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THE EFFECT OF STRESS RELIEF PARAMETERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PRESSURE VESSEL STEELS AND WELDMENTS* D. A. Canonico and W. J. Stelzman Metals and Ceramics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830
Gentlemen, it is an honor to have been invited to participate in your Symposium. Before I start my formal lecture, I would like to introduce myself My background is in metal joining (both
and the company for which I work.
brazing and welding) and mechanical properties (in particular toughness) of materials for pressure vessels and piping. I work at the Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, an organization that is operated for the Energy Research and Development Administration of the United States Government by the Union Carbide Corporation. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory employs approximately 5000 people I work in the Matals and Ceramics Division;
in various research and support divisions.
a group of approximately 300 people, half of whom have at least one degree frojn an accredited university. Our division is divided into three research sections.
I am the group leader of the Pressure Vessel Technology Laboratory in the Materials Engineering Section. The responsibility of my group lies in the We
characterization of materials for pressure vessel and piping applications.
have been involved in the investigation of low alloy high strength steels for light water nuclear pressure vessels since 1966. We are part of a program at
*Research sponsored by Energy Research and Development Administration under contract with Union Carbide Corporation. y NOTICE
Dlr . |v- . ,
PORTIONS QP THIS REPORT AM. .IHgnTgT.t; l t has bean reproduced from the best available copy to permit the broadest possible availability.
usually about 677°C (1250°F)J for about one hour per inch of thickness. will hot form the plate to the shape desired and then heat treat it by austenitizing [heating the plate to about 871°C (1600°F)] for about 4 to 6 hours and then quenching it in water. The HSST program was instrumental in characterizing the properties This steel is one of the two of 300 mm (12 in.Oak Ridge «ational Laboratory that is laiown as the Heavy Section Steel Technology program. but the Code does represent the minimum quality allowed.) thick SA 533 Grade B Class 1 steel. If anyone is specifically interested in that program. The vessel fabricator. The pressurized water reactor utilizes plate thicknesses The pressure vessel manufacturer approaching 300 mm (12 in. Each component is completely heat treated prior to fabrication. The final 2 product is shown in my next slide which is a photograph of the pressure vessel for the Oyster Creek power plant. You can get a feeling for its size by noting This picture was taken the men standing near the top of the pressure vessel. The lecture that I will present now was undertaken as part of the Investigations that we have conducted on the Heavy Section Steel Technology program. buys the plate in accordance with the specification in Section II Part A of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. . My first slide is an view showing the various components of a nuclear pressure vessel. Following fabrication the Code that all heavy section welds of ferritic materials be given a post weld heat treatment. steels from which light water reactor pressure vessels are fabricated in the United States. More than likely he imposes restrictions on the plate steel supplier that are beyond those of the Code.) in their fabrication. in most instances. This treatment is followed by tempering [heating the plate to a subcritical temperature. I will be glad to discuss it during our free time. This requirement for nuclear pressure vessels 1 is given in paragraph NBA620 of Section III Division 1.
These j j £ . Tennessee plant. slide shows the results of Charpy tests on material taken froni the failed vessel. The hydrostatic test is discussed The fracture toughness requirements are discussed in NB2300. it from a flaw similar to the one seen in the next slide. The toughness was 5 The next slide nicely demonstrates the This damage that can be done to a structure by an incorrect heat treatment.e temperature when the steel is correctly heated to the required tempering temperature. The lower curve is the Charpy toughness of the tested vessel. the topic of my discussion this morning. The test must be conducted at a temperature not lower than 34°C (60°F) above the reference nil ductility transition temperature as determined by both the drop weight test and Charpy V-notch energy and lateral expansion requirements. There have been classic examples of pressure vessels that have (These failed vessels were not built to the rigid requirements The Thompson vessel that failed in 3 My next slide is a photograph of that failed during testing. The hydrostatic test is a final examination that protects both the buyer and the public. of Section III Division 1 of the ASME Code.while the vessel was being hydrostatically tested by the fabricator. A discussion of the method for determining reference temperature NDT is provided in NB2330. last three slides set the stage for my discussion of the effect of post weld . at their Chattanooga.) England in 1965 is a classic example. Note that the ~>0°C (212°F). in NB6200. Combustion Engineering. a result of an incorrect heat treatment. Section III of the ASME Code requires that all vessels be hydrostatically tested prior to their being placed in service. vessel after it had failed. identified as a stress relief crack would not have been dangerous if it had not been presented in a metallurgical structure that had poor toughness. The failure was due to a faulty post weld heat The failure originated The crack whicl. was treatment. : maximum toughness that the steel absorbed was 28 j (20 ft-lbs) at is Compare that value to the greater than 80 j (60 ft-lbs) at the sa:.
values. quenched and tempered. The shielded metal arc weld. these two welds are 300 mm thick. austenitized. Consequently. This requirement is given in Table NB4622. during fabrication the manufacturer usually will give the various components an intermediate stress relief. our 300 mm plate was given a 40 hour treatment at 621*C. The base metals joined in The weld in the bottom area of the slide is This weld is completely heat treated. However. after welding and hence the weld fusion line. The location and orientation Three curves are shown in this The upper curve represents specimens whose main axis is in the major rolling (longitudinal) direction and the fracture path is perpendicular to the major rolling direction. upper right hand corner. the ASKE Code requires chat the vessel be given a post weld heat treatment of 2 hours plus 15 minutes for each inch of thickness over 2 inches. The aain seams in the vessel that I showed you in slide 2 are fabricated by one of three joining processes: welding and electi'oslag welding. an electroslag weld. in the upper left hand corner and the submerged arc weld. .2. assure that the steel studied in the USA/HSST program was being given a representative heat treatment. heat affected zone and weld metal are difficult to differentiate. for specimen removal is described in NB2222. The effect of this treatment on the Charpy V-notch toughness of the plate at the 1/4 thickness location is provided in the next slide. upon completion of the To fabrication a vessel may have had over 25 hours of post weld heat treatment. over two hundred passes are employed for each weld. submerged arc welding. This specimen orientation provides the maximum toughness The middle curve is for specimens whose axes are perpendicular to the major rolling (transverse) direction and the fracture path is in the rolling direction. The next slide contains a photograph of three macro sections from welds that *ere made by the three processes previously mentioned. After fabrication.1-1 of the Code. slide.heat treatment time and temperature on the toughness of pressure vessel steels and welds. are made by multipass technique. shielded oetal arc The process* most frequently used in the United 6 States is the submerged arc process.
Compare the values at 66*C (150*F). treatment of welds. The longitudinal specimen was able to absorb nearly SOS move energy than the short transverse specimen at the sane temperature. ton. It was used for a nunber of vessels. NB4622. The *ajor influence of specimen orientation is seen in the maximum toughness values achieved. The electroslag weld has somewhat lower toughness but it too is completely acceptable. is referral to as the weak direction. The holding range for SA 533 Grade B Class l t a steel that is categorized as P-number 3 in Tat QW-420 of Section IX . for place materials. Currently. the electroslag technique is not employed in the United States for manufacturing nuclear pressure vessels. There has recently been an increased interest in the United States in the effect of post weld heat treatment on the toughness of pressure vessel steels. Section III of the ASME Code has requirements that c&tablish the holding temperature range for the post weld heat.1-1. Plate thicknesses of these magnitudes often have less than a 3:1 reduction from ingot to finished plate. the upper value is nearly 160 j (115 ft-lbs) whereas the lower is near 110 j (77 ft-lbs). The transition in the Charpy test is that tetapcrutucc regime where the energy absorbed increases rapidly with only small increases in temperatures. is the one that I previously referred to during my discussion of post weld heat treatment holding time. 3 Ttte next slide shows the Charpy V-notch toughness of the submerged arc and electroslag welds shown in a previous slide. The maximum (usually referred to as upper shelf energy) value Xs about the saae as that exhibited by specimens with longitudinal orientations. This table. The transition temperature oi the submersed arc weld i« considerably lower than that shown in the previous slide for the base aetal.5 Thl» quite often. It I* interesting to note chat specimen orientation has very little effect on Che transition temperature of this very chick plate. however. This is often referred to as the short transverse (through-the-thlcknesa) direction. The lever curve is for specimens whose euin axis is perpendicular to the place surface and the fracture path is In the rolling direct. in the late 1960's.
Therefore. the possibility of excessively long hold tines does exist. The holding times at these temperatures were 9 40.4(c)-l. We began with Charpy V-notch blanks from the saae plates of steel that I discussed on the previous slides. time had only a minor effect on both the transition temperature and the upper shelf temperature. however. The Charpy blanks were canned in a vacuua and heated at various temperatures and for times up to 160 hours. 80 and 160 hours. then the effect of the 40. however. 24 and 28*C (25. The Code only provides minimum holding tines. Our study which is still ongoing is concerned with the effect of long hold tine on the Charpy V-notch toughness of SA 533 Grade B Class 1 steel and submerged arc welds in the same material. this table is designed for post weld heat treatments at lower temperatures. respectively. 621*C (1150*F). Only 40 hours at 670*C resulted in a 33*0 (60°F) shift in the 45 j temperature and a decrease in . The results of that: study are shown in the next slide. The effect of post weld heat treatment time on toughness was evaluated at 621 and 670"C (1150 and 1240*F). There are no maximum times provided. Both of these temperatures are within the holding range allowed in Section III of the Code. I an aware of past weld heat treatment times in excess of 120 hours on vessels built in accordance with the rules of Section VIII of the Code. at 621 # C. Post weld heat treatments at 670°C (1240*F). had a considerably more drastic effect.of the ASME Code. ie given us 593-677*C (11QO-12SO*F). 25 and 50*F). The Code does provide alternative holding temperatures and times la Table KB4622. The specimens were all from the 1/4 thickness location. These treatments were in addition to the original 40-hour post veld heat treatment at 621*C (1150*F) that was given to the original plate. 80 and 160 hours of additional post weld heat treatment time was to increase Che NOT by 14. It is evident that at the lower temperature. If a Charpy V-notch energy of 45 j is u s M as the energy level at which the shift in transition temperature is measured.
the ASME Code. 10 The effect of temperature is even more clearly shown in the next slide. The temperatures investigated were 621*C (1150°F). 65 and 105°F). respectively. 35. Even more important is the fact that the upper shelf energy dropped to below 80 j (60 ft-lbs). imposes a post weld heat treatment requirement on pressure vessels fabricated from low alloy high strength steels. respectively. 36 and 58°C (25. Increasing the time at 671°C to 80 hours and 160 hours resulted in a shift in the 45 j temperature of 55 and 97°C (100 and 175°F). 654 and 671°C post weld heat treatment. 638. 649°C (1200°F) can result in an increase in the NDT and a decrease in the upper shelf energy. For this series of tests the post weld heat treatment time was held constant at 80 hours. In summary. 20. Increasing the temperature resulted in an 654#C (1210°F) and 671°C (1240°F). The Code permits a holding temperature range. in particular Section III Division 1. Long the high side of which could result in poorer toughness properties.the upper shelf energy from 160 j (120 ft-lbs) to 125 j (95 ft-lbs). times in excess of 100 hours and/or high temperatures. . for the 621. 637°C (1180°F). increase in the 45 j temperature of 14.
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A preexisting welding crack in a hard spot (380 400 HV1) of the forging HAZ Area about 1 in removed from fracture face A1 (Fig 14) x9 .
ct .Y-1I8533 i • —r Chcrpy V-notch of fcii and far Ohr.
The center and right samples are submerged arc and shielded metal arc welds. respectively.) thick A533 Grade B Class 1 plate. ••^•^si «< v . Photographs of macrosections of thick section weldments in pressure vessel steels. These later two weldments join 300 mm (12 in.Slide 6. The left sample is an electroslag weld joining two 6-in. thick sections of A508 Class 2 forging.
40 20 0 -200 -100 0 (00 200 FRACTURE TEMPERATURE (*C> -'W'^ .5 3 3 ./to FRACTURE TEMPERATURE (°F) -100 0 100 200 -200 160 300 I o </* THICK LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION A % THICK TRANSVERSE DIRECTION o % THICK PERPENDICULAR DIRECTION 140 120 ASTM A . HEAT HS5-1 (UNIRRADIATEO £ 100 80 g 60 u.8 1 HSST PLATE 0 2 .
SURFACE -£00 -100 0 JOO 200 TEST TEMPERATURES *P ZOO 400 -500 CHARPY "V" WOTCH TESTS. CQ33R&RISGN EZTWEgN SUBK2RGED AKC WELD AND £L£CT?K> .V Y-96028 (60 ORML DWG.SU9MERP£D ARC WELD ELECTRO SLA6-WELD • .1/4 T A .69-994S 120 S 100 00 - 60 tat S 40 20 x .1/2 T o .
Y-13652. S . FURNACE COOLED * 4 0 h ' * (155*F/hr)"* » 9 6 Kr* ( < 7 4 » F / h r ) " • 160hr*(155»F/hr)"» * IN VACUO (CANNED) "" COOLING RATE TO 6 0 0 ' F 220 ZOO 180 120 160 140 111 - 120 eo 60 too 5 eo 60 40 40 20 20 100 200 300 TEMPERATURE ( # FI 400 900 WO or RELIEF TIKE ON CHARPY-V IMPACT PROPERTIES or KSST (ASTH AS33. g r . ORNl-DWO TS-9203K -50 180 50 TEMPERATURE (#C) 100 150 200 250 300 240 160 140 l i f i i I 1150*F STRESS R£L"EF. l ) ."(58*F/hf ) * • 1240*F STRESS RELIEF. FURNACE COOLED o AS-RECEiVEO (40hr) A 40hr ADD* (72°F/hr) € « O 80hr AOO* (176 <> F/hr) #s « 162 hr A00. d .
(176 *F/hr)° * 1180 * F .B.ORNL-DWO r«-19TT TEMPERATURE CF) 100 200 300 400 160 160 140 120 I I 500 120 100 80 100 >. gr. COOLED TO 6 0 0 #F IN VACUO (CANNED) SPECIMEN RW ORIENTED 0.9 6 hr ADD. o UJ « 80 6 0 to g 40 20 0 -20 -50 J_ z STRESS RELIEF 4 0 Ui 1150 ' F .33 r I I 250 300 50 100 150 200 TEMPERATURE CO IfftCT Of STRESS RELIEF TEMPERATURE ON CHARPY-V IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HSST PLATE 02 (ASTM A 533.8 0 hr ADD. (181 # F/hr)» 20 > 1240 " F .8 0 hr ADD.ci. (176 •F/hr) # 1 1210 •F-SOhr ADD.25 TO 0. (174 •F/hr)° h FURN.l) .
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