Then.ceramics.PRACTICAL 1 Title : Moisture analysis Introduction Moisture content or water content is the quantity of water contained in a material. 4. rock. fruit. such as soil (called soil moisture). it was put inside an oven at 105˚C to be dried overnight. 2. liquids. Moisture in percentage amounts is monitored as a specification in commercial food production. or gases. On the next day. balance and desiccator Methods : 1. the petri dish containing samples was cooled to room temperature and the final weight (W2) was taken. Moisture analysis covers a variety of methods for measuring moisture content in both high level and trace amounts in solids. Principle Representative portions of samples are dried to constant weight in an oven maintained at 105˚C. 3. The moisture (%) and dry matter (%) were calculated using the following formula : Moisture content (%) = {(W1-W0) – (W2-W0)} ---------------------------(W0) X 100 . or wood. In a cooled (previously heated to 110˚C for 1h). Objective To determine moisture content and dry matter (%) of a sample Materials Glass Petri dish. drying oven. 2g of a well-mixed homogenous sample was weigh into a petri dish and weight (W1) was taken.

4306 To find moisture content (%) and dry matter (%).1259 39.1259 = 2. Moisture content of soy meal (%) = {(42.0035 – 1.4306 W2(g) 41.3387 0.9105 – 40.4545 Moisture content (%) Soy meal Grouper Tilapia Fish meal 0.1294 41.5455 = 99.1294 -40.5367 39.5455 0. the following formulas are used.1259)} -------------------------------------------40.5455 Dry matter of soy meal (%) = 100 – 0.4272 W1(g) 42.8151 41.4545 99.5400 41.1259 = 0.6578 41.6613 99.1259) – (41.3951 0 Dry matter (%) 99.7846 ------------------40.6049 100 x 100 X 100 .Dry matter (%) = 100 – Moisture (%) Results : W0 (g) Soy meal Grouper Tilapia pallet Fish meal 40.9105 41.8134 39.4061 41.

it is the best feeds among soy meal. additional fat can be added to obtain levels of 16–20%. Secondly. Conclusion Fish meal has the lowest moisture content. fish meal has the lowest percentage of moisture content. First. New York. dry pellets do not need frozen storage. where it is added to the mixture as live steam just prior to pelleting. This can decrease the vitamins content in the feeds as it will be a danger for biological hydrolysis and thus destruction of thiamin. W. by spraying on after pelleting (topdressing). However. especially when the cost of moist pellets is expressed on a dry weight basis. wet pellets and 20 – 40% for semi – moist pellets. tilapia pellet and fish meal. Bryan. dry pellets are less expensive than moist pellets. Longer storage times may result in nutrient loss and/or rancidity problems where as dry feeds can be used for a longer time. there is a limit to the amount of fat that can be included in the feed to be pelleted (<7%). First. Dry pellets also have several disadvantages. and the moisture content is critical in the pelleting process.Discussion The water content of feeds ranges from 0–10% for dry-compressed or extruded pellets to 50–70% for high-moisture. Hence. grouper pellets and tilapia pellets. (2002). Halver. This means fish meal is the best feed among all those feeds. Between soy meal. room-temperature storage is enough for at least 90 days after manufacture. Encyclopedia of Aquaculture. US:ACADEMIC PRESS Stickney. High moisture content in feeds are not good. Inc . dry pellets do not float in water. R. Reference John E. Wet or frozen diets pose a different problem because moisture content has a high content of water which increased the chemical reaction. Feeds with low percentage of water content or dry feeds have some advantages over feeds with high percentage of water or moist feeds. R. R. The moisture content of feeds is important because of the potential for microbial growth in high-moisture feeds. Texas : John Wiley & Sons. (2000). Second. grouper pellet. Fish Nutrition. Moist feeds should be used within 60 days.

K and Cl. 2 g of a well-mixed homogenous sample was put into the crucible (W1) and was heated in a muffle furnace at 550˚C for 5 hours. The ash content is a measure of the total amount of minerals present within a food. Ash is one of the components that contains mainly salty. inorganic materials that remain after a sample is heated at 600˚C. balance and desiccator Methods: 1. Volatile components and all carbon are removed in the process and elements are reduced to their most stable form. whereas the mineral content is a measure of the amount of specific inorganic components present within a food. Materials Crucibles. usually oxides or sulfates. Principle Ash is the inorganic residue remaining after incineration at 550˚C. Objective To determine crude ash content of a sampel. A crucible that has been ignited and cooled in a desiccator was weigh (W0). cooling crucibles. . Na. and weighing again in a precision balance for final weight and calculation. requiring initial sample and crucible weighing. such as Ca. burning the sample in the furnace. ashing is the process of mineralization for preconcentration of trace substances prior to chemical analysis.PRACTICAL 2 Title : Crude Ash Analysis Introduction In analytical chemistry. Ash analysis is done using a furnace or oven at a fixed temperature. muffle furnace. 2.

This error could be human error. non essential elements and toxic elements. The fat content ranges from 4 to 20%.2581 Percentage of ash (%) 7. The ash percentage of fish meal is very high.29 8.2522 31. .3.6205 34.8771 32. This is why the protein level become low.94 264. and the ash content is highly variable. The final weight of crucible + samples (W2) was taken after cooling to room temperature the next day. This is not good as protein is essential for fishes growth and tissue repair. Protein is an organic material that burns completely in high temperature. The recommended level of ash in formulated feeds are less than 13%.6189 32. High content of ash results in low protein level in feeds.3274 Ash 0.9619 35. This is due to the error during the experiment.0735 31.x 100 = 264.0830 33. such as misreading or random error. Fish meal contains high levels of essential amino acids.74 14.2858 0.1548 0. Results : W0 (g) Grouper pallet Fish meal Tilapia pallet Soy meal 32.1726 W1 (g) 34.91 Percentage of ash of soy meal : weight of ash -------------------------------------.1759 W2 (g) 33. ranging from about 11–12% in anchovy meal to over 23% in whitefish meals made from filleting wastes.91 weight of homogenous sample Discussion The ash category contains essential elements.2437 33.9579 33.1787 5.

Halver. Encyclopedia of Aquaculture. R. Fish Nutrition. the higher the protein and nutrients level in fish feed. New York. R. R. Bryan. Inc . US:ACADEMIC PRESS Stickney. (2000). Texas : John Wiley & Sons. (2002). The lower the percentage of ash.Conclusion Low level of ash results in a higher quality of feeds. Reference John E. W.

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