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# Ball Flight Varying the Angle of Attack and the Vertical Swing Plane

The clubface (CF) orientation at impact and the true clubpath (CP) orientation at impact determine the balls flight. The true CP orientation at impact is calculated by the following equation: True CP = HSP [AA * TAN (90 VSP)]

The true CP orientation at impact is mainly determined by the Horizontal Swing Plane (HSP, or Swing Direction). The Angle of Attack (AA , or Attack Angle) and the Vertical Swing Plane (VSP, or Swing Plane)SP are modifying factors to the HSP.

It is harder to learn to control the AA at impact that it is to learn to control the VSP at impact. If your AA is zero (you swing dead level), then your true CP at impact will simply be your HSP at impact. The higher your VSP (the steeper your swing plane) at impact the less effect the AA has on your true CP orientation at impact and visa versa.

Varying the AA for a Driver: PGA Tour Professionals have an average AA for a driver of -1.3 degrees. The table below shows how varying the AA modifies the True CP orientation at impact. For the driver, assume a VSP of 45 degrees. The calculations below keep the HSP at zero degrees. TAN (90-45) = 1

AA (in Degrees) -5 -4 -3

## True CP Orientation at Impact (in Degrees) +5 +4 +3 Page 1 of 5

-2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5

+2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

Varying the VSP for a Driver: PGA Tour Professionals have an average AA for a driver of -1.3 degrees. The table below shows how varying the VSP modifies the True CP orientation at impact. For the driver, assume an AA of -1.3 degrees. The calculations below keep the HSP at zero degrees. VSP (in degrees) 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 TAN (90 VSP) .5773 .7001 .8390 1 1.1916 1.4279 1.7317 True CP Orientation at Impact (in Degrees) .75 .91 1.09 1.3 1.55 1.86 2.25

## Varying the AA for a Four-Iron: Page 2 of 5

PGA Tour Professionals have an average AA for a 4-iron of -3.4 degrees. The table below shows how varying the AA modifies the True CP orientation at impact. For the 4-iron, assume a VSP of 50 degrees and a HSP of zero degrees. TAN (90-50) = .8390

AA (in Degrees) -8.4 -7.4 -6.4 -5.4 -4.4 -3.4 -2.4 -1.4 -.4 0

True CP Orientation at Impact (in Degrees) 7.04 6.2 5.4 4.5 3.7 2.9 2 1.2 .36 0

Varying the VSP for a Four-Iron: PGA Tour Professionals have an average AA for a 4-iron of -3.4 degrees. The table below shows how varying the VSP modifies the True CP orientation at impact. For the 4-iron, assume an AA of -3.4 degrees. The calculations below keep the HSP at zero degrees. VSP (in degrees) 65 60 TAN (90 VSP) .4663 .5773 Page 3 of 5 True CP Orientation at Impact (in Degrees) 1.59 1.28

55 50 45 40 35

## 2.38 2.85 3.4 4.05 4.85

Varying the AA for a Pitching Wedge: PGA Tour Professionals have an average AA for a pitching wedge of -5.0 degrees. The table below shows how varying the AA modifies the True CP orientation at impact. For the pitching wedge, assume a VSP of 60 degrees and a HSP of zero degrees TAN (90-60) = .5773 AA (in Degrees) -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 True CP Orientation at Impact (in Degrees) 5.2 4.6 3.9 3.5 2.8 2.3 1.7 1.2 .6 0

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Varying the VSP for a Pitching Wedge: PGA Tour Professionals have an average AA for pitching wedge of -5.0 degrees. The table below shows how varying the VSP modifies the True CP orientation at impact. For the pitching wedge, assume an AA of -5.0 degrees. The calculations below keep the HSP at zero degrees. VSP (in degrees) 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 TAN (90 VSP) .2679 .3639 .4663 .5773 .7001 .8390 1 True CP Orientation at Impact (in Degrees) 1.3 1.8 2.3 2.9 3.5 4.2 5

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