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**1. The density of bcc iron is 7900 kg/m
**

3

. An Fe atom has the mass 56 u.

Find the lattice constant and the nearest neighbor distance in bcc iron.

0.29 nm 0.25 nm

2. Assume that the atoms can be regarded as rigid spheres and find the

packing fraction for a bcc and a fcc crystal.

0.68 and 0.74

3. The unit cell for Cu (fcc) has the lattice constant 0.35 nm. Find the

longest x-ray wavelength that can give diffraction from the most close

packed planes. What set of planes can give diffraction when x-rays with

the wavelength 0.50 nm are used?

0.42 nm none

4. The lattice constant for a bcc crystal is 0.290 nm. If neutrons are used in

a diffraction experiment what is the smallest neutron energy that can give

diffraction from the (110) planes.

3.12 10

-21

J

5. The Bragg angle for a certain reflection from a powder of Cu decreased

from 47.75 to 46.60 degrees when the temperature of the sample was

increased from 20 degrees Celsius to 80 degrees Celsius. Find the linear

thermal expansion coefficient for Cu.

1.91 10

-5

per K

6. KCl and KBr are two alkali halides with NaCl structure. The following

reflexes were observed in a x-ray diffraction experiment:

KBr: (111) (200) (220) (311) (222) (400) (331) (420)

KCl: -- (200) (220) --- (222) (400) --- (420)

Explain the difference.

See the lecture notes that I give the students on Friday

7. The crystal structure for Si is diamond structure e g a fcc lattice with the

basis (000) and ( ¼ ¼ ¼ ). Find the first two Bragg angles in a Debye-

Scherrer experiment. The lattice constant for Si is 5,40 Å and the

wavelength of the x-rays is 1.54 Å.

The structure factor is the same as for fcc but h+k+l must not be an odd

multiple of 2 e g 2, 6, 10, 14 …

The two first reflexes come from (111) and (220). 14.3 and 23.8 degrees

8. Al has fcc structure with a = 3.9 Å at 300 K. The linear coefficient for Al is

25 10

-6

per K. How much does the Bragg angel for the (111) reflex change

if Al is studied with the Debye-Scherrer method if the wavelength 1.54 Å

is used. If one wants to determine the expansion coefficient with the best

accuracy, which reflexes give the best result?

9. Sodium has the atom weight 39 u and the density 860 kg per cubic meter

and the electrons in sodium can be described with the free electron

model. Find the Fermi energy EF , the density of states at EF for a sample

that has the volume 1 cubic centimeter, find the density of states for one

mole of Na, how many percent of the free electrons in Na have energies

within kBT from EF at T = 300 K?

2.0 eV 6.1 10

40

per J 2%

10. Find the electron contribution to the specific heat for one mole of

Cu at 300 K. EF can be set at 7.0 eV. At what temperature are the electron

and the lattice contributions to the specific heat equal?

The lattice contribution is approximately 1941 (T/uD)

3

where uD is the

Debye temperature, uD for Cu is 349 K.

0.15 J/mole 3.3 K

11. Show that the Fermi wave vector kF is given by the expression

(3t

2

n)

1/3

.

12. The Hall coefficient for liquid Al is -3.9 10

-11

m

3

/As. At 77 K the

relaxation time (the average time between two scattering events) is

6.5 10

-14

s. What is the electric conductivity for Al at 77 K?

0.29 10

9

(Ohm meter)

-1

13. The Fermi energy for Al is 12 eV and the electric resistivity is

3.0 10

-8

Ohms per meter at T = 300K. Find the mean free path for the

conduction electrons and their average drift velocity in a electric field with

the strength E = 1000 V/m. The atomic weight for Al is 27 u and the

density is 2700 kg per cubic meter.

13 nm 1.1 m/s

14. Close to the bottom of the conduction band in a semiconductor

the relation between energy and wavenumber is E = A k

2

, where

A = 5 10

-37

J/m

2

. Find the effective mass and the ratio between the

effective mass and the ordinary electron mass.

0.01

15. A Ge sample that is very pure has intrinsic properties. At T = 300

K the longest wavelength that is absorbed by the sample is 1.818

micrometer. By how much must the temperature be increased if the

electric conductivity is to be increased by 20%?

4 degrees

16. A piece of silicon contains 10

-4

atomic percent P. Alle the P atoms

are ionized at room temperature. The electron mobility is 0.15 m

2

/Vs.

Find the extrinsic resistivity for the sample.

17. The Hall coefficient for liquid Al is -3.9

.

10

-11

m

3

/As. At 77 K the

relaxation time for the electrons (the time between two scatterings) is 6.5

10

-14

s. Find the electric conductivity for Al at 77K. 0.29 10

9

(Ohm m)

-1

.

18. Show that the unit for mobility, m

2

/Vs is consistent

with µ =e t/ m.

19. A Ge sample with very high purity is exposed to electromagnetic

radiation the threshold for absorption ì

÷1

is 5.5

.

10 m

-1

. The initial

temperature is 300K. How much must the temperature be raised if the

conductivity is to be increased by 20 %.

4 K

20. An n-doped sample of Ge contains 10

23

ionized donators per m

3

.

Estimate the ratio between the resistivity for this sample and a ultra-pure

Ge sample. For Ge n p = 10

38

m

-6

.

0.0001

9 10 -11 m3/As. Find the mean free path for the conduction electrons and their average drift velocity in a electric field with the strength E = 1000 V/m.8 degrees 8. (3 n) 12. find the density of states for one mole of Na. If one wants to determine the expansion coefficient with the best accuracy. At what temperature are the electron and the lattice contributions to the specific heat equal? The lattice contribution is approximately 1941 (T/Dwhere Dis the Debye temperature.1 1040 per J 2% 10. 13 nm 1. 0.0 eV. At 77 K the relaxation time (the average time between two scattering events) is 6.Scherrer experiment. The Hall coefficient for liquid Al is -3. 10.0 eV 6. Dfor Cu is 349 K. Sodium has the atom weight 39 u and the density 860 kg per cubic meter and the electrons in sodium can be described with the free electron model. which reflexes give the best result? 9. What is the electric conductivity for Al at 77 K? 0. The lattice constant for Si is 5.29 109 (Ohm meter)-1 13.54 Å. 14 … The two first reflexes come from (111) and (220). The structure factor is the same as for fcc but h+k+l must not be an odd multiple of 2 e g 2. How much does the Bragg angel for the (111) reflex change if Al is studied with the Debye-Scherrer method if the wavelength 1. Find the electron contribution to the specific heat for one mole of Cu at 300 K.15 J/mole 3. 6.0 10 -8 Ohms per meter at T = 300K. the density of states at EF for a sample that has the volume 1 cubic centimeter. Find the Fermi energy EF . Show that the Fermi wave vector kF is given by the expression 1/3 . The linear coefficient for Al is 25 10-6 per K. Al has fcc structure with a = 3.40 Å and the wavelength of the x-rays is 1.3 K 11.3 and 23.54 Å is used. 14. how many percent of the free electrons in Na have energies within kBT from EF at T = 300 K? 2. The atomic weight for Al is 27 u and the density is 2700 kg per cubic meter. EF can be set at 7.1 m/s .5 10 -14 s.9 Å at 300 K. The Fermi energy for Al is 12 eV and the electric resistivity is 3.

m2 /Vs is consistent with =e m 19.5 .818 micrometer.0001 . For Ge n p = 1038 m-6. Find the electric conductivity for Al at 77K.29 109 (Ohm m)-1. An n-doped sample of Ge contains 1023 ionized donators per m3.01 15. Estimate the ratio between the resistivity for this sample and a ultra-pure Ge sample. The Hall coefficient for liquid Al is -3. A Ge sample with very high purity is exposed to electromagnetic radiation the threshold for absorption is 5. At 77 K the relaxation time for the electrons (the time between two scatterings) is 6. 0. 18. How much must the temperature be raised if the conductivity is to be increased by 20 %. Show that the unit for mobility. By how much must the temperature be increased if the electric conductivity is to be increased by 20%? 4 degrees 16.9 . where A = 5 10-37 J/m2. Find the extrinsic resistivity for the sample. 4K 20.10-11 m3/As.15 m2/Vs. At T = 300 K the longest wavelength that is absorbed by the sample is 1. 0. 17. The electron mobility is 0. The initial temperature is 300K.10 m-1. Alle the P atoms are ionized at room temperature. 0.5 10-14 s.14. Close to the bottom of the conduction band in a semiconductor the relation between energy and wavenumber is E = A k2. A Ge sample that is very pure has intrinsic properties. A piece of silicon contains 10-4 atomic percent P. Find the effective mass and the ratio between the effective mass and the ordinary electron mass.

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