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1.1 Recognize Quadratic Equations and express it in general form

General form

2

ax

bx + c = 0

, where

a , b and c are constants , a 0

Properties

1. Equation must be in one unknown only

2. The highest power of the unknown is 2

Examples

1. 2x 2 + 3x 1 = 0 is a quadratic equation

2. 4x 2 9 = 0 is a quadratic equation

3. 8x 3 4x 2 = 0 is not a quadratic equation

Activity 1

1. Determine whether each of the following equation is a quadratic equation or not .

 Equations Answer (a) x 2 – x = 0 Yes (b) 2x 2 – y = 0 (c) 3x + 2 = 0 (d) 2m 2 – 7m – 3 = 0 (e) k 2 – 4k = 0 (f) y 2 – 2 = 0

2. Rewrite each of the following quadratic equation in the general form. State the value

of a , b and

c .

 Quadratic equations Value of a , b and c (a) 1 + 2x = x(x + 3) 1 + 2x = x 2 + 3x x 2 + x – 1 = 0 a = 1 b = 1 c = -1 (b) m 2 = 21 – 4m

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 (c) (y + 6)(y – 2) = - 7 (d) x 2 = 7 x  3 2 (e) (x + 1) 2 = 16

Notes

1. The root of a quadratic equation is the value(number) of the unknown(variable)

that satisfy the equation .

2. A quadratic equation has at most two roots only

Exercises

1. Determine which of the values of the variable x given are roots of the respective quadratic equation.

(a)

x 2 x 2 = 0

; x

= - 1

,

1 , 2

(b)

2x 2 + 7x + 3 = 0 ; x = - 3, -

1

2

,

1 , 3

2. Determine by inspection which of the values of x are roots of the following quadratic equations .

(a) (x + 3)(x 2) = 0 ; x = 3 , 2 , - 3

(b)

x(x + 4) = 0

; x = 4 , 0 , - 4

3. If x = 2 is the root of the quadratic equation x 2 3kx -10 = 0 , find the value of k .

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A. By Factorization

If a quadratic equation can be factorized into a product of two factors such that (x p)(x q) = 0 ,

 Hence x – p = 0 or x = p or x – q = 0 x = q  p and q are the roots of the equation . Notes
 1. If p  q  the equation have two different roots 2. If p = q  the equation have two equal roots (one root only)

3. The equation must be written in general form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 before factorization.

Activity 2 Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization .

 1. x 2 – 7x – 8 = 0 ( x – 8 ) ( x + 1 ) = 0 x – 8 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 x = 8 or x = -1 2. x 2 – 4x + 4 = 0 3. x 2 – 8x = 0 4. 4x 2 – 9 = 0 5. 6x 2 + 13x – 5 = 0 6. (3x + 1)(x - 1) = 7 7. 40  3 x  x 8. (x + 1)(x – 5) = 16 x 2 – 4x – 5 = 16 x 2 – 4x – 21 = 0 ( x – 7 ) ( x – 3 ) = 0 x = 7 or x = 3 5  2 x

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 9 t  t 10. (2p + 1)(p + 1) = 0 16 9 t

Exercise 1

Solve the following quadratic equation by factorisation.

1.

2.

x 2 5x 6 = 0 m 2 + 5m 24 = 0

[6,-1]

[-8,3]

9.

10.

x 2 9x + 20 = 0 4x 2 13x + 3 = 0

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

y 2 + 10y + 24 = 0

2x 2 + 3x 5 = 0

16x 2 6x 7 = 0

2a 2 + 4a = 0

100 9n 2 = 0

(2x + 1)(x + 3 ) = 0

[-6,-4]

[1,

[

7

8

,

5

2

1

2

]

]

[0.-2]

[

[

10

10

3

,

1

2

3

,3

]

]

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

2x 2 3 = 5x

= 7

(2x 3) 2 = 49

6x 2 11x

(3m + 1)(m 1) = 7

10x 2 + 4 = 13x

x(x + 4) = 21

B.

By Completing the Square

Notes

[5,4]

[

1

4

,3

]

[

[

1

2

1

2

,3

]

7

,

3

]

[ 5,-2]

[

[

[

2,

4

3

1

2

,

4

5

]

]

-7,3]

1. The expression x 2 2x + 1 can be written in the form (x 1) 2 This is called “perfect square”.

Example

Solve each of the following quadratic equation

 (a) (x + 1) 2 = 9 (b) x 2 = 49 x + 1 =  3 x + 1 = 3 , x + 1 = -3 x = 2 , x = - 4 (c) (x + 2) 2 = 36

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2. From the example , note that, if the algebraic expression on the LHS of the quadratic equation are perfect squares , the roots can be easily obtained by finding the square roots.

3. To make any quadratic expression x 2 + hx into a perfect square , we add the term

(

h

2

)

2 to the expression .

And this will make

2

x

hx

2

x

hx

h    2

2

x

h

2  

2

4. To solve the equation by using completing the square method for quadratic equation

ax 2 + hx + k = 0 , follow

this steps ;

Step 1 : Rewrite the equation in the form ax 2 + hx = - k Step 2 : If the coefficient of x 2 is 1 , reduce the coefficient to 1 (by dividing) .

Step 3 :

Step 4 : Write the expression on the LHS as perfect square. Step 5 : Solve the equation

h

2

) 2 to both sides of the equation.

Examples

1. x 2 + 6x 9 = 0

 x 2 + 6x = 9 x 2 + 6x +   6   2   2 = 9 +   6   2   2 ( x + 3 ) 2 = 18 x + 3 = 18 x + 3 =  4.243 x = 4.243 – 3 , x = -4.243 – 3 x = 1.243 , x = -7.243

2.

2x 2 5x 8 = 0

Exercise 2 Solve the following equations by completing the square. (Give your answers correct to four significant figures)

 1. x 2 – 8x + 14 = 0 [5.41 , 2.59] 2. 2x 2 – 7x – 1 = 0 [3.64 , -0.14] 3. x 2 + 5x + 1 = 0 [-0.209,-4.79] 4. – x 2 – 3x + 5 = 0 [-4.19,1.19] 5. x 2 = 5(x + 4) [7.62 , -2.62] 6. -4x 2 – 12x + 3 = 0 [-3.23,0.232] 7. 2x 2 – 3x – 4 = 0 [2.35,-0.85]

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C. By Using the quadratic formula

The quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c can be solved by using the quadratic formula

Example

Exercise 3  b
b
2  4
ac
x
=
2 a
2x 2 – 7x – 3 = 0

a = 2 , b = -7 , c = -3

, where

a

0   
(
7)
(
7)
2
4(2)( 3)
x 
2(2)
7
 73
7
8.5440
x
4
4
x = 3.886 , -0.386

Use the quadratic formula to find the solutions of the following equations. Give your answers correct to three decimal places .

1. x 2 3x 5 = 0

2. 9x 2 = 24x 16

3. 2x 2 + 5x 1 = 0

4. 3x 2 + 14x 9 = 0

5. 7 + 5x x 2 = 0

6. m 2 = 20 4m

7.

8.

k

1

3

k

2

x(x + 4) = 3

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[4.193 , -1.193] [1.333 ] [0.186 , -2.686] [2.899 , -6.899] [0.768 , -0.434] [0.573 , -5.239]

[-1.140 , 6.140]

[0.646 , -4.646]

2.2 Forming a quadratic equation from given roots

A. If the roots of a quadratic equation are known, such as

(x p)(x q) = 0 x 2 px qx + pq = 0 x 2 (p + q)x + pq = 0

x = p

and

x = q

Notice that

and

p + q = sum of roots ( SOR ) pq = product of roots ( POR ) Hence, the quadratic equation with two given roots can be obtained as follows :-

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

Examples

Form the quadratic equations from the given roots.

1. x = 1 , x = 2

 Method 1 Method 2 (x – 1)(x – 2) = 0 SOR = 1 + 2 = 3 x 2 - 2x – x + 2 = 0 POR = 1 x 2 = 2

x 2 - 3x

+ 2 = 0

2. x = 3

x = - 2

,

Exercise 4

x 2 3x +2 = 0

Form the quadratic equations with the given roots.

1.

x = 3 , x = 2 x = - 6 ,

1

3

4

5

2.

3. x = - 4 , x = - 6

x = -3 , x = x = -7 , 3

4.

5.

6.

x = 5 only

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[x 2 - 5x + 6 = 0]

[3x 2 +17x - 6 = 0 ]

[x 2 + 10x + 24 = 0]

[5x 2 + 11x - 12=0 ]

[x 2 + 4x - 21 = 0]

[x 2 - 10x + 25 = 0]

 7. x = 0 , x = 1 3 [3x 2 - x = 0] 8. x 1 2 , x 1 3 [6x 2 - 5x + 1 = 0] B. To find the S.O.R and P.O.R from the quadratic equation in general form

a ,

Compare with

Then ,

ax 2 + bx + c = 0

x 2 +

b

a

x

c

a

= 0

x 2 (SOR)x + (POR) = 0

SOR =

b

a

POR = c

a

If

and

are the roots of the

quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0,

b

then + = a

 = c

a

Activity 3

1. The roots for each of the following quadratic equations are and . Find the value

of

+ and  for the following equation

 Quadratic Equations   a. x 2 – 12x + 4 = 0 12 4 b. x 2 = 4x + 8

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 c. 3 – 2x 2 = 10x d. 3x 2 + 8x = 10 e. 2x 2 + 3x + 4 = 0

C. Solving problems involving SOR and POR

Activity 4 1. Given that  and  are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 + 3x + 4 = 0 . Form a
quadratic equation with roots 2 and 2.
2x 2 + 3x + 4 = 0
New roots
3
3 
x 
 
= -3
 =
3
 = 2
2
POR = 2 (2 )  4 = 4(2) = 8
x 2 – (SOR)x + (POR) = 0
x 2 – (-3)x + 8 = 0
x 2
+ 3x + 8 = 0

2

2

2

x  

0

SOR = 22

= 2 () =

2

2

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 2. If  and  are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 – 5x – 1 = 0 , form a quadratic equation with roots 3 and 3. 3. Given that  and  are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 – 3x + 4 = 0 . Form a 1 1 quadratic equation with roots  and  . 4. Given that m and n are roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 – 3x – 5 = 0 , form a quadratic equation which has the roots 2m and 2n . n m

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Exercise 5

1. If and are roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 + 3x + 1 = 0, form a quadratic equation for the following roots

2.

a.

2and 2

b.

c.

d. 2- 1 and 2- 1

2+ 3 and

and 2+ 3

2 2

If

equation with roots

and

are the roots of equation

and

.

2 2

2x

2

5x

[x 2 + 3x + 2 = 0]

[x 2 - 3x + 2 = 0 ] [8x 2 + 6x + 1 = 0 ]

[x 2 - 6x - 5 = 0]

6

=

[ 4

x

2

0

, form

x  

5

3

0

]

3. Given that and are the roots of the equation 3x 2 = 4 9x , form a quadratic

equation with roots

2

and

2

.

[9 x

2

105

16

x  

0

]

4. Given m and n are the roots of the equation x 2 + 10x 2 = 0 , form a quadratic equation with roots;

 (a) 2m + 1 and 2n + 1 [ x 2 (b) 3 and 3 [ 2 x 2 m n

18 30 x x   27 9  

0 0

]

]

5. Given that and 3are the roots of the equation x 2 + 2bx + 3a = 0 , prove that 4a = b 2 .

6. Given one of the root of the quadratic equation x 2 5kx + k = 0 is four times the other root, find the value of k .

[

k

1

]

4

7. One of the roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 + 6x = 2k 1 is twice the value of the other root whereby k is a constant. Find the roots and the value of k.

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[-1, -2 ; k =

3

2

]

3. DISCRIMINANT OF A QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

3.1 Determining the types of roots of quadratic equations

For the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , the value of b 2 4ac will determine the types of roots.

b 2 4ac is called the “discriminant”

 Condition Type of roots b 2 – 4ac > 0 Two different roots b 2 – 4ac = 0 Two equal roots b 2 – 4ac < 0 No roots

Example Determine the type of roots for each of the following quadratic equations .

(a) 2x 2 7x + 9 = 0

a = 2

, b = -7 , c = 9

b 2 4ac = (-7) 2 4(2)(9)

Exercise 6

= 49 72

= -23

< 0 no roots

(b)

2x 2 3x 9 = 0

Calculate the discriminant for each of the following quadratic equation and then state the type of roots for each equation .

 1. x 2 – 8x + 14 = 0 5. x(3x – 5) = 2x- 5 2. 2x 2 – 7x – 1 = 0 6. 5(5 – 4x) = 4x 2

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 3. 4 + x 2 = 4x 7. x 2 = 2 – 4x 4. (x – 2) 2 = 3 8. 2x 2 + 3x = 0

3.2 Solving problems involving the use of the discriminant

Activity 5

1. The quadratic equation 2kx 2 + 4x 3 = 0 has two equal roots , find the value of

k .

2. The quadratic equation x 2 + 2kx + (k + 1) 2 = 0 has real roots , find the range of values of k.

3. Show that the equation x 2 + m + 1 = 8x has two different roots if m < 15 .

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4. The straight line y = tx 2 is a tangent to the graph of a curve y = 2x 2 + 4x , find

the value of t

(t > 0) .

5. Given that the quadratic equation p(x 2 + 9) = - 5qx has two equal roots , find the ratio of p : q . Hence, solve those quadratic equation .

6. Show that the quadratic equation x 2 + kx = 9 3k has real roots for all the value of k .

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Exercise 7

1. Find the possible values of m if the quadratic equation (4 2m)x 2 2m = 1 3mx has two equal roots .

2. The equation x 2 2x +

3. Given that the equation (p + 1)x 2 2x + 5 = 0 has no roots , find the range of values of

k

3

= 0 has two different roots , find the range of values of k .

p .

4. Find the range value of k if the quadratic equation x 2 + 1 = k 4x has real roots .

5. The quadratic equation 2x(x 3) = k 2x has two distinct roots. Find the range of values of k.

6. The quadratic equation (m 2)x 2 + 2x + 3 = 0 has two distinct roots. Find the range of values of m.

7. A quadratic equation 4x(x + 1) = 4x 5mx 1 has two equal roots. Find the possible values of m.

8. The straight line y = 2x 1 does not intersect the curve y = 2x 2 + 3x + p. Find the range of values of p.

9. The straight line y = 6x + m does not intersect the curve y = 5 + 4x x 2 . Find the range of values of m.

10. The straight line y = 2x + c intersect the curve y = x 2 x + 1 at two different points, find the range of values of c.

11. Find the range values of m if the straight line y = mx + 1 does not meet the curve y 2 = 4x .

12. Show that the quadratic equation kx 2 + 2(x + 1) = k has real roots for all the values of k.

1.

4.

7.

9.

m 

4

7

,4

k 3

m =

4

5

m > 6

or

m =

5 4

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2.

5.

10.

.

k < 3

k > -2

8.

c >

p >

5

4

3

8

3.

6.

11.

p >

m <

4

5

7

3

m > 1

1. The quadratic equation kx 2 + 4x + 3= 0 has two different roots, find the range of values of k .

2. Find the possible values of k if the quadratic equation x 2 + (2 + k)x + 2(2 + k) = 0 has two equal roots.

3. Show that the quadratic equation x 2 + (2k 1)x + k 2 = 0 has real roots if k

1

4

.

4. Find the possible values of k if the straight line y = 2x + k is a tangent to the curve y = x 2 + x + 1 .

5. Given that and are the roots of the quadratic equation 2x 2 8x + 1 = 0 . Form the quadratic equation with roots 2and 2.

6. Solve each of the following quadratic equation :-

a. 6x 2 + 5x 4 = 0

b. y(y + 1) = 10

c. 2x(x + 5) = 7x + 2

d. 16x 2 + 8x + 1 = 0

7. The roots of the equation 2ax 2 + x + 3b = 0 are

3

and 4 . Find the value of a and b.

2 3

8. If and are the roots of quadratic equation 2x 2 3x 6 = 0 , form the quadratic

equation with roots

and

.

3 3

9. Given 1 2 and 5 are the roots of the quadratic equation . Write the quadratic equation

in the form of

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .

10. Given that m + 2 and n 1 are the roots of the equation x 2 + 5x = - 4 . Find the possible values of m and n .

11. Given that 2 and m are the roots of the equation (2x 1)(x + 3) = k(x 1) such that k is a constant . Find the value of m and k .

12. Given one of the root of the equation 2x 2 + 6x = 2k 1 is twice the other root, such that k is a constant . Find the value of the roots and the value of k .

13. One of the root of the quadratic equation h + 2x x 2 = 0 is - 1 . Find the value of h.

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1

14. Form the quadratic equation which has the roots -3 and 2 . Give your answer in the

form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , where a , b and c are constants. (SPM 2004)

15. Solve the quadratic equation x(2x - 5) = 2x 1 . Give your answer correct to three decimal places .(SPM 2005)

16. The straight line y = 5x 1 does not intersect the curve y = 2x 2 + x + p . Find the range of the values of p .(SPM 2005)

17. A quadratic equation x 2 + px + 9 = 2x has two equal roots. Find the possible values of p.(SPM 2006)

1.

4.

6.

k <

k =

(a)

4

3

3

4

x  

4

3

1

,

2

(b)

y = 2.702 , - 3.702

2.

5.

(c)

k = 6 , - 2

2

2

x

x

24

x

1

2

,

2

65

(d)

7.

9.

11.

13.

a = 3 , b = -4

2

2

x

x  

9

5

m = 3 , k = 15

h = 3

0

15. x = 3.35 , 0.15

17. p = -8 , 4

8. 6

10.

12.

14.

16.

2

x

x  

3

2

0

n = 0 , - 3

; m = - 6 , - 3

roots = - 1 , -2 and k =

2x 2 + 5x 3 = 0

p > 1

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0

x 

3

2

1

4