a conduit or cable tray system multiplies the incoming tension by some exponential factor. Cable. Figure 14: Example Pulling Tension Calculation Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61 .Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The example in Figure 14 shows how the tension is calculated for a pull in either direction through a conduit system. the tension that is required to pull in either direction through a bend must be calculated and evaluated.

Determine the weight correction factor (w).05 D (1.05)(2.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.25 2.067) = = 3.5 Three THHN copper (1/C). the three cables will be a cradled configuration.47 d (0. Since the weight correction factor is based on the configuration of the cables in the conduit.14 N W=   1000 ft (14. size 4/0 cables are being pulled through a 2-inch conduit Conduit inside diameter (D) = 2.067 − 0.067 inches Single cable outside diameter (d) = 0. Jam Ratio = 1. Cable. and the weight correction factor is determined with the following equation: 4  d  w = 1+ ⋅  3 D−d 2 4  0. and Conduit Installations The initial conditions of the pull are as follows: Tension at starting point = 0 N Friction coefficient (u) = 0.626  w = 1+ ⋅  3  2.626 inches Weight of the cable is specified by the manufacturer as 711 lbs. per 1000 feet 1.6)(3 cables) = m   Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62 .626) Since the jam ratio is greater than 2.626  w = 1. The units N/m should be used because the length of the conduit is specified in meters.5. 2 Determine the cable weight (W) for the installation. the type of configuration must be determined from the jam ratio.  711 lb  31.

Because D is the starting point.78 N TC = 37. a. Determine the pulling tension from A to D.4 TC = TB (cosh wµφ) + (sinh wµφ) ⋅ TB + (WR)2 2 TC = 58.24 N = 42. TB = w µ W L + TA = (1. Determine the pulling tension from D to A a.9817) + (sinh 0. TC is calculated with the equation for a horizontal bend section.14 ⋅ 1) 2 TC = 164.9817) ⋅ (58.25)(0.5)(31.46 N = 4. TC is calculated with the following equation for a horizontal straight line: TC = wµWL + TD = (1.5)(31.14)(1) + 0 = 19.39 N c.37 lb Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 63 . and Conduit Installations 3. TD is calculated with the equation for a horizontal straight section: TD = wµWL + TD = (1. TB is compared to (10WR). Cable. TA = 0 TB is calculated with the equation for a horizontal straight section. b.25)(0. Because A is the starting point.42 lb 4.25)(0. b. the approximation can be used: 10WR = (10)(31.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.39) 2 + (31. To determine if the approximation equation can be used.78 = 184.05 lb d.14)(1) + 164.14)(1) = 311. If TB is greater than (10WR).5)(31. TD = 0.14)(3) + 0 = 58.39(cosh 0.

46)(cosh 0. Compare the tension of the pull from A to D to the tension of the pull from D to A.13 lb 5. the cable should be pulled from D to A.14) 2 TB = 71.74 N TB = 16. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64 . Sidewall pressure (SP) is defined as the crushing force (in Newtons or pounds-force) that is exerted on a cable as it is pulled around a bend section of conduit or duct. the approximation equation cannot be used: 2 TB = TC (cosh wµφ) + (sinh wµφ) ⋅ TC + (WR) 2 TB = (19. Because TC is less than (10WR). Sidewall Pressure The radius of a conduit or cable tray bend is limited by two factors: the minimum training radii of the cable under static load and the sidewall pressure that will be exerted on the cable during its installation. TB is calculated with the equation for a horizontal bend section.9817) + (sinh 0. and Conduit Installations c. For Saudi Aramco cable pulling operations. the maximum SP for any conduit installation should not exceed 4350 N/m times the radius of the conduit bend in meters (300 lbf/ft time the radius of the conduit bend in feet). Cable.9817) ⋅ (19.46) 2 + (31.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Because the tension for the pull from D to A is the lesser of the two values.

and Conduit Installations Figure 15 illustrates the SP that is exerted on a given cable as it is pulled through a bend with some tension (Tout) and some bend radius (R). Figure 15: Sidewall Pressure on Cable During a Pull Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 65 . Cable.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.

610.2) ⋅ T out 3R For three cables that are in a triangular configuration. the following equation should be used: SP = o w ⋅ T out 2R For more than three conductors. and 36 inches). Cable. and Conduit Installations SP is directly proportional to the pulling tension out of the bend and is inversely proportional to the radius of the bend. the inside radius of the elbow is used as the radius of the conduit bend (R) in the SP calculations. The equation that is used to calculate the SP that is exerted on a cable is dependent on the configuration of the cables that are in the conduit. the following equation should be used: SP = o (3 w . After the pulling tensions have been evaluated throughout the raceway. the more limiting case of a triangular cable configuration to calculate the SP should be used. as the pulling tension increases. 24. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 66 . the radius of that bend should be increased. and 914 mm (12.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. and as the bending radius decreases. the sidewall pressure also increases. The equations are as follows: o For a single conductor installation. the following equation should be used to calculate the SP: SP = T out R For three cables that are in a cradled configuration. that is. The inside radius of standard aluminum and fiberglass cable tray elbows are 305. If the SP of any bend exceeds the allowable limit. The table in Figure 16 shows the inside radius of various sizes of standard conduit elbows. SPs are calculated for each bend and are compared to the maximum allowable SP limit. the SP increases.

25) 295 (0.) ½ ¾ 1 1¼ 1½ 2 2½ 3 3½ 4 5 6 Std.96) 280 (0.94) 590 (1.41) 425 (1.62 215 (0.44) 435 (1.44) 1045 (3.94) 285 (0.87) 870 (2.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.41) 1035 (3.29) 990 (3.44) 160 (0.85) 865 (2.35) 1015 (3.75) 1055 (3.90) 875 (2.96) 595 (1.46) 440 (1.43) 430 (1. 380 mm 15 in.43) 735 (2.79) 1145 (3.91) 1190 (3.87) 1175 (3. 1065 mm 42 in.35) 600 (1.33) 1005 (3.35 710 (2.46) 1050 (3.18) 355 (1. Cable. 460 mm 18 in.19) 360 (1. 100 (0.93) 890 (2.94) 895 (2.71) 235 (0.17) 545 (1.94) 1200 (3.25) 1210 (3.40) 1025 (3.91) 360 (1.96) 335 (1.90) 1180 (3. 300 mm 12 in.90) 570 (1.46) 745 (2.79) 685 (2.10) 355 (1.37) 1020 (3.91) 580 (1.83) 1155 (3.41) 730 (2.) Conduit Size (in.85) 560 (1.93) 585 (1.91) 885 (2.33) 105 (0.83) 750 (2. 760 mm 30 in 915 mm 36 in.93) 275 (0.55) 180 (0.77) 295 (0. and Conduit Installations Standard Conduit Elbow Size in mm (ft.37) 410 (1.) 1220 mm 48 in.43) 1040 (3.75) Figure 16: Inside Radius of Standard Conduit Elbows Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 67 .44) 740 (2.79) 840 (2.85) 1165 (3.29) 900 (2.16) 350 (1.34) 135 (0.15) 445 (1.37) 715 (2. 610 mm 24 in.40) 420 (1.21) 365 (1.93) 1195 (3.83) 850 (2.96) 897 (2.40) 720 (2.33) 700 (2.96) 1202 (3.87) 565 (1.

the actual pulling tension that will be applied to the cable.067 inches d = 0. Figure 17 provides a sample above-grade conduit installation and shows the calculations that must be made to determine whether the installation is within the various limits. and the SP that will be felt by the cable during its installation. the maximum pulling tensions that can safely be applied to the cable. The distance from C to D is 30 m The distance from E to F is 3 m D = 2. A procedure is provided in Work Aid 3 to perform the rigging method effects calculation.5 Weight of cable is 711 lb per 1000 ft. Three THHN (1/C) 4/0 copper conductor cables are being pulled throu a 2-inch conduit.626 inches Cable Area = 199 m2 Figure 17: Sample Rigging Methods Effects Calculation Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 68 . and Conduit Installations Rigging Method Effects Calculation This section of the Module shows how to use the previously mentioned calculations for a given installation to determine the type of pulling device that can be used.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The distance from A to B is 2 m. µ = 0. Cable.

Cable.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.91 ft = 0. 2 Determine the cable weight (W) for the installation.05)(2.47 d (0. and Conduit Installations All conduit bends are 90-degree bends that use a 36-inch sweep elbow (inside radius of the elbow = 2.067 − 0.14 N W=   1000 ft  (14.626) Since the jam ratio is greater than 2.5. The weight correction factor (w) is determined with the following equation: 4  d  w = 1+ ⋅  3 D−d 2 4  0. The conduit installation has already been satisfactorily evaluated against the minimum cable training radius. 1. The configuration of the cable is determined with the jam ratio: Jam Ratio = 1.  711 lb  31. Basket grips will be sued to pull the cables through the conduit.05 D (1. the cables will be a cradled configuration 2.067) = = 3. The units N/m should be used because the length of the conduit is specified in meters.6) (3 cables) = m   Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 69 .25 3.626  w = 1+ ⋅  3  2.89 m) Tension at starting point is assumed to be 200 N.626  w = 1.

129 N mm 2 Tcable = (3 cables)(14.72 N 10WR = (10)(31.  WR TC = (TB )e wµφ −   1 + ( wµ) 2    ⋅ [2 wµe wµφ sin φ + (1 − ( wµ) 2 ) ⋅ (1 − e wµφ )    31. The equation for pulling down through a vertical concave up-bend must be used to calculate TC.95 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 70 .89) = 277.336 + .15 N Since TB <10 WR. The maximum allowable pulling tension is determined as follows: Tdevice = 4450 N per cable for a basket grip x 3 cables = 13. and Conduit Installations 4. the approximation equation for a vertical bend cannot be used to calculate TC.89)  TC = (137.350 N Tcable = ∑TC TC = 71 N ⋅ Area = (71)(199) = 14.14)(.9817 −   1 + (.14)(2) sin π / 2 − (1.129) = 42.387 N 5.625) 2  ⋅ [3.25)(0. The tension for pulling from A to point F is calculated as follows: TA = 200 N The equation for pulling down a vertical section must be used to calculate TB.14(.72)e . TB = − WL(sin θ − wµ cos θ) + TA TB = −3(31.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.6094]    TC = 288.5) cos π / 2) + 200 N) TB = 137. Cable.

47 N The tension at point F is less than the maximum allowable tension (TM). and Conduit Installations The equation for pulling through a horizontal straight section must be used to calculate TD. 6.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. TF=wµWL + TE = (1. Cable.14)(. TE = TD (cosh wµφ) + (sinh wuφ) ⋅ TD + ( WR ) 2 2 TE = (872.5)(31.9817) + (sinh .14)(3) + 2330.83) 2 + ((31. The maximum sidewall pressure at all bends is the same because all of the bends have the same radius. It is assumed for this sample calculation that the pulling tension from F to A has already been evaluated and that it is greater than the pulling tension from A to F.25)(0.95 = 872.14)(30) + 288.5)(31.83 N The equation for pulling through a horizontal bend section must be used to calculate TE.07 The equation for pulling through a horizontal straight section must be used to calculate TF. TD = wµWL + TC = (1.9817) (872. The maximum allowable sidewall pressure is calculated as shown below: SPMAX = (4350)(. therefore.83)(cosh .07 = 2388.89)) 2 TE = 2330. the cable will be pulled from A to F.25)(0.5 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 71 .89) = 3871.

20 N / m (3)(. the actual sidewall pressure is calculated with the following equation: SP = (3w − 2)TOUT 3R SPC = ((3)(1.07) = 1527.39 N / m (89)(.89) The sidewall pressure at the first bend is within limits. SPE = ((3)(1.25) − 2)(2330.95) = 189. and Conduit Installations Because the conductors are in a cradled configuration. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 72 . Cable.25) − 2)(288.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire.89) The sidewall pressure at the second bend is also within limits.

and Class III) can be broken down further into a Division 1 location or a Division 2 location (i. Cable. and is pressurized or purged by an inert gas or by air that is taken from an unclassified location that complies with Type X or Type Z purging. A Division 1 classification implies that danger is imminent at any or all times during the course of normal operation. accidental occurrence. foreseeable. Division 1 or Division 2 location. Each of the three classifications of hazardous locations (Class I.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Class II. Details on how the electrical classification locations are determined for a given installation are provided in EEX 208. and Class III.. Class II. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 73 . A Class III hazardous classification describes a location where fire or explosion hazards may exist because of the presence of ignitible fibers or flyings in air.e. a nonclassified location is defined as follows: o o A location that is completely outside of a Class I. Division 1 classification). or ignitible fibers or flyings. the location is described as a hazardous (classified) location. does not contain a release source. flammable liquids. For Saudi Aramco installations. combustible dust. A Class II hazardous classification describes a location where fire or explosion hazards may exist because of the presence of combustible dusts in air. A Division 2 classification implies that danger is not present under normal conditions but is likely to arise from some reasonable. A Class I hazardous classification is used to describe a location where flammable gases or vapors are or may be present in quantities that are sufficient to produce explosive or ignitible mixtures in air. and Conduit Installations DETERMINING HAZARDOUS AREA WIRING AND SEALING REQUIREMENTS If fire or explosion hazards exist in a location because of flammable gases or vapors. Design Criteria for Hazardous Areas. NEC (NFPA 70) describes these locations with three separate classifications: Class I. an area might be given a Class I. Division 1 or Division 2 location. Purging is defined as the process of supplying an enclosure with clean air or an inert gas to displace the atmosphere that is currently within the enclosure. An enclosed space that is within a Class I.

Flexible fittings (when required) should be approved for use in Class 1 locations. Threaded joints should be made up with at least five threads fully engaged. Division 2 hazardous locations are as follows: Rigid-steel conduit is specified for Class 1. and cable sealing. Division 1 and Class 1. Wiring Various resources state the specific requirements that wiring must meet when it is placed in hazardous locations in Saudi Aramco above-grade installations. conduit sealing. The sections that follow discuss the requirements that must be met for Saudi Aramco above-grade installations in terms of wiring. All boxes. The resources that are applicable to Saudi Aramco hazardous installations include the following: o o SAES-P-100 (Basic Power System Design Criteria) NEC (NFPA 70) (The National Electrical Code) The various NFPA-70 and Saudi Aramco requirements that must be met for the wiring methods that are used in above-grade installations for Class 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Type MI cables should be installed and supported in a manner to avoid tensile stress at the termination fittings. and joints should be threaded for connection to conduit or cable terminations and should be explosionproof. or where exceptional mechanical protection is required. Division 1 hazardous locations. Cable. Threaded rigid-metal conduit or type MI cable with termination fittings that are approved for the location should be used. and Conduit Installations This section of the Module presents the wiring and sealing requirements that must be met for Saudi Aramco above-grade installations. fittings. Crouse-Hinds-type EC series flexible conduit or an equivalent type of flexible conduit should be used. In Class 1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 74 . Division 1 locations.

cable in cable tray should be installed at the termination fittings. and switches that are intended to interrupt current in the normal performance of their function should be provided with enclosures that are approved for Class 1. however. and horns should meet the requirements that are specified for Class 1. Threaded rigid-metal conduit or type MI. MV. motor controllers. flameproof enclosures (Ex d II) are permitted when the following conditions are met: o o All cables enter the enclosure through rigid-steel conduit that has approved sealing fittings. General purpose enclosures are permitted. cable tray is the preferred method of power distribution in unclassified areas. To avoid tensile stress to the conductors. In Class 1. Division 2 hazardous locations. relays. and Conduit Installations For Class 1. o When provisions must be made for limited flexibility. Circuit breakers. or are in circuits that do not release sufficient energy to ignite a specific ignitable atmospheric mixture under normal circumstances. if the current interrupting contacts are hermetically sealed against the entrance of gases or vapors. flameproof enclosures (Ex d II) and increased safety apparatus (Ex e II) are permitted. Division 1 locations. general purpose enclosures can be used if the interruption of current occurs in a hermetically-sealed chamber. flexible metal fittings should be used. MC. and joints are not required to be explosionproof in Class 1. or if the interruption of current occurs in a factory-sealed explosionproof chamber that is approved for the installation. Division 2 locations except under the following conditions: o Switches. Division 1 locations (see above). Boxes. circuit breakers. if the make and break contacts are immersed in oil. The overall enclosure not just its components is flameproof (Ex d II explosionproof) as a whole. Cable. and the make-and-break contacts of pushbuttons. TC. fittings. alarm bells. or SNM cable with approved termination fittings (in cable tray) should be used. However.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 75 . For Class 1. Division 2 locations. Division 1 locations.

listed. or Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FM) certified. o o Canada UK o France o o o Germany Switzerland Italy Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 76 . Centre d'Etudes et Rechereches de Charbonnages de France (CHERCHAR) certified. Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer Verein (SEV) certified. the equipment that is used in hazardous locations and that is required by NEC (NFPA 70) to be approved (except for conduit sealing fittings) are required to be UL-labeled.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. (UL) labeled or listed. Any of the following organizations may be used to meet labeling. and Conduit Installations In addition to the specific requirements for wiring methods that were listed above. Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) certified. or certified. listing. Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI) certified. Inc. or certifying requirements: o USA Underwriters Laboratories. British Approvals Services for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres (BASEEFA) certified. Canadian Standards Association (CSA) certified. Cable.

The resources that describe the conduit sealing requirements that should be met for Saudi Aramco above-grade hazardous installations are listed as follows: o o o SAES-P-104 (Wiring Methods and Materials) SAES-J-902 (Electrical Systems for Instrumentation) NEC (NFPA 70) (The National Electrical Code) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 77 . listing. In a vertical conduit run. CENELEC EN 50 014 and EN 50 018 (for flameproof enclosures Ex d II) or EN 50 014 and EN 50 019 (for increased safety apparatus Ex e II). and Conduit Installations The labeling. gas vapors can move through a conduit system without a pressure differential. a differential pressure could cause flammable gases to be transmitted from a classified area to an unclassified area through the conduit system. and they are also used to prevent the passage of flames from one portion of the electrical installation to another portion of the electrical installation through the conduit system. CSA standards.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Conduit seals are made by filling a specialized sealing fitting with a sealing compound. or certification of electrical equipment in hazardous locations should be based on the latest version of the following standards and procedures: o o o o UL 886 (Outlet Boxes and Fittings for Use in HazardousClassified-Locations). Conduit Sealing In a horizontal conduit run. Cable. FM procedures. Conduit seals are used to prevent the passage of flammable gases through the conduit system.

relays. or taps. Division 1 area. boxes. or fittings are allowed in the conduit between the sealing fitting and the point at which the conduit leaves the Class I. Vertical or horizontal conduit runs that require sealing should be sealed with combination vertical/horizontal seals (Type EYS or equivalent). A seal is required in each conduit run that leaves the Class I. Division 2 area with no fittings less than 305 mm (12 inches) beyond each boundary is not required to be sealed if the termination points of the unbroken conduit are in nonclassified locations. No unions. fuses. For Class 1 and nonclassified locations. Each conduit that enters a process unit control house should be sealed outside at the point of entry for an above-grade conduit run. Division 1 area. resistors. boxes. When conduit seals are required. The seal can be placed on either side of the area boundary. When conduit seals are used (for both classified and unclassified locations). or other apparatus that may produce arcs. Metal conduit that does not have unions. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 78 . Seals are required when conduit that is of 2-inch size or larger enters an enclosure or fitting that houses terminals. couplings. couplings. the seals should be located within 450 mm (18 inches) of an enclosure. or fittings and that passes completely through a Class 1. some general requirements must be met. circuit breakers. Division 1 locations. Fittings that are installed between the seal and the enclosure must be explosionproof.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. but it should be designed and installed to minimize the amount of gas or vapor that passes through the boundary in the conduit. Explosionproof seals should be used only when required by NEC (NFPA 70). seals are required when conduit runs enter an enclosure for switches. wire fill of standard conduit sealing fittings should not exceed 25 percent based on the size of the conduit. sparks. and Conduit Installations Specific NEC (NFPA 70) and Saudi Aramco requirements for conduit sealing in Class I hazardous areas are outlined in the following paragraphs. or high temperature. splices. A conduit run that crosses hazardous location boundaries below ground must be sealed at both ends of the conduit that emerge from the ground. For Class 1. Cable.

The minimum depth of the sealing compound should be equal to but not less than the internal diameter of the conduit.9 mm (5/8 inches) at any point between the conduit openings. Rigid-metal conduit should be used between the sealing fitting and the point at which the conduit leaves the Division 2 area. If the termination points of the unbroken conduit are in nonclassified locations. seals are required for connections to explosionproof enclosures. Division 1 location with no fittings less than 305 mm (12 inches) beyond each area boundary is not required to be sealed. Division 2 area. and Conduit Installations For Class 1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 79 . Cable. Division 2 location into a nonclassified location. couplings. the required depth of the sealing compound should be measured from the top of the lower conduit stop and the lowest edge of the tapped opening for introducing the sealing compound into the conduit sealing fitting. but it should be designed and installed to minimize the amount of gas or vapor that may have entered the conduit system from the Class 1. In conduit sealing fittings that are used for vertical mounting. metal conduit that contains no fittings. and a threaded connection should be used at the sealing fitting. Division 2 area into the non-classified area. The conduits should not terminate in an enclosure that contains an ignition source. boxes. Unions. couplings. or fittings are not allowed in the conduit between the sealing fitting and the point at which the conduit leaves the Class 1. Division 2 area from being communicated to the conduit that is beyond the seal. Conduit systems that terminate at an outdoor nonclassified location where a transition is made to cable tray or type MI cable is not required to be sealed where the conduit system passes from the Class 1. Division 2 locations.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. The seal can be placed on either side of the boundary. The depth of the sealing compound should never be less than 15. Seals are required in each conduit that passes from a Class 1. Conduit sealing fittings that are used in Class I hazardous areas should be constructed so that sealing compound can be pushed deep into the conduit sealing fitting. boxes. or unions and that passes completely through a Class 1.

The labeling. the NEC (NFPA 70) has requirements for cable seals. or EN 50 014 and EN 50 019 (for increased safety apparatus EEX E II). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 80 . Cable.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. (FM). Conduit seals are used to prevent the passage of gases through the conduit around cables or single conductors. or certification of electrical equipment in hazardous locations should be based on the latest version of the following standards and procedures: o o o o UL 886 (Outlet Boxes and Fittings for Use in HazardousClassified-Locations). listing. The sealing compound should form a permanent seal under service conditions and should not be adversely affected by the hazardous vapors of the location in which the sealing compound will be used. CSA standards. Seals that are installed in Class I hazardous areas are intended to prevent the passage of flammable gases or flames from one portion of an electrical installation to another portion of the electrical installation. or certified by Underwriters Laboratories. (UL). Factory Mutual Research Corp. or the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). When an opening is used for the introduction of the sealing compound into the conduit. CENELEC EN 50 014 and EN 50 018 (for flameproof enclosures EEX D II). FM procedures. Cable Sealing In addition to conduit seals. Inc. a plug that has at least five full tapered threads is considered satisfactory for closing the opening. Seals in Class II hazardous areas are intended to prevent combustible dust from entering an otherwise dust-tight enclosure. listed. Conduit sealing fittings are required to be labeled. and Conduit Installations The construction of the conduit sealing fitting should provide a tight seal and retain the sealing compound in place. Cable seals are used to prevent the passage of gases through multiple-conductor cables.

and Conduit Installations Multiple-conductor cables are considered to be similar to a conduit system that contains several insulated conductors. The cable core may be filled in or it may be relatively open. Multiple-conductor cables that have a gas/vapor-tight continuous sheath should be sealed with an approved fitting if they are located in a Division 2 area. If the cable core is constructed so that it performs the function of a conduit seal. The cables are sealed after the jacket and any other covering has been removed so that the sealing compound will surround each individual insulated conductor in a manner that will minimize the passage of gases and vapors. In addition to the spaces between the strands of the individual conductors. the cable can be considered to be incapable of passing gases or vapors through its core and will be so designated. The NEC (NFPA 70) and UL requirements for cable sealing fittings are somewhat similar to those requirements that are listed in the previous section for conduit sealing fittings. there may be spaces between the individual conductors of a cable (referred to as the cable core). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 81 . Division 2 locations. Cable. For Class 1. For Class 1. The cables are sealed after the jacket and any other coverings are removed so that the sealing compound will surround each individual insulated conductor and the outer jacket. These cables should be sealed under the same conditions as the conditions that were stated for conduit seals in Class 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Division 1 locations. each multiple conductor cable in conduit is considered as a single conductor if the cable is incapable of transmitting gases or vapor through the cable core. Cables that have a gas/vapor-tight continuous sheath that are capable of transmitting gases or vapors through the cable core should be sealed if they are located in a Division 1 location. and the cables should be sealed at the point of entrance to the enclosure. cable seals are required for cables that enter enclosures that are required to be approved for Class I locations. The requirements that must be met for Saudi Aramco above-grade hazardous installations are as follows. Division 1 areas.

or other method should be provided to prevent the passage of flammables into an non-classified area. The minimum length of the cable run should not be less than the length that limits gas or vapor flow through the cable core to the rate that is permitted for seal fittings. barrier. the cable should be sealed. however. Cable. and Conduit Installations Cables that have a gas/vapor-tight continuous sheath and that will not transmit gases or vapors through the cable core in excess of the quantity that is permitted for the seal fitting are not required to be sealed except at the entrance of enclosures that are required to be approved for Class 1 locations. Cables that have an unbroken gas/vapor-tight continuous sheath should be permitted to pass through a Class 1. If the cable is attached to process equipment or devices that can cause a pressure in excess of 1493 Pascals (6 inches of water) to be exerted at the cable end. The permitted rate for seal fittings is 198 cubic centimeters per hour of air that is at a pressure 1493 Pascals (0.007 cubic feet per hour of air that is at a pressure of 6 inches of water). Cables that do not have a gas/vapor-tight continuous sheath should be sealed at the boundary of the Division 2 and nonclassified location in such a manner as to minimize the passage of gases or vapors into a nonclassified location. If the pressure exerted at the ends of the cable exceeds 1493 Pascals. Cables that have a gas/vapor-tight continuous sheath should not be required to be sealed except at the entrance of enclosures that are required to be approved for Class I locations.Engineering Encyclopedia Wire and Cable Systems Evaluating Above-Grade Wire. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 82 . a seal. Division 2 location without seals.

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