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A1 Let be a ﬁxed positive integer. How many ways are there to write as a sum of positive integers, , with an arbitrary positive integer and ? For example, with there are four ways: 4, 2+2, 1+1+2, 1+1+1+1. A2 Let and real numbers. Show that be nonnegative

B1 Do there exist polynomials that

holds identically? B2 Let

for real numbers .

for all real numbers . Show that

(Here denotes the least common multiple, and denotes the greatest integer .) B4 Let

where then

are integers, is a rational number and is a rational number.

. Show that if ,

O

Show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the Dyck -paths with no return of even length and the Dyck -paths. A6 For a set of nonnegative integers, let denote such that , the number of ordered pairs , , and . Is it possible to partition the nonnegative integers into two sets and in such a way that for all ?

B5 Let , and be equidistant points on the circumference of a circle of unit radius centered at , and let be any point in the circle’s interior. Let be the distance from to , respectively. Show that there is a triangle with side lengths , and that the area of this triangle depends only on the distance from to . B6 Let be a continuous real-valued function deﬁned on the interval . Show that

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A5 A Dyck -path is a lattice path of upsteps and downsteps that starts at the origin and never dips below the -axis. A return is a maximal sequence of contiguous downsteps that terminates on the -axis. For example, the Dyck 5-path illustrated has two returns, of length 3 and 1 respectively.

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A4 Suppose that and , such that

are real numbers,

B3 Show that for each positive integer n,

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A3 Find the minimum value of

be a positive integer. Starting with the sequence , form a new sequence of entries by taking the averages of two consecutive entries in the ﬁrst sequence. Repeat the averaging of neighbors on the second sequence to obtain a third sequence of entries, and continue until the ﬁnal sequence produced consists of a single number . Show that .

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