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# Maths Shortcuts - Constant Product Rule

Constant Product Rule (1/x) & 1/(x+1) This rule can be applied when we have two parameters whose product is constant, or in other words, when they are inversely proportional to each other. eg. - Time x Speed = Distance, Price x consumption = Expenditure, Length x breadth= Area

A 1/x increase in one of the parameters will result in a 1/ (x+1) decrease in the other parameter if the parameters are inversely proportional.
Lets see the application with the following examples1) A man travels from his home to office at 4km/hr and reaches his office 20 min late. If the speed had been 6 km/hr he would have reached 10 min early. Find the distance from his home to office? Solution: Assume original speed= 4km/hr. Percentage increase in speed from 4 to 6= 50% or . 1/2 increase in speed will result in 1/3 decrease in original time=30 minutes.(from given data). Original time= 90 minutes= 1.5 hours Answer is Distance= 4x1.5=6 km 2) A 20% increase in price of sugar. Find the % decrease in consumption a family should adopt so that the expenditure remains constant Solution: Here price x consumption= expenditure (constant). Using the technique, 20% (1/5) increase results in 16.66%(1/6) decrease in consumption. Answer=16.66%

## Multiplying two 2-digit numbers (difference of 2)

Step-1:Choose a 2-digit number. Step-2:Select a number either 2 smaller or 2 larger. Step-3:Square the Middle number. Step-4:Subtract 1 from this square. Example: If the first number is 29, choose 31 as the second number. The Middle Number of 29 and 31 is 30. Square 30: 30 30 = 900. Subtract 1: 900 - 1 = 899. So 29 31 = 899.

## Multiplying two 2-digit numbers (difference of 4)

Step-1:Choose a 2-digit number. Step-2:Select a number either 4 smaller or 4 larger. Step-3:Square the Middle number. Step-4:Subtract 4 from this square. Example: If the first number is 28, choose 32 as the second number. The Middle Number of 28 and 32 is 30. Square 30: 30 30 = 900. Subtract 1: 900 - 4 = 896. So 28 32 = 896.

Squaring Shortcut-8
Finding Square of a number which is between 1000 and 1100 Step 1:Choose a number between 1000 and 1100. Step-2:first two digits are: 1,0 _ _, _ _ _ Step-3:Find the difference between your number and 1000. Step-4:Multiply the difference by 2: 1,0 X X, _ _ _ Step-5:Square the difference: 1,0 _ _, X X X Example: If the number to be squared is 1009: The first two digits are: 1,0 _ _, _ _ _ Find the difference: 1009 - 1000 = 9 Two times the difference: 2 9 = 18: 1,0 1 8, _ _ _ Square the difference: 9 9 = 81: 1,0 1 8, 0 8 1 So 1009 1009 = 1,018,081.

Squaring Shortcut 5
Find the Square of number containing Repeated 1. Step-1:Count the Digit, Count=n Step-2: now starting from 1 write the number till n Step-3-now starting from n write number till 1 Example: Find the square of 1111? Find the square of 1111 First we see that there are 4 times 1. Now we write number from 1 to 4. Now again from 4 to 1 So our answer is 1234321

Squaring Shortcut 4

Finding Square of a number which is between 50 75 1.Assume, we have to find the square of N. First find the difference with 50 (lets say the difference is D) 2. Find the square of D. It will give the last 2 digits of square. 3. Add D from 25, ie find (25+D). It will give us the first two digit of square. Example: Find the square of 52 1. Find out how far is the number from 50. Eg: 52 is 2 units far from 50 2. Square the above number. The result will be the last two digits of the required result. i.e., 2*2 = 04, which is the last two digits of the required result. __04. 3. Add the initial difference of step 1 to 25 i.e., 25 + 2 = 27, this will be the first two digits of the result. 27__. Hence, Answer is 2704.

Squaring Shortcut 3
Finding Square of a number which is less than 100 1. Assume, we have to find the square of N. First find the difference with 100 (lets say the difference is D) 2. Find the square of D. It will give the last 2 digits of square. 3. Find the difference between the number (N) and Difference (D) i.e. find (N-D). It will give us the first two digit of square Example: Find the square of 93? The deficiency of 93 is 7 because it is 7 less than 100 (base). Now, 93 7 = 86. This gives us the left-hand part of the answer. The square of the deficiency is 7 7 = 49, and this is the right hand part of the answer. The working can be done mentally and the answer, 8649, written straight down.

Squaring Shortcut 2
Finding Square of a number which is Greater than 100 1. Assume, we have to find the square of N. First find the difference with 100 (lets say the difference is D) 2. Find the square of D. It will give the last 2 digits of square. 3.Add the number (N) and Difference (D) ie find (N+D). It will give us the first two digit of square Example: Find square of 103? The surplus is 3. Increase 103 by 3, gives 106. This gives the left-hand part. The square of the surplus is 3 3 = 09. And this is the right-hand part of the answer. The base has two zeros and so the right-hand part is 09 and not just 9. So, the answer is 10609

Squaring Short-cut 1
Squaring a 2-digit number which ends in 5 1. Last two digits of the square are always 25. 2. To find the number which comes before 25, just perform the operation n x (n+1),where n is the digit before 5 in the original number. 3. By putting the number received in step 2, just before 25 and you get your square.

Example: Find the square of 65? If we want to square 65, we can find the same in the following 2 steps 1. Last two digits are 25. 2. The digit before 5 is 6, if we perform n x (n+1) operation on this, then we will be 6 x (6+1) = 42 3. Hence the square of 65, will be 4225. Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

Squaring Shortcut-7
Finding Square of a number which is between 25-50 1.Assume, we have to find the square of N. First find the difference with 50 (lets say the difference is D) 2. Find the square of D. It will give the last 2 digits of square. 3. Subtract D from 25, ie find (25-D). It will give us the first two digit of square. Example: Find the square of 48 1. Find out how far is the number from 50. Eg: 48 is 2 units far from 50 2. Square the above number. The result will be the last two digits of the required result. i.e., 2*2 = 04, which is the last two digits of the required result. __04. 3. Add the initial difference of step 1 to 25 i.e., 25 - 2 = 23, this will be the first two digits of the result. 23__. Hence, Answer is 2304.

## Special Multiplication Technique

Special Multiplication Technique 5, 25, 125 & 625 MULTIPLICATION BY 5 Rule:Put one 0 at the end of the number and devide by 2 Examples:512x5 = 5120/2=2560. MULTIPLICATION BY 25 Rule: Put two 0 at the end of the number and devide by 4 Examples:512x25 = 51200/4=12800 MULTIPLICATION BY 125 Rule: Put three 0 at the end of the number and devide by 8 Examples: 512x125 = 512000/8=64000 MULTIPLICATION BY 625 Rule:Put Four 0 at the end of the number and devide by 16 Examples512x625 = 5120000/16=320000

Multiplication Short-cut-2

Multiplying 2-digit numbers where the Tens digit add up to 10 and Unit digits are same. Suppose, we want to find the multiplication of two numbers AB & CB (where A + C = 10) then we can follow the following steps to find the answers 1. First find the multiplication of last two digit of both the numbers ie. Find B x B. It will give us last 2 digits of the answer. 2. Multiply the Tens digits and Add the common digit to the multiplication ie. find AxC + B. It will give us the initial digits of the multiplication. For Example, find 44 64? Steps: 1. Here tens digit are 4 and 6 and their sum is 10 and unit digits of both numbers are same. Multiplying the unit digits, we get 4 4 = 16. Put it at right hand side. 2. Again multiplying the tens digits of numbers and adding common digit, we get (4 6) + 4 = 24 + 4 = 28. Put it at the left hand side. So, we get required answer as 2816.

Multiplication Short-cut-1
Multiplying 2-digit numbers where the Units digit add up to 10 and Tens digits are same. Suppose, we want to find the multiplication of two numbers AB & AC (where B + C = 10), then we can follow the following steps to find the answers 1. First find the multiplication of last two digit of both the numbers ie. Find B x C. It will give us last 2 digits of the answer. 2. Perform operation n x (n+1) on A. It will give us the initial digits of the multiplication. For Example, find 42 48 ? Both the numbers here start with 4 and the unit digits (2 and 8) add up to 10. Steps: 1. First multiply the unit digit of the number: 2 8 = 16 2. Then multiply 4 by 5 (the succeeding number) to get 20 for the first part of the answer. 3. So, Required answer is 2016. Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook

## Shortcut to Finding Percentage of a Given Number

Finding 5 percent of a number Choose a large number Move the decimal point one place to the left. Divide by 2 (take half of it). Example:If the Number selected is 750: Move the decimal point one place to the left.: 75 Divide by 2: 75/2 = 37.50 So 5% of 750 = 37.50 Finding 2 1/2 percent of a number Step-1: Choose a number

Step-2: Divide by 4 (or divide twice by 2). Step-3: Move the decimal point one place to the left. Example:If the number selected is 66: Divide 86 by 4: 66/4 = 16.5 Move the decimal point one place to the left. =1.65 So 2 1/2% of 66 = 1.65. Finding 15 percent of a number Choose a 2-digit number. Multiply the number by 3. Divide by 2. Move the decimal point one place to the left. Example: If the number selected is 53: Multiply by 3: 3 53 = 159 Divide by 2: 159/2 = 79.5 Move the decimal point one place to the left: 7.95 So 15% of 43 = 7.95. Finding 20 percent of a number Choose a 2-digit number. Divide the number by 5. Example: If the number selected is 46: Divide by 5: 46/5 = 9.2 So 20% of 46 = 9.2. Finding 25 percent of a number Divide by 4. Example: If the number selected is 86: Divide 86 by 4: 86/4 = 21.5 So 25% of 86 = 21.5. Finding 45 percent of a number Choose a 2-digit number. Multiply the number by 9. Divide by 2. Move the decimal point one place to the left. Example: If the number selected is 16: Multiply by 9: 9 16 144 Divide by 2: 144/2 = 72 Move the decimal point one place to the left: 7.2 So 45% of 16 = 7.2. Finding 60 percent of a number Choose a 2-digit number. Multiply the number by 6.

Move the decimal point one place to the left. Example: If the number selected is 38: Multiply by 6: 6 38 = 180 + 48 = 228. Move the decimal point one place to the left: 22.8 So 60% of 38 = 22.8. Finding 75 percent of a number Choose a number. Multiply the number by 3. Divide this product by 4. Example: If the number selected is 63: Multiply the number by 3: 3 63 = 180 + 9 = 189. Divide this product by 4: 189/4 = 47.25. So 75% of 63 = 47.25

Squaring Short-cut 6
Find the square of the number containing Repeated 9 Step-1: Count the digit, Count=n Step-2: First write (n-1) times 9 then 8 Step-3 Again (n-1) times 0 then 1 Example: Find the square of 9999? Find the square of 9999 We see that there are 4 times 9 Now we write (4-1=3) times 9 then 8,{9998} Now 3 times 0 then 1{0001} So Answer Will be 99980001