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Quadratic Equations
CHAPTER 2: QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
1.1 Recognize Quadratic Equations and express it in general form
General form
2
ax
bx + c = 0
, where
a , b and c are constants , a 0
Properties
1. Equation must be in one unknown only
2. The highest power of the unknown is 2
Examples
1. 2x ^{2} + 3x – 1 = 0 is a quadratic equation
2. 4x ^{2} – 9 = 0 is a quadratic equation
3. 8x ^{3} – 4x ^{2} = 0 is not a quadratic equation
Activity 1
1. Determine whether each of the following equation is a quadratic equation or not .
Equations 
Answer 

(a) 
x ^{2} – x = 0 
Yes 
(b) 
2x ^{2} – y = 0 

(c) 
3x + 2 = 0 

(d) 
2m ^{2} – 7m – 3 = 0 

(e) 
k ^{2} – 4k = 0 

(f) 
y ^{2} – 2 = 0 
2. Rewrite each of the following quadratic equation in the general form. State the value
of a , b and
c .
Quadratic equations 
Value of a , b and 
c 

(a) 
1 + 2x = x(x + 3) 1 + 2x = x ^{2} + 3x x ^{2} + x – 1 = 0 
a = 1 

b = 1 

c = 1 

(b) 
m ^{2} = 21 – 4m 
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
(c) 
(y + 6)(y – 2) =  7 

(d) 
x ^{2} = 
^{7} 
x 
^{3} 
2 

(e) 
(x + 1) ^{2} = 16 
1.2 Roots of Quadratic Equations
Notes
1. The root of a quadratic equation is the value(number) of the unknown(variable)
that satisfy the equation .
2. A quadratic equation has at most two roots only
Exercises
1. Determine which of the values of the variable x given are roots of the respective quadratic equation.
(a)
x ^{2} – x – 2 = 0
; x
=  1
,
1 , 2
(b)
2x ^{2} + 7x + 3 = 0 ; x =  3, 
^{1}
2
,
1 , 3
2. Determine by inspection which of the values of x are roots of the following quadratic equations .
(a) (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 ; x = 3 , 2 ,  3
(b)
x(x + 4) = 0
; x = 4 , 0 ,  4
3. If x = 2 is the root of the quadratic equation x ^{2} – 3kx 10 = 0 , find the value of k .
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2 . SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATION
2.1 Solving Quadratic Equations
A. By Factorization
Quadratic Equations
If a quadratic equation can be factorized into a product of two factors such that (x – p)(x – q) = 0 ,
Hence 
x – p = 0 or x = p 
or 
x – q = 0 x = q 

p and q are the roots of the equation . 

Notes 
1. If p 
q 
the equation have two different roots 

2. If p 
= 
q 
the equation have two equal roots (one root only) 
3. The equation must be written in general form ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0 before factorization.
Activity 2 Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization .
1. 
x ^{2} – 7x – 8 = 0 ( x – 8 ) ( x + 1 ) = 0 x – 8 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = 8 or x = 1 
2. 
x ^{2} – 4x + 4 = 0 

3. 
x ^{2} – 8x = 0 
4. 
4x ^{2} – 9 = 0 

5. 
6x ^{2} + 13x – 5 = 0 
6. 
(3x + 1)(x  1) = 7 

_{7}_{.} 
40 
3 x 
x 
8. 
(x + 1)(x – 5) = 16 x ^{2} – 4x – 5 = 16 x ^{2} – 4x – 21 = 0 ( x – 7 ) ( x – 3 ) = 0 x = 7 or x = 3 
5 2 x 
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
^{9}^{.} 
t 

t 
10. 
(2p + 1)(p + 1) = 0 
16 
9 t 
Exercise 1
Solve the following quadratic equation by factorisation.
1.
2.
x ^{2} – 5x – 6 = 0 m ^{2} + 5m – 24 = 0
[6,1]
[8,3]
9.
10.
x ^{2} – 9x + 20 = 0 4x ^{2} – 13x + 3 = 0
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
y ^{2} + 10y + 24 = 0
2x ^{2} + 3x – 5 = 0
16x ^{2} – 6x – 7 = 0
2a ^{2} + 4a = 0
100 – 9n ^{2} = 0
(2x + 1)(x + 3 ) = 0
[6,4]
[1,
[
7
8
,
5
2
1
2
]
]
[0.2]
[
[
_{} 10
10
3
,
1
2
3
,3
]
]
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
2x ^{2} – 3 = 5x
= 7
(2x – 3) ^{2} = 49
6x ^{2} – 11x
(3m + 1)(m – 1) = 7
10x ^{2} + 4 = 13x
x(x + 4) = 21
B.
By Completing the Square
Notes
[5,4]
[
1
4
,3
]
[
[
1
2
1
2
,3
]
7
,
3
]
[ 5,2]
[
[
[
2,
4
3
1
2
,
4
5
]
]
7,3]
1. The expression x ^{2} – 2x + 1 can be written in the form (x – 1) ^{2} This is called “perfect square”.
Example
Solve each of the following quadratic equation
(a) 
(x + 1) ^{2} = 9 
(b) 
x ^{2} = 49 

x 
+ 1 = 3 

x 
+ 1 = 
3 , 
x + 1 = 3 

x 
= 2 
, 
x =  4 

(c) 
(x + 2) ^{2} = 36 
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
2. From the example , note that, if the algebraic expression on the LHS of the quadratic equation are perfect squares , the roots can be easily obtained by finding the square roots.
3. To make any quadratic expression x ^{2} + hx into a perfect square , we add the term
(
h
2
)
2 to the expression .
And this will make
2
x
hx
2
x
hx
h 2
_{}
2
x
h
2
2
4. To solve the equation by using completing the square method for quadratic equation
ax ^{2} + hx + k = 0 , follow
this steps ;
Step 1 : Rewrite the equation in the form ax ^{2} + hx =  k Step 2 : If the coefficient of x ^{2} is 1 , reduce the coefficient to 1 (by dividing) .
Step 3 :
Step 4 : Write the expression on the LHS as perfect square. Step 5 : Solve the equation
h
2
) ^{2} to both sides of the equation.
Add (
Examples
1. x ^{2} + 6x – 9 = 0
x ^{2} + 6x = 
9 

x ^{2} + 6x + 
6 2 2 
= 
9 + 
6 2 2 

( x + 3 ) ^{2} 
= 
18 

x 
+ 3 
= 
18


x 
+ 3 
= 4.243 

x 
= 4.243 – 3 
, 
x = 4.243 – 3 

x 
= 1.243 
, 
x 
= 7.243 
2.
2x ^{2} – 5x – 8 = 0
Exercise 2 Solve the following equations by completing the square. (Give your answers correct to four significant figures)
1. x ^{2} – 8x + 14 = 0 
[5.41 , 2.59] 

2. 2x ^{2} – 7x – 1 = 0 
[3.64 , 0.14] 

3. x ^{2} + 5x + 1 = 0 
[0.209,4.79] 

4. – x ^{2} – 3x + 5 = 0 
[4.19,1.19] 

5. 
x ^{2} = 5(x + 4) 
[7.62 , 2.62] 
6. 4x ^{2} – 12x + 3 = 0 
[3.23,0.232] 

7. 2x ^{2} – 3x – 4 = 0 
[2.35,0.85] 
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C. By Using the quadratic formula
Quadratic Equations
The quadratic equation ax ^{2} + bx + c can be solved by using the quadratic formula
Example
Exercise 3
a = 2 , b = 7 , c = 3
, where
a
0
Use the quadratic formula to find the solutions of the following equations. Give your answers correct to three decimal places .
1. x ^{2} – 3x – 5 = 0
2. 9x ^{2} = 24x – 16
3. 2x ^{2} + 5x – 1 = 0
4. 3x ^{2} + 14x – 9 = 0
5. 7 + 5x – x ^{2} = 0
6. m ^{2} = 20 – 4m
7.
8.
k
1
3
k
2
x(x + 4) = 3
zefry@sas.edu.my
[4.193 , 1.193] [1.333 ] [0.186 , 2.686] [2.899 , 6.899] [0.768 , 0.434] [0.573 , 5.239]
[1.140 , 6.140]
[0.646 , 4.646]
Quadratic Equations
2.2 Forming a quadratic equation from given roots
A. If the roots of a quadratic equation are known, such as
then, the quadratic equation is
(x – p)(x – q) = 0 x ^{2} – px – qx + pq = 0 x ^{2} – (p + q)x + pq = 0
x = p
and
x = q
Notice that
and
p + q = sum of roots ( SOR ) pq = product of roots ( POR )
Hence, the quadratic equation with two given roots can be obtained as follows :
x ^{2} – (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
Examples
Form the quadratic equations from the given roots.
1. x = 1 , x = 2
Method 1 
Method 2 

(x – 1)(x – 2) = 0 
SOR = 1 + 2 = 3 

x ^{2}  2x – x + 2 = 0 
POR = 1 x 2 
= 2 
x ^{2}  3x
+ 2 = 0
2. x = 3
x =  2
,
Exercise 4
x ^{2} – 3x +2 = 0
Form the quadratic equations with the given roots.
1.
x = 3 , x = 2 x =  6 ,
1
3
^{4}
5
2.
3. x =  4 , x =  6
x = 3 , x = x = 7 , 3
4.
5.
6.
x = 5 only
zefry@sas.edu.my
[x ^{2}  5x + 6 = 0]
[3x ^{2} +17x  6 = 0 ]
[x ^{2} + 10x + 24 = 0]
[5x ^{2} + 11x  12=0 ]
[x ^{2} + 4x  21 = 0]
[x ^{2}  10x + 25 = 0]
Quadratic Equations
7. 
x = 0 , x = 
^{1} 3 
[3x ^{2}  x 
= 0] 

8. 
x 
1 2 
, 
x 
1 3 
[6x ^{2}  5x + 1 = 0] 

B. 
To find the S.O.R and P.O.R from the quadratic equation in general form 
a ,
Compare with
Then ,
ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0
x ^{2} +
b
a
x
c
a
= 0
x ^{2} – (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
SOR =
b
a
POR = ^{c}
a
If
and
are the roots of the
quadratic equation ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0,
b
then + = a
= c
a
Activity 3
1. The roots for each of the following quadratic equations are and . Find the value
of
+ and for the following equation
Quadratic Equations 


a. x ^{2} – 12x + 4 = 0 
12 
4 
b. x ^{2} = 4x + 8 
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
c. 3 – 2x ^{2} = 10x 
d. 3x ^{2} + 8x = 10 
e. 2x ^{2} + 3x + 4 = 0 
C. Solving problems involving SOR and POR
Activity 4
2
2
2
x
0
SOR = 2 2
= 2 ( ) =
2
^{} 2
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
2. If and are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x ^{2} – 5x – 1 = 0 , form a quadratic equation with roots 3 and 3. 

3. Given that and are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x ^{2} – 3x + 4 = 0 . Form a 1 ^{1} 

quadratic equation with roots 
and 
. 

4. Given that m and n are roots of the quadratic equation 2x ^{2} – 3x – 5 = 0 , form a quadratic 

equation which has the roots 
^{2}^{m} 
and 2n 
_{.} 

n 
m 
zefry@sas.edu.my
Exercise 5
Quadratic Equations
1. If and are roots of the quadratic equation 2x ^{2} + 3x + 1 = 0, form a quadratic equation for the following roots
2.
a.
2 and 2
b.
c.
d. 2  1 and 2  1
2 + 3 and
^{}
and 2 + 3
^{}
2 2
If
equation with roots
and
are the roots of equation
^{} and
.
2 2
2x
^{2}
–
5x
–
[x ^{2} + 3x + 2 = 0]
[x ^{2}  3x + 2 = 0 ] [8x ^{2} + 6x + 1 = 0 ]
[x ^{2}  6x  5 = 0]
6
=
[ 4
x
2
0
, form
x
5
3
a quadratic
0
]
3. Given that and are the roots of the equation 3x ^{2} = 4 – 9x , form a quadratic
equation with roots
2
and
2
.
[9 x
2
105
16
x
0
]
4. Given m and n are the roots of the equation x ^{2} + 10x – 2 = 0 , form a quadratic equation with roots;
(a) 
2m + 1 
and 
2n + 1 
[ 
x 
2 

(b) 
^{3} 
and 
3 
[ 2 
x 
2 

m 
_{n} 
18 30 x x 27 9
0 0
]
]
5. Given that and 3 are the roots of the equation x ^{2} + 2bx + 3a = 0 , prove that 4a = b ^{2} .
6. Given one of the root of the quadratic equation x ^{2} – 5kx + k = 0 is four times the other root, find the value of k .
[
k
1
]
4
7. One of the roots of the quadratic equation 2x ^{2} + 6x = 2k – 1 is twice the value of the other root whereby k is a constant. Find the roots and the value of k.
zefry@sas.edu.my
[1, 2 ; k =
3
2
]
Quadratic Equations
3. DISCRIMINANT OF A QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
3.1 Determining the types of roots of quadratic equations
For the quadratic equation ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0 , the value of b ^{2} – 4ac will determine the types of roots.
b ^{2} – 4ac is called the “discriminant”
Condition 
Type of roots 

b ^{2} – 4ac 
> 0 
Two different roots 
b ^{2} – 4ac 
= 0 
Two equal roots 
b ^{2} – 4ac < 0 
No roots 
Example Determine the type of roots for each of the following quadratic equations .
(a) 2x ^{2} – 7x + 9 = 0
a = 2
, b = 7 , c = 9
b ^{2} – 4ac = (7) ^{2} – 4(2)(9)
Exercise 6
= 49 – 72
= 23
< 0 no roots
(b)
2x ^{2} – 3x – 9 = 0
Calculate the discriminant for each of the following quadratic equation and then state the type of roots for each equation .
1. x ^{2} – 8x + 14 = 0 
5. x(3x – 5) = 2x 5 
2. 2x ^{2} – 7x – 1 = 0 
6. 5(5 – 4x) = 4x ^{2} 
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
3. 4 + x ^{2} = 4x 
7. x ^{2} = 2 – 4x 
4. (x – 2) ^{2} = 3 
8. 2x ^{2} + 3x = 0 
3.2 Solving problems involving the use of the discriminant
Activity 5
1. The quadratic equation 2kx ^{2} + 4x – 3 = 0 has two equal roots , find the value of
k .
2. The quadratic equation x ^{2} + 2kx + (k + 1) ^{2} = 0 has real roots , find the range of values of k.
3. Show that the equation x ^{2} + m + 1 = 8x has two different roots if m < 15 .
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
4. The straight line y = tx – 2 is a tangent to the graph of a curve y = 2x ^{2} + 4x , find
the value of t
(t > 0) .
5. Given that the quadratic equation p(x ^{2} + 9) =  5qx has two equal roots , find the ratio of p : q . Hence, solve those quadratic equation .
6. Show that the quadratic equation x ^{2} + kx = 9 – 3k has real roots for all the value of k .
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
Exercise 7
1. Find the possible values of m if the quadratic equation (4 – 2m)x ^{2} – 2m = 1 – 3mx has two equal roots .
2. The equation x ^{2} – 2x +
3. Given that the equation (p + 1)x ^{2} – 2x + 5 = 0 has no roots , find the range of values of
^{k}
3
= 0 has two different roots , find the range of values of k .
p .
4. Find the range value of k if the quadratic equation x ^{2} + 1 = k – 4x has real roots .
5. The quadratic equation 2x(x – 3) = k – 2x has two distinct roots. Find the range of values of k.
6. The quadratic equation (m – 2)x ^{2} + 2x + 3 = 0 has two distinct roots. Find the range of values of m.
7. A quadratic equation 4x(x + 1) = 4x – 5mx – 1 has two equal roots. Find the possible values of m.
8. The straight line y = 2x – 1 does not intersect the curve y = 2x ^{2} + 3x + p. Find the range of values of p.
9. The straight line y = 6x + m does not intersect the curve y = 5 + 4x – x ^{2} . Find the range of values of m.
10. The straight line y = 2x + c intersect the curve y = x ^{2} – x + 1 at two different points, find the range of values of c.
11. Find the range values of m if the straight line y = mx + 1 does not meet the curve y ^{2} = 4x .
12. Show that the quadratic equation kx ^{2} + 2(x + 1) = k has real roots for all the values of k.
Answers for Exercise 7
1.
4.
7.
9.
m
4
7
,4
k 3
m =
4
5
m > 6
or
m =
5 ^{4}
zefry@sas.edu.my
2.
5.
10.
.
k < 3
k > 2
8.
c >
p > –
5
4
3
8
3.
6.
11.
p >
m <
4
5
7
3
m > 1
Enrichment Exercise – Quadratic Equations
Quadratic Equations
1. The quadratic equation kx ^{2} + 4x + 3= 0 has two different roots, find the range of values of k .
2. Find the possible values of k if the quadratic equation x ^{2} + (2 + k)x + 2(2 + k) = 0 has two equal roots.
3. Show that the quadratic equation x ^{2} + (2k – 1)x + k ^{2} = 0 has real roots if k
1
4
.
4. Find the possible values of k if the straight line y = 2x + k is a tangent to the curve y = x ^{2} + x + 1 .
5. Given that and are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x ^{2} – 8x + 1 = 0 . Form the quadratic equation with roots 2 and 2 .
6. Solve each of the following quadratic equation :
a. 6x ^{2} + 5x – 4 = 0
b. y(y + 1) = 10
c. 2x(x + 5) = 7x + 2
d. 16x ^{2} + 8x + 1 = 0
7. The roots of the equation 2ax ^{2} + x + 3b = 0 are
3
and ^{4} . Find the value of a and b.
2 3
8. If and are the roots of quadratic equation 2x ^{2} – 3x – 6 = 0 , form the quadratic
equation with roots
^{} and
.
3 3
9. Given ^{1} 2 and – 5 are the roots of the quadratic equation . Write the quadratic equation
in the form of
ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0 .
10. Given that m + 2 and n – 1 are the roots of the equation x ^{2} + 5x =  4 . Find the possible values of m and n .
11. Given that 2 and m are the roots of the equation (2x – 1)(x + 3) = k(x – 1) such that k is a constant . Find the value of m and k .
12. Given one of the root of the equation 2x ^{2} + 6x = 2k – 1 is twice the other root, such that k is a constant . Find the value of the roots and the value of k .
13. One of the root of the quadratic equation h + 2x – x ^{2} = 0 is  1 . Find the value of h.
zefry@sas.edu.my
Quadratic Equations
1
14. Form the quadratic equation which has the roots 3 and 2 . Give your answer in the
form ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0 , where a , b and c are constants. (SPM 2004)
15. Solve the quadratic equation x(2x  5) = 2x – 1 . Give your answer correct to three decimal places .(SPM 2005)
16. The straight line y = 5x – 1 does not intersect the curve y = 2x ^{2} + x + p . Find the range of the values of p .(SPM 2005)
17. A quadratic equation x ^{2} + px + 9 = 2x has two equal roots. Find the possible values of p.(SPM 2006)
Answers on Enrichment Exercises
1.
4.
6.
k <
k =
(a)
^{4}
3
3
4
x
4
3
1
,
2
(b)
y = 2.702 ,  3.702
2.
5.
(c)
k = 6 ,  2
2
2
x
x
24
x
1
2
,
2
65
(d)
7.
9.
11.
13.
a = 3 , b = 4
2
2
x
x
9
5
m = 3 , k = 15
h = 3
0
15. x = 3.35 , 0.15
17. p = 8 , 4
8. 6
10.
12.
14.
16.
2
x
x
3
2
0
n = 0 ,  3
; m =  6 ,  3
roots =  1 , 2 and k =
2x ^{2} + 5x – 3 = 0
p > 1
zefry@sas.edu.my
0
x
3
2
1
4
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