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5.1 INTRODUCTION
.PERCENTAGE l
can also
The word 'per cent' means per hundred. Thus. 19 per cent means. 19 parts out of 100 parts. TI; bc wri 19 c written as 100'
Therefore, per cent is a fraction whose denominator is 100, and the nunerator of this fraction is called the Rate percent. So,
/~o
= 19 per cent. Here, 19 per cent is the rate. The sign for per cent is '%'.
Table 5.1
1% 'i'if
Fractional =
I
Equivalents
8[;(
of Important
16'1(
ti
I
Percentages
4 25 3 5 2 5 6 64'7,
!
= = =
100
I
2(/(
50
~
I I
i I
25
= =
25 2 S

~
=
= = =
16 25 45
7
96'7,
= =
24 25 6 5
I
20 16
I
10'Ir
=
10 8 6
20'7r 2Y;( 33
I
C'
= =
c
I
S 4
40'7r
6(YI<
80'k
120[1r
IOWIr
61 '7r 48
I
pi (Il
1
~ =
=
i
I 3
37 ,
1
(C' /(
=
3
8
1
sor( =
83
I 3
r.: (
87 I 0(
1
8

=
3
'I, =
12
16  (Ir 3
.3
=
66 
1
3
'Ie =
3
=
133
1c 3
(
=
43
Note: Similarity along the horizontal rows are to be observed for memorizing table 5.1. 5.2 FRACTION TO RATE PER CENT
To convert (or express) any fraction
ja
f; to rate per cent, multiply
it by 100 and put
a(
o/c) sign.
1j
b
T
a fraction
Exampll':
x 100O/C I . ~ rate per cent
Express
3 in rate per cent 4
Required rate per cent
=
3 x 100O/C 7S'7( = 4
52
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competitive
[vamilldtions
5.3
RATE PER CENT TO FRACTION
a rate per cent to a fraction. divide it h: :; .100 100 and delete the ?c sign.
To convert
f'."amp
5.4
Ir: Uri can be converte d to a f "Ie  to a traction a,
RATE PER CENT OF A NUMBER
is the product of equivalent fraction (of rate ref cent'
Rate per cent of a number
~ po/, of A = ! ~
an
j the number.
(p
\
\ 100 /
IxA
Exampl!': To find out 250/, of 500
SO/lIlio//.
Required
value
= 250( of 500
= ( 25
\100 ~ 125
J'
x 500.
equivalent fraction for 2,'i0/,
5.4.1
Relation Among Rate Per cent, Number and Value
a number,
Let us consider
N.
value of different (value) rate per cents are found out. 10 100 25 100 N 10 N
Then N is considered
as the base over which xN=
100/, of N=
250/, of N= and so on. Therefore. change. Conversely. example,
xN=
4
(value)
it is found that as the rate per cent changes. different stands values stand for different
its related
value for the same number number.
will also
rate per cents
of the same
As in the above
N
10
for 10cIc of N:
N
4
stands for 2,'ic0 of N and so (In. is derived
In the above
context,
a very useful relation
any value its rate % of number
as:
(base) ___) ')
=
number
I
(1)
E"ampl!': 9% of what number
SO/lIlio//.
is 36') 1,
Using
the relation number
the required
(base number)
=
36
9'7c
'i
Percentage 36 x 100 9 100
number = 9'7c
53
=
Note:
Here.
36 is the value
and its rate 'Ir of base
Example: If 307< of a number is 48. then what is 70% of the number?
."'·/JIIII/olI.·
Here. unitary method can be used to save the time. 300/, ~ 48
I'lc ~
=> =>
48 30 48 x 70 30
709c ~
=
112
Hence. the required value is 112 Examplt': If 40O/C of the number exceeds the 257< of it by 54. Find the number.
.'.0/111/011.'
Using the formula ( l :

any value
its rate riC of number
= number (i.e. base number)
Here. 54 stands for the difference of (409'( and 259'( of number) __ 5_4 __ = number (40  25)7< required number
=
54 x 100 = 360 40  25 AS A PERCENTAGE OF
5.5
EXPRESSING A GIVEN QUANTIlY ANOTHER GIVEN QUANTIlY
Let one given quantity be x and another given quantity be y. It is often asked to find what percentage of v is x. Here both quantities (x and y) should be in same units. If not. they should be converted into the same unit.
Concept
The question requires us to express one given quantity 'x' as a percentage of another given quantity 'y'. Since y is the basis of comparison, so, y will be in the denominator. But x is to be converted as percentage of y, hence x will be in the numerator of the fraction. Now to convert the fraction to percentage, we will multiply it by 100. So, we get the required percentage
t = _::_ x
v
100%.
'7
Example: To find "30 is what per cent of 150' or 'what percentage of 150 is 30
,'10/111/1111.'
Using the earlier concept, we find here that 150 is the basis of comparison and hence 150 will be in the denominator.
54
Quantitative
Aptitude
(or Cornoeuti. e Examinations
ired Th c require percentage ~
= 30
150 = 20C(,
x looe .r
Example:
SO/ili/IJII.
'IC;(
of 320 ::: 86,+ 320 is the basis of comparison , require d percentage ~ and it will be in the denominator.
Here,
=
86.+ x I (loe '( 320
::: 27<;(
5.6
CONVERTING A PERCENTAGE INTO DECIMALS
Case I
Let the percentage be a positive integer. then place a decimal point after two places from the extreme right of the integer
to convert
it into a decimal. point
If the percentage is a single digit number. add one zero to the left of it and then place the decimal for its conversion, ex Sign is removed after conversion,
Examp"': 679( may be converted
8Clc may be written
into decimals
as 0,67. because
67'lc :::
67 100
::: 0,67
as 098 '_ to 2,53
{Zero added to its left to make it a two digit number decimal point can be placed.}
so that
2539c is equivalent
Case II
Let the percentage be a decimal fraction The percentage being a decimal fraction. shift decimal fraction. if needed. Two place left Shifted by two places to the left, Add zero to the left of the
Example:
~
3.5% may be written 0.7% may be written
as 0.035 as 0,007
n
n
(zero is added to its left so that decimal point can be shifted by two places to the left)
Case III
Let the percentage If the percentage rule detailed be a fraction is a fraction of the form ~, then convert it into a decimal fraction and then follow the
in case II % is equivalent to 0,25% which may be converted into decimals as 0.0025
Example:
±
+i
5.7
CONVERTING A DECIMAL INTO A PERCENTAGE
point two places to the right. Add zero tc
In this case, the method of 5.6 is reversed, i.e. shift the decimal the extreme right if required. Then add % sign.
.....
Percentage Shift
y
55
hampl!': 0.45 may be expressed as 45Clc 0.032 is equivalent to 3.2'7c 1.7 is equivalent to 170'7c
_ +
y
zero is added so that decimal point can be shifted by two places. (NUMBER)
5.8
EFFECT OF PERCENTAGE CHANGE ON ANY QUANTllY
1:' any number (quantity) is increased by x%, then new number (quantity)
= original number x (IOO+X) 100
or
= original number x (I + decimal equivalent of x'7c).
.milarly, if any number (quantity) is decreased by x%, then lOOx) new number (quantity) = original number x ( 100 or
= original number x
(1  decimal equivalent of x%).
In case of percentage decrease, a ()ve sign is put before .r, otherwise the formula is same.
pit': The present salary of A is Rs 3000. This will be increased by 15% in the next year. What will :be increased salary of A? Here, the salary is to be increased by 15 O/C. 15% is equivalent to 0.15 :be increased salary
= 3000
(l + 0.15) or 3000 x
100 + 15 100
= 3000 x 1.15 = Rs 3450. lWO STEP CHANGE OF PERCENTAGE FOR A NUMBER ~ first step, a number is changed (increased or decreased) by x%, and in the second step, this changed r is again changed (increased or decreased) by y%, then net percentage change on the original er can be conveniently found out by using the following formula, net % change (+ or)
:r :. indicates decrease in percentage,
=
xy x+y+ 100
(2)
then put a ( )ve sign before x or y, otherwise positive sign
56
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competitive
Examination,
Examplt·: If a number is increased by 12C( and then decreased by 180/c. then find the net percentage change in the number.
:';O!II/Ion:
Using the formula
(2)
net O/C change = x + where
x
v+
100
=
12
\=
18 (12) x (18)
100
net 'ic change = 12  18 +
=62.16 '" 8.16 () sign signifies that there is percentage decrease in the result. Therefore 8.16 inoicatcs decrease of the given number as a result of 12O/C increase and 180( decrease. It also implies that 12'ic increase and 180/[ decrease are equivalent to 8.16(( decrease 5.10 Let PERCENTAGE CHANGE AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCT
A
net 8.16%
x
B
= result (product)
1
variable
1
variable
If A is changed (increased or decreased) by x'lc. and also B is changed (increased or decreased) by y%, then the net percentage change (increase/decrease) of the product of A and B can be found out easily by the formula
(
I
net % change in product ( + or )
=x
+ y + _._
.
XY \
100
i
(2A)
If .r or y indicates decrease in percentage. then put a (lye sign before x or Y. otherwise positive sign remains. This formula (2A) is same as formula (2) Above formula can be used to find out the net percentage change. if it involves the product of any two variable quantities which hare also the S'c change. Application of the Formula (2A) The formula (2A) can be used to find out (a) % effect on expenditure. when rate and consumption are changed. since rate x consumption = expenditure [A x B = product] (b) % effect on area of rectangle/square/triangle/circle. when its sides/radius are changed. since Side, x Side; = area, or radius x radius = area [A x B = product] (c) % effect on distance covered. when time and speed are changed. since time x speed = distance. [A x B = product] Example: If the length of rectangle increases by 30'} and the breadth decreases by 12q.. then find the % change in the area of the rectangle.
Percentage
SU/Illillfl.
57
Since, length x breadth (2A). we get
= area, =
and both the length and breadth are changed, so, using the formula
Xy
net % change in product where
x + \. +
Y
100 30 x I:: 100
x = 30.
= I::
net % change in area
=
30 
I:: +
=183.6
::: +144 It implies that there is 144clr increase in the area of the rectangle.
5.10.1 To keep the product of two variable quantity as fixed
As we have seen in 5.10, A x B = product. where A and B are two quantities which are changing and product 1 s also changing. Now, we want to keep the product fixed. even if A and H arc changed (increased/decreased). Then, if one quantity increases. the other quantity will decrease and viceversa so that product remains unchanged. Hence the net percentage effect on product is zero in the formula (LA.). Put net o/c change in product::: 0 in formula (2A). x + \. +
.rv
100
=0
.r
v =  ~ 100+
.r
x 100, () ve sign shows decrease
~:,'m the above derivation, we thus find that .: one quantity A increases by x%, then other quantity B decreases by ~ ~OO+x
:::.j
x 100 o/c~
____./
if one quantity A decreases by xCJr. then putting () x, in place of x,
;;.:: rind that the other quantity B increases by ~'_._~r x 100 o/c~ __ 100 x
_/
I
~~.~'e formula are used to find out: ':' % change in either rate or consumption. when expenditure is to be kept fixed. because. rate x consurnption e expenditure [A x B = product = fixed] :" % change in either length or breadth. when area of rectangle is to be kept fixed. because, length x breadth = area [A x B ::: product::: fixed] CJc change in either time or speed. when distance is to be kept fixed because. time x speed = distance lA x B = product « fixed]
=C'~.onsumption,
[\.<imple: If the price of coffee is increased by 109'c. then by how much percentage must a house wife reduce to have no extra expenditure') :"". Since price x consumption = expenditure and expenditure has to be kept fixed (or unchanged), so, .. ~_~:;he price increases by 109'c, t
~~.~~.~

58
Quantitative Aptitude tor Competitive
10 100
=9
I
ExaminatIOns
x 1OOC:~
the 9c reduction in consumption
10
.L (c.
11
5.11
RATE CHANGE AND CHANGE IN QUANTITY AVAIlABLE FOR FIXED EXPENDITURE
Let the original rate of an item Expenditure is fixed.
= Rs x per unit quantity.
Expendi ture
(a)
Quantity of the item available =
Now, the original rate (x) changes (increase/decrease) to a new rate. Since the amount .le expenditure is fixed, so, with the change ill rate. it is obvious that the quantity of the item available in equation (a) will also change (decrease/increase) accordingly. Hence. due to rate change. New quantity of the item available = Expenditure New rate Expenditure 1\,[ewrate
.
Original quantity available ± change in quantity available = Expenditure x Expenditure New rate
Using equation (a). we get
±
change in quantity available =
(3)
(x =
Put ( )ve when quantity available decreases due to rate change,
original rate per unit quantity.)
Example: A reduction of 25% in the price of sugar enables the person to gel 10 kg more on a purchase for Rs 600. Find the reduced rate of sugar.
SO/lIlioll:
Let the original rate = Rs x per kg. Since, there is a rate reduction of 25o/c. so, New rate (or reduced rate) = (1  0.25) x
0.75 x = 3 x 4 Expenditure = Rs 600. Using the formula (3) Expenditure x + change in quantity available 600 + 10 x
=
= =
Expenditure New rate 600 3 x 4
10
(+
10, for quantity available increases after rate change)
=>
6~0 (~_
I) =
=> x
=
20
Percelltage
59
Therefore.
reduced
rate
= 2x =
4
4
3
x
20
=
Rs IS/kg.
5.12
% EXCESS OR % SHORTNESS
A exceeds the another number
When a number
B by
.r '7,. then
'1r shortness
of B =
.r
100 +1
x 100
It implies that B is less than A by
.r
100 +
X
.1
100"(.
.1 .1
Similarly.
if a number
A is short of (or less than)
B b, .Ire.
then r; excess
of B = 
100 
< 100
i.e.
B is more than A by
100  .r
x IOO'i
Shyams
Examplt': If the income of Ram is more than that of Shyarn by .2Y;. then b;. I1m\ much pcrccntuje
income Solution. is less than that of Ram'; Required
'7c shortness
(less) income
of Shyam
=
100 + 25
x 100')(
.2W;.
Therefore.
income
of Shyarn
is .20t;i lev
than that of Ram.
Solved Example.
E! Express (a) 0.4
the following in terms of percentage: (b) 1.0
(e)

5 3
by 100.
(d)
7.1
I'
(e) 1.23
SI (a)
(b)
Refer
5.2, multiply the decimal fraction 0..+ = W.t x 1(0) '7c = 40 o/c, 1.0 = (1,0 x 1(0) 0/( = 100 gc. ..
(e)
~=
_,
p x I(){))
\3
,; = 166 =3
.,
C(,
(d)

7.\
v
= =
l7__.!__ x 100 tic
Y
(1.23
J = 700 x
, Y
0'c,
(e) 1.23
x 1(0) 'Ie = 123
0(,
E2
Express
the following (i~ .2
in terms of fractions: (b) 3)',;
(a)
"
(e)
(/
c: (
b
(d) (J,Y;
(e)
7 .2
fX
510
Quantitative (a) Divide
Aptitude the given
for Competitive percentage by J 00
bamlnation<
to
S2
convert
11
into a fraction.
[RdC/51)
..
,,)1..
2
,),
c;c
==
I 2
15 __ 2
100
x
100
9 4()
(b) 35 G7c ==
100
35 ]_
1
20·
)
(c)
a
)
c_k. ==
b
_('_ == ~_. b x 100 100b
(d) OJ % ==
0.3 = _3_ 100 1000 2 7 x 100
1
(e)
2 %== 7
350
(b) 0.02<:;; of h:,OO
E3 Find
(a) 99C of 27
(c) 2
7
% of SO
(d) 125'1r of
()+
(e) 10% of S'k of 320
S3 (a) Refer 5.4, Multiply the number by
_fi_. if pC/r of the number
100
i~ to be calculated.
i.)
9! of 27 == __<L x 27 JOO 100
= ~~~ .
100
(b) 0.02 (Ir of 650 = 0.02 x 6500 == l3 .
10
(c)
7 q 80 == __ _7 x 80 2 2 x ioo
= l~ .
5
(d) 12)1;; of
b+
=
125
100
x 6.+ = 10 lUI)
so.
~ !(X)
X
(e) 10% of 5'7t of 32():=
X
3.2U =
u)
=:
S 3
E4
Find the following: (a) 36 is what (7c of 144. (b)
7. 
8
IS Wh at
0'
io 0 f 3 .
4
(c) What
% of 80 is 16.
(d) 0.625 is equal to what % of I
7
28
Percentage (e) 36 x 14 is what S of lWO. (t) R is what 9c of N.
511
54 Refer 5.5, the required
(a) Here.
percentage
=~
x 100 ''c, where
.' is the base.
i'
the base is 114. So, the denominator
=
will be 141.
"d .. req"uire percentage
36 144
x 100Q( = 25'7( .
(b) Here, the base is
4
3
.. required
percentage
=
7/8 3/4
x 100 9c = 116
(c) Here, the base is 80. ., required percentage =
16
80
x 100S
= 20'7c.
(d) Here,
the base is 1
2.
28
.. required
percentage
=
0.625 17
x 100
=
50'1( .
28
(e) Here, the base is 1400 :. required percentage 36 x 14 1100
=
x 100 = 36'K.
(t) Here, the base is N :. required percentage =
N
R x 100 = l00R,;e.
N
E5 Find
the following: (a) 36 is 6 c;( of what" (b) 2.5 is 5 Cjc of what') (e) 12 is 25 i]( of 20 Cjc of what') (d)
.±
7
is 24
Cit
of what?
(1).
55 Refer 5.4.1, using equation
""
anv value
its rate '7c of number number number
=
=
Dumber
(ori ainal l ~ 36 x 100 = 600.
(a) required (b) required
69c 5%
36
=
6
= 2.5
2.5
5
x 100 = 5 0 .
,j
512
Quantitative Aptitude ior Competitive Examinations
(c) required number =
12 259c x 209c 417 24l7c
12 x 100 x 100 = 240 25 x 20
(d) required number
=
7 x 249c
4
=_4_x
7 x 24
100= 50
21
E6 25
S6 25 =>
% of a number is 20, what is 40 9c of that number? % 7 20
Also find the number.
40
%
7
20 x 40 25
=
32 any value its rate
1((
Refer 5.4.1, using equation (1), the number
=
20 25%
20 x 100 = 80 25 E7 P: % of number N] is equal to P2 % of number Nc. Find what per cent of N] is N2'l S7 It is required to find what per cent of Nt is N2, i.e. the base is N]
=>
required number
=
required percentage =
p]
N2
N]
x 100%.
P2
It is given that
100
x N]
=
100
X
N2
Putting the value of
N2
N]
we find the required percentage
=
(!2.
Pc
x 100
)
I
%
N2 is equal to (;;
x 100)% of N]
E8 A number A exceeds B by 25%. By what per cent is B short of A?
S8 Refer 5.12
9c Short
= 
% excess 9c excess)
(100+ 25
(]OO
x 100
=
+ 25)
x ]00 = 10
E9 A number X is short of Y by 40%. By what per cent is Y in excess of X? S9 Refer 5.12. Using the formula,
% Excess
=
% short
100  % short

x 100
40 10040
x 100 = 66 %.
2
3
Percentage
513
E10 The ratio of salary of a worker in Julv to that in June was 2 _!_ : 2 _!_ . Bv what 0/( was the salary of J 2 4 . July more than salary of June? Also find by what 9(. salary of June was less than of July. S10 Let and Salary of July 5
2
4
x
9 Salary of June =  x
Refer 5.5, here the basis of comparison is either the salary of June or the saiary of July. Salary of July more than that of June by per cent  Difference Salary of June x 100
(~ :)x
9
4
x 100 = 11! o/e.
9
x
Salary of June less than that of July by per cent
=
Difference x 100 Salary of July
=
(%n
5 x 2
x
x 100 = 10%.
E11 In 1987, the enrolment in a school was 1,500. Next
enrolment in 1988?
year it increased
by 10 o/c. What was the
Sl1 Enrolment in 1988 = 1500 x
S12 Suppose, side of a square = b
!~~ =
1,650.
E12 The side of a square increases by po/c, then find by what % does its area increase? Original area of the square = b2, i.e. result = A x B Here, both sides are increased by p%, So, for finding out the % change in area, Refer formula (2A). Net % change in area
=
.rv x + y + _._, 100
where, x
= \' =
.
+P
~
Net
% change in area
=p
, p+p+ 
100
= 2p
Hence area increases by
+
pC
100
%.
(2p+L) 100
514
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competitive
EXJminatio!ls
p%.
Note: This formula is also applicable when the radius of a circle is increased by
Then its area increases
I ', I "P ! by i 2p + '\.. ! S'c. L 10/ J
Y
E13
The daily wage is increased before the increase'? daily wage
by 15 0(. and
;1
person
now gets Rs 23 per day. What was his daily wage
S13 Original
=
Increased
daily wage
100 + ck increase
x 100
[Refer
5.8/
...,~
~ 115
x 100 = 20 use () Ie sign. before 'ic value. into a tank and it was still e 0( empty. How much oil must be poured into
NB:
7
/1/ case of decrease
E14 S14
"p' litres of oil was poured
the tank in order to fill it to the brim. Find the capacity of the tank. Suppose. 'x' litres are to be poured to fill the tank completely, then, x = e S'( of capacity Now, P + e S'c of capacity p = full capacity
=>
e . P + 100 x capacity
= capacity
.
=>
capacity
=
x 100
eS'c
lOOe
"
x
=
eo/c of capacity
=
e
100
x
P x 100
lOOe
.
litres
P litre
x
=
pe
100('
litres = amount
of oil to be poured
to fill the tank completely. If Y had
EIS A student X passes his examination
obtained 710 marks. what 9( would Marks of Y Marks of X 710
with 515 marks. having scored 30( above the minimum. he have been above the minimum? of Y of X
SOlS
100 + 7c above minimum 100 + 0/( above minimum 100+
=> Y = + 42 q 100+3 Hence Y gets 42% above minimum. SIS Note: Similarly, if the
Marks of Y Marks of X Remember. Marks of Y 100
% marks is below minimum.
Y
formula would have been.
100  % below 100  % below
mini mum of Y minimum of X
± % above/below
minimum
of Y sign indicates below minimum.
Marks of X 100 ± % above/below minimum of X Here, (+) ve sign indicates above minimum and ()ve
Percentage
5·15
E16 If a
J~ X
more then /J and b i,
\ci
less than a. find the relation between v
x and
Y.
S16 !Re/i'l 512/

100  .\
\" ~< 100
Y _
x I OO~( 100+ \
100 +.\
=>
100 x.\
=>
NB: \. and
X
v
u:,p,e.lt'llt
X the
100
numerual value. i.«.
onl:
it
a IS 3c( 11101(' than
/J put
011/" x
= '.
01
E17 The ratio of number of boys and glrb in a school is 3
2 if 200', of the boy, and 2S'} are holding: scholarship. find the '( of school students who (a) hold scholarship (b) do not hold scholarship S17 Percentage of scholarship holders = (Boys x (I( hoy, who are scholarship holders) + (Girls x tic girls who are scholarship
_
the girls
holders)
 [ __:
(~
\2+~
x ,()
_.'
\
)
I.i
+
(,
II 
1\342
x ''i I  "
_.
1 ........
\
, ..
.~
I
Similarly.
percentage
of non scholarship
holders
=
(Since IO() 20 = RO. 100  25 = 75) E18 Groundnut oil is now being sold at Rs 27 per kg. During last month its COSI was Rs 2+ per kg. Find h} how much c( a family should reduce Its consumption. ,(1 as to keep the expenditure the same. SIS New rate = Rs 27 /kg Origin~li rate == Rs 21./kg. Change in rate = 27  2+ = Rs :; Here. the r;( change in consumption can be found out directly without finding the
by the following
j
$
0(
change in rate
shortout
C(
method. rate change
=
l()()
Shortrut:
Since.
change in rate
old rate  rate change New rate
x 100
So,
(f change
in consumption
=
(observe the difference in the denominator of these two formula)
:I x I DO % == I 1 L 27 9 Hence. faru j 1: has to reduce its consumption by 11 1 %. 9
c:,
A reduction of Rs ~ pet :')C enables a man to purchase + kg more sugar tor Rs 16. Find the original prin' of sugar. S19 I kiL' expenditure if i'i xed (= Rs 161. hut as the rate reduces (b) Rs ~/kg I, so. the quantity of sugar available increases Ih) + kgl. Let original price be R, x/kg. thing the formula 3 [Rctcr 5.11!
E19
\1'L'n.iltU(l'
~ l'h~lllgL' in quamit.
,(\ .ulablc
=
F\[1cllciiture
:\ l'\\
rail'
=
:::::>c
~\

:; = Il
:::::>
1\
+ 1
1\ 
~I
=
(I
:::::>.\'
=
+
(,r
2
Consilkring
till' +vc value, ()rig(ll~li pncl'
= Rs ~
per kg.
1':20 If the price of cotfcc is increased hy Y c. hy ]1<)" much <, mu.t ~(houcw ifc reduce h.. ' consumption (If coffee. SO as to have no exira expenditure?
S2H Refer :'i.IO.1
I'm fixed expenditure,
c; change
in consumption
I()() .\ >< 1()()+3 =2
"
=
(, change ill ratc 100 + (; change in rate
x I ()()
dccrcaxc
in consumption
=
10"
C'
'Ic decrease The housewife
in consumption
94
I(
must reduce her conumption
of coffee h\ 2 94 IJr• . 1113
E21 If from a man', salary of Rs of the rest on food, and still S21 Here we kll()\\ that this is a (I . I) ',) X (I ... Z ,';)
:::::>
'S", I)'" i...deducted Oil hone rent. k'« of the ret on education and q';' there is balance Rs '/7' left. rind the \ aluc of'S'. case of dependent activity. also refer the chapter on Fraction, x (I (/ ':; ) of S = /)
s=
b
(1 p9clx(J
 k 9clx(lq9cl
saiarv, IW·; i, deducted on tax, 20';' of the rest is spent on education, and 2Y7r of the rest is spent on food. After all these expenditures, he is left with Rs ~.70(). Find his salary. S22 Using. the relation 01 E~ I, we get. (IOOlO) I 00
E22 From a man's
x 
(10020) I 00
x
I()O~5 100
x salary = 27()O
L)()
100
SO 75 x· x  x salary =
I()()
J 00
noo
, I oo x I (X)< I ()() = 50()().
Sal~lr\ =
.:'7()n
()();.:. SO
x
7_'i
E23 When the price of sugar \\ a, increased b) J~'i, a family reduced its consumption the expenditure on ... gar \\<1' (111) 10', more th.m before. If _~Okg. were consumed u find the IIC\\ monthly conumption.
in such a way that per month before.
Percentage
517
S23 We know that. expenditure
So. new expenditure '0 110 x _, = 132 100 100 New consumption
= price x consumption.
II ()(y of 30
becomes
. x ne\\ consumpnon
IExpenditure
increases
by
1Olff J
= 2skg.
E24 A man's
income is increased bv Rs l. 2()() and at the same time. the rate of tax to be rid is reduced from IYIr to 10q. He now pays the same amount of tax as before. What is his increa ed income if 209', of his income is exempted from tax in both cases? of his income income. of Tax;
S24 Since. the same percentage
considered. Now. let .v be the increased Amount of Tax! = Amount
(x 
i, exempted
from tax in both C'hes. this data is not to be
12(0)
x 12'7c = .r x 109',.
= income after increase. by J.. it becomes
.r
= Rs 7,200
E2s When N is reduced S2s The problem
implies
80',
of itself. What is the value of V'
that 1100  80) r;~ of
.v =
(Bank P.O. '91) .+
(Since 100  80
209'( of N =.+
IV =
20
.+ x 100
=
20)
N= 20. E26 When N is increased S26 The problem implies
by 6. it becomes I02c; of itself. What is the value of N'!
(IA '84)
that (102  100) 9', of N= 6 Ylc
of
N
=
6~ N =
6 x 100
..,
N = 300.
E27 Increase
(i) 200
h) 60
C;(
liil
II b, I()()
I(
(iii)
(v)
35 by 200 9'(
1000 by 3.5 q (IV) is to be increased 200 x x 100
(i v) .+8 b) 12
2
(I,
S27 If a number
b) p'7r then multiply
I.e.
N by
100
+
P
100
[Refer
5.81
(i ) So. 200 becomes (ii ) II increases
(iii) Increased to II
1100 + 60) 100
320.
+ 100
100 IOO+p
i.c,
22.
number
=Nx
IO()
IOO
= 35 x
+ 200
100
105.
51 B
Quantttative
Aptitude
'IH CO!~7petl';\
e
C"';')lfldti(
<,

(jv)
Increased
number = :\ x
lUll  I'
100 IOOI~ I ,
= Iii x
100
~(X)
= I~ x
2
S
= 54.
(vi
Increased
number
e
Sx
I Of) + P .~100
100 ' 3.5 1000 x ~~
]00
=
10 x lm.5
1.035 (ii) ]6 by ~5 'k
(iv)
E28
Decrease (i) 200 by 40 '!e
(iii)
(v)
216 by 37l Lfr • 2
] 000 by
300 by 2.5 fir
5
9c
I vi I 50 by I ~ 1
1
c;r
100  I) ~ 100
S28
In order to decrease
a number
N hy
p((.
fllultirl:
\' b\
I R,lel
5.11 J
(i)
Decreased
number
= ,'y' x
100  I' 100 100  10 100 UO.
= ~OO x
(ii)
Decreased
number
=
N x 
100  1) ]()()
16 x
100  25 100 100  /' I Oil 100_ 37 ]
12.
(iii) Decreased
number
=
Nx
..,
=
216 x
100
....~.
= 216 x
621") 100 I")_:'I 2CX)
= 216 x
= 216 x  = 135.
5
8
(iv)
100  P Decreased number = N x 
lOa
= =
(v) Decreased number
300 x
100  2.5
3 x 97.5
=
100 292.5.
=Nx
100  P
100
1001 5 = 1000 x 100
= 10
x 499
5
= 998.
(vi) Decreased number
= 11/
100  p x 100
100121
=
=
50 x 175 200
")
,i
100
50 x
I
=
50 x 7 8
=
43.75.
\\~h
E29 If 10% of an electricity bill is deducted. Rs 45 is still to he paid Hem Jl111,'h S29 Here Rs 45 refers to (l00  10) q of thc hill. Since 900/, of bill = 45 100O/C of bill = 45 x 100 = 50 90 Hence the bill was 50.
the bill)
E30 The weight of a sand bag is 40 kg. In a hunyo it was weighed as 40.8 kg. Find the error percentage. (Bank PO '89)
520
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competitive
Examinations
x 100
S30 o/c Error =
False weight  Actual weight Actual weight 40.8  40
x ]00 = 2'7c
40 The error is 2 o/c .
E31 If the price of one kg of cornflakes is increased by 25'7c. the increase is Rs 10. 7ind the new price of cornflakes per kg. (c.n.s '86) S31 Using the formula (I) Original price
=
Difference in price Difference in per cent 10 x 100 25
x 100
=
40
.. New price = 40 x 125 = 50 100 . . New price of cornflakes per kg is Rs 50. E32 The price of a book is reduced by 25%, what is the ratio of (i) change in price to the old price? (ii) old price to the new price? Also find (iii) the factor by which the old price should be multiplied to give the new price.
S32 Consider the old price = Rs 100. (i)
Change in price Old price Old price New price
25 1 = =100 4 100
75
(ii)
=
=
4
3
(iii) Refer 5.8 Decreased price (new price) New price
=
old price x
100  p 100
. where p
=
25
= old
price x
(]J_) 100
3
4
So the required factor is
E33 If A is more than B by 10%. then find (i) B = A x ? (ii) A = B x ? (iii)
A
B
=?
Percentage
521
~33 Since A is more than B by 10%,
(i) So A
=
B
B
x
100 + 10 100
~
(ii) A .
=
A x 10 11
=
Bx
!!. 10
100
(iii)
A= B
100 + 10 11
10
..
A
B
~34 If X is 20% less than y, then find
(i)
.!_
Y
=
y X
?
(ii) (iii)
YX
= =
? ?
YX
34 Since X is 20% less than Y, therefore
(i) X Y
100  20 100
4 X 5 Y (ii) X is 20% less than Y, therefore, if Y is 100 then X is 80
~
YX
Y
=
100  80

100 1 5
YX .. =
Y X (iii) =
YX
80 100  80
=
X YX
4
1 (C.D.S '83)
35 If 2 _!_ % of the weight of a table is 0.2 kg, then what will be 120% of it") 2 ·35 2 I 2 % of weight
=
0.2 kg
(use the unitary method)
522
Quant/tat!1
e ""pI/lucie
fur C()!~ll)t:ut:\ e hammell/oil' 1)2
X
=>
12()';
0.2
~I
x 120
=
120
x2
=
9.6
12W(
of the weighr of the table i~ 9.6 kg.
REGULAR PROBLEMS
(]) The number I.':=; (a)
i
O.O':=; II hat percC'ntage of 2Cr: h ., (b) DO::':=; (C) (e) 25 0.25 Idl _.) (2) I:: IS 0.2'; or' (d) 6000 (b) + W (e) 2 (u) ::.. 00 600 Icl ::... (3) ln an election. one of the two candidates got 30',( of the total votes polled. but he iost by 210 votes. What was the total number of votes polled'.' lal 525 Ihl 700 Ie) 610 Id) 300 (e) ':=;::0 (4) There arc 850 students in a class. Out of these . ..j.+':C are Muslims. 281/, Hindus. 10q· Sikhs and remaining students belong to the other communities. How many students are there of other communities') (RRB Secunderabad, '01) (a) 173 (b) 1.. 3 1 Ie) 153 Id) 163 Ie) 133 (5) The price of an article is cut by 10':i. to restore to its original value. the new price must be increased
bv
la)
IOq
Ib)
9J....
II
q..
(e)
11 'It
I d)
11
I 9
'7(
(e) 909c
Hint: Use the concept:
if A is
1';(
less than B. then B exceeds original
price
A by
x
100  x
Ci'c
new price
(6) The difference between
r.n SOU
17) A man spend, .S<I ve
(a) ~()
()ne ..fifth of 1000 and onefifth per cent of 1000 is: (hi SO IC) 19::) Illl4liS Ie) 0 <"lm'i of hi, income and saves the re,r. What percentage of his expenditure (b) 25 from .r i., equal
I) IC) III
does he
'0
115
(8)
]5'~; of .vsubtracred
I a)
multiplying
ill) .+0 .v by which number? 17
(e I Data insufficient 0.85
100
()]5
b

23 20
(c)
20
Ie)
(9)
A pudding
percentage
(a)
is made 'If ..j.OO gm sugar. 200 gm of eggs, 1)00 gm of flour and 100 gm of dry fruit. The of sugar present in the pudding is :
7 (d) 26 
I b) ..j.O'} 11·~ 'X 9 (10) If I f/k of '+O(if of a number is 8 then the number (a) 20() (b) 2::':=; Ic) 125
3
~7c
(e)
12
J
7
'7(
is
(e) 512 by 5'1(. Then the area of the
(11)
The radius of it circle is so increased circle will increase by:
la)
(d) 325 that its circumference increases ]0.::5'1(
(d)
10';1r
(h)
::5';(
IC)
12.5'1t
(e)
SC7c
Hint: Refer 5] ()
___._(12l

__
Percentclge
523
,13)
40';f of the population of a town are men and 3'i1":( are women. It the number of children are 20000. then the number of men will be: (;1) 3200 rb) 80000 (c) 32(J()() Id) .~.21J.()OO. Ie) 2.1)0.000 A medical stude III has to secure 10'; marks to pu. He tC'\' :)() and fuil, 1:)\ N) marks. Fine! the maximum marks. lei 'i(I(J (a) l'iO (b) 2'i0 'e I 3'iU d as ,'hat
Hint: Refer 5.1.1. Here. maximum marks h the 1bu,e t number, because c; pas, m.rrks i, rei, 10,); of maximum marks , 1~) 4U'k of the students of a college are from \\'e,t Bengal and out of this. H)'.~(arc In \ 11 Kolk.irn. 'j( of the students are nut from Kolk.ua? rc I 21) (a) 60 ih) 16 (C) 10
,15)
A school has a student population many girls are in the school'.' (a) 100 t b) 70
Hint:
.
of 'i60. The number of girh is IJ.:;. c; of the number
I c)
:)()
')
of boy
How
t
d I 141)
lei
210.
7 3 'il from his sulary ot R s 7:'i() e\er) month. In hov, many momh \\ i II he he able to save an amount equal to his monthly ularv' (a) 40 months r b I :'iO month, (c I .'0 month, I Lit J.:'imonths Ie I '..:ulle III the.c ,171 In an cxumination .. P' 'cored 130 points. which arc 10 poi Ilt, above .tIY;'. and (j scored 7'/(. The points scored by Q arc Ie' I 200 I d I 2"7 'i (a) 22:'i (b I 2'iU 118) When 75(.ic of a number i, added til 7". the result i, the number again. The number is lei I()I) lell 4:,1l Ie) ."50 (3) 150 Ib) 300 ,19) The percentage 01 totul quantity represented by a 12' sector ill a circle graph ,pie diagram) i,
,16) /\ man saves
14':' q
J
7
+
(a)
120l
Ib) 24'·(
Id I
,I
c;
120)
Hint: Total quantity in ;1 circle grarh t pic didgra;n I " 31M ]J the price of SLtg.:lr i, increased b:, 71;. then b: Ilu\\ much consumption of ugur. Hi hci\L' til! c\lra expenditure
1;.,1
PCI' Cent
should a hcuscv ife reduce her
Ie) IO() on'!'
7 over
],;,
]07',
Ihl Ie;
i;!)
~>3
107 over IOW( U\lT I (JO'>;
107'(
Hint: Rele
121)
\Vhat
::'((.111. (cti
I' 'i.](). I is the l<lul number
of customer
in
Ic')
:1,hl1P ('II
,i p:!rflL'lil:1I
ILli
d:l\.
when
and the number ()f t1l,,\e \\ ho ell' c~l\i1 I'lircha\c c\cceci,
thl (bl
the' number
60S 11 over SOC;
:,nO
2 over 9
h.~U 1 over
l'i
1221 5 out of 22:'i() parts of the earth is sulphur.
(a)
The percentage
Ill)
or
16'i()
sulphur
45
_i I I I ot them purchases Oil (It' credit purchu.c, h: 247' (el 620 in the earth is (ei
(c)
2 mer
'..:one of these
(23)
In Mathematics examination, a student scored 30'} in the tirt paper (If I X() marks. H(m much ci marks should he ,,'orl' in the second paper of l:'if) mark, if he' I' t(' get an overall percentage of at
least 50'} (a) 20 (hi
71
(C)
30
Ill)
6~
lei
70
Tips: Do not try to calculate the marks obtained in each paper. bccuu,e here the II marks are used in the problem and also 1,( marks ix to be toundout. TOLd Ill: III, Ii\() + 150 = 330. As per question, = 'i{)I{ (3JO) = 30'1r or 1:)0 + ,,'I; of 150.
524
(24)
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competnr;e
Examination,
Nagamani had a car to sell. Loknayak offered him a sum of money for the car that he refused as it was 139(, below its value. Loknayak then offerrcd R, 450 more and the second offer was 51(( more than the estimated value.
(b)
What was the value of the car?
(CI
(a) Rs 3000 Answers 1. (c) 10. (c) 19. (d) 2.
(d)
Rs 2500 4. 13. 22.
Rs 3800 5. (d) 14. (d) 23. (bl
(d)
Rs 2800 7. (b) 16. (e)
(e)
None
3. (a)
(CI (CI (h)
11.
(c)
20. (a)
12. 21.
(c) (c)
6. (c) 15. (b) 24. (b)
8. (j) 17. .)
9.
18.
(d)
(h)
REAL PROBLDIS (1) Which number (a) 90 is 409c less than 360') (c) 216 (b) 144 83
(dl
270
(e)
')
2S8
(2) p
is 6 times that q. By what per cent is q less than p') (b)
_l_
(a) 500
3
(c)
5
(d)
20
16 : '
(e) None will be
(3) If 9(Ylc (4)
If
of A = 30ck of B and B= (b) 800 (a) 600
x9r of A. then the value of .v is (c) 900 (d) 300
1.
8
of
2
3
of
4 of a number 5
(h) 64
is 12 then 30 per cent of the number
(BSRB, Chennai,
(a)
2000)
after
48
of cotton
(c)
54
(d) 42 by 0.5',( after washing.
(el The length
(e)
None of these of the cloth
(5) A piece
cloth
(b)
20 m long, shrinks
washing is (a) 19.5 m (6) The percentage (a) 30 (7) Two numbers number (a) 62
by which
(b)
19.9 m (cj 19.95 m (d) 19.92 m 120 is to be diminished to get 90 is:
(c)
19.05 m. (RRB Kolkata,
None of these
'01)
25
20
(d)
33'!_
By how much
(e)
are 209c and 251(( less than the third number. to make it equal to the first number?
(c)
per cent is the second
to be enhanced
343
(b) 6 1
25
(d)
33 1
ie)
20
Tips: When any number 'x' is related to two or more than two numbers in terms of percentage, then it is convenient to assume .r = 100 (8) 2 over 3 is? per cent of 5 over 7. The value of is (a) 90 (b) 93.33 (c) 94 (d) 9 (e) None of these (9) There is an increase of 30lk in the production of milk chocolates in Amul Dairy in one month. If now it is 9100 milk chocolates per month. what was it one month ago? (a) 13000 (b) 10300 (c) 8~00 (d) 7000 (e) 11700 (10) A positive number is by mistake divided by 6 instead of heing multiplied by 6. What is the Slc· error on the basis of correct answer? (a) 3 (b) 97 ((;) J 7 (d) 83 (ei 100
en
Percentage 11) When 30 per cent of a number is added to another number the second number increases per cent. The second number = xCir of the first number. The value of .r is (Bank of Baroda (a) 130
525
to its 140
PO,
'99)
(b) 75
(C)
133
I 3
(d) 33
1
3
(e) 110 by 20%, what will be the (Guwahati PO. '9) (e) None' of thee by 4OCIc. wnat will he lle SBI PO, '(9)
l2
I If the length
of a rectangle is increased by 20% and the breadth is reduced effect on its area') (a) 40/, increase (b) 67< increase (c) 4'1r decrease (d) No change is decreased by 407< and its base is increased
(3)
If the height of a triangle effect on its area') (a) No change
1~1 If two numbers
(b) 16'Ic increase (C) W;; decrease Id) 16"; decrease (e) None of thee arc respectively 20'1c and 50'7c of the third number. then what q. is the first nun
(e) 40 (d) .10 an error of 5(;; in excess is made.
er
of the second? (a) 30 (h) 70 151 In measuring the side of a square. calculated area is
(a)
Ie) 50. The error percentage
in rhe
10 1 4 200
161 A number
(a)
3 4 exceeds by 40 when added by 20r;; of itself. The number (b) 60 (CI 80 (dl 320
(b)
10.::.. 4
~
(CI
1
(c ) 5
is Ie) 120 rainbows. The percentage
171 A rainy day occurs once in every 25 days. Half of the rainy days produce
of days having
(a)
no rainbows
is
(c)
2
98
(d) 87 I
")
(el
50
181 In a class of 52 students. 259r are rich and others are poor. There are 20 females in the class. of whom 55ck are poor. How many rich males are there in the class" ("IABARD, '96) (a) 13 (b) 4 (c: 39 Id) 2 (el 28 191 When any number
is divided by 12. then dividend than the second
(C)
becomes number? (d)
4
of the other number,
By
how much 2000)
per cent is first number greater (a) 200 (bl 150
300
(BSRB, data inadequate (e)
Chennai, ","one
!OJ
Naresh's monthly income is 300/( more than that of Raghu. Raghus monthly income IS 209c less than that of Vishal. If the difference between the monthly incomes of \' aresh and Vishal is Rs 800. what is the monthly income of Raghu? (Baroda PO, '99) (a) Rs 16000 (b) Rs 20000 (CI Rs 12000 (d) Data inadequate Ie) None
Hint: Since the difference of income has been given in respect of Naresh and Vishal. the relation of income for Naresh with Vishal and equate the difference. ~1 The rate for admission I
to an exhibition was Rs 5 and was later reduced proceeds increased by 449c. The percentage increase in attendance was: (a) 80 (b) 24 (cl 64 (d) 20
So. at first. find
by 20'7c. As a result. the sale
(el
None of these
Hint: Rate x attendance
= sale proceeds
526
Quant/teltile
Aptitucle
(or
Compd/ti\
to'
hall7!llatiu{), from this ore contains 12 tom (e) 4% impurity.
(22) An ore contains How much metal (a) 10 tons
10'!( mass impurity.
while the metal extracted Id)
will 21tons of the ore yield' (b) 2() tons (e) 9 tons
15 tons part in the ore and
Tips: Since only pure part of the ore yields metal. So. equate the pure (quantity)
pure pan in the metal. (23) At an examination in which maximum marks are 500 . .\ got lOr;; less than B, B got 25% more than C. C got 20';( less than D. If A got 360 marks, what percentage of marks was obt. ned by IY' (a) 60 (b) 72 IC) 55 id) SO (e) ·Hl
Hint: Since D is the last in the c; relation. Answers 1. (CJ 10. (h) 19. (d) 2. (b) 11. rb i 20. (a)
so assume
the marks
obtained
by D 8. 17.
= \"
(l
(el
3.
12. 21.
(d)
IC)
(a)
4. (e) 13. (d ) 22. Ie)
5.
14. 23.
Ib)
(e
I
6. Ib) 15. (a)
7. 16.
lal (al
9. (d) 18. (b)
(dl
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