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19.1
INTRODUCTION
The following terms are frequently used in the problems on boats and streams: (a) Still Water: It implies that the speed of water in the river is zero. (b) Stream Water: It implies that the water in the river is moving. 19.\PEED OF MAN (BOAT) AND STRFAM
,~
Direction
Man's rate of rowing (or speed of boat) in still water =x kmIh.
~UPS~
ROWING
DOWNSTREAM ROWING Speed of current (or stream) = y kmIh.
Direction Let, the man's rate of rowing (or speed of boat) in still water x kmIh and the speed of stream (or current) = y km/h (a) Downstream (With the stream) Rowing: It indicates that the stream favours the man's rowing (or boating). i.e. direction of rowing and direction of flow (stream) is same. :. Man's rate of rowing downstream DOWNSTREAM RATE x + Y (b) Upstream (Against the stream) Rowing: It indicates that the stream flows against the man's rowing (or boating) i.e. direction of rowing and direction of stream (current) are opposite. :. Man's rate of rowing upstream = UPSTREAM RATE = x  y
=
=
=
19.3
IMPORTANT FORMUlAE
Assumption: Man's rate of rowing in still water Speed of stream (current)
=y
=
x
_I
I
192
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competitive
Examinations
1. Downstream
Rate :;::x + y :;::
downstream distance time to cover it
[
:.
distance] ra t e:;:: ==~===time
:;::
2. Upstream
Rate = x  y
upstream distance time to cover it = [
:.
distance] ra t e :;::::;:..:..=.::.c...:.. _
time
3. Man's rate in STILL water
=
x=1 2 = 1
[DOWNSTREAM
rate +UPSTREAM
rate]
2
since x = _!_ [(x + y) + (x  y)] 2 rate  UPSTREAM rate]
4. Speed of stream = y = 1 [DOWNSTREAM
2 1 [ddown «; tdown  tup
= 5. ~en
'2
1.
smce y
=
~
[(x + y)  (x  y)]
downstream distance:;:: upstream distance, then Man's rate in still water Speed of stream =
6. When downstream distance upstream distance, then Average speed for total journey (UP + DOWN) = Upstream rate x Downstream rate
=
Man's rate in still water
7. When downstream distance = Upstream distance, then Total Journey time (tup + tdown) = Man's rate in still water x Total distance * Upstream rate x Downstream rate
* Total
distance = downstream distance + upstream distance = 2 x anyone side distance [Since downstream distance = upstream distance]
Solved Ex.mpl •• E1 A man can swim downstream at 8 kmJh and upstream at 2 kmIh. Find man's rate _in still water and
the speed of current.
51 Man's rate in still water

e
2 [Up + Down]
[Refer formula
(3)J
Boats and Streams
193
=
1 (8 + 2) 2
=
5 k:mIh
[Refer formula (4)J
1 Speed of current = 2 [Downstream  Upstream rate]
=
1 (8  2) = 3 kmIh. 2 E2 A man rows upstream 20 km and downstream 30 km taking 5 hours each. Find the speed of current. S2 Speed of current y
= 1 [ddD  dUp] 2
tdo tup
{Refer formula
(4)J
=~
[35°  25°J = 1 kmIh.
E3 A boat man can row 2 km against the stream in 20 min. and return in 15 min. Find the rate of rowing
in still water and the speed of current. S3 Here distance is fixed, therefore, ddu = dup = d, Using the formula (3), we get x (Man's speed of rowing in Still water)
=
!!:_[_l_ + _1_]
2
tdn tup
{Refer formula
(3)J
\
y (Speed of current )
= d [  1   1 ]
2 tdu
tup
{Refer formula
(4)J
=
%[;0 
115J = ~ kmlmin =
1
kmIh.
E4 A man can row 4 km/h in still water and he finds that it takes him twice as long to row up as to row
down the river. Find the rate of stream. S4 Using the formula (5), Man's rate in still water speed of stream Since
tup
tdu + tup
tup 
tdu
=2
X tdu
4 ~ = speed of stream
4
tdn
+ 2 tdn
=
3
1
speed of stream =  kmIh = 1.3 kmIh. 3

94
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competitive
Examinations
A man can row 6 kmIh in the still water. If the river is running at 2 kmIh, it takes him 3 hours to row to a place and back. How far is the place? 5 Using the formula, tdown + ~p = total time, _d _ x+y
+ _d_
xy
= total time
~!!:.. +!!:... =
8 4
3
..
d = 8 km,
E6 The speed of a boat in still water is 15 kmIh and the rate of current is l3 kmIh. Find the distance
S6 travelled downstream in 15 min. Distance in downstream ;:::: ownstream rate x time d ~
= (15 + l3) x ~
60
= 7 km.
E7 A man can row at a speed of 4.5 kmIh in still water to a certain upstream point and back to the starting
7x
point in a river which flows at 1.5 kmIh. Find his average speed for total journey. = 4.5 kmIh (given) and y = 1.5 kmIh Using the formula (6), Average speed for total journey = Upstream rate x Downstream rate Speed in still water (x+y)x(xy)
L
\
=
x
=
6x3
4.5
= 4 km/h.
A man rows 10 km upstream and back again to the starting point in 55 min. If the speed of stream is 2 kmIh, find the speed of rowing in still water. Let speed of rowing in still water x
=
also,
y = speed of stream = 2, total time T = ~ h
Hence, using the formula (7), we get Totalthne= Speed in still water x Total distance ~upstream rate x downstream rate x x 2 x 10 (x+2)(x2)
_
~
55
60
~
~
60
55
(x2
22) = 2 x x x 10 ~
llx2  240x  44 = 0
(x  22) (I lx
+ 2) = 0
..
x
=
22,
Since ( )ve value of x is not admissible.
£9 A motor boat can travel at 10 kmIh in still water. It travelled 91 km downstream in a river and then 9 Motor boat speed in still water
returned, taking altogether 20 hours. Find the rate of flow of river. (x) = 10 kmIh
Let, the rate of flow of river = y, then, Total journey time T = 20 h is given Hence, using the formula (7), we get

Boats and Streams Speed in still water x Total distance Total time = upstream rate x downstream rate lOx2x91 20= (1O+y)(10y) 91 x 20
195
1
=
20 ( 102  1) ~ = 9 i.e., y = 3 kmIh
1 102
:.
+ 91 = 0 Flow of river = 3 kmIh.
I
REGULAR PROBLEMS
I
1 (c) 42
(1) A person can swirtliiiStilIWater at 4 kmIh. If the speed of water is 2 km/h, how many hours will the man take to swim back against the current for 6 km. (UTI, '90) (a) 3 (b) 4
I (d) Insufficient data (e) None of these ~2) A boat goes 100 km downstream in 10 hours, and 75 km upstream in 15 hours. The speed of the stream is
(a) 7 kmIh (b) 5 kmIh (c) 3 kmIh (d) 2_!_ kmIh
2
(e) None of these
(3) A man can row his boat with the stream at 6 km/h and against the stream in 4 km/h. The man's rate
is (a) 1 kmIh (b) 5 kmIh (c) 8 km/h (d) 6 kmIh (e) Data insufficient A man can swim in still water at 4.5 kmIh, but takes twice as long to swim upstream than downstream. The speed of the stream is (a) 3 (b) 7.5 (c) 2.25 (d) 1.5 (e) 6 If a man takes 3 hours to row 3 km upstream or 15 km downstream, then the speed of the current is (a) 4 (b) 9 (c) 2 (d) 6 (e) Data insufficient A man can row in still water at 7 kmIh and the rate of stream is 3.5 kmIh. A distance of 10.5 km in going upstream is covered in (e) 10 h (a) 1.5 h (b) 1 h (c) 3 h (d) 15 h A boat goes downstream at U mls and upstream at V mls. Then the speed of the boat in still water is
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
1 (c) _!_ (U + V) (a)  (U  V) (b) U  V 2' 2 (d) U + V (e) 2 UV (8) A boat goes downstream at the rate of U mls and upstream at V mls. Then the speed of the stream
IS
(a)
(d)
t
(U  V)
(b) U  V (e) 2 UV
(c)
~ (U + V)
U+ V

196
Quantitative
Aptitude
for Competitive
Examinations
91 A man rows d km upstream and back again downstream to the same point in T hours. The speed of rowing in still water is x kmIh and the rate of stream is y kmIh, then
(a) (x  y
2 2
)= 
2xd
T
(b) (x + y) =
dT
xy
(c) xy
=
dT
2 xd (e) Data insufficient T The speed of a boat in still water is 15 kmIh and the rate of stream is 5 kmIh. The distance travelled downstream in 24 min. is (a) 4 km (b) 8 krn (c) 6 km (d) 16 km (e) None of these If the speed of boat in still water, stream rate and time of travel are kept constant, and distance in downstream = ddn and distance tra~pstream = dup, then
(d) x2 +
i=
I
U
(a)
ddn
= dup
,d) ddn + dup = 1 (e) ddn x dup = constant A man rows 40 krn upstream in 8 hours and a distance of 36 krn downstream in 6 hours, then speed of stream is (a) 0.5 kmIh (b) 5.5 kmIh (c) 6 krn/h (d) 5 krn/h 13 A man rows 40 krn upstream in 8 hours and a distance of 36 krn downstream in 6 hours, then the peed of man in still water is (a) 0.5 kmIh (b) 5.5 kmIh (c) 6 km/h (d) 5 krn/h (e) None of these 14 If a man's downstream rate is 10 krn/h, and the rate of stream is 1.5 km/h, then the man's upstream rate is (a) 13 kmIh (b) 10 km/h (c) 3 krn/h (d) 7 krn/h (e) Data insufficient C' If a man rows at 8 km/h in still water and his upstream rate is 5 krn/h, then the man's rate along the current (downstream) is (a) 21 krn/h (b) 8 krn/h (c) 16 krn/h (d) 11 krn/h (e) 10 krn/h 16) The rowing speed of man in still water is 20 krn/h. Going downstream, he moves at the rate of 25 km/ h. The rate of stream is (a) 45 km/h (b) 2.5 krn/h (c) 12.5 kmIh (d) 5 krn/h (e) 10 kmIh
1
Hint: Downstream Rate = (Speed in still water + Speed of stream). If a man goes upstream at 6 km/h and the rate of stream is 2 km/h, then the man's speed in still water is (a) 4 km/h (c) 2 km/h (d) 12 krnJh (e) 3 km/h (b) 8 km/h Hint: Upstream rate = (Speed in still water  Speed of stream). A boat goes 12 krn upstream in 48 min. The speed of stream is 2 km/h. The speed of boat in still water is (e) Data insufficient (b) 2.25 km/h (c) 17 kmIh (d) 15 km/h a) 13 km/h
1
ers 1. (a) 1.
2. (d)
11. (c)
3. (b)
4. (d)
13. (b)
12. (a)
5. (c) 14. (d)
6. (c) 15. Cd)
7. (c) 16. (d)
8. (a) 17. (b)
9. (a) 18. (c)
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